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A Neural Network on GPU - CodeProject

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A Neural Network on GPU


By billconan, kavinguy | 14 Mar 2008
VC 8.0 WinXP C #2.0 C ++ C # Windows Win32 Architect Dev Beginner , +

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C C (ASA 2.5) 14 Mar 2008 125,493 1,333 152 times

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This artic le desc ribes the implementation of a neural network with CUDA.
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Download demo (release build requiring CUDA and 120 dpi) - 584.61 KB Download GUI source code - 509.68 KB Download kernel (the Neural Network c ore) - 2.78 KB

Introduction
An Artific ial Neural Network is an information proc essing method that was inspired by the way biological nervous systems function, suc h as the brain, to process information. It is c omposed of a large number of highly interconnected proc essing elements (neurons) working in unison to solve specific problems. Neural Networks have been widely used in "analogous" signal classific ations, including handwriting, voice and image rec ognitions. Neural network c an also be used in computer games. It enables games with the ability to adaptively learn from player behaviors. This technique has been used in racing games, suc h that opponent c ars c ontrolled by computers can learn how to drive by human players. Sinc e a Neural Network requires a considerable number of vector and matrix operations to get results, it is very suitable to be implemented in a parallel programming model and run on Graphic s Processing Units (GPUs). Our goal is to utilize and unleash the power of GPUs to boost the performanc e of a Neural Network solving handwriting recognition problems. This projec t was originally our graphics architecture course projec t. We ran on GPU the same Neural Network desc ribed by Mike O'Neill in his brilliant artic le "Neural Network for Recognition of Handwritten Digits".

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About the Neural Network


A Neural Network c onsists of two basic kinds of elements, neurons and connections. Neurons c onnec t with eac h other through connections to form a network. This is a simplified theory model of the human brain. A Neural Network often has multiple layers; neurons of a c ertain layer connect neurons of the next level in some way. Every c onnec tion between them is assigned with a weight value. At the beginning, input data are fed into the neurons of the first layer, and by computing the weighted sum of all connected first layer neurons, we c an get the neuron value of a second layer neuron and so on. Finally, we can reach the last layer, which is the output. All the computations involved in operating a Neural Network are a bunch of dot products. The secret of a Neural Network is all about weight values. Right values make it perfec t. However, at the beginning, we don't know those values. Therefore, we need to train our network with sample inputs and compare the outc omes with our desired answers. Some algorithm c an take the errors as inputs and modify the network weights. If patient enough, the Neural Network can be trained to ac hieve high ac curacy.

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The neural network we implemented was a 5 layer network called convolutional neural network. This kind of network is proven to be suitable for rec ognizing handwritten digits. For more theoretical details, please check out Mike's article and the references he has listed. The first three layers of our neural network consist of several feature maps. Eac h of them is shrunken from the previous layer. Our input is a 29*29 image of a digit. Therefore, we have 29*29=841 neurons in the first layer. The second layer is a c onvolutional layer with 6 feature maps. Eac h feature map which is a 13*13 image is sampled from the first layer. Each pixel/neuron in a feature map is a 5*5 convolutional kernel of the input layer. So, there are 13*13*6 = 1014 nodes/neurons in this layer, and (5*5+1(bias node))*6 = 156 weights, 1014*(5*5+1) = 26364 c onnec tions linking to the first layer. Layer 3 is also a convolutional layer, but with 50 smaller feature maps. Each feature map is 5*5 in size, and each pixel in these feature maps is a 5*5 c onvolutional kernel of corresponding areas of all 6 feature maps of the previous layer. There are thus 5*5*50 = 1250 neurons in this layer, (5*5+1)*6*50 = 7800 weights, and 1250*26 = 32500 c onnec tions. The fourth layer is a fully-c onnec ted layer with 100 neurons. Since it is fully-c onnec ted, each of the 100 neurons in the layer is connected to all 1250 neurons in the previous layer. There are therefore 100 neurons in it, 100*(1250+1) = 125100 weights and 100x1251 = 125100 c onnec tions. Layer 5 is the final output layer. This layer is also a fully-c onnec ted layer with 10 units. Eac h of the 10 neurons in this layer is connected to all 100 neurons of the previous layer. There are 10 neurons in Layer 5, 10*(100+1) = 1010 weights and 10x101 = 1010 c onnec tions. As you can see, although structurally simple, this Neural Network is a huge data structure.

Previous GPU Implementation


Fast Neural Network Library (FANN) has a very simple implementation of Neural Network on GPU with GLSL. Eac h neural is represented by a single c olor c hannel of a texture pixel. This network is very spec ific; neurons are ranging from 0 to 1 and have an accurac y of only 8 bits. This implementation takes the advantage of hardware ac celerated dot produc t func tion to c alc ulate neurons. Both neurons and weights are carried on texture maps. This implementation is straightforward and easy, however limited. First, in our neural network, we require 32-bit float acc uracy for eac h neuron. Sinc e our network has five layers, ac curacy lost at the first level could be acc umulated and alter the final results. And because it is important that a handwriting rec ognition system should be sensitive enough to detect slight differences between different inputs, using only 8 bits to represent a neuron is unac ceptable. Sec ondly, normal Neural Networks map neuron values to the range from 0 to 1. However, in our program, the Neural Network which is specifically designed for handwriting recognition has a special activation func tion mapping each neuron value to the range from -1 to 1. Therefore, if the neuron is represented by a single c olor value as in FANN library, our neurons will lose accurac y further. Finally, the FANN method uses a dot product to compute neurons, which is suitable for full connected Neural Networks. In our implementation, the Neural Network is partially connected. Computations performed on our Neural Network involve dot produc ts of large vectors.

Our Implementation
Due to all the inconvenience about GLSL mentioned above, we finally c hoose CUDA. The reason that the Neural Network is suitable for GPU is that the training and execution of a Neural Network are two separate proc esses. Onc e properly trained, no writing access is required while using a Neural Network. Therefore there is no synchronization issue that needs to be addressed. Moreover, neurons on a same network level are c ompletely isolated, such that neuron value c omputations can achieve highly parallelization. In our c ode, weights for the first layer are stored as an array, and those inputs are c opied to device. For each network level, there is a CUDA function handling the computation of neuron values of that level, sinc e parallelism can only be achieved within one level and the c onnec tions are different between levels. The c onnec tions of the Neural Network are implicitly defined in CUDA functions with the equations of

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next level neuron computation. No explic it connection data structure exists in our code. This is one main difference between our c ode and the CPU version by Mike.

For example, eac h neuron value of the sec ond level is a weighted sum of 25 neurons of the first level and one bias. The second neuron level is c omposed of 6 feature maps; each has a size of 13*13. We assign a blockID for each feature map and a threadID for each neuron on a feature map. Every feature map is handled by a bloc k and each pixel on it is dealt with by a thread. This is the CUDA func tion that c omputes the second network layer:
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__global__ void executeFirstLayer (float *Layer1_Neurons_GPU,float *Layer1_Weights_GPU,float *Layer2_Neurons_GPU) { int blockID=blockIdx.x; int pixelX=threadIdx.x; int pixelY=threadIdx.y; int kernelTemplate[25] = { 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 116,117,118,119,120 }; int weightBegin=blockID*26; int windowX=pixelX*2; int windowY=pixelY*2; float result=0; result+=Layer1_Weights_GPU[weightBegin]; ++weightBegin; for(int i=0;i<25;++i) { result+=Layer1_Neurons_GPU [windowY*29+windowX+kernelTemplate[i]]*Layer1_Weights_GPU[weightBegin+i]; } result=(1.7159*tanhf(0.66666667*result)); Layer2_Neurons_GPU[13*13*blockID+pixelY*13+pixelX]=result; }

All other levels are computed the same way; the only difference is the equation of calculating neurons.

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A Neural Network on GPU - CodeProject

The main program first transfers all the input data to GPU and then calls eac h CUDA func tion in order and finally gets the answer.

The user interface is a separate program using C#. Users can draw a digit with the mouse on the input pad, the program then generates a 29*29 image and calls the kernel Neural Network program. The kernel, as described above, will read the input image and feed it into our Neural Network. Results are also returned with files and then read back by the user interfac e. Here is a sc reenshot. After drawing a digit, we c an get all the 10 neuron values of the last network layer. The index of the maximum neuron value is the most possible digit. We shade c andidates with different depth of red c olors according to their possibilities. On the right, the user interface will print out feature maps of the first three layers. Note that C# under Windows XP has a resolution issue. We tested our program under 120dpi. A 96dpi resolution setting could shift the input image around, so that the ac curacy is badly affec ted. No training part is included in our GPU implementation. We use Mikes code to train all the weights and cached them with files.

Result
Accuracy Our Neural Network c an achieve a 95% ac curac y. The database we used to train the network is called MNIST containing 60000 handwriting examples from different people. It is reported by Dr. LeCun that this network c an converge after around 25 times of training. This number is c onfirmed by our test. We ac hieved only around 1400 miss-recognition samples out of 60000 inputs. Also note that there is a bug in Mike's code. This is the correc ted c ode for initializing the sec ond layer:
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for ( fm=0; fm<50; ++fm) { for ( ii=0; ii<5; ++ii ) { for ( jj=0; jj<5; ++jj ) { // iNumWeight = fm * 26; // 26 is the number of weights per feature map iNumWeight = fm * 156; // 156 is the number of weights per feature map NNNeuron& n = *( pLayer->m_Neurons[ jj + ii*5 + fm*25 ] ); n.AddConnection( ULONG_MAX, iNumWeight++ ); for ( kk=0; kk<25; { // note: max val n.AddConnection( n.AddConnection( n.AddConnection( n.AddConnection( n.AddConnection( n.AddConnection( } } } } ++kk )

// bias weight

of index == 1013, corresponding to 1014 neurons in prev layer 2*jj + 26*ii + kernelTemplate2[kk], iNumWeight++ ); 169 + 2*jj + 26*ii + kernelTemplate2[kk], iNumWeight++ ); 338 + 2*jj + 26*ii + kernelTemplate2[kk], iNumWeight++ ); 507 + 2*jj + 26*ii + kernelTemplate2[kk], iNumWeight++ ); 676 + 2*jj + 26*ii + kernelTemplate2[kk], iNumWeight++ ); 845 + 2*jj + 26*ii + kernelTemplate2[kk], iNumWeight++ );

Please refer to this for the details about this bug. Our GPU implementation is based on the c orrect version, however there isn't too much difference in terms of accurac y. Performance

The major reason for using GPU to compute Neural Network is to achieve robustness. The outcome is promising compared to CPU implementation. As shown in the table above, the executing time of GPU version, EmuRelease version and CPU version running on one single input sample is c ompared. The GPU version speeds up by 270 times c ompared to CPU version and 516.6 times compared to EmuRelease version. To be more ac curate, we also c onsidered the IO time consumption of the GPU version. As we can see, even when the IO time is considered, our method is 10 times faster. And in practical use, weight values need only be loaded into the device onc e.

History
14th Marc h, 2008: Initial post

License
This article, along with any associated sourc e c ode and files, is lic ensed under The Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 2.5 License

About the Authors


billconan Ph.D. Student University of California, Davis

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Other United States

kavinguy Member

Ph.D. student, University of California, Davis

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FAQ Profile popups New Message My v ote of 5 i hav e not worked Demos and source code of NN My v ote of 3 Re: My vote of 3 Re: My vote of 3 Codes do not work My v ote of 5 how exactly did you obtain the weights files? not fully optimized code?? Can't Get it to work Stuck on 2 The CUDA code is not optimized Re: The C UDA code is not optimized help me Permission to redistribute source code Another interesting Neural Network application I can not obtain a good recognition of this method i think it possible to train the convolutional neural network in CUDA where can i get Layer_1.neu , Layer_2.neu ... [modified]'t Re: where can i get Layer_1.neu , Layer_2.neu ... [modified]'t Re: where can i get Layer_1.neu , Layer_2.neu ... [modified]'t Testing NN kernel code Noise level Medium Layout Normal Per page 25 Search Update First Prev Next 9:52 8 Jun '11 4:08 11 Apr '11 11:08 20 Mar '11 16:03 14 Apr '11 9:30 15 Apr '11 21:14 12 Mar '11 17:18 10 Jan '11 12:54 14 Jul '10 4:18 11 Jul '10 17:17 2 Dec '09 20:42 27 Nov '09 4:53 21 Oct '09 7:49 13 Nov '09 13:08 28 Sep '09 19:28 10 Sep '09 14:01 6 Aug '09 23:12 9 May '09 20:08 8 Dec '08 20:01 30 Nov '08 0:42 4 Dec '08 21:53 4 Dec '08 20:07 12 Sep '08

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Re: Testing NN kernel code Re: Testing NN kernel code Re: Testing NN kernel code Last Visit: 9:49 11 Jul '11 General News

A Neural Network on GPU - CodeProject


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