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Bi thc hnh s 1

iu ch este v tnh cht ca mt s cacbohirat


I. Mc tiu
Cng c kin thc v iu ch este v chng minh mt s tnh cht ho
hc ca glucoz, saccaroz, tinh bt.
Lm c mt s th nghim n gin v iu ch este v tnh cht
ca cacbohirat.
Cng c mt s k nng th nghim v lin h vi l thuyt.
II. Ho cht, dng c (dng cho mt nhm thc hnh)
1. Ho cht
C2H5OH 960, CH3COOH, dung dch NaCl bo ho, dung dch NaOH 10%, dung dch
CuSO4 5%, dung dch glucoz 5%, dung dch H2SO4 c, NaHCO3 tinh th, dung
dch h tinh bt, dung dch I2 (I2 ho tan trong cn), dung dch saccaroz 5%.
2. Dng c
ng nghim to
: 6 ci ;
Tha xc ho cht : 2 ci ;
Cc thu tinh 250ml : 1 ci ;
Kp ng nghim
: 1 ci ;
ng ht nh git
: 1 ci ;
Gi ng nghim : 1 ci ;
a thu tinh
: 1 ci ;
Nt cao su c l
: 1 ci ;
n cn
: 1 ci ;
ng dn kh thng : 1 ci ;
Li kim loi
: 1 ci ;
King st
: 1 ci.
III. Thc hnh
Phiu thc hnh
Thngy thng.nm 200.
Th nghim 1 : iu ch etyl axetat
1. Hng dn cch tin hnh th nghim
Cho vo ng nghim to 1ml C2H5OH 960, 1ml CH3COOH nguyn cht v vi
ba git H2SO4 c. Lc u hn hp phn ng trong ng nghim, lp vo
ming ng nghim mt nt cao su c cm ng thu tinh, t ng nghim vo
cc thu tinh dung tch 250ml un cch thu khong 5 n 6 pht nhit
khong 65 700C (hoc un nng nh trn ngn la n cn, hoc ngm ng
nghim ng hn hp phn ng trong cc nc si).
Sau khi kt thc th nghim, lm lnh hn hp phn ng, rt thm vo ng
nghim khong 2ml NaCl bo ho. Quan st hin tng, gii thch v vit phng
trnh.
2. Nhng gi ca gio vin khi tin hnh th nghim
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3.
D on ca hc sinh v
M t hin tng, kt qu quan st c
hin tng, kt qu th nghim
khi tin hnh th nghim
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4. Gii thch hin tng v rt ra kt lun
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5. Cu hi
Ti sao khi iu ch etyl axetat ngi ta li phi cho thm vo hn hp
phn ng vi ba git H2SO4 c ?
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Sau khi kt thc th nghim, ti sao ngi ta li cho thm vo hn hp phn
ng dung dch NaCl bo ho ?
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Th nghim 2 : Phn ng ca glucoz vi Cu(OH)2
1. Hng dn cch tin hnh th nghim
Cho vo ng nghim to 2 3 git CuSO4 5% v 1ml NaOH 10%. Lc nh
hn hp phn ng, lng, gn b phn dung dch gi li Cu(OH) 2 kt ta.
Thm vo ng nghim 2ml dung dch glucoz 5%, lc nh, nhn xt hin tng
xy ra. Thm tip vo hn hp mt t NaOH 10%, lc nh hn hp phn ng, nhn
xt hin tng xy ra, gii thch. un nng hn hp phn ng, ngui. Nhn
xt hin tng, gii thch.
2. Nhng gi ca gio vin khi tin hnh th nghim
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3.
D on ca hc sinh v
M t hin tng, kt qu quan st c
hin tng, kt qu th nghim
khi tin hnh th nghim
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4. Gii thch hin tng. Rt ra kt lun
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5. Cu hi
Trong th nghim ny khng c dng d lng Cu(OH)2 hoc thiu. Ti
sao ?
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Th nghim 3 : Tnh cht ca saccaroz
1. Hng dn cch tin hnh th nghim
a. Rt 1,5ml dung dch saccaroz 5% vo ng nghim cha Cu(OH)2
(iu ch nh th nghim 2), lc nh, quan st hin tng xy ra. Thm tip
vo hn hp phn ng mt t dd NaOH 10%, lc hn hp phn ng, quan st hin
tng v rt ra kt lun.
b. Cho thm 0,5ml dung dch H2SO4 long vo ng nghim c cha 1,5ml
dung dch saccaroz 10%. un nng hn hp phn ng khong 2 3 pht,
ngui, cho t t tng lng nh NaHCO3 tinh th vo v khuy u bng a
thu tinh cho n khi khng cn bt kh CO2 thot ra. Rt hn hp phn ng va
thu c vo ng nghim c cha Cu(OH)2 (iu ch nh th nghim 2), lc
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hn hp phn ng, quan st hin tng xy ra. Thm tip vo mt t dung dch
NaOH 10%, lc hn hp phn ng, quan st hin tng xy ra v gii thch.
2. Nhng gi ca gio vin khi tin hnh th nghim
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3.
D on ca hc sinh v
M t hin tng, kt qu quan st c
hin tng, kt qu th nghim
khi tin hnh th nghim
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4. Gii thch hin tng. Rt ra kt lun
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5. Cu hi
Ti sao khi kt thc qu trnh thu phn saccaroz, phi trung ho ht H2SO4
d.
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Ngoi cch dng NaHCO3 trung ho H2SO4 d, cn c cch lm no khc
khng ? Nu c hy xut cch lm.
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Th nghim 4 : Phn ng ca h tinh bt vi iot
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1. Hng dn cch tin hnh th nghim


Cho vo ng nghim 2ml dung dch h tinh bt, thm vo vi git
dung dch I2, lc nh. Nhn xt hin tng, gii thch. un nng dung dch c
mu trn ri ngui, quan st hin tng, gii thch.
2. Nhng gi ca gio vin khi tin hnh th nghim
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3.
D on ca hc sinh v hin tng, kt
M t hin tng, kt qu quan st c
qu th nghim
khi tin hnh th nghim
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4. Gii thch hin tng. Rt ra kt lun
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Cu hi b sung
Cu 1 : Cho bit c im ca phn ng este ho ? C nhng cch no c th
lm cho hiu sut ca phn ng este ho t c kt qu tt nht ?
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Cu 2 : Cch no sau y c th dng iu ch etyl axetat ?
A. un hi lu hn hp etanol, gim v axit H2SO4 c.
B. un hi lu hn hp axit axetic, ru trng v H2SO4 c.
C. un si hn hp etanol, axit axetc v H2SO4 c trong cc thu tinh chu
nhit.
D. un hi lu hn hp etanol, axit axetic v H2SO4 c trong dng c c v
nh hnh 4.3a sch gio khoa Ho hc lp 11 nng cao.
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Cu 3 : Phn ng thu phn este trong mi trng axit v mi trng baz khc
nhau im no ?
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Cu 4 : m bo cho kt qu phn ng trong th nghim 2 xy ra, ta cn
phi lu n nhng vn g ?
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Kt qu nh gi ca gio vin
im thao tc th
nghim (k nng
lm th nghim)

im kt qu th nghim
M t hin tGii thch
ng
hin tng

im
thc

Tng im

Nhn xt ca gio vin


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Xc nhn ca gio vin
(K tn)

Bi thc hnh s 2
Mt s tnh cht ca amin, aminoaxit v protein
I. Mc tiu
Cng c kin thc v mt s tnh cht ca amin, aminoaxit v protein.
Rn k nng quan st th nghim v vn dng l thuyt gii thch
cc hin tng xy ra.
II. Ho cht, dng c (dng cho mt nhm thc hnh)
1. Ho cht
Dung dch anilin bo ho ; nc brom bo ho ; CuSO4 5% ; glyxin 2 5% ;
dung dch metyl da cam hoc giy qu tm ; NaOH 30% ; dung dch protein
(lng trng trng).
2. Dng c
ng nghim
: 6 ci ;
Cc thu tinh 250ml (ng nc) : 1 ci ;
ng ht nh git : 2 ci ;
Gi ng nghim
: 1 ci.
III. Thc hnh
Phiu thc hnh
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Thngy thng.nm 200.


Th nghim 1 : Phn ng brom ho anilin
1. Hng dn cch tin hnh th nghim
Cho vo ng nghim 0,5ml dung dch anilin bo ho v 1ml nc brom bo
ho, lc u hn hp phn ng, quan st hin tng xy ra, gii thch.
2. Nhng gi ca gio vin khi tin hnh th nghim
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3.
D on ca hc sinh
v
M t hin tng, kt qu quan st c
hin tng, kt qu th nghim
khi tin hnh th nghim
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4. Gii thch hin tng, rt ra kt lun
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5. Cu hi
Hy so snh iu kin phn ng brom vi benzen v phn ng ca brom vi
anilin. Gii thch.
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Th nghim 2 : Phn ng ca glyxin vi cht ch th
1. Hng dn cch tin hnh th nghim
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Cho vo ng nghim khong 1ml dung dch glyxin 2 5%, nh tip vo


mt vi git cht ch th metyl da cam, hoc nhng mu qu tm vo dung
dch glyxin. Quan st hin tng, gii thch.
2. Nhng gi ca gio vin khi tin hnh th nghim
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3.
D on ca hc sinh
v
M t hin tng, kt qu quan st c
hin tng, kt qu th nghim
khi tin hnh th nghim
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4. Gii thch hin tng, rt ra kt lun
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Th nghim 3 : Phn ng mu ca protein vi Cu(OH)2
1. Hng dn cch tin hnh th nghim
Cho vo ng nghim 1ml dung dch protein (lng trng trng), 1ml dung
dch NaOH 30% v mt git dung dch CuSO4 5%, lc u. Quan st hin tng
xy ra v gii thch.
2. Nhng gi ca gio vin khi tin hnh th nghim
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3.
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D on ca hc sinh v hin tng, kt


M t hin tng, kt qu quan st c
qu th nghim
khi tin hnh th nghim
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4. Gii thch hin tng, rt ra kt lun
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Cu hi b sung
Cu 1 : Hy nu cch ra dng c th nghim c cha anilin.
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Cu 2 : Hy gii thch nhng hin tng sau :
a. Axit HNO3 dy vo da, ch da b vng.
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b. Khi nu canh cua, thy cc mng riu cua ni ln.


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c. Khi n phi thc phm c ln ion kim loi nng (nh ng, ch, thu
ngn, ) th b ng c.
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Kt qu nh gi ca gio vin
im thao tc th
nghim (k nng
lm th nghim)

im kt qu th nghim
M t
hin
Gii thch
tng
hin tng

im
thc

Tng im

Nhn xt ca gio vin


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Xc nhn ca gio vin
(K tn)

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Bi thc hnh s 3
Dy in ho ca kim loi, iu ch kim loi
I. Mc tiu
Cng c kin thc v pin in ho v in phn.
Rn cc k nng thao tc th nghim, quan st v gii thch hin tng
rt ra kt lun.
II. Ho cht, dng c (dng cho mt nhm thc hnh)
1. Ho cht: ZnSO4 1M ; CuSO4 1M ; Pb(NO3)2 1M.
2. Dng c
Cc thy tinh 100ml : 4 ci ;
L ng : 1 ci ;
L km : 2 ci ;
L ch : 1 ci ;
Tm ba cng khoan l cm cc in cc : 2 ci ;
Dy dn in km cht cm v kp c su : 4 ci ;
in cc graphit : 2 ci ;
Bin th kim chnh lu : 1 ci ;
in k : 1 ci ;
Cu mui : 2 ci.
III. Thc hnh
Phiu thc hnh
Thngy thng.nm 200.
Th nghim 1 : Sut in ng ca pin in ho Zn Cu v Zn Pb.
1. Hng dn cch tin hnh th nghim
a. Pin in ho Zn Cu
Lp pin in ho Zn Cu theo s hnh 5.3 bi 20 trong SGK. L km
nhng vo cc ng dung dch ZnSO4 1M. L ng nhng vo cc ng dung
dch CuSO4 1M. Ni hai dung dch mui trong hai cc bng cu mui (cu mui
l ng thu tinh 8 bn trong cha cht keo (dng thch) c cha NH4NO3 bo ho
hoc KCl bo ho). Ni hai in cc vi vn k. in cc Zn bn tri, in cc
Cu bn phi ca vn k.
Ghi sut in ng ca pin Zn Cu.
b. Pin in ho Zn Pb
Lp pin in ho Zn Pb theo s ca pin Zn Cu. L km nhng vo
cc cha ZnSO4 1M. L Pb nhng vo cc Pb(NO3)2 1M. Ni hai in cc ca pin
vi vn k, in cc Zn bn tri, in cc Pb bn phi ca vn k.
Ghi sut in ng ca pin Zn Pb.
Hy so snh sut in ng ca pin Zn Cu vi Zn Pb.
2. Nhng gi ca gio vin khi tin hnh th nghim
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3.
D on ca hc sinh v
M t hin tng, kt qu quan st
hin tng, kt qu th nghim
c khi tin hnh th nghim
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4. Gii thch hin tng, rt ra kt lun
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5. Cu hi
Nng ca dung dch ZnSO4, CuSO4, Pb(NO3)2 c nh hng n sut
in ng ca pin trong cc th nghim nu trn khng ? Gii thch.
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Th nghim 2 : in phn dung dch CuSO4, cc cc bng than ch
(graphit)
1. Hng dn cch tin hnh th nghim
Lp dng c th nghim in phn dung dch CuSO4 nh hnh v 5.15
trong SGK lp 12 nng cao. iu chnh dng in i vo dung dch. Quan st
hin tng xy ra trn cc in cc. Gii thch.
2. Nhng gi ca gio vin khi tin hnh th nghim
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3.
D on ca hc sinh v
M t hin tng, kt qu quan st
hin tng, kt qu th nghim
c khi tin hnh th nghim
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4. Gii thch hin tng, rt ra kt lun
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Cu hi b sung
Cu 1 : Trong pin in ho, s kh
A. ch xy ra cc m.
B. ch xy ra cc dng.
C. xy ra cc m v cc dng.
D. khng xy ra cc m v cc
dng.
Cu 2 : Bit phn ng oxi ho kh xy ra trong mt pin in ho l
F e + Cu2+ F e2+ + Cu
Hy cho bit cch xc nh in cc m v in cc dng ca pin.
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Cu 3 : Trong qu trnh hot ng ca pin in ho Zn Cu nhn thy
A. khi lng ca in cc Zn tng ln, khi lng ca in cc Cu gim xung.
B. khi lng ca in cc Zn gim xung, khi lng ca in cc Cu tng ln.
C. nng ion Zn2+ trong dd tng ln v nng ion Cu2+ trong dung dch gim
xung.
D. nng ion Zn2+ trong dd gim xung v nng ion Cu2+ trong dung dch
tng ln.
E. nng ion Zn2+ v nng ion Cu2+ trong dung dch khng thay i.
Cu 4 : Hy gii thch ti sao khi in phn dung dch NaCl v in phn
NaCl nng chy, sn phm thu c l khc nhau ? Khi in phn dung dch
NaNO3 v in phn dung dch H2SO4, sn phm thu c li ging nhau ?
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Kt qu nh gi ca gio vin
im thao tc th
nghim (k nng
lm th nghim)

im kt qu th nghim
M t hin tGii thch
ng
hin tng

im
thc

Tng im

Nhn xt ca gio vin


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Xc nhn ca gio vin
(K tn)

Bi thc hnh s 4
S n mn v cc bin php
chng n mn kim loi
I. Mc tiu
Cng c kin thc v s n mn v cc bin php chng n mn kim loi.
Rn k nng th nghim, k nng quan st v gii thch hin tng.
Bit vn dng cc kin thc hc vo gii thch mt s hin tng thng
gp trong cuc sng.
II. Ho cht, dng c (dng cho mt nhm thc hnh)
1. Ho cht
L st, l ng, inh st di 3cm, dy km, dung dch NaCl c, dung
dch K3[Fe(CN)6] (kali ferixianua).
2. Dng c
Cc thu tinh 100ml : 2 ci ;
Tm ba cng cm hai in cc st v ng ;
Dy dn in c kp c su ni hai in cc.
III. Thc hnh
Phiu thc hnh
Thngy thng.nm 200.
Th nghim 1 : n mn in ho hc
1. Hng dn cch tin hnh th nghim
Rt cc th tch dung dch NaCl c bng nhau vo hai cc thu tinh. Cm
mt l st v mt l ng vo mi cc. Nh vo mi cc 4 5 git dung dch
K3[Fe(CN)6]. Ni l st v l ng trong cc 2 bng dy dn. Xem hnh 5.16
trong SGK Ho hc lp 12 nng cao.
Quan st cc hin tng xy ra trong th nghim trong 2 cc sau 4 n 5
pht. Gii thch hin tng v rt ra kt lun.
2. Nhng gi ca gio vin khi tin hnh th nghim
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...................
3
D on ca hc sinh v
M t hin tng, kt qu quan st
hin tng, kt qu th nghim
c khi tin hnh th nghim
............................................................... ...............................................................
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7

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4. Gii thch hin tng, rt ra kt lun
.................................................................................................................................
...................
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...................
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...................
.................................................................................................................................
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5. Cu hi
Cu 1 : Trong th nghim trn c th thay dung dch NaCl c bng dung
dch mui khc c khng ? Gii thch.
.................................................................................................................................
...................
.................................................................................................................................
...................
.................................................................................................................................
...................
.................................................................................................................................
...................
.................................................................................................................................
...................
Cu 2 : Trong n mn in ho hc xy ra
A. s oxi ho cc dng.
C. s oxi ho cc dng v s kh
cc m.
B. s kh cc m.
D. s oxi ho cc m v s kh
cc dng.
Cu 3 : Cht no sau y trong khng kh m khng gy ra s n mn kim
loi ?
A. Kh O2.
B. Kh CO2.
C. Kh SO2.
D. Kh N2.
E. Kh Cl2.
F. Kh H2S.
Th nghim 2 : Bo v st bng phng php bo v in ho
1. Hng dn cch tin hnh th nghim
Rt dung dch NaCl c vo hai cc thu tinh. Thm vo mi cc vi
git dung dch K3[Fe(CN)6]. Ngm vo cc (1) mt inh st sch, vo cc (2)
mt inh st sch c qun bng dy km. Xem hnh 5.17 trong SGK 12 nng
cao.
Quan st m t cc hin tng trong th nghim xy ra sau 4 5 pht. Gii
thch v rt ra kt lun.
2. Nhng gi ca gio vin khi tin hnh th nghim
.................................................................................................................................
...................
.................................................................................................................................
...................
8

.................................................................................................................................
...................
.................................................................................................................................
...................
3.
D on ca hc sinh v
M t hin tng, kt qu quan st
hin tng, kt qu th nghim
c khi tin hnh th nghim
............................................................... ...............................................................
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..........
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4. Gii thch hin tng, rt ra kt lun
.................................................................................................................................
...................
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...................
.................................................................................................................................
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Cu hi b sung
Cu 1 : St trng kim loi km ln b mt gi l tn. St trng kim loi thic ln
b mt gi l st ty. Gii thch v sao km v thic c th bo v c st ?
.................................................................................................................................
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.................................................................................................................................
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Cu 2 : Nu trn b mt nhng vt bng st trng thic (st ty) v st
trng km (tn) b sy st su ti lp bn trong th s c hin tng g xy ra khi
nhng vt trong khng kh m ? Gii thch ?
.................................................................................................................................
...................
.................................................................................................................................
...................

.................................................................................................................................
...................
.................................................................................................................................
...................
.................................................................................................................................
...................
Kt qu nh gi ca gio vin
im thao tc th
nghim (k nng
lm th nghim)

im kt qu th nghim
M t
hin
Gii thch
tng
hin tng

im
thc

Tng im

Nhn xt ca gio vin


.................................................................................................................................
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Xc nhn ca gio vin
(K tn)

10

Bi thc hnh s 5
Tnh cht ca kim loi kim, kim loi kim th v hp cht
I. Mc tiu
Cng c kin thc v tnh cht ho hc ca mt s kim loi kim, kim loi kim
th v hp cht ca chng. Gip hc sinh vn dng kin thc gii thch hin tng
th nghim.
Rn k nng thao tc, quan st hin tng th nghim.
II. Ho cht, dng c (dng cho mt nhm thc hnh)
1. Ho cht
Na (kim loi), Mg (kim loi), Al (kim loi), dung dch CaCl2 1M, BaCl2 1M, dung
dch CuSO4 bo ho, giy phenolphtalein, MgO (bt).
2. Dng c
ng nghim to : 6 ci ;
Kp gi : 1 ci ;
Kp ly ho cht : 1 ci ;
ng ht nh git : 3 ci ;
n cn : 1 ci ;
Gi ng nghim : 1 ci ;
Dim : 1 bao.
III. Thc hnh
Phiu thc hnh
Thngy thng.nm 200.
Th nghim 1 : So snh kh nng phn ng ca Na, Mg, Al vi nc
1. Hng dn cch tin hnh th nghim
Rt nc vo ng nghim th nht (khong 3/4 th tch ng nghim).
Thm vi git dung dch phenolphtalein, t ng nghim vo gi, tip tc cho
vo mt mu natri nh bng ht go (hnh 6.11a trong SGK lp 12 nng cao).
Rt vo ng nghim th hai v ba khong 5ml nc, thm vi git dung
dch phenolphtalein vo mi ng nghim. Sau , b vo ng nghim th hai mt
mu kim loi Mg, b vo ng nghim th ba mt mu Al kim loi va lm sch lp v
axit (hnh 6.11b, 6.11c trong SGK lp 12 nng cao).
Quan st hin tng xy ra, un nng c hai ng nghim v quan st.
Nhn xt mc phn ng ba ng nghim.
2. Nhng gi ca gio vin khi tin hnh th nghim
.................................................................................................................................
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.................................................................................................................................
...................
.................................................................................................................................
...................
3.
D on ca hc sinh v
M t hin tng, kt qu quan st
hin tng, kt qu th nghim
c khi tin hnh th nghim
............................................................... ...............................................................
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11

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4. Gii thch hin tng, rt ra kt lun
.................................................................................................................................
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5. Cu hi
Cu 1 : ng nghim th nht (natri tc dng vi nc), ti sao li phi th
tch nc ti thiu chim 3/4 th tch ca ng nghim ?
.................................................................................................................................
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.................................................................................................................................
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.................................................................................................................................
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Cu 2 : th nghim th nht, trong phn hng dn cch tin hnh th nghim
c hng dn : Cho vo nc mt vi git phenolphtalein ri mi cho natri vo. Nu sau
khi kt thc th nghim nc cho phenolphtalein vo. Hy nu nhng nhc im ca
hai cch lm, rt ra nhn xt.
.................................................................................................................................
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.................................................................................................................................
...................
.................................................................................................................................
...................
Cu 3 : th nghim th ba, ti sao phi lm sch lp oxit bm b mt Al
ri mi tin hnh th nghim ?
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.................................................................................................................................
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Th nghim 2 : Phn ng ca MgO vi nc
1. Hng dn cch tin hnh th nghim
Cho vo ng nghim mt t bt MgO, thm vo 2ml nc, lc nh. Ly mt
git cht lng trong ng nghim nh vo giy phenolphtalein. Quan st hin tng
v gii thch.
un si cht lng trong ng nghim, ngui. Th cht lng trong ng
nghim bng giy phenolphtalein. Quan st hin tng, gii thch v vit phng
trnh phn ng ho hc.
2. Nhng gi ca gio vin khi tin hnh th nghim
.................................................................................................................................
...................
12

.................................................................................................................................
...................
.................................................................................................................................
...................
3.
D on ca hc sinh v
M t hin tng, kt qu quan st
hin tng, kt qu th nghim
c khi tin hnh th nghim
............................................................... ...............................................................
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4. Gii thch hin tng, rt ra kt lun
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Th nghim 3 : So snh tnh tan ca mui CaSO4 v BaSO4
1. Hng dn cch tin hnh th nghim
Pha ch sn cc dung dch CaCl2 v BaCl2 c cng nng mol/l. Cho vo hai
ng nghim, mi ng 5 git CuSO4 bo ho. Quan st hin tng, kt lun v tnh tan
ca hai sn phm. Vit phng trnh ho hc xy ra dng ion rt gn.
2. Nhng gi ca gio vin khi tin hnh th nghim
.................................................................................................................................
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.................................................................................................................................
...................
.................................................................................................................................
...................
3.
D on ca hc sinh v
M t hin tng, kt qu quan st
hin tng, kt qu th nghim
c khi tin hnh th nghim
............................................................... ...............................................................
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13

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4. Gii thch hin tng, rt ra kt lun
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Cu hi b sung
Cu 1 : C th nh vo hai ng nghim 5 git dung dch CuSO4 c cng nng
m khng dng dung dch CuSO4 bo ho c khng ? Gii thch.
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Cu 2 : C th thay dung dch CuSO4 bng dung dch Na2SO4 c khng ? Cho
bit s dng dung dch no tt hn khi tin hnh th nghim ? Hy nu l do ?
.................................................................................................................................
...................
.................................................................................................................................
...................
.................................................................................................................................
...................
.................................................................................................................................
...................
Kt qu nh gi ca gio vin
im thao tc th
nghim (k nng
lm th nghim)

im kt qu th nghim
M t
Gii thch
hin tng
hin tng

im
thc

Tng im

Nhn xt ca gio vin


.................................................................................................................................
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14

.................................................................................................................................
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Xc nhn ca gio vin
(K tn)

15

Bi thc hnh s 6
Tnh cht ca nhm v hp cht ca nhm
I. Mc tiu
Cng c kin thc v mt s tnh cht ca nhm v hp cht ca nhm,
bit vn dng kin thc, gii thch hin tng trong th nghim.
Rn cc k nng th nghim nh thao tc, quan st, m t, gii thch hin tng
th nghim.
II. Ho cht, dng c (dng cho mt nhm thc hnh)
1. Ho cht
Al kim loi, CuSO4 bo ho, NaOH long, AlCl3 hoc Al2(SO4)3, HCl long.
2. Dng c
ng nghim : 4 ci ;
ng ht nh git : 2 ci ;
Kp g : 1 ci ;
Kp ho cht : 1 ci ;
Gi ng nghim : 1 ci ;
Giy rp mn.
III. Thc hnh
Phiu thc hnh
Thngy thng.nm 200.
Th nghim 1 : Phn ng ca Al vi dung dch CuSO4
1. Hng dn cch tin hnh th nghim
Dng giy rp mn nh sch lp Al2O3 pha ngoi mt l nhm nh ri nhng
ngay l nhm sch vo dung dch CuSO4 bo ho (xem hnh 6.12 trong SGK lp 12
nng cao). Quan st hin tng, gii thch v vit phng trnh ho hc xy ra
dng ion rt gn.
2. Nhng gi ca gio vin khi tin hnh th nghim
.................................................................................................................................
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.................................................................................................................................
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.................................................................................................................................
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3
D on ca hc sinh v
M t hin tng, kt qu quan st
hin tng, kt qu th nghim
c khi tin hnh th nghim
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4. Gii thch hin tng, rt ra kt lun
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16

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5. Cu hi
Ngoi cch lm sch lp oxit nhm trn b mt kim loi nhm th
nghim 1, cn cch lm no khc khng ?
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Th nghim 2 : Phn ng ca Al vi dung dch NaOH
1. Hng dn cch tin hnh th nghim
Cho vi mnh nhm nh vo ng nghim v rt cn thn 2 3ml dung
dch NaOH long vo ng nghim. Quan st hin tng v gii thch. Vit phng
trnh phn ng ho hc xy ra.
2. Nhng gi ca gio vin khi tin hnh th nghim
.................................................................................................................................
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...................
.................................................................................................................................
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3.
D on ca hc sinh v
M t hin tng, kt qu quan st
hin tng, kt qu th nghim
c khi tin hnh th nghim
............................................................... ...............................................................
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4. Gii thch hin tng, rt ra kt lun
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17

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5. Cu hi
Trong th nghim ny, ti sao khng cn phi nh sch lp oxit nhm trn
b mt kim loi trc khi tin hnh th nghim ?
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Th nghim 3 : iu ch Al(OH)3 v th tnh cht lng tnh ca Al(OH)3
1. Hng dn cch tin hnh th nghim
Rt 3ml dung dch nc AlCl3 hoc Al2(SO4)3 vo ng nghim. Dng ng ht
nh git, nh dn tng git NaOH long vo ng nghim, ng thi lc cho n
khi to ra kt ta. Quan st hin tng v gii thch. Vit phng trnh ho hc
dng phn t v ion rt gn.
Chia cht lng c ln Al(OH)3 va thu c trn vo hai ng nghim. Nh vi
git dung dch HCl vo ng nghim th nht, vi git dung dch NaOH vo ng
nghim th hai.
Quan st hin tng, gii thch v vit cc phng trnh phn ng ho hc
dng phn t v ion rt gn.
2. Nhng gi ca gio vin khi tin hnh th nghim
.................................................................................................................................
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.................................................................................................................................
...................
.................................................................................................................................
...................
3.
D on ca hc sinh v
M t hin tng, kt qu quan st c
hin tng, kt qu th nghim
khi tin hnh th nghim
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18

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4. Gii thch hin tng, rt ra kt lun
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Cu hi b sung
C th dng dung dch NH3 tc dng vi dung dch mui nhm iu
ch Al(OH)3 c khng ? Cho bit nhng u nhc im ca cch lm ny ?
.................................................................................................................................
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.................................................................................................................................
...................
.................................................................................................................................
...................
.................................................................................................................................
...................
Kt qu nh gi ca gio vin
im thao tc th
nghim (k nng
lm th nghim)

im kt qu th nghim
M t
Gii thch
hin tng
hin tng

im
thc

Tng im

Nhn xt ca gio vin


.................................................................................................................................
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19

.................................................................................................................................
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Xc nhn ca gio vin
(K tn)

20

Bi thc hnh s 7
Tnh cht ho hc ca crom, st, ng
v nhng hp cht ca chng
I. Mc tiu
Cng c, khc su mt s tnh cht ho hc ca cc kim loi : Cr, Fe, Cu
v nhng hp cht ca chng.
Rn k nng thao tc th nghim an ton, c hiu qu.
II. Ho cht, dng c (dng cho mt nhm thc hnh)
1. Ho cht
Dung dch K2Cr2O7 ;
Dung dch HCl ;
Dung dch FeSO4 ;
Dung dch KI ;
Dung dch H2SO4 (1 : 5) ;
Dung dch H2SO4 c ;
Dung dch Fe2(SO4)3 ;
Dung dch FeCl3 ;
Dung dch KMnO4 ;
Mnh ng vn ;
Dung dch NaOH long ;
Dung dch HNO3 long.
2. Dng c
ng nghim : 6 ci ;
ng ht nh git : 3 ci ;
Gi ng nghim : 1 ci ;
a thy tinh : 1 ci ;
Tha xc ho cht : 2 ci ;
n cn : 1 ci ;
Dim, chu thu tinh ng nc.
III. Thc hnh
Phiu thc hnh
Thngy thng.nm 200.
Th nghim 1 : Tnh cht ho hc ca K2Cr2O7
1. Hng dn cch tin hnh th nghim
Cho vo ng nghim 1 2ml dung dch K2Cr2O7. Thm vo dn dn tng git
dung dch FeSO4 v dung dch H2SO4 cho n khi c hin tng i mu. M t
s i mu. Loi phn ng no xy ra ? Kt lun v tnh cht ca mui
K2Cr2O7 v vit phng trnh phn ng ho hc xy ra.
2. Nhng gi ca gio vin khi tin hnh th nghim
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...................
.................................................................................................................................
...................
3.
D on ca hc sinh v
M t hin tng, kt qu quan st
hin tng, kt qu th nghim
c khi tin hnh th nghim
............................................................... ...............................................................
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21

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4. Gii thch hin tng, rt ra kt lun
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5. Cu hi
Cho cc cu sau y, chn phng n thch hp tr li (nh du vo
vung).
A. Crom l kim loi c tnh kh mnh hn st.

B. Crom l kim loi ch to ra c oxit baz.


C.

Crom c nhng tnh cht ho hc ging nhm.

D.

Crom c nhng hp cht ging nhng hp cht ca lu hunh.

Th nghim 2 : iu ch v th tnh cht ca hiroxit st


1. Hng dn cch tin hnh th nghim
Rt vo 2 ng nghim, mi ng 2ml nc c un si k, ngui. Ho
tan vo ng th nht mt t FeSO 4 (dng mui Mo), vo ng th hai mt t
Fe2(SO4)3. Thm mi ng nghim mt t dung dch NaOH long (dung dch NaOH
cng cn c un si k). M t cc cht kt ta va mi c to thnh. Gii
thch v vit cc phng trnh phn ng ho hc xy ra.
Dng a thu tinh ly nhanh mi loi kt ta va c to thnh trn ri
cho vo hai ng nghim. Nh vi git dung dch HCl vo mi ng nghim. Nhn
xt v kt lun v tnh cht ho hc ca mi loi kt ta.
2. Nhng gi ca gio vin khi tin hnh th nghim
.................................................................................................................................
...................
.................................................................................................................................
...................
22

.................................................................................................................................
...................
3.
D on ca hc sinh v
M t hin tng, kt qu quan st
hin tng, kt qu th nghim
c khi tin hnh th nghim
............................................................... ...............................................................
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4. Gii thch hin tng, rt ra kt lun
.................................................................................................................................
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5. Cu hi
Cu 1 : Ti sao trc khi pha ch dung dch mui st(II) v mui st(III) li
phi un si k nc ct ?
.................................................................................................................................
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Cu 2 : Mun cho kt qu th nghim tt, ti sao li phi un si k dung
dch NaOH long, ngui ri mi cho tc dng vi dung dch mui st(II), mui
st(III) ?
.................................................................................................................................
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Th nghim 3 : Tnh cht ho hc ca mui st
1. Hng dn cch tin hnh th nghim

23

Cho vo ng nghim 2ml dung dch FeCl3. Nh dn dn dung dch KI vo


ng nghim. M t hin tng. Cho bit loi phn ng no xy ra ? Kt lun v
tnh cht ho hc ca mui FeCl3. Vit phng trnh phn ng ho hc.
2. Nhng gi ca gio vin khi tin hnh th nghim
.................................................................................................................................
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.................................................................................................................................
...................
.................................................................................................................................
...................
3.
D on ca hc sinh v
M t hin tng, kt qu quan st
hin tng, kt qu th nghim
c khi tin hnh th nghim
............................................................... ...............................................................
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4. Gii thch hin tng, rt ra kt lun
.................................................................................................................................
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Th nghim 4 : Tnh cht ho hc ca kim loi ng
1. Hng dn cch tin hnh th nghim
Cho vo ba ng nghim, mi ng nghim vi mnh ng kim loi. Rt vo
ng nghim th nht 1ml dung dch H2SO4 long (1 : 5), vo ng nghim th hai
1ml dung dch H2SO4 c, vo ng nghim th ba 1ml dung dch HNO3 long.
M t hin tng quan st c.
un nng nh (cn thn) c ba ng nghim. M t cc hin tng ho hc
xy ra trong ba ng nghim. Gii thch ?
2. Nhng gi ca gio vin khi tin hnh th nghim
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3.
D on ca hc sinh v
M t hin tng, kt qu quan st
24

hin tng, kt qu th nghim


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c khi tin hnh th nghim


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4. Gii thch hin tng, rt ra kt lun


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Cu hi b sung
Cu 1 : Mun cho th nghim an ton phi ch nhng vn g ?
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Cu 2 : Cho bit cch x l khi H2SO4 c, HNO3 long dy ra tay, ra bn
lm vic ?
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25

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Kt qu nh gi ca gio vin
im thao tc th
nghim (k nng
lm th nghim)

im kt qu th nghim
M t
Gii thch
hin tng
hin tng

im
thc

Tng im

Nhn xt ca gio vin


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Xc nhn ca gio vin
(K tn)

26

Bi thc hnh s 8: Nhn bit mt s ion trong dung dch


I. Mc tiu
Da trn kin thc phn v c c hc, gip hc sinh bit cch nhn
+

2
bit cc ion : NH 4 , Fe2+, Fe3+, Cu2+, NO3 , CO3 .

Tip tc rn cc k nng th nghim an ton, chnh xc.


II. Ho cht, dng c (dng cho mt nhm thc hnh)
1. Ho cht
Dung dch (NH4)CO3 ;
Dung dch H2SO4 long ;
Dung dch
Na2CO3 ;
Dung dch KNO3 ;
Dung dch HCl ;
Dung dch NH3 ;
Dung dch NaOH ;
Dung dch CuSO4 ;
Dung dch
FeCl3 ;
Dung dch KSCN ;
Dung dch FeCl2 ;
ng (l, mnh), giy qu tm.
2. Dng c
ng nghim : 6 ci ;
Cp ng nghim : 1 ci ;
Gi ng nghim : 1 ci ;
ng ht nh git : 3 ci ;
B gi th nghim ci tin : 1 ci ;
n cn : 1 ci ;
Dim, chu thu tinh ho cht khi lm xong th nghim.
III. Thc hnh
Phiu thc hnh
Thngy thng.nm 200.
+
2
Th nghim 1 : Nhn bit NH 4 v CO3
1. Hng dn cch tin hnh th nghim
Ly dung dch (NH4)2CO3 cho tc dng vi dung dch HCl long, quan st hin tng.
Ln lt cho dung dch (NH4)2CO3 v Na2CO3 tc dng vi lng d dung dch NaOH, un
nng nh, trn ming mi ng nghim mt mu giy qu tm tm t bng nc
ct. Quan st s i mu ca giy qu, ng thi ngi mi ca kh bay ra
Vit phng trnh ho hc xy ra v kt lun v cch nhn bit hai dd mui
cacbonat trn.
2. Nhng gi ca gio vin khi tin hnh th nghim
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3.
D on ca hc sinh v
M t hin tng, kt qu quan st c
hin tng, kt qu th nghim
khi tin hnh th nghim
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4. Gii thch hin tng, rt ra kt lun
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5. Cu hi
Ngoi cch dng giy qu tm, ngi mi kh NH 3, cn c cch no nhn ra kh
NH3 trong th nghim ? Gii thch cch lm nu c.
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Th nghim 2 : Nhn bit cc ion Fe3+, Fe2+
1. Hng dn cch tin hnh th nghim
Cho dung dch KSCN tc dng vi dung dch Fe3+. Nhn xt.
Cho dung dch NaOH hoc NH3 tc dng vi dung dch Fe3+, lng kt ta,
nhn xt.
Cho dung dch Fe2+ tc dng vi dung dch NaOH hoc NH3, lng kt ta v
nhn xt. (Mun cho kt qu th nghim tt, dd NaOH phi un si tht k trc
khi th nghim).
2. Nhng gi ca gio vin khi tin hnh th nghim
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3.
D on ca hc sinh v
M t hin tng, kt qu quan st
hin tng, kt qu th nghim
c khi tin hnh th nghim
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4. Gii thch hin tng, rt ra kt lun


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Th nghim 3 : Nhn bit ion Cu2+
1. Hng dn cch tin hnh th nghim
Cho vo ng nghim mt t dung dch mui Cu2+.
Thm t t tng lng dung dch NH3 long theo thnh ng nghim vo.
Quan st mu kt ta. Tip tc thm NH 3 cho n khi kt ta tan ht. Nhn xt
mu ca dung dch thu c. Gii thch v vit phng trnh phn ng ho hc
xy ra.
2. Nhng gi ca gio vin khi tin hnh th nghim
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3.
D on ca hc sinh v
M t hin tng, kt qu quan st c
hin tng, kt qu th nghim
khi tin hnh th nghim
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4. Gii thch hin tng, rt ra kt lun
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5. Cu hi
Hy gii thch ngha vic cho t t tng lng dung dch NH3 vo ng
nghim m khng cho nhiu lng dung dch NH3 vo ng nghim ?
29

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Th nghim 4 : Nhn bit ion NO3


1. Hng dn cch tin hnh th nghim
Ly vo ng nghim mt t dung dch KNO3 (hoc NaNO3), cho thm vo
mt ming ng nh (2mm 2mm). un nng nh, quan st. Sau thm vo
vi ml dung dch H2SO4 long, un nh, quan st. Hy gii thch v vit phng
trnh ho hc xy ra.
2. Nhng gi ca gio vin khi tin hnh th nghim
.................................................................................................................................
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3.
D on ca hc sinh v
M t hin tng, kt qu quan st
hin tng, kt qu th nghim
c khi tin hnh th nghim
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4. Gii thch hin tng, rt ra kt lun
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Kt qu nh gi ca gio vin
im thao tc th
nghim (k nng
lm th nghim)

30

im kt qu th nghim
M t
Gii thch
hin tng
hin tng

im
thc

Tng im

Nhn xt ca gio vin


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Xc nhn ca gio vin
(K tn)

31

Bi thc hnh s 9
Chun dung dch
I. Mc tiu
Nm c nguyn tc ca phng php chun axit, baz, chun
oxi ho kh, thng qua vic tin hnh chun dung dch HCl bng dung dch
chun NaOH v chun dung dch FeSO4 trong mi trng axit bng dung dch
chun KMnO4.
Bit cch s dng pipet, buret v bit cch chun .
Bit cch ng dng phng php chun trong thc t.
II. Ho cht, dng c (dng cho mt nhm thc hnh)
1. Ho cht
Dung dch HCl (gio vin nn pha sn c nng xp x 0,1M) ;
Dung dch NaOH 0,1M (chun) ;
Dung dch FeSO4 ;
Dung dch KMnO4 0,02M (chun) ;
Dung dch H2SO4 long ;
Dung dch metyl da cam (nu khng c metyl da cam c th thay bng
dung dch phenolphtalein hoc dung dch metyl ) ;
Nc ct.
2. Dng c
B gi th nghim phn tch kp buret : 1 ci ;
Pipet 10ml : 1 ci ;
Buret 25ml : 1 ci ;
Bnh tam gic 100ml : 1 ci ;
Bnh nh mc 250 (dng chung c lp) : 1 ci ;
Chu thu tinh.
III. Thc hnh
Phiu thc hnh
Thngy thng.nm 200.
Th nghim 1 : Tnh cht ho hc ca K2Cr2O7
1. Hng dn cch tin hnh th nghim
a. Chun b dng c
Cch dng pipet, buret, bnh tam gic
Ra sch pipet 100ml v trng bng nc ct. Tp ly ng 10ml hoc 25ml nc ct bng pipet vo bnh tam gic.
Ra sch buret, trng bng nc ct. Ly y nc ct vo buret, ly vch s 0
v th chun theo s hng dn ca gio vin.
Lu : Hng dn hc sinh c ng th tch dung dch trong buret.
b. Chun dung dch HCl
Ly dung dch chun NaOH vo buret, kp ln gi, ly vch s 0. Ly 10ml
dung dch HCl cn xc nh nng cho vo bnh tam gic sch (dung pipet).
Thm vo mt vi git cht ch th metyl da cam (phenolphtalein hoc metyl
). Thm t t dung dch chun vo n khi dung dch HCl c cht ch th
chuyn t mu sang mu vng (nu dng phenolphtalein th chuyn t khng
mu sang mu hng ; nu dng metyl th chuyn t mu sang mu vng),
kt thc. c th tch dung dch chun NaOH tiu tn.
32

2. Nhng gi ca gio vin khi tin hnh th nghim


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3.
D on ca hc sinh v
M t hin tng, kt qu quan st
hin tng, kt qu th nghim
c khi tin hnh th nghim
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4. Gii thch hin tng, rt ra kt lun
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5. Hng dn cch tnh ton xc nh nng ca dung dch HCl
VHCl : 10ml
CHCl : cn xc nh
Trong : V : th tch dung dch dung dch chun NaOH tiu tn ;
C : nng ca dung dch chun NaOH.
Phng trnh phn ng:
NaOH + HCl
NaCl + H2O
Theo phng trnh phn ng s mol NaOH bng s mol HCl
V.C
Ta c : V.C = VHCl.CHCl CHCl =
VHCl
Thay cc s liu thc hnh vo, ta tnh c nng ca dung dch HCl cn
xc nh.
Lu :
Nn pha dung dch chun c nng gn vi nng ca dung dch cn
xc nh.
Nn chn cht ch th c khong pH i mu gn vi pH im tng ng.
Lm nh vy s trnh c sai s nhiu trong php chun .
33

Th nghim 2 : Chun dung dch FeSO4 bng dung dch KMnO4


trong mi trng axit
1. Hng dn cch tin hnh th nghim
Ly dung dch chun KMnO4 vo buret, kp ln gi, ly vch s 0. Ly 10ml
dung dch FeSO4 cn xc nh nng cho vo bnh tam gic sch (dung
pipet). Thm vo 10ml dung dch H2SO4 long. M kho buret cho t t dung
dch KMnO4 vo dung dch FeSO4. Trong qu trnh chun lun lc nh
bnh tam gic. Sau khi phn ng oxi ho kh xy ra ion Fe2+ va ht, mt git
dung dch KMnO4 s lm cho dung dch trong bnh tam gic chuyn t khng
mu sang mu tm hng nht. Dng th nghim, c v ghi li th tch dung
dch chun KMnO4 dng.
2. Nhng gi ca gio vin khi tin hnh th nghim
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3.
D on ca hc sinh v
M t hin tng, kt qu quan st
hin tng, kt qu th nghim
c khi tin hnh th nghim
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4. Gii thch hin tng, rt ra kt lun
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5. Hng dn cch tnh ton xc nh nng ca dung dch FeSO4
VK MnO4 : Th tch dung dch chun KMnO4 (c kt qu th nghim) ;
CK MnO4 : Nng dung dch chun KMnO4 ;
VFeSO4 : Th tch dung dch FeSO4 xc nh nng 10ml ;
CFeSO4 : Nng dung dch FeSO4 cn xc nh.
Phng trnh phn ng ho hc :
34

2K MnO4 + 10FeSO4 + 8H 2SO4 2MnSO4 + K 2 SO4 + 5Fe2 ( SO4 ) 3 + 8H2 O


Ta c

(V

F eSO4

CK MnO4 .VK MnO4 .10


2mol K MnO4 10mol FeSO4
=
=> CFeSO4 =
CK MnO4 .VK MnO4
CFeSO4 .VF eSO4
VF eSO4 .2

= 10ml

Thay s liu bi thc hnh vo ta c: CF eSO4 =

CK MnO4 .VK MnO4 .5


VFeSO4

= ...

Kt qu nh gi ca gio vin
im thao tc th
nghim
(k
nng lm th
nghim)

im kt qu th nghim
M t
hin
tng

Gii thch
hin tng

im

thc

Tng im

Nhn xt ca gio vin


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Xc nhn ca gio vin
(K tn)

35

Hng dn s dng a VCD th nghim (km sch)


Cch 1 : S dng u a VCD, DVD xem ging nh vic xem a ca nhc
hoc phim.
Cch 2 : S dng my vi tnh c a CD, DVD.
Thao tc xem trn my tnh thng thng theo cc bc sau :
Bc 1 : Cho a VCD vo a, sau nhp p (2 ln lin tip) chut tri
vo biu tng My Computer trn mn hnh
Bc 2 : Nhp p chut tri vo a c cha a VCD va cho vo trc .
Bc 3 : Nhp p chut tri vo th mc MPEGAV.
Bc 4 : Khi mn hnh hin th cc on video di tn AVSEQ*.DAT, nhp chut
phi vo on video cn xem, sau nhn chut tri chn Open With... (Hnh
1).

Hnh 1 : Chn Open With...


Nu chng trnh hin th thng bo Caution, tip tc nhn chut tri
vo nt Open With...
Khi hin th hp thoi Windows, chn Select the program from a list, sau
nhn nt OK (Hnh 2).

Hnh 2 : Chn chng trnh xem phim


Bc 5 : Sau khi mn hin th hp thoi Open With chn chng trnh xem phim c
sn trong Windows l Windows Media Player sau nhn OK xem phim.

Hnh 3 : Chn chng trnh xem phim Windows Media Player


36

Ch : Trong hp thoi Open With nn tch chn vo trc dng ch Always


us.... xem cc on video cn li c thun tin hn.

Mc lc
Ni quy phng th nghim....................................................................3
Bi thc hnh s 1 :
Bi thc hnh s 1...............................................................................3
iu ch este v tnh cht ca mt s cacbohirat..................................3
Bi thc hnh s 2...............................................................................8
Mt s tnh cht ca amin, aminoaxit v protein......................................8
Bi thc hnh s 3...............................................................................3
Dy in ho ca kim loi, iu ch kim loi.............................................3
Bi thc hnh s 4...............................................................................7
S n mn v cc bin php ................................................................... 7
chng n mn kim loi...........................................................................7
Bi thc hnh s 5.............................................................................. 11
Tnh cht ca kim loi kim, kim loi kim th v hp cht ......................11
Bi thc hnh s 6.............................................................................. 16
Tnh cht ca nhm v hp cht ca nhm.............................................16
Bi thc hnh s 7.............................................................................. 21
Tnh cht ho hc ca crom, st, ng ................................................21
v nhng hp cht ca chng...............................................................21
Bi thc hnh s 8: Nhn bit mt s ion trong dung dch.......................27
Bi thc hnh s 9.............................................................................. 32
Chun dung dch..........................................................................32
Hng dn s dng a VCD th nghim (km sch)..................................36

37

Ni quy phng th nghim


iu 1 :
Phi ngi theo ng ch ngi quy nh. Khng c tu tin di chuyn
c, dng c, my mc trong phng.
iu 2 :
Trc khi lm th nghim phi nm vng mc ch yu cu, nguyn tc cu
to v cch s dng tng dng c my mc. Nm vng k thut tin hnh th
nghim.
iu 3 :
Khi lm th nghim, phi tuyt i tun theo cc quy tc an ton trong
phng th nghim v s hng dn ca thy c gio.
iu 4 :
Quan st, ghi chp s liu, kt qu, m t y cc hin tng th
nghim, nhn xt, gii thch v kt lun.
Hon thnh bo co kt qu thc hnh vo v thc hnh ngay trong bui
thc hnh .
iu 5 :
Ch c lm nhng bi thc hnh do gio vin quy nh v tun th theo
ng ch dn, khng t lm cc th nghim khc khng c trong bi.
iu 6 :
Khng c ht thuc, n ung trong phng th nghim. Khng ti, cp
sch trn li i li.
iu 7 :
Khi vo phng th nghim, qun o phi gn gng. Cn c cc phng tin
bo h lao ng nh : o chong, gng tay, knh che mt, ... Khi c tai nn xy ra
cn bnh tnh lm theo s hng dn ca gio vin ph trch.