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Grade 12 Mathematical Literacy

LO4 Analysis and interpretation of data: Critically analyse and interpret data
1. Inflation is the phenomenon where the purchasing value of the rand decreases, which results in the price of a product increasing. In order to measure inflation a base year is used to compare the price of goods in the base year to the price of goods in the year in question. A basket of goods and services are identified and used for the calculation of inflation. In January 2000 a basket of goods and services cost R200. A year later the same basket of goods and services cost R211. In 2002 the same basket of goods and services cost R232. Look at the table below, copy and complete the table by determining the inflation rate per year and since 2000. Date Cost Inflation rate per year per basket January R200 2000 January R211 211 200 100 = 5,5% 200 1 2001 January R232 232 211 100 = 9,95% 211 1 2002 January R256 2003 January R279 2004 January R299 2005 January R306 2006 January R326 2007 Inflation rate since 2000 211 200 100 = 5,5% 200 1 232 200 100 = 16% 200 1

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Grade 12 Mathematical Literacy

2. The table on the right shows the real cost of a sweetie pie over the last five years. Copy and compete the table, determining the annual percentage increase.

Year 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

Price R0,85 R0,95 R1,05 R1,12 R1,25 R1,39 R1,55 R1,85

% Increase

3. Neville, a traffic officer, earned R6 000 in January 2000. Calculate his salary in 2007 if:
3.1

His salary increased by the CPI of 6% per annum. His salary increased by 5% for two years, by 7,5% for the next two years, and by 8% per year after that. The inflation rate over the seven years averaged at 7,2%. What effect would this have on Nevilles spending power?

3.2

3.3

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Grade 12 Mathematical Literacy

4. The table below shows a record of profit made by Allbest Engineering over a seven year period. 4.1 Copy and complete the table by determining the annual growth per year and the profit index. Make use of the following formulae. Annual growth: Profit index:
Profit in current year - Profit in previous year 100 Profit in previous year 1

Profit in current year 100 Profit in base year

Year

2000 (base year)

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

Profit (R 1 million) Annual Growth Profit Index 4.2

2 100% 200

11

15

What can you deduce about the business from the above table?

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Grade 12 Mathematical Literacy

5. Smith Company drew up the following three graphs to represent their profits over the last three years. Study the graphs and answer the questions that follow.

5.1 5.2 5.3

Take into account that the profit for all three graphs is the same and explain how the graphs differ. Explain the pattern that is shown by the annual profit. Which graph would you recommend to the managing director should be used at a meeting of the shareholders? Explain your answer.

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Grade 12 Mathematical Literacy

6. The following table represents the number of children in a class, the number of children who eat sweets and the number of children in the class who required fillings during the year. Study the table and answer the questions that follow. Number of children per class Number who eat sweets Number of fillings
6.1

35 15 16

43 38 35

35 32 29

38 26 26

Assume that you work for the Dental Association of South Africa and draw an accurate, but biased statistical diagram that reflects your viewpoint.

6.2 Explain why you chose to do your diagram in the manner in which you did it. 6.3 Assume that you are the spokesperson for a sweet manufacturer and draw an accurate, but biased statistical diagram that reflects your viewpoint. Explain why you chose to do your diagram in the manner in which you did it.

6.4

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Grade 12 Mathematical Literacy

7. The following statistical diagrams appeared in a companys financial reports. Study the diagrams and critically analyse each one. 7.1

7.2

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7.3

7.4

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Grade 12 Mathematical Literacy

ANSWERS
1. Date Cost Inflation rate per year per basket January R200 2000 January R211 211 200 100 = 5,5% 200 1 2001 January R232 232 211 100 = 9,95% 211 1 2002 January R256 10,34% 2003 January R279 8,98% 2004 January R299 7,17% 2005 January R306 2,34% 2006 January R326 6,54% 2007 Inflation rate since 2000 211 200 100 = 5,5% 200 1 232 200 100 = 16% 200 1

28% 39,5% 49,5% 53% 63%

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Grade 12 Mathematical Literacy

2. Year 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Price R0,85 R0,95 R1,05 R1,12 R1,25 R1,39 R1,55 R1,85 % Increase
95 85 100 = 11,76% 85 1

10% 6,67% 11,67% 11,2% 11,51% 19,35%

3.1 and 3.2 Year 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 3.1: 6% R6 000 R6 000 x 1,06 = R6 360 R6 741,60 R7 146,10 R7 574,86 R8 029,35 R8 511,11 R9 021,78 3.2: 5%, 7,5%, 8% R6 000 R6 000 x 1,05 = R6 300 R6 615 R7 111,13 R7 644,46 R8 256,12 R8 916,50 R9 2629,82

3.3 Nevilles spending power, taking inflation into account, would decrease each year if he received the 6% pay increase. He would be able to buy less each year, which would mean that although his salary was increasing, he would be in a worse position financially than before 2000. Taking the other option into account, the first two years would put Neville in a similar position as the 6% increase would. He would be in a better position after that, although he could not make up for the poor two years before that when he was in a worse position financially.

Maths & Science Marketing

Grade 12 Mathematical Literacy

4.1 Year

2000 (base year)

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

Profit (R 1 million) Annual Growth Profit Index

2 100% 200

4 100% 400

6 50% 600

11

15 36,36% 1500

33,33% 37,5% 800 1100

4.2 Although the profit index grows each year, the annual growth percentage per year is decreasing. The business is not doing as well as it did in 2001 and 2002. They need to revise their strategies in order to improve their business or they may run into trouble financially in a few years time. 5.1 Although the profit shown by the graphs is the same, the y-axis for each graph is different. Option 1s y-axis scale has more points than Option 2 or Option 3. Option 3s y-axis scale has less points that Option 1 or Option 2. By breaking the y-axis at the base it implies that there are missing points on the graph, giving the impression that the profit is higher than it actually is. The profit increased by the same amount each year. Option 3 implies a bigger profit because of the broken y-axis, but Option 1 looks like there is a bigger profit because the yaxis has more points. I would show the shareholders Option 1.

5.2 5.3

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Grade 12 Mathematical Literacy

6.1

Possible diagram:
Effect of eating sweets on learners dental health
50

Number of learners

45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Class 1 Class 2 Class 3 Class 4 Number who eat sweets Number of fillings Number in class

Class

6.2 The line graph emphasises the number of learners who eat sweets and the number of learners who require fillings. The graph is elongated, which implies that it may be more than it actually is. 6.3 Possible diagram:
Number of learners who eat sweets Number of learners
50 40 30 20 10 0 Class 1 Class 2 Class 3 Class 4 Number in class Number who eat sweets Number requiring dentistry

Class

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Grade 12 Mathematical Literacy

6.4 The line graph emphasises the number of learners in the class and the number of learners who eat sweets. The graph is flattened in order to imply that there arent many who have fillings. 7.1 There is no scale on the y-axis, so it is not possible to determine what the profit actually was. Although it appears that the profits have increased, it is not possible to determine the actual point, so it is not possible to conclude anything about the profits except that they appear to have increased. Using different colours and different thicknesses for the different years implies that in the sales in the last year were much greater than in previous years. Without a scale on the y-axis it is not possible to determine just how much the sales have increased by. Once again, this is a deceptive graph. The different colours and the different sizes of the imports for the different years imply that the exports in the last year were much greater than in the previous years. Without the scale on the y-axis, or any other relevant information, this graph is once again deceptive and gives no real ideal of the real values of the imports. This graph has no dates, no amounts, no percentages or any other relevant information. It appears that the shareholders have received large payout, but there is nothing to compare the sections to. It does not say if the different colours are all assigned to the shareholders, or whether the pie chart represents the profit and the different sections represent the various payouts to be made, such as taxation or general reserves. This is another deceptive graph that as it does not contain enough information.

7.2

7.3

7.4

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