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# COLUMNS

## Columns are structural elements used primarily to

support compression loads.
R.C. columns are usually square, rectangular, circular, L
shaped or octagonal in X Section as shown :
Columns are reinforced with longitudinal and transverse
steel. Longitudinal steel contributes to the load carrying
capacity of the section and transverse steel provides lateral
support to the longitudinal steel and confines the concrete. (

48 . p 1 . 3 . 5 . 26
)
Columns subjected to pure axial load are concentrically
loaded column. Such columns rarely occur in practice.
Generally they are subjected to moments along with axial load.
If moments act along one axis, only, they are classified as
uniaxiallay eccentrically loaded columns and if along both axis
biaxially eccentrically loaded columns.
Columns are classified as pedestal, short and slender
columns depending upon its length, lateral dimensions and
support conditions (

41 . p . 25
). The effect of support
condition is incorporated by defining effective length of column
as the distance between the point of inflection of the deformed
shape of the column subjected to axial load and moments
(Table 28 p. 94). Very short columns with effective length
less than 3X least lateral dimension (

41 . p 1 . 25
)are called
pedestal. It may be unreinforced. However, nominal
longitudinal reinforcement not less than 0.15% of the X-
sectional area shall be provided (p. 48

3 . 5 . 26
). Compression
member of intermediate length with effective length less than
or equal to 12 X the least lateral dimension are called short
column and of larger length than 12 X the least lateral
dimension are called long or slender columns
Cover Table 16A p. 47

42 . 26
.1 p. 46 (25 mm)
Reinforcement 26.5.3 p. 48.
Transverse reinforcement - & their arrangement p. 48
50.
Design Approach :
The design of column is complex since it is subjected to
axial load and moments which could be varied to a large
extent independently. When moment is small, entire section
may be in compression and when moment is large the section
2
may be subjected to tension also. A reduction of axial load
may in some cases result in a more critical column section.
For the design of column the first step is the analysis of
structure for evaluating the loads and moments coming on the
individual column elements for determinate structures. The
analysis does not require prior fixation of sectional properties
where as for indeterminate structure, prior fixation of cross
sectional dimensions is required. So for the design of column,
the following situations may arise.
i) The column section is completely undefined. The
optimal overall dimensions, steel area and its
distribution are to be found subjected to constraints
imposed by practical considerations.
ii) The cross sectional dimensions are known, the area
of steel and its distribution are to be determined.
Working Stress Method of Design
The basic assumptions are :
i) Plane section normal to the axis of column before
deformation remain plane after deformation, i.e., the
strain at any point is proportional to its distance from
the N.A.
ii) The tensile strength of concrete is ignored. This
assumption is rarely accurate as the tensile force
developed in uncracked concrete in tension is very
small and so neglected.
iii) The stress strain relationship of steel and concrete
under working load is linear.
3
iv) m (modular ratio) is taken as 280/3
cbc
, where
cbc
is
permissible stress in bending of concrete. It is the
ratio of modulus of elasticity of steel to concrete. . So
the stress in tension reinforcement is equal to m X
stress in concrete and in compression reinforcement it
is equal to 1.5 m X stress in concrete.
Section subjected to Concentric Load :
Columns are classified as tied columns, spiral columns or
composite columns based on the type of lateral bracings
provided for longitudinal bars and the composition of the cross
section.
1) Tied Column (

81 . p 1 . 3 B
)
The axial load P permissible on the pedestal or short
columns with longitudinal bars and lateral ties shall not
exceed.
P =
cc
Ac +
sc
Asc
It is very rare that the column is subjected to truly,
concentric load. Therefore all compression members are
designed for a minimum eccentricity of load in two principal
directions (

42 . p 4 . 25
) The minimum eccentricity for the
design of column is
e
min
= unsupported length of column/500 + lateral
dimensions/30, subjected to min
m
20 mm.
where, the unsupported length of a compression member is
the clear distance between the end restraints except that (

42 . p 3 . 1 . 25
).
4
a) in flat slab constructions, - it is the clear distance
between the floor and the lower extremity of the
capital, the drop panel or slab whichever is the least.
b) In beam slab it is the clear distance between the floor
and the underside of the shallower beam framing into
the column in each direction at the next higher floor
level.
c) In columns restrained laterally by struts, it shall be the
clear distance between consecutive struts in each
vertical plane provided that two such struts shall meet
the columns at approximately the same level and the
angle between the vertical planes through the struts
shall not very more than 30
0
from the right angle.
d) If columns are restrained laterally by struts or beams,
with brackets used at the junction, it shall be the clear
distance between the floor and the lower edge of the
bracket.
e) Columns with helical (spiral) lateral reinforcement(B
3.2 p. 81).
The allowable load carrying capacity of a short column
having longitudinal reinforcement tied with spirals can be
taken as 1.05 times the permissible load for similar members
with lateral ties provided the ratio of the volume of helical
reinforcement to the column of the core is not less than (

70 . p 1 . 4 . 39
).
0.36 (Ag/Ac 1.0) fck/fy.
Where,
5
Ag = gross area of the section.
Ac = area of the core of the helically reinforced column
measured to the outside dia of the helix.
Long Column
In the design of long column by working stress method,
reduced stresses obtained by multiplying the permissible
stresses by a coefficient given by (

81 . p 3 . 3 B
)
Cr = 1.25 l
ef
/48b.
Cr = reduction factor
ly = effective length
b = least lateral dimension.
For more accurate design
Cr = 1.2 l
ef
/160 i
min
.
i
min
= least radius of gyration
Section subjected to combined Axial load and uniaxial
moment :
Section subjected to axial load and uniaxial moment may
result in uncracked or cracked section depending on the
magnitude of moment.
Uncracked Section : (

83 . p 1 . 4 B
)
Elastic theory is used for the design assuming
transformed X Section. The direct and bending stresses are
given by :

cc
, cal = P/Ae
6

cbc
, cal =
Z
M

Ae = equivalent transformed area of the section.
Z = modulus of equivalent section
Ae = Ac + 1.5 m As
= bD + (1.5 m 1) As
Moment of inertia of equivalent section about Y Y axis.
Iyy =
12
bD
3
+ (1.5 m 1)
Asi

2
si
x
Z = Iyy/0.5D
For the section to be safe and uncracked, the condition
given below should be satisfied. (

83 . p 42 . B
)
For compressive stress
a)
cbc
cal cbc
cc
cal cc
, ,

< 1

cc
= permissible direct compressive stress

cbc
= permissible bending compressive stress.
b) Condition for tensile stress :
(
cbc
,
cal

cc
,
cal
) < 0.25 (
cbc
,
cal
+
cc
,
cal
) (uniaxial)
< 0.75 x 7 days modulus of rapture of
concrete.
< 0.35 (
cbc
,
cal
. +
cc

cal
) (biaxial)
7
Example :
Determine the allowable load carrying capacity of a
circular column section 400 mm. dia. reinforced with 6 bars of
25 and adequately tied with a) lateral & ii) spiral M25 & Fe
415 grade used.
Solution :

cc
= 6N/mm
2
(T 21 p. 81).

sc
= 190 N/mm
2
(T 22 p. 82).
i) P =
cc
Ac +
sc
Asc (
81 . p 1 . 3 B
)
= 6(Ag Asc) + 190 Asc
Asc = 6
,
_

4
(25)
2
= 2945 mm
2
8
Ag =
4

(400)
2
= 125663.706
P = 1295.86 kN
ii) P = 1.05 (
cc
Ac +
sc
As) (B 3.2 p. 81)
= 1360.66 kN
Example :
Design a square/circular column, sections subjected to
concentric load of 1000 kN at working state. Consider M25 &
Fe 415.
Solution :

cc
= 6,
sc
= 190
P =
cc
Ac + (
sc

cc
) As
1000 x 1000 = 6 Ac + (190 6) As
assume As = 0.02 Ag i.e. 2%
Steel.
So Ag = 103305.8
So b = D = Ag = 321.42 mm.
consider b = D = 350 mm.
So, As = 1440.22 mm
2
Provide 4 bars of 22
Provide lateral ties of 6 @
275 c/c 16 x 22 = 352
48 x 6 = 288
300 mm.
9
Circular Section
a) Column with lateral ties
/4 D
2
= Ag
D = Ag
4

= 362.57 mm.
Consider D = 350 mm. So the area of steel As
P =
cc

4

D
2
+ (
sc

cc
) As
1000000 = 6 x
4

x (350)
2
+ (190 6) As
=> As = 2297.46 mm
2
Provide 8 bars of 20 (As = 2513)
10
Providities @ 275 c/c 16 x20 = 320
48 x 6 = 288
350
Column with Spirals :
05 . 1
P
=
cc

4

D
2
+ (
sc

cc
) As
05 . 1
1000000
= 6
4

(350)
2
+ (190 6) As
As = 2038.66 mm
2
11
Cracked Section
The section is considered safe if the stresses developed
in concrete and steel are within the permissible limits. The
stresses are calculated by elastic theory neglecting concrete in
tension. The strain compatibility condition of plane section
hypothesis is used to establish strain and hence stress profile
in the section. The equilibrium requirements to be satisfied
are :
i) The direct load should be equal to the algebraic sum of
the forces on concrete and steel.
ii) The moment of external load about any reference line
should be equal to the algebraic sum of the moments
of the internal forces in concrete and steel about the
same lime.
12
The stresses in compression steel Asci and tension steel
Asti are expressed in terms of stress in concrete as follows : (

83 . p 2 . 4 B
)

sci
= 1.5 m
X
cc

(X
sci
0.5 D + x)

sti
= m
X
cc

(X
sti
+ 0.5D x)
Forces in compression and tension steel :
C
si
= Asci
sti
= 1.5m
X
cc

(X
sci
0.5 D + x) Asci
Tsi = Asti
sti
= m
X
cc

(X
sti
+ 0.5D X) Asti
From equilibrium of forces :
P = Cc + Cs Ts
= 0.5
cc
bx + (1.5 m1)
X
cc

(X
sci
0.5D + X) Asci
13
m

) X D 5 . 0 X (
X
sti
cc
Asti
The moment of forces about external load P gives
Tsi (e + X
sti
) = {C
c
(e 0.5 D + X/3)
+ C
si
(e X
sci
)}
For the case when reinforcement is provided only on
compression and tension forces as shown, the equations
derived above are simplified. The stresses in compression and
tension steel are expressed as :
P = Cc + Cs Ts
= 0.5
cc
b x + (1.5 m1)
cc

X
d X
1

Asc
14
m
cc

X
d X D
1

Asi
Moment :
Ts (e + 0.5 D d
1
) = Cc (e 0.5 D + X/3) + Cs (e 0.5D
+ d
1
)
The value of X is determined from moment equation and

cc
from force equation.
Example :
Design a rectangular column section subjected to P =
750 kN and M
x
= 75 kNm. (uniaxial moment). Use M25 &
Fe415.
Solution :

cc
= 6 MPa,
cbc
= 8.5 MPa,
sc
= 190 MPa
Assume a suitable section. Since the eccentricity is
small, the design is made by considering it uncracked section.
The X-sectional dimensions b x D are determined from
the following interaction condition
cc
cal cc
,

+
cbc
cal cbc
,

< 1.0

cc
,
cal
= P/Ac,
cbc
,
cal
=
Z
Pe
Z
M

## consider that % of reinforcement p is distributed equally on

two opposite sides at an effective cover of d. Thus
Ac = bD + (1.5 m 1) x 0.01 pbD
= bD [1 + (1.5 m1) 0.01 p]
15
Z =
2
D
1
2
d 2 D
. pbD 01 . 0 x ) 1 m 5 . 1 (
12
bD
2
1 3
1
1
]
1

,
_

+
= bD
1
1
]
1

,
_

+
2
1
D
d 2 D
D 5 . 0 x p 01 . 0 x ) 1 m 5 . 1 (
6
D
Substituting the value of
cc
,
cal
and
cbc
,
cal
in the
interaction equation.
bD > P
1
]
1

+
+
+
c b c
2 1
c c
} ) D / d 2 1 ( x p 0 1 . 0 x ) 1 m 5 . 1 ( 3 1 { D
e 6
) p 0 1 . 0 x ) 1 m 5 . 1 ( 1 {
1
m = 280/3
cbc
= 11
Consider p = 1.0

,
_

1
bD
As 100
d
1
/D = 0.1, e/D = 0.2
bD > 189824 mm
2
As, e/D = 0.2
D = e/0.2 =
2 . 0
100
= 500 mm.
b > 189824/500 = 379.65
b = 400 mm.
Ag = 400 x 500
As = 0.01 x 400 x 500 = 2000 mm
2
Consider 6 bars of 22 (As = 2281/mm
2
)
Ae = 400 x 500 + (1.5 x 11 1) x 2281
16
= 235355.5 mm
2
I =
12
1
x 400 x (500)
3
+ (1.5 m 1) x 2284 x (250 50)
2
= 5580.9 x 10
6
mm
4
2
cal cc
mm / N 187 . 3
Ae
P
,

cbc
,
cal
=
I
M
x 0.5 D = 3.36 N/mm
2
Max
m
stress =
cc
,
cal
+
cbc
,
cal
= 6.55 MPa
Min
m
Stress =
cc
,
cal

cbc
,
cal
= 0.17
Check for interaction condition.
5 . 8
36 . 3
6
19 . 3 , ,
cbc
cal cbc
cc
cal cc
+

## = 0.927 < 1.0 OK

b) Condition for tensile stress to be within allowable limit

cbc
,
cal

cc
,
cal
< 0.25 (
cc
,
cal
+
cbc
,
cal
)
< 1.64 MPa

cbc
,
cal
,
cc
,
cal
= 0.17 < 1.64
< 0.75 x 7 days M.R.
< 0.75 x 0.8 x 0.7 fck
< 2.1 N/mm
2
17
Spacing of the bars along the periphery is more than 300 c/c
so provide one bars on each face along the length and check
for adequacy.
18
Section Subjected to Combined Axial load and Bioxial
Moments
Section subjected to axial load and biaxial moments may
result in uncracked and cracked section depending on the
magnitude of biaxial moments.
Uncracked Section :
If the moments are small compared to axial load, the
section may be entirely in compression or tensile stress
developed may be within permissible limit resulting in
uncracked section. The design of this section is done by
elastic theory assuming transformed section.
Transformed X Sectional Area
Ae = Ac + 1.5 m As
M.I. of the section about Y axis.
I
yy
=
12
bD
3
+ (1.5 m 1) Asi x
si
2
M.I. of the section about X axis
I
xx
=

+
2
si
3
Y Asi ) 1 m 5 . 1 (
12
Db
Direct stress

cc
,
cal
= P/Ae
Bending Stress

cbx
,
cal
=
2 / D
Iyy
My
=
Iyy 2
D Pe
x
19

cby
,
cal
=
Ixx 2
b Pe
2
b
Ixx
Mx
y

## For the section to be uncracked following conditions

should be satisfied.
20
a) Interaction condition
cbc
cal cby cal cbx
cc
cal cc
, ,
,

+
+

< 1
b) Condition for tensile stress

cbx
,
cal
+
cby
,
cal

cc
,
cal
< 0.35 (
cbx
, +
cby
+
cc
)
< 0.75 x 7 days modules of rapture of conc.
Cracked Section
The location of N.A. is established by trial and error and
concrete in tension is ignored.
Consider column of rectangular section subjected to
biaxially eccentric load P at eccentricities ex & ey. The section
is reinforced on all faces. The position of N.A. is assumed as
shown in the figure and x & y axis have been selected with the
max
m
compressed corner 0 as origin. The equation of the
N.A. line is given by
0 . 1
q
y
p
x
+

The strain and stress are proportional to their distance
from the N.A. The stress at any point is given by

cc
(x, y) =
cc

(0, 0)

,
_

q
y
p
x
1
stress in tension steel.

st
(x, y) = m
cc
(x, y) = m
cc
,
(00)

,
_

q
y
p
x
1

and in compression steel

sc
(x, y) = 1.5 m
cc
, x, y = 1.5m
cc

(0, 0)

,
_

q
y
p
x
1
21
The equilibrium equations for axial force and moments
are
P =

A
cc
dAe ) y , x (
=

,
_

A
cc
dAc
q
y
b
x
1 ) 0 , 0 (
=
cc

(0, 0)
1
]
1

AC
dAe y
q
b
xdAe
b
1
dAe
=
cc
,
(0, 0)

1
]
1

q
Qoy
p
Q
Ae
OX
Ae = area of equivalent section
= Acc + m Ast + (1.5 m 1) Asc
Qox, Q
ox
= moment of equivalent area of section about
the reference axis x/y.
Figure
Equilibrium equation for moment about x and y axis gives
:
Py
p
=

AC
cc
dAe y ) y , x (
=

,
_

AC
cc
ydAe
q
y
p
x
1 ) 0 , 0 (
=
cc
(0, 0) 1
]
1

Ae Ae Ae
2
dAe y
q
1
dAe xy
p
1
ydAe
=
cc
(0, 0) Qoy
Iyy
q
) 0 , 0 (
Ixy
p
) 0 , 0 (
cc cc

22
P
xp
=

Ae
cc
dAe x ) y , x (
=
cc
(o, o) Qox
Ixy
q
) o , o (
Ixx
p
) o , o (
cc cc

Ixy =

+
Acc
sti sti i ci ci
y x Ast m y x Aeci
+ (1.5 m 1) sci sci
y x Asci
Ixx = Second Moment of equivalent section about the
reference axis x.
=

+
Acc
2
sti i
2
ci
Y Ast m Y Aeci
+ (1.5 m 1)
2
sci i
Y Asc
Iyy = Second moment of equivalent section about the
reference axis y.
=

+ +
Acc
2
sci
2
sti i
2
ci i
x Asci ) 1 m 5 . 1 ( x Ast m x Aec
From equilibrium equations unknown p & q arc.
p =
) Qox Yp Ixx ( ) XpAe Qoy ( ) Qox Yp Ixy ( ) Ae Yp Qox (
) Qoy Xp Iyy ( ) Qox Yp Ixx ( ) Qox . Xp Ixy ( ) Qoy Yp Ixy (

q =
) Qoy Xp Iyy ( ) YpAe Qox ( ) Qoy Yp Ixy ( ) Ae Yp Qoy (
) Qoy Xp Iyy ( ) Qox Yp Ixx ( ) XpQox Ixy ( ) Qoy Yp Ixy (

As the values of p and q are not known, for the assumed
position of N.A., the reinforcement bars in tension and
compression cannot be ascertained. Therefore, the values of p
& q are assumed and tension and compression bars are
ascertained. Then the sectional properties are computed. The
values of p & q are determined from above equations as first
23
approximation. For this revised sectional properties are
computed and the values of Yp and Xp are determined. For
checking the adequacy of the assumed section under
combined axial load and biaxial moments, the possible position
of N.A. is assumed. It may have various positions as shown
and the sectional properties for these positions of N.A. due to
effective area of concrete is as given :
24
25
Case b
p < D, q > b
Ixx = ) q / b 3 4 (
12
pq
3

Iyy =
)
4 q
4 ) b q (
1 (
12
q p
3

Ae =
2
pq

,
_

2
2
q
) b q (
1
Q
ox
=

,
_

q
b 2
3
6
pb
2
Q
oy
=

,
_

3
2 2
q
) b q (
1
6
q p
Ixy =

,
_

q
b
3 q
) b q (
4
4 q
4 ) b q (
1
12
q p
3 2 2
26
The convergence of the solution is generally fast for case
(e) of N.A. position where entire section is in compression is
assumed for iteration.
27
Example
Determine the stresses induced in the extreme comp.
fibre of conc. and comp. and tension steel for the column
section shown below :
Grade of conc. M25 & steel Fe 415
Solution :

cbc
= 8.5 N/mm
2
, Ast = Asc = 3 (28 ) = 1847 mm
2
m = 280/3
cbc
= 1
T
s
= m Ast
cb

,
_

X
d X D
1
C
s
= (1.5 m 1) Asc
cb

X
d X
1

28
C
c
= 0.5
cb
b.X
P = Cc + Cs Ts
Moment of all forces about external load P.
T (e + 0.5D d
1
) = Cc (e 0.5D + X/3) + Cs (e 0.5 D +
d
1
)
Substituting the values gives.
X
3
+ 211481.5 X 4185760000 = 0
By trial and error
x = 285.65 mm.
So the value of
cb
is determined by

cb
=
} x / ) d x d ( Ast m Asc
X
d X
) 1 m 5 . 1 ( bx 5 . 0 {
P
1
1
+

+
= 7.3025 N/mm
2
< 8.5 N/mm
2

sc
= 1.5m
cb
(X d
1
)/X = 99.4 N/mm
2

st
= m
cb

2
1
mm / N 217 . 46
X
X d D

Example :
Design a rectangular column section subjected to axial
load of 500 kN and uni axial moment of 250 kN-m. Use M20
& Fe 415.
Solution :

cc
= 5 Mpa,
cbc
= 7 Mpa

sc
=
st
= 190 MPa
m = 280/3
cbc
= 13
29
The section is subjected to large moment which may
cause tension on one face and compression on other.
Consider that % of tension reinforcement is p
t
and % of
compression reinforcement is p
c
are provided on two opposite
sides at an effective cover of d

## and N.A. is at distance nd

from extreme compression edge.
P = 0.5
cbc
b nd + (1.5 m 1)
cbc

nd
d nd
1

x 0.01 p
c
bd
m
cbc

nd
d nd D
1

0.01 p
t
bd.
= (bd)
cbc t c
p 01 . 0 x 1
n
1
m p 01 . 0 x
nd
' d
1 ) 1 m 5 . 1 (
2
n

1
]
1

,
_

,
_

+
&
30
P(e 0.5 D + d) = 0.5
cbc
b nd(d nd/3) + (1.5 m 1) x
0.01 pc
) ' d d (
nd
d
1
cbc
1

,
_

P
( )
1
]
1

,
_

,
_

+
,
_

,
_

+
cbc c
d
' d d
nd
' d
1 p 01 . 0 x 1 m 5 . 1
3
n
1
2
n
bd 1
d 2
D
d
e
e =
P
M
= 0.5 m. = 500 mm.
Consider
d/d = 0.15,
85 . 0
d
' d d

15 . 1
d
D

, pt = 2% p
c
= 1.0%
Substitute the above quantities and approximate 1.5 m
1 = 1.5 m. So
500,000 = bd

,
_

,
_

+ 0 . 1 x 01 . 0 x
n
15 . 0
1 x 13 x 5 . 1
2
n

13
) 2 x 01 . 0 x 1
n
1

,
_

x 7
bd
1
]
1

,
_

,
_

+ 1
n
1
82 . 1
n
15 . 0
1 365 . 1 n 5 . 3
500,000 = 0 ...
(1)
7bd
1
]
1

,
_

+
,
_

85 . 0 x
n
15 . 0
1 1 x 01 . 0 x 13 x 5 . 1
3
n
1
2
n
= 500,000
1
]
1

+ 2 / 15 . 1 1
d
500
31
bd [3.5n
]
n
15 . 0
1 16025 . 1
3
n
1
,
_

+
,
_

500,000
0 425 . 0
d
500

,
_

+
... (2)
The equs. (1) & (2) involves three unknown b, d & n. So
one of the unknown b is assumed and other two are calculated.
Assume b = 400, and solve the other two equation by
trial and error and n = 0.625 & d = 600.
Ast = 0.02 x 400 x 600 = 4800 mm
2
Asc = 0.5 Ast = 2400 mm
2
Provide 10 bars of 25 as tension and 5 bars of 25 as
compression bars. So
D = 600 + 20 + 25 + 40
d
'
t
= 20 + 25 + 40 = 85, d
'
c
= 40 + 12.5 = 52.5 mm.
Now the assumed section is checked for adequacy from
the governing equations of equilibrium for forces and moments
of forces about external load P as
P = 0.5
cbc
b nd + (1.5 m 1)
cbc

nd
' d nd
Asc.
m
cbc

nd
' dt nd D
Ast.
m Ast (D nd d
t

) (e + 0.5 D dt)
= 0.5 b (nd)
2
(e 0.5 D + nd/3)
+ (1.5 m 1) Asc (nd d
'
c
) (e 0.5D + d
'
c
) and
nd is obtained = 373.5 mm.
For this P = 525.5 kN
32
Example :
Verify the suitability of the column with cross section as
shown, if the applied load is 460 kN.
M
x
= 11.5 kN m, My = 16.1 kNm.
Conc. is M2 0 & Fe 415
Solution :
m = 13,
cbc
= 7, ex =
460
5 . 11
= 25 mm.
ey =
460
1 . 16
= 35 mm.
33
Since eccentricity as small assume uncracked section.
Asc = 8 x 314 = 2514 mm
2
Ac = 400 x 300 2514 = 117486 mm
2
Ae = Ae + 1.5m Asc = 166804 mm
2
Ixx =
2 2
3
50 x 314 x ) 1 13 x 5 . 1 ( 4 100 x 314 x ) 1 13 x 5 . 1 ( 4
12
o 30 x 400
+ +
= 1190.5 x 10
6
mm
4
Zxx = Ixx/150 = 7.94 x 10
6
mm
3
Iyy =
2
3
) 150 ( 314 x ) 1 13 x 5 . 1 ( 4
12
400 x 300
+
= 2122/8 x 10
6
Zyy = 2122.8 x 10
6
/200 = 10.61 x 106 mm
3
2122.8 x 10
6
10.61 x 10
6
mm
3
The stresses are computed as
f
CD
=
6
6
6
6 3
10 x 94 . 7
10 x 5 . 11
10 x 61 . 10
10 x 1 . 16
166804
10 x 460
+ +
= 2.76 + 1.52 + 1.45
= 6.285 N/mm
2
fcc =
6
4
6
6 4
10 x 61 . 10
10 x 1 . 16
10 x 94 . 7
10 x 5 . 11
166804
10 x 46
+
= 2.76 + 1.45 1.52 = 2.69
f
CE
= 2.76 1.45 1.52 = 0.21
F
CF
= 2.76 + 1.52 1.45 = 2.83
34
The stresses are compressive except at E which is within
limit.
Interaction condition for safety.
cbc
cal cby cal cbx
cc
cal cc

+
+

=
0 . 7
45 . 1 52 . 1
00 . 5
76 . 2 +
+
= 0.98 > 1.0 so in compression
For tensile.
0.21 < 0.35 (6.285) = 2.2
< 0.75 (0.8 x 0.7 20) = 1.88 So safe.
*****

35