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REPORT BE96-3843/2001:18-4 THERMAL PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE Variations with the temperature and during the hydration phase

REPORT BE96-3843/2001:18-4

THERMAL PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE

Variations with the temperature and during the hydration phase

with the temperature and during the hydration phase Paolo Morabito 1 1 ENEL.HYDRO – Hydraulic and

Paolo Morabito 1

1 ENEL.HYDRO – Hydraulic and Structural Research Center

Published by Department of Civil & Mining Engineering Division of Structural Engineering

ISBN 91 - 89580 – 18 – 4

of Civil & Mining Engineering Division of Structural Engineering ISBN 91 - 89580 – 18 –

2001:18-4

SE

Improved Production of Advanced Concrete Structures IPACS
Improved Production of
Advanced Concrete Structures
IPACS
 

Report N o :

THERMAL PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE Variations with the temperature and during the hydration phase

2001:18-4

Author

Paolo Morabito

morabito.paolo@enel.it

Address

ENEL.HYDRO B.U. PIS Via Pozzobonelli 6, 20162 Milan, Italy

Task/Subtask n o :

T2/T2.3

Brite EuRam Contract No. BRPR-CT97-0437

Project n o :

Brite EuRam Proposal No. BE96-3843

Project title:

IPACS - IMPROVED PRODUCTION OF ADVANCED

CONCRETE STRUCTURES

Project co-

Betongindustri AB, Dr Mats Emborg

ordinator:

Partners:

Betongindustri AB Cementa AB Selmer ASA Technical University of Delft ENEL Technical University of Luleå NCC AB Skanska Teknik AB Technical University of Braunschweig Ismes Norwegian Public Roads Directorate Elkem AS Norcem AS Technical University of Trondheim

Date of issue of this report:

31 May 2001

Revised date:

31 May 2001

this report: 31 May 2001 Revised date: 31 May 2001 Project funded by the European Community

Project funded by the European Community under the Industrial & Materials Technologies Programme (Brite-EuRam III)

2

IMPROVED PRODUCTION OF ADVANCED CONCRETE STRUCTURES - IPACS

Background Research and practical experience show that the quality and lifetime of concrete structures largely depend on the curing conditions in the concrete's early life, as inadequate curing leads to malfunction and cracking. A major source of deleterious cracking already in the construction stage is the occurrence of stresses in the hardening concrete due to restrained volume change related to hydration temperatures and shrinkage phenomena. It is thus of utmost importance, especially regarding new high performance concrete, that the proper execution conditions are maintained throughout the construction period by avoiding the premature cracking.

Objective of project Main goal of IPACS is to evaluate, integrate and extend the existing knowledge about early age concrete crack prediction in engineering practice yielding the following benefits:

Contractors and designers will have new and more reliable engineering instruments enabling them to predict and to optimise the technical effect and cost of alternative designs and execution procedures - all in the process of fulfilling the quality requirements set up by the owners or the community (codes).

Reduced costs because of the present tendency to specify costly but unnecessarily rigorous crack criteria will be avoided.

Owners will have access to improved means of specifying and controlling desired quality requirements regarding serviceability and service life of their structures.

Reduced maintenance costs and increase of service lifetime.

Main tasks and investigations in IPACS and output from the project:

Hydration and volume changes – To acquire data for the modelling of properties of a number of currently used concrete types.

Mechanical properties - Testing and modelling of mechanical properties.

Behaviour of structures - Computer modelling of structural behaviour.

Field tests - To check and improve the models of the previous tasks in full-scale tests.

Expert System.

The Expert System synthesises the results from the project into a robust engineering tool for planning and control of the production of concrete structures. It contains modules of varying simplicity, which can be used in all the phases of a construction project from pre-design to maintenance

Project Partners:

See earlier page

Project Co-ordinator:

Dr Mats Emborg – Betongindustri AB (Heidelberger Zement North Europe) (SE) Dr Hans-Erik Gram/Mr Mats Öberg – Cementa AB (Heidelberger Zement North Europe) (SE)

Disclaimer

The author/authors and producer of this report have used their best effort in preparing this report. These efforts include the development, research and testing of the theories and programs to determine their effectiveness. The author/authors and producer make no warranty of any kind, expressed or implied, with regard to these programs or documentation contained in this report. The author/authors and publisher shall not be liable in any event for incidental or consequential damage in connection with, or arising out of, the furnishing, performance, or use of these programs.

Editorial/production supervision:

Prof. Lennart Elfgren

Cover design:

Hans Hedlund

Prepress material:

By report authors

Printed and published by

Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil and Mining Engineering, Division of Structural Engineering SE-971 87 Luleå, Sweden

3

Table of Content

1 Introduction

7

2 The two-linear-parallel-probe method

7

3 Composition of the tested concretes

10

4 Testing programme

12

4.1 Tests performed during the hardening stage

12

4.2 Tests performed in hardened concrete samples under temperature variation

12

5 Test results against the temperature variation

12

5.1 Influence of temperature on thermal conductivity

13

5.2 Influence of temperature on thermal

13

5.3 Influence of temperature on specific heat

14

5.4 Modelling of the thermal properties against the temperature variation

15

5.4.1 Thermal conductivity

15

5.4.2 Specific heat

16

5.4.3 Thermal diffusivity

16

6 Test results during the hydration stage

17

6.1 Experimental tests on a pure cement paste sample

17

6.2 Experimental tests in concrete samples

18

6.2.1 Thermal conductivity

19

6.2.2 Thermal diffusivity

20

6.2.3 Specific heat

20

7 Remarks

21

8 References

23

4

Abstract

An experimental study on the thermal properties of hardening concrete is presented in this report. It takes into account the results of measurements of thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity and the results of specific heat calculated from the knowledge of the above measured parameters.

The experimental testing method is described as well: based upon the linear heat source theory, it requires the use of two special probes to be inserted into the sample.

The experimental programme was forwarded to test concrete mixtures with different kinds of cement and aggregate.

The measurements were carried out from the pouring time of cylindrical samples and were ended up when hardened conditions were achieved.

The unavoidable temperature variations during the hydration have required the knowledge of the influence of the temperature on the thermal properties. This was studied as well by performing experimental measurements on the same samples of concrete under different levels of temperature.

The whole results have been modelled by empirical relationships. They describe both the variation of the thermal properties against the maturity age and the variation of the thermal properties against the temperature in a range going from about 0°C up to 100°C.

5

Notation and symbols

λ

Thermal conductivity, W/(m·°C)

D

Thermal diffusivity, cm 2 /s

C

Specific heat, kJ/(kg·°C)

λ 20

Thermal conductivity at the reference temperature of 20°C, W/(m·°C)

D 20

Thermal diffusivity at the reference temperature of 20°C, cm 2 /s

c 20

Specific heat at the reference temperature of 20°C, kJ/(kg·°C)

T

Temperature, °C

t

Time, s

r

Radial length, cm

ρ

Bulk density, kg/m 3

β λ

Denotes the relative variation of thermal conductivity against the temperature variation, °C -1

β D

Denotes the relative variation of thermal diffusivity against the temperature variation, °C -1

β c

Denotes the relative variation of specific heat against the temperature variation, °C -1

T

Temperature change, °C

t e

Maturity age or equivalent age of concrete, h

TLPP

Two Linear and Parallel Probe method

GHP

Guarded Hot Plate method

6

1

Introduction

Within the task # 2 of the IPACS project, an experimental research program was carried out with the aim to determine the variations of the thermal properties of concrete with the temperature and during the hydration phase.

The tests were performed by an innovative transient measuring technique based upon the linear heat source theory. The method, the so-called Two Linear and Parallel Probe method (TLPP) allows to measure simultaneously the coefficients of thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity.

The specific heat is determined according to the following relationship:

being:

c =

λ

ρ⋅D

c = specific heat, [kJ/(kg·°C)];

λ = thermal conductivity, [W/(m·°C)];

D = thermal diffusivity, [cm 2 /s];

ρ = bulk density, [kg/m 3 ].

(1)

The experimental research program has mainly taken into account limestone concretes mixed with two different cement types, but additional measurements carried out during the hydration of a pure cement paste sample and in a hardened sample of gravel concrete, used for the construction of a sluice gate in Italy, are presented.

The measurements performed during the hydration started right after the pouring of cylindrical samples, 16 cm in diameter and 32 cm in height, and were stopped when no significant change in the thermal properties was detected. A complete set of tests took about up to 200 hours.

The effects of the temperature variations are analysed by performing TLPP tests in hardened samples placed inside a controlled climatic chamber by which a temperature variation from about 0°C up to 100°C is applied to the specimen.

2 The two-linear-parallel-probe method

The testing method used to measure the thermal conductivity and diffusivity is the Two- Linear-Parallel-Probe method.

The method is based upon the transient theory of the linear heat source developed by Carslaw and Jaeger (1959). According to that theory, the rate of the temperature rise at any point of an infinite homogeneous medium heated by an infinite linear heat source is given from the following relationship:

7

where:

dT

(

t r

,

)

Q

r

2

exp  −

dt

4 ⋅π⋅λ⋅ t

4

D t

=

(2)

Q = the heating power per unit length of the source, [W/cm];

r = the radial distance of the point from the heat source [cm];

t = the time elapsed from the start of heating [s].

The rate of the temperature rise is plotted in Figure 1 against the time; the graph shows that eq.(2) increases until a peak value M is reached and then decreases going to zero at infinite time.

r Rate of temperature rise
r
Rate of temperature rise

Time

Figure 1 – Rate of temperature rise against the time according to the transient linear heat source theory.

It is possible to demonstrate that the thermal conductivity and diffusivity are in relationship with the peak value M and with the corresponding time t M according to the following equations:

Q

λ = 4

⋅π⋅

exp(1) M t

M

D

r

2

= 4 t

M

(3)

The experimental set-up adopted to perform the test is given in Figure 2. Two thermal probes, 4 mm in diameter and 300 mm in height, are inserted in a parallel way into cylindrical samples having a diameter of 160 mm and a height of 320 mm. One probe is used as heating probe and is equipped with an electrical heating wire over the entire length; the other probe is the temperature probe, it is usually spaced 20÷25 mm from the heating probe and is equipped with a thermistor to measure the temperature.

8

Temperature probe Heating probe Thermistor Sample r
Temperature probe
Heating probe
Thermistor
Sample
r

Figure 2 – Experimental set-up to measure thermal conductivity and diffusivity.

The rate of the temperature rise, measured by the temperature probe, is computed from the start of supply the heating probe and is fitted by eq. 2; the coefficients M and t M are thus determined by a last mean square procedure.

A typical example of test carried out in a concrete sample is given Figure 3

0.003 Experimental data Best fit curve 0.002 0.001 0 0 200 400 600 800 dT/dt
0.003
Experimental data
Best fit curve
0.002
0.001
0
0
200
400
600
800
dT/dt [ °C/s ]

Time [ s ]

Figure 3 – Example of a TLPP test carried out on a concrete sample.

The TLPP test method is particularly suitable to be applied in damp and porous solids, like concrete. The main features of the method are:

little thermal gradients applied to the sample (less than 0.5 °C/cm);

very short duration of the test;

9

capability to perform tests during the hardening phase of concrete;

suitability to test incoherent solids;

use on site.

The reliability of the method has been verified through comparative measurements carried out by means of the standard guarded hot plate (GHP) method (ASTM C177-63) in samples of reference materials and in fully dried concrete samples.

The results of the comparative tests are given in Figure 4

3 2.5 2 1.5 1 Pyrex sample 0.5 PTFE sample Dry concrete 1 sample Dry
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
Pyrex sample
0.5
PTFE sample
Dry concrete 1 sample
Dry concrete 2 sample
0
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
Thermal conductivity measured by the TLPP
method, [W/(m·°C)]

Thermal conductivity measured by the GHP method, [W/(m·°C)]

Figure 4 – Comparison between the standard guarded hot plate (GHP) method and the TLPP method.

3 Composition of the tested concretes

Two concretes having the same composition and mixed with different cement types have been tested. The basic concrete composition is given in Table I. The two types of cement used for each mixing are a blustfurnace cement, type 32.5 IIIA, and a Portland cement 42.5 IIA-L. Their chemical analyses are given in Table II.

10

Table I - Mix composition of the concrete.

Material

 

Recipe [kg/m 3 ]

Density [kg/m 3 ]

Cement content

(C)

300

300

 

Crushed limestone 0-1 mm

494

 
 

Crushed limestone 1-3 mm

198

 
 

Crushed limestone 2-6 mm

296

 
 

Crushed limestone 5-8 mm

198

 
 

Crushed limestone 6-10 mm

296

 
 

Crushed limestone 8-15 mm

494

 
 

Total aggregate

 

1976

Water

(W)

175

175

W / C

 

0.58

 

Total for 1 m 3 of concrete

 

2451

Table II – Chemical analyses of the cements.

Cement type

32.5 III A

42.5 II A-L

Ca0

[%]

49.26

65.27

SiO 2

[%]

29.48

15.96

Al 2 O 3

[%]

8.46

3.91

Fe 2 O 3

[%]

1.50

1.87

K 2 O

[%]

0.47

1.69

Na 2 O

[%]

0.10

0.52

MgO

[%]

4.87

1.95

SO 3

[%]

2.41

6.49

Cl

[%]

0.140

0.094

PbO

[%]

-

-

ZnO

[%]

-

-

TiO 2

[%]

0.32

0.22

Glow loss [%]

2.22

-

no solving rest [%]

0.50

-

CO 2

[%]

-

-

Mn 3 O 4

[%]

0.17

0.072

S

[%]

0.38

-

11

4

Testing programme

4.1 Tests performed during the hardening stage.

For each of the two concretes a cylindrical sample, having a diameter of 160 mm and a height of 320 mm, was prepared.

Right after the mixing procedure the fresh concrete was cast in the moulds, compacted and then subjected to a set of thermal conductivity and diffusivity measurements by the TLPP method.

The set of measurements in each sample started after about 0.5 hours from the beginning of the mixing procedure. To avoid loss of free water during the tests, which in turn causes variation of the thermal properties due to the variation of moisture content, the samples were properly sealed.

Additionally, the thermal properties of concrete will depend on the temperature of the sample under test. Due to the development of heat of hydration, it is almost impossible to keep constant the samples temperature. So, empirical relationships between thermal properties and temperature were determined on the same samples after that their have reached complete hydration; such relationships were used to reduce to the reference temperature of 20°C the thermal conductivity and diffusivity measurements performed under variable temperature.

4.2 Tests performed in hardened concrete samples under temperature variation.

The samples were placed inside a climatic cell that allows controlling the temperature and the humidity. The temperature was varied from about 0°C up to 100°C at steps of 10 °C. In correspondence of each step the samples were allowed to reach the temperature of the cell – and this was checked by the temperature probe inserted into the specimen – and then the TLPP test was performed.

5 Test results against the temperature variation

The influence of the temperature level was also investigated in completely hardened samples of a concrete used for the construction of a sluice gate in Italy (Morabito, 2000), having a natural quartzy gravel as aggregate. The concrete mixing is given in Table III.

Table III – Mixing composition of the concrete used for the construction of a sluice gate in Italy.

Material

Content [kg/m 3 ]

Sand 0 ÷ 4 mm

380

Sand 0 ÷ 8 mm

580

Gravel 4 ÷ 12.5 mm

440

Gravel 8 ÷ 25 mm

600

Pozzolanic cement type CEM IV-A 32.5

320

Super plasticizer Sikament (1% of cement content)

3.2

Water

190

12

With such an additional test it is possible to take into account both the effects of different cement types as well different types of aggregate.

5.1 Influence of temperature on thermal conductivity.

The results of the thermal conductivity measurements against the temperature are plotted in Figure 5.

They put in evidence that:

the thermal conductivity decreases with the increase of the concrete temperature;

the relationship does not seem to depend on the cement type;

the decrease in thermal conductivity is more pronounced in limestone aggregate than in natural gravel (0.15%·°C -1 against 0.06%·°C -1 ).

3 2.9 2.8 2.7 2.6 Limestone concrete - Cem.32.5 IIIA 2.5 Limestone concrete - Cem.42.5
3
2.9
2.8
2.7
2.6
Limestone concrete - Cem.32.5 IIIA
2.5
Limestone concrete - Cem.42.5 IIA-L
Gravel concrete
2.4
0
20
40
60
80
100
Thermal conductivity [W/(m o C)]

Temperature [°C]

Figure 5 – Thermal conductivity against the temperature variation for the three tested concretes.

5.2

Influence of temperature on thermal diffusivity.

The thermal diffusivity measurements are plotted in Figure 6 and lead to the same comments made for conductivity:

the thermal diffusivity decreases with the increase of the concrete temperature;

the relationship does not depend on the cement type;

the decrease in thermal diffusivity is more pronounced in limestone aggregate than in natural gravel (0.27%·°C -1 against 0.12%·°C -1 ). It is also to point out that the variations in thermal diffusivity are more pronounced than those in conductivity.

13

1.5 1.4 1.3 1.2 1.1 1 Limestone concrete - Cem.32.5 IIIA Limestone concrete - Cem.42.5
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1
Limestone concrete - Cem.32.5 IIIA
Limestone concrete - Cem.42.5 IIA-L
Gravel concrete
0.9
0
20
40
60
80
100
Thermal diffusivity, [cm 2 /s] in 10 -2

Temperature [°C]

Figure 6 - Thermal diffusivity against the temperature variation for the three tested concretes.

5.3 Influence of temperature on specific heat.

The specific heat was calculated according to eq. 1 from the experimental data of thermal conductivity and diffusivity.

The results are plotted in Figure 7. They put in evidence that:

the specific heat increases with the increase of the concrete temperature;

the relationship seems to be independent on the cement type;

the variations of specific heat are only a bit more pronounced in limestone aggregate than in natural gravel.

1.10 Limestone concrete - Cem.32.5 IIIA Limestone concrete - Cem.42.5 IIA-L 1.05 Gravel concrete 1.00
1.10
Limestone concrete - Cem.32.5 IIIA
Limestone concrete - Cem.42.5 IIA-L
1.05
Gravel concrete
1.00
0.95
0.90
0.85
0.80
0.75
0
20
40
60
80
100
Specific heat [kJ/(kg·°C)]

Temperature [°C]

Figure 7 – Specific heat against the temperature variation for the three tested concretes.

14

5.4

Modelling of the thermal properties against the temperature variation

The experimental results seem to put in evidence that thermal conductivity and specific heat could be conveniently described by a linear relationship with the temperature.

For both of these parameters the following relationship has been adopted:

X

T

X

o

X

o

= β⋅

(

T

T

o

)

(4)

being X T the thermal conductivity or the specific heat at the generic temperature T, β the slope of the relationship to be determined from the experimental data, T o a reference temperature and X o the thermal property at the reference temperature.

The reference temperature has been assumed to be equal to 20°C so the β coefficient in eq. 4 represents the relative variation of the thermal property against the unit variation of temperature from the reference temperature of 20°C.

The variation of thermal conductivity with the temperature is thus described by the β λ coefficient whereas the variation of the specific heat is described by the β c coefficient.

As the measurements of thermal diffusivity exhibit a slight non-linear trend, its variations are calculated by eq. 1 from the knowledge of β λ and β c.

5.4.1 Thermal conductivity

In Figure 8 the experimental results of thermal conductivity are plotted according to the eq. 4

0.1 0.05 0 -0.05 -0.1 -0.15 Limestone concrete - Cem.32.5 IIIA Limestone concrete - Cem.42.5
0.1
0.05
0
-0.05
-0.1
-0.15
Limestone concrete - Cem.32.5 IIIA
Limestone concrete - Cem.42.5 IIA-L
Gravel concrete
-0.2
-20
0
20
40
60
80
Relative variation of thermal conductivity

Temperature, (T-20) [°C]

Figure 8 – Relative variation of thermal conductivity against the temperature variation.

15

Relative variation of specific heat

The β λ coefficient depends on the aggregate type and from a best fit on the experimental data the following values can be assumed:

β λ = − 0.0006 [°C -1 ] for gravel aggregate;

β λ = − 0.0015 [°C -1 ] for limestone aggregate.

5.4.2 Specific heat

In Figure 9 the variations of specific heat are plotted according to eq. 4.

The corresponding β c coefficients are:

β c = 0.0007 [°C -1 ] for gravel aggregate;

β c = 0.0016 [°C -1 ] for limestone aggregate. 0.15 0.1 0.05 0 -0.05
β c = 0.0016 [°C -1 ] for limestone aggregate.
0.15
0.1
0.05
0
-0.05
Limestone concrete - Cem.32.5 IIIA
Limestone concrete - Cem.42.5 IIA-L
Gravel concrete
-0.1
-20
0
20
40
60
80

Temperature, (T-20) [°C]

Figure 9 – Relative variation of specific heat against the temperature variation.

5.4.3 Thermal diffusivity

The relative variation of thermal diffusivity can be predicted from the following relationship, derived from eq. 1:

D

T

D

20

D

20

=

(

β

λ

−β

c

)(

T

20

)

1

c

(T

20)

(5)

A comparison between the measured and predicted results is given in Figure 10.

16

0.1 0.05 0 -0.05 -0.1 Predicted -0.15 Limestone concrete - Cem.32.5 IIIA -0.2 Limestone concrete
0.1
0.05
0
-0.05
-0.1
Predicted
-0.15
Limestone concrete - Cem.32.5 IIIA
-0.2
Limestone concrete - Cem.42.5 IIA-L
Gravel concrete
-0.25
-20
0
20
40
60
80
Relative variation of thermal diffusivity

Temperature, (T-20) [°C]

Figure 10 – Relative variation of thermal diffusivity against the temperature variation.

6 Test results during the hydration stage

6.1 Experimental tests on a pure cement paste sample

The gradual transition of the cement paste from plastic to hardened material gives rise to a variation of the thermal properties in young concrete. Preliminary tests were performed on a pure cement paste sample of Portland cement with a water/cement ratio of 0.4. The total temperature variation of the sample during the run time of the tests was of only about 3.5 °C (see Figure 11) so no temperature correction was carried out on the measured results of conductivity and thermal diffusivity.

27 26 25 24 23 22 21 0 5 10 15 20 25 Temperature [°C]
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
0
5
10
15
20
25
Temperature [°C]

Time [h]

Figure 11 – Temperature variation of a Portland cement paste sample during hydration.

17

The measurements result of thermal conductivity, diffusivity and specific heat are plotted in Figure 12 as ratio between the actual measurement X(t) and the corresponding one in the hardened condition X H . They put in evidence that:

the thermal properties seem to reach a plateau level after about 20 hours;

both thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity increase during the hydration phase of cement whereas the specific heat exhibits a slight decrease;

thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity reach a plateau value after an increase of about 9% and 13%, respectively;

as a consequence of that, the specific heat, calculated according to eq. 4, decreases of only about 3%. Water exhibit, from one hand, a lower thermal conductivity and diffusivity than the main solid minerals and, from the other hand, a greater specific heat than solid minerals. As a result, the variations of thermal properties in a hydrating cement paste are caused by the gradual transformation of the free water in bound water and by the consequent increase of the solid/fluid ratio.

1.1

X(t) / X H

1.0

0.9

0.8

0.7

λ H = 1.013 [W/(m·°C)] D H = 0.00340 [cm 2 /s] c H =
λ H = 1.013
[W/(m·°C)]
D H = 0.00340 [cm 2 /s]
c H = 1.6 [kJ/(kg·°C)]
Thermal conductivity
Thermal diffusivity
Specific heat
0
5
10
15
20
25

Age [h]

Figure 12 – Change in thermal properties during the hardening phase of a pure Portland cement paste sample.

6.2 Experimental tests in concrete samples

As previously mentioned, such tests were carried out in limestone concretes mixed with two different cement types. The tests, being performed during the hydration of the cement, are subjected to unavoidable temperature variations. Such variations were measured as well and the thermal conductivity, diffusivity and specific heat measurements were corrected for the temperature changes according to the corresponding relationships described in chapter 5. It is assumed that the correlations between thermal properties and temperature, determined in hardened concretes, can be applied at any age of concrete. As the aggregate is by far the main constituents of a concrete mixing and the experimental results have demonstrated that the variation of the thermal properties with the temperature depends on the nature of aggregate, such an assumption is likely to be realistic.

18

The experimental results during the hydration stage are thus reduced to the reference temperature of 20°C and are plotted against the equivalent age. The latter has been calculated taking account of the temperature variations during the hydration stage and of the experimental relationships of energy activation (Morabito, 2000) for the two tested cements, given by:

E A = 45.14 + 0.99 · (20 – T) E A = 58.80 +
E A = 45.14 + 0.99 · (20 – T)
E A = 58.80 + 1.43 · (20 – T)
for cement type 32.5 IIIA
for cement type 42.5 IIA-L
(6)
(7)
35
Cem enttype 32.5 IIIA
Cem enttype 42.5 IIA-L
30
25
20
0
24
48
72
96
120
144
Temperature [ °C ]

Age [h]

Figure 13 – Temperature variation during the hydration stage of the tested concretes.

6.2.1 Thermal conductivity

The ratio λ/λ 20 between thermal conductivity at early age and the conductivity of the hardened concrete at the reference temperature of 20°C is plotted in Figure 14 against the equivalent age for the two tested concretes.

1.1

λ(t e ) / λ 20

1.0

0.9

0.8

0.7

Cem enttype 32.5 IIIA Cem enttype 42.5 IIA -L 0 24 48 72 96 120
Cem enttype 32.5 IIIA
Cem enttype 42.5 IIA -L
0
24
48
72
96
120
144
168
192

Equivalent age [h]

Figure 14 – Variation of thermal conductivity against the equivalent age of hardening concretes.

19

From a best fit on the experimental data, the conductivity variation can be described by the following relationship:

(

λ t

e

)

λ

20

=

0.92

+

0.08 e

8.2

t

e

(8)

being λ 20 equal to 2.75 W/(m·°C) for both types of concrete.

6.2.2 Thermal diffusivity

In a similar way as for conductivity, the ratio D/D 20 between the thermal diffusivity at early age and the diffusivity of the hardened concrete at 20°C is plotted in Figure 15 against the equivalent age.

The rise of thermal diffusivity at early age can be described by the following equation:

(

D t

e

)

D

20

=

0.93

+

0.07 e

6.6

t

e

(9)

with D 20 equal to 0.0126 cm 2 /s for the concrete with cement type 32.5 IIIA and 0.0129 cm 2 /s for the other tested concrete.

1.10

D(t e )/D 20

1.00

0.90

0.80

0.70

Cem enttype 32.5 IIIA Cem enttype 42.5 IIA -L 0 24 48 72 96 120
Cem enttype 32.5 IIIA
Cem enttype 42.5 IIA -L
0
24
48
72
96
120
144
168
192

Equivalent age [h]

Figure 15 - Thermal diffusivity against the equivalent age of hardening concretes.

6.2.3 Specific heat

The specific heat has been calculated according to eq. 1 and is plotted in Figure 16.

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The results put in evidence only a very slight decrease of this parameter during the hydration stage so, for all the practical purpose, a constant value, equal to 0.21 kcal/(kg·°C) for the two tested concretes, can be assumed.

c(t e ) /

c 20

1.1

1.0

0.9

0.8

0.7

Cement type 32.5 IIIA Cement type 42.5 IIA-L 0 24 48 72 96 120 144
Cement type 32.5 IIIA
Cement type 42.5 IIA-L
0
24
48
72
96
120
144
168
192

Equivalent age [h]

Figure 16 - Specific heat against the equivalent age of hardening concretes.

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Remarks

Some relationships dealing with the variations of thermal properties of concrete, namely thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and specific heat, are proposed in this paper. They have been obtained from best-fit analyses on experimental measurements carried out in concrete samples. The tests have been performed by the Two-Linear-Parallel-Probe method, a transient method particularly suitable to measure thermal conductivity and diffusivity in concrete samples.

The tests have taken into account the variations of the thermal properties at early ages, caused from the gradual transition from a plastic to a lytic material during the cement hydration, and the variations of the thermal properties with the temperature.

The temperature effects, examined in a limestone concrete and in a gravel concrete, have put in evidence that the thermal conductivity and diffusivity decrease as far as the temperature increases whereas the specific heat increases with the temperature rise. The variations, which are more pronounced in the limestone concrete, can be conveniently described by the following general relationship:

X

T

X

20

X 20

= β⋅

21

(T

20)

where β is a temperature coefficient that depends on the aggregate type and must be experimentally determined.

To have an idea of the order of magnitude and the range of variation of β, in Table IV the

values of this coefficient for two tested concretes are summarised.

Table IV – Temperature coefficients determined in the two tested concretes.

Temperature coefficient [°C -1 ]

Thermal conductivity, β λ

Specific heat, β c

Thermal diffusivity, β D λ β c

Limestone concrete

-0.0015

0.0016

-0.0031

Gravel concrete

-0.0006

0.0007

-0.0013

In Table IV, it has been assumed that the thermal diffusivity changes linearly with the

temperature and a β D coefficient equal to β λ β c has been adopted. This rises from eq. 5 where the second term of the denominator can be neglected in respect to 1 for low temperature variations. At last, the temperature coefficients do not seem to be affected from the cement type and this is in agreement with the main role played from the aggregate.

The test results carried out during the hydration stage put in evidence a gradual increase of thermal conductivity and diffusivity up to a plateau value corresponding to that one measured in the hardened samples whilst the specific heat can be assumed to be constant during the hydration process.

The gradual transformation of the free water in bound water gives rise to a lytic material. Water conductivity and diffusivity are lower than conductivity and diffusivity of a lytic material – typically 0.6 W/m/°C against 2.9 W/m/°C for thermal conductivity and 0.00142

cm 2 /s against 0.015 cm 2 /s for thermal diffusivity, respectively – and this explains the increase

of conductivity and diffusivity in hardening concretes. Additionally, a better process of heat

conduction is to be ascribed to a solid than to a fluid and composite material because in the

latter the unavoidable thermal contact resistances between the different components can obstruct the process of heat conduction.

On the other hand, the specific heat of water is greater than the specific heat of a lytic material – 4.186 kJ/kg/°C against 0.75 kJ/kg/°C - so a decrease in specific heat would be expected during the hardening stage. The experimental results have put in evidence a decrease in the pure cement paste of the order of only 3% but negligible variations are observed in the concrete samples. Such a different behaviour is to be ascribed to the role of the aggregate which, from one hand, it is not affected from physical/chemical changes during the hydration stage and, from the other hand, its content in the concrete mixes is of the order of 80% against 12% of cement content.

At last, the increases in conductivity and diffusivity in hardening pure cement paste samples

have been of about 9% and 13%, respectively. The corresponding increases in concrete samples during the hydration are of the order of 7÷8%. The effects of the aggregate are still evident but to a lower extent than in the specific heat.

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8

References

Carslaw, H. S. and Jaeger, J. C. “ Conduction of Heat in Solids”. 3 rd edition, Clarendon Press, Oxford 1959.

Morabito, P. “Measurements of the thermal properties of different concretes”. 11 th ECTP. Pion Limited, London 1989.

Lanciani, A. et al. “Measurements of the thermophysical properties of structural materials in laboratory and in situ: methods and instrumentation”. High Temperature-High Pressure, vol. 21, pp. 391-400, 1989.

Lanciani, A. et al. “The two-linear-parallel-probe method: a review”. 12 th ECTP. Pion Limited, London 1993.

A.S.T.M. “Thermal conductivity of materials by means of a guarded hot plate”. ASTM Specification C177-63, 1963.

Morabito, P. ”Determination of the apparent activation energy by adiabatic tests on concrete samples”. IPACS Report, Task # 2, Sub-task # 2.2, 2000.

Morabito, P. ”Field test in Italy: sluice gate on the Brembo river”. IPACS Report, Task # 5, Sub-task # 5.1, 2000.

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