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: " Written by: Dr Gabi Shetrit Translated by: Ariella Rosen

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Amount of time: 4-5 Origin of the word: Aramaic Intended Audience: , , Dictionary definition: A summer ( home), a ( relaxing place), especially on the hot summer days. Phrases: - Summer camp - Summer clothes - Summer house - Summer crops - Day off Key Words: - Summer - ,Freedom -Vacation -Renewal -Meaning -Aramaic -Language -Parallel - ,Definition -Home -Relaxation -Free -Season -Duty Developing the conversation Where do you think we got the word or that we say throughout the ( summer)? Is there a connection between the words and ? The word sounds like the word -and also . The word and are sister words- is a Hebrew word and -from the word which means summer ( )in Aramaic. There is a saying in Aramaic: . "The end of summer is harder than the summer itself." In modern Hebrew we have taken words from the Aramaic language, but gave them a -a special meaning, or meaning that is slightly different from the meaning of the word in

Hebrew. For example, the word is the Aramaic ( parallel) of the word ( chair) in Hebrew. This is how the word ,was given a renewed meaning, as summer relaxation, and also as relaxation in general. Avraham Even Shoshan, who made ( The New Dictionary) popular around fifty years ago, still writes that is a ( , a summer home), a a place of relaxation. However, in newer dictionaries, the ( definition) of this word teaches us that is a framework for childrens activities during vacation days, mainly during the summer vacation, but there are also of course ( winter). In honor of , summer vacation, lets look at other words that are connected to : ( , ,vacations). The concept of is translated in dictionaries as , freedom. In common speech, these words became mixed up and today we say instead of .For example, I requested in order to finish my work. , the summer vacation for schoolchildren (in the months of July and August) is called ( the Big Vacation). However, is really a time of ,freedom, from work, from studies, or , regular duties or responsibilities. Some say that is ,and that the root of the word is also Aramaic. In the Talmud in Masechet Shabbat, it is said: , which means a day during which the rabbis were free, a day off. This is a vacation during a set time from season to season, ,that is given to someone who works or studies. For Example: there is school vacation, court recess, the summer break in the Knesset, and more. - On One Foot The word is related to ,which means a , summer house in Aramaic, or a place of relaxation for the summer. Are we relaxed at summer camp, our ? -For Thought What is the connection between and ,fig?

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Amount of Time: 4-5 Origin of the Word: Intended Audience: , , Dictionary Definition: The ancient, historical language of the Jews, the language in which traditional holy texts were written, and a nickname for Aramaic, the language spoken by Jews during the period of the Tanaim and Amoraim (the rabbis who wrote the Mishnah and the Talmud). Phrases: - Crossing line

- Traffic tools that help drivers on the road - One who comes and goes- Traveler - Dies Key Words: - Do a mitzvah -Born -Opinion -Source -Grandson -Siege -Scare -Increases - Synonym - ,Language - Knead the food before digestion -Brain -Beyond Developing the conversation Why is our language called ?Many people ask me this. The answer, , is written in the Talmud in Masechet Megilah, where it also says, Greek for Greeks. That is to say, means that one who speaks Hebrew should read Megilat Esther (read on Purim) in Hebrew, in order . Still confused by this answer? Rashi explains it: is the language of those - beyond the river. This explanation comes from the place in which Avraham ,he was from beyond the Euphrates River. According to another ,the of the term comes from the name of Noahs in the Torah: ( Ever). The ( Hebrew) nation was already mentioned at the time of the Tanakh (Bible), so what was their language called? When Ravshakeh the messenger of the king of Ashur comes to put a on the people of Jerusalem, the leaders of the people ask him to speak Aramaic, not ( Jewish language), so the rest of the people would not understand and become afraid, but Ravshakeh just raised, his voice: He called out in in a loud voice. If this is accurate, the language of the Hebrews in the Tanakh was called .From the Middle Ages and on, this language has been known as ,Hebrew. Words that are used as to are and .What is the connection between and which are parts of the body (the tongue and lips), to language that we speak? There is a connection! that is in our mouth, the tongue, comes from the root word ,and from this we understand that just as the tongues job is , so too does as language "knead" the thoughts that come from the into words. -For Thought Why are we called ?

- On One Foot The are the children of Avraham, people who came , from beyond the river, and they were also the descendants of ,the grandson of Noah. For Your Entertainment This story makes sense only in Hebrew. Try to pick up on the wordplay! - The Secret of the Alef Bet and the Magen David The is the shape that is found on the Israeli flag, and that is very special to all Jews. Look! Inside this wonderful shape, which is made up of two triangles (or two pyramids if you wish), you can see every letter of the Alef Bet! Take a look:

For Advanced Hebrew Speakers: ( Dream in Spanish) by Ehud Manor I wake up in in the morning, And drink coffee in , I pay in Hebrew, For all things that I buy. In the language of King David I live and make my voice heard, And read stories to a child, Always from right to left. In there are words, To express almost everything It has ( outlet) it has ( plug), But there is not word in for tact. I get excited in when I see a flower, And deliver prayers in , I get angry in in a moment, And hit in with a curse. : I think and I write In without difficulty, I love to love you In exquisite . Its a wonderful language, There will be no other for me, But at night, at night, I dream in Spanish.

Amount of time: 4-5 Intended Audience: , , Dictionary Definition: The organ in the mouth that works to determine taste, aids in eating and digestion, and helps in speaking. Phrases: - To see eye to eye, to agree with someone - In short - This for that (the consequence matches the action) - A nickname for the Hebrew language - Gossip or slander - Nice and polite language (clean language) - The opposite of what someone says - Polite language Key Words: -Body -Cover -Hide Internal- -Spiritual - Knuckles -Help -Power -Influence - Flowing Spring -Sustaining - Equilibrium Center -Balance Developing the conversation- What is the connection between and which are parts of the body (the tongue and lips), to language that we speak? There is a connection! that is in our mouth, the tongue, comes from the root word ,and from this we understand that just as the tongues job is , so too does as language knead the words and sentences that come from the . Coming from ,in order words .The is the material that covers and the of a person.

Its number value is 14 (in Gematria: yod=10 and dalet=4), which represents the fourteen .When we need ,we use two hands. That is to say, the word is equivalent to 28 ,twice the number value of . The job of the is ,influence, our brains and thoughts. comes from that (flows) ( influences). The also ( sustains) a persons brain through information that surrounds us. Its well known that the is located in the ,which is related to the word ( and ,or scale). The parts of the body also have related verbs (actions): - --To throw -To look up - -To spy - -To slander - -To listen -- To memorize

)( Greetings for Meeting and Leaving Shalom, Shalom to Those Far and Near 4
Amount of Time: 3-4 Origin of the Word: Intended Audience: , , Dictionary Definition: Rest, ,quiet, the opposite of war, the greeting between two people. Phrases: - A greeting between two people-literally, peace be upon you - A stable peace

- Keeping peace in the family - To ask after the well-being of someone - A gathering for the purpose of making a peace agreement - A greeting between friends on Shabbat - Someone who tries to make peace between people- literally, a pursuer of peace Key Words: -Peace Fixed - -Friendship - ,Basis -Integrity - Physical and Mental -Security - Normal Relations -Contexts -Conflict -War - Bound Phrases -Idioms -Greeting -When we leave someone -Foreign Developing the conversation- - Shalom, Shalom to those near and far- Shalom to everyone The word is one of the foundational words in Hebrew. The root ...teaches us about its most basic meaning ( -)a situation of :that is both , that is , that is between people, between nations, and more. In the Tanakh the word appears in many ,all of which reflect this basic notion. In modern Hebrew, the main meaning of the word is the opposite of war. The source of this meaning is in the Tanakh, such as A time to love, a time to hate, a time for war, and a time for ,peace. Ecclesiasties (Kohelet) 3:8. The word in modern Hebrew comes mainly in and in . Today, we often use the word as a ,usually when we meet someone and leave- . A story was told of Rabban Yochana ben Zakkai He would always greet another person first, even a gentile in the marketplace. (Talmud Bavli Brachot 17a). Even today, when we ask , one can answer, or . In the Tanakh, the structure of this question was different, as was the answer. Joseph asked his brothers, ? Is your father, the old man, well? They answered, - our father is well. We separate into different greetings: , peace be upon you, , be at peace,

go in peace, , depart in peace.

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Greetings for Meeting and Leaving , , 5
Amount of Time: 4-5 Origin of the Word: ,Arabic, English Intended Audience: , , Key Words: -Language - In spite of this - Take care -Oranges -Marching -Pray -Word corruption - Inauguration Speech Developing the conversation- How do you say in three ( languages)? ! , , (Okay, yalla, bye!) We used to say goodbye in shortened ways, like lehit, ciao, or bye, but today, , even my grandmother wont get off the phone without saying . , , The words or ( take care of yourself) used to be said by anyone close to me. How, exactly, can I take care of myself? I asked one of these greeters. I figured she did not mean that I should start eating three a day, or to go on a for an hour. You are right, she answered. There is nothing you can do, just .In other words, pray that God takes care of you. , ,And the conversation was over. This idea is exactly what the words mean. The word is actually two separate words joined together: . -In simple Hebrew, ( .Oh, God.) The word just comes from the English word goodbye. Goodbye is simply a of the phrase God be with you. In the 16th century, people began shortening this phrase to God b.w.y. After many more ,the phrase turned into goodbye as we know it today. So, . Or, - , ,Good, Oh God, may God be with you! Amen!

On One Foot When we leave someone, we say to them in three different languages: , For Thought- Which American president used in his words that exist in three languages? Yes We Can! )(

Greetings for Meeting and Leaving- Slang 6


The words: , , , , , , Origin of the Words: Mostly Arabic Intended Audience: Everyone Key Words: -Face -Abbreviated -Parallel -To fall Satisfaction- -Sweet -Figuratively -Pleasure -Cannabis -Task -Reason -Waste -Experience Developing the conversation- What is the source of the saying ? The saying is a saying. In Yiddish, panim, or punim, is used in many sayings, most of which were translated into Hebrew. For example, ( Araf fun punim) became , his face fell. In other words, he has just reacted to something bad that happened, just as what happened in the Torah in Genesis (Breisheet), , his face fell. The phrase ( Vas for a punim) became ( ? What an expression I will have on my face)! The phrase ( a patsch in punim), a slap in the face, in English also has a in Russian. The saying might be a form of ( . [] I got slapped in the face.) In other words, "Im not doing great." There is another in Hebrew,

( to fall on ones face), which is found in the song by Yehudit Ravitz: "I swore to guard my beliefs/ I didnt know how to avoid falling on my face." This word means good, excellent, a word of . In Arabic, means very . When understood ,it means "good," "wonderful." It means the greatest, and there are many phrases in Hebrew that use this word. For example, ( a great man), and of course, the saying ( Allah, or God, is the greatest). This word means both and in Arabic. This word means great or excellent in Arabic. In Hebrew in recent years, there has been a shift in usage of this word: In the past was used to describe with something. Now, we often use the word when talking about an unpleasant .For example, Honey, could you please wash the dishes? . The saying is similar to - a silly way of saying that everything is good. This is a shortened version of the phrase which is said when someone wants to explain why there is no for of time. Today, the saying has another function as well. Rather than take the time to describe in detail how incredible a was, simply, say . In the past, people responded to questions with , , etc. but now, that answer is . This word has its origins in the army, meaning explosion. Its meaning in slang is "wonderful," "excellent." - (A conversation between a grandfather and grandson demonstrating the New Hebrew) Grandson: Hey, Sabba Grandfather: Shalom Grandson: ?Whats up? Grandfather: What? GS: ? How are you? GF: Ah, good ,and you? GS: GF: I asked you ? GS: And I answered... excellent GF: I didnt understand. How is school? GS: Ten

GF: Excellent. A Ten is the best grade you can get. GS: Thats not my grade, thats how school is. GF: When do you finish? GS: I finish in two months GF: And then, you will begin to work? GS: No, theres no work in my field right now. GF: So what will you do? GS: .- ,Saddle bag, on my stomach and my back. GF: What? GS: Ill hang out and do nothing. GF: And how will you support yourself? GS: ! Allah will provide! GF: What, now youve converted to Islam? GS: No, its a saying. GF: How is your girlfriend? GS: A great slice. GF: What? GS: GF: What explosion? There was another ( ?terrorist attack) GS: No, its a saying that means, like, really pretty. GF: When will you get married? GS: What is burning? Who died? GF: Someone in our family died!? GS: No, its a saying. GF: How is your apartment? GS: Its incredible. GF: Youve only lived there for two minutes, and you are already anxious about time? GS: No, its a saying. GF: Are your parents helping you at all? GS: Nada, Maniakim! (Maniacs!) GF: I dont understand- they have mental problems? GS: No, its a saying. They arent helping even though they are heavy () GF: Fat? GS: No, full of money. GF: Oh, okay. Its so nice that you came to visit me today. You dont have school? GS: I became the breeze. GF: What, you work in plumbing? GS: No... its a... yes. GF: This is what comes out of all of your studies? Installation? GS: .Just kidding... For Thought- Try to translate the slang words in the story below. ? Who is an Israeli (For staff and older)

Should I explain to you who is an Israeli? He is ( anyone) who gets up in the morning, jumps into ( shorts), goes outside ( jogging), like anyone else. In the meantime, his wife dresses the ( babies) in ( t-shirts), puts on their ( kickers, sneakers), feeds them ( cottage cheese), gives them chocolate milk to drink until the returns. She puts the ( toaster) ( on) and when he returns, they sit ( anyhow for breakfast) of (crackers and splendid coffee). And before you can say Jack Robinson, he is already stuck in ( traffic) on his way ( downtown). She in the meantime begins ( to run) the ( machinery), ( the mixer and the blender), ( the cleaner and the stinker-dog), that ran outside! And the husband, after he quit two or three ( times), began smoking Kent (Marlboro is not his - cup of tea!). He made a ( long distance call) to his brother in Miami and three to his broker and went ( to commit suicide) in a pile of (files). And she, where is she? ( ?in the minimarket?)- No. ( ?In the supermarket?)No and no. ( ?in the hypermarket?)- No, No, No! ( okay), ( !In the drugstore!) Who else but her is buying ( baggy) pants and ( Italian boots), (for a lady). And what for him? Maybe a ( blazer) or ( aftershave). Or, perhaps a ( Penthouse) with ( naked girls). ( ! , You know, he likes it!) And what about our ( ? our young boy?) What, another six ( cassettes), (for Gods sake!) He also has a ( stereo), and also ( video)! Also ( tapes)! ( !You exaggerate) ( ! my boy) Its lucky that there is also a ( photo shop) here. ( click)- here is a (passport photo). ( gosh)! ( , anyhow, we are booking a charter) ( Boeing) 707 and we are off to America! But what? Here in Israel, we also have it all! ( , you know, we have pubs), ( we have nightclubs), we have lots and lots of ( disco). ( you know), you can also relax over ( drinks) or simply stay ( at home)- there is plenty of ( entertainment on TV): there is Rod Stewart, and Olivia Newton-John. There is ( funk) and more! And this is so people dont say that this was not what life is really like! I am saying the oppositewe have so much more now than we did before! What is there to say? ( no complaint)! I am totally ( happy)! And anyone who does not feel this way should go to America! I am staying here- I am an Israeli!

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Amount of time: 5-6 Origin of the Word: Babylonia Intended Audience: , ,

Dictionary Definition: The name of the seventh day of the week, the day of rest during which we take a break from working. Phrases: - The first Shabbat after the holiday of Sukkot during which the first parasha in the Torah, Breisheet, is read - The Shabbat before the holiday of Pesach - The Shabbat after Tisha BAv - The Shabbat before Tisha BAv - The Shabbat before Purim - Traditional Shabbat greeting Key Words: -Strike - The planet Saturn -Idols -Sun -Moon - God of thunder - Creation of the world -Based - Serial Number -Purpose -Central Developing the conversation- Why isnt every day ?What do you think? Why dont the other days of the Hebrew week have names except for ( ?The other days of the week are just called by their numbers; , Sunday, is the first day of the week.) What is the meaning of the word ? What is the connection between the word and the word ( meaning strike)? What is the connection between the word and ( the planet Saturn)? Did you know that the word exists in many other languages? Italians, Serbs, and Slovakians call the last day of the week Sabato. In Russian, it is called Subota In Hungarian, it is called Szombat In German, it is called Zamstag In French, it is called Samedi In Christianity, the names of the days of the week are related to the names of stars and , and our English names reflect this as well: Sunday is, , or Monday is , or

Tuesday is , named after the Norse god Tyr Wednesday is , named after the Anglo-Saxon god Odin (or Wodin) Thursday is , named after , Thor, the Norse god of thunder Friday is , named after Freya, a goddess of love Shabbat in Judaism: In the Torah, was the day on which God finished creating the world, and ,took a break, from working. This is how we get the name of the day, Shabbat. In Judaism, this day became the weekly day of rest: , . , , . ( . And the heavens and the earth and everything in them were completed. God finished creating the Shabbat day and all of Gods other word. Then God rested on the seventh day from all of the work that God had done. God blessed theseventh day and made it holy, because it was on this day that God stopped working and creating.) In Hebrew, the names of the days of the week of each of those days in the week, except for the seventh day- we do not call it but .Why do you think that is? One reason can be found in a midrash told about a man named Shamai HaZaken. Every beautiful thing he found during the week he would save especially for Shabbat. This sends a clear message to us: is . This is the day on which people should not work but rest, and learn. The names of the other days of the week (or lack of names) help show us how important is as a , the central day of the entire week. The Romans connected this day to the god Saturn, who is called in Hebrew. In English, Saturday is Saturns Day. All over Europe and America, Saturday (along with Sunday) is a day of rest. For Thought- What is the origin of the word cholent, the special stew that many people eat on Shabbat? It has French origins. Chaud means ,hot. Lent means ,slow. When you combine these words you get the slowly cooked food that most Ashkenazi Jews know as cholent. On One Foot Shabbat is the day of breaking or resting from work, its name is not based on the fact that it is the of the entire week.

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Amount of time: 3-4 Origin of the word: Intended Audience: , , Dictionary Definition: ( parallel), the arrangement of one thing so that it matches with

another thing- to coordinate Phrases: - Coordination Meeting - Siamese twins - A lie has no legs Key Words: -Parallel -Adjustment - Siamese twins -Senior -Twins -Fit -Coordinate - Unified Identity -Proper -Root - Anagram -Truth - Strong base Developing the conversation- What does the do almost every morning? What is the connection between and a ? All of the staff of the camp meet every morning for a meeting that we call a . What words in do you recognize that are similar to ?What is the connection between and ? In there are many words like it: . , , ,All of these words have a connection to the made of the letters ... When we do something that fits with something else, that is a . The word that best explains this idea is .This word describes two siblings who were born at the same time. In other words, they are connected with each other. They each have a ,a connection. When are born with their bodies connected they are called , and they share a . From here, when we have every day in camp, we are coordinating and adjusting ( )schedules, projects, and ideas so that there will not be any confusion, and so that everything at camp can run smoothly and be organized. We meet in order everything between us. When someone does something that is not we say that this is , or not appropriate. We do not think the same way about that matter. There is no between us, we think differently. For Your Entertainment:

The Vilna Gaon (a great Jewish scholar) said that ...has the same as .Its a -the letters just switched places. That is to say, when we sit and meet about what happens in camp, we are always seeking to speak about . The word has in it the first letter in the Hebrew alphabet- ,the middle letter- ,and the last letter- .That is to say, things that are true are right from the beginning to the end. All of these letters, . . .sit on a , but the letters ( ...lie) are found near each other in the Hebrew alphabet (and therefore do not have a strong base). In every letter in there are two legs (of the letter) on the ground, but in the word ,each letter has only one leg on the ground. From here, we get this saying: !! On One Foot In a we coordinate the ideas, projects, and times for everything that happens at camp. For Thought- Who were the first in the Torah?

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Amount of Time: 3-4 Origin of the Word: Intended Audience: , , Dictionary Definition: The first day of the month Key Words: -Useful -Moon - Synonyms -Renewal -Part -Plan -Intentions -Meal -Sanctified -()Festive - New Moon - Adjectives -Grain -Served

Developing the conversation- What word is the most popular and in Israel? ( !News!) Today is ! What words do you recognize that are related to ?Is there a connection between and ?What are there for ? There are many words in with the root ...For example, ( news), ( new), (modern), and .Before we say the every day, in we say, .The One Who makes every day new with acts of Creation. In ,the word is a period of time- around thirty days that are one out of twelve sections of the year. However, this was not always the meaning of that word. We can learn about its other meaning from this story: In the book of I Samuel chapter 20, David is afraid of Saul and says to Jonathan (Sauls son) that his father is trying to kill him. They a test for Jonathan to check his fathers .There was a set time that David always ate a with Saul. . David said to Jonathan, Tomorrow is a new moon, and I am supposed to sit and eat with the king. David decided that this time, he would not come to eat with the king. . Jonathan said to him (David), Tomorrow is the new moon, and you will be missed, your seat will be empty. The meaning of the word here is is the same as the meaning of the phrase . This day is and made special with a . The word comes from the root letters ...It teaches us about the that is renewed, when it begins its cycle again. From this meaning of the word ,we got the day in which we see . The connection between a new moon ( ) and a month ( )can also be seen through a connection with the word ,a with .In English (and many other European languages), we also find connections between the words month and moon. Words and Sayings From the Root ... These are two similar , one that is old and one that is new: ( ,from the Torah), represents something that did not exist before, was not used before, or something new that you own. ( ,from modern Hebrew), describes something that is modern, a style that we did not have before now. Now, can you tell the difference between a telephone that is versus a telephone that is ? Something which is new pushes out the old. According to the Torah in Leviticus (Vayikra) 26:10, . The will be so plentiful that you will have to move out the old grain to make room for the new! , We say this about things that occur often. It comes from Lamentations (Eicha) 3:23 (read on Tisha BAv): and means, They are new in the mornings, great is your faithfulness.

This comes from Ecclesiasties (Kohelet) 1:9: . What was will be, and what was done will be done. There is nothing new under the sun. Old wine in a new jug. We say this about something that is old and good that is in something new. According to the Mishnah Avot 4:20, . Rabi said, dont look at the container but what is inside of it. On One Foot From this root, we have words that are related to ( renewal). For Thought- Do you know other words for the word ( moon)?

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Amount of Time: 3-4 Origin of the Word: Greek Intended Audience: , , Dictionary Definition: All physical activities of the body Key Words: -Invented -Exit - Outside the gates of the city -Old - Is developing -Endurance -Cult -Healthy -Slogan - The world belongs to young people - Physical activities -Gymnastics Developing the conversation- What is the most popular at camp? ,of course! All summer, we play on . We love football, , , tennis, , ,and more!

See how we say this word in other languages: English: sport Italian: sport German: sport French: sport Russian: sport Spanish: deporte These words all sound the same! From where did we take this word in the first place? ?What is the connection between and the holiday of and the Maccabees? The origin of the word sport is the Latin word desperate which means ( outside the gates of the city). In Ancient Greece, the mother of modern sport, physical activities were very important. Since then, ( is developing). There is another opinion that says that the word comes from the Latin word support, which means endurance, .Some say that the origin of the word sport is the Greek city-state Sparta, because there sport was considered like a ,a cult. Spartans believed that people needed to be and beautiful. Their was: . In Hebrew, all are called ,from the root ,..meaning work. Surely, when we exercise the different parts of our body, they are working hard. On One Foot The word sport comes from Sparta. All activities we call . For Thought- One of the great Jewish wise men said: ( a healthy soul in a healthy body). Who was this wise man? What was he talking about?

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Amount of Time: 3-4 Origin of the Word: Intended Audience: , , Dictionary Definition: A gathering of singers to present songs. Key Words: - Consists of -Enrich -Suffix

-Collection - ,To cut - The bad and negative branches of our bodies and souls Developing the conversation- What word do you see repeated in the verses below from our ? (I will sing to God in my with my life, I will sing to God with my strength) (We will sing in thanks) (We will sing a song to the Shabbat day) Answer: the word which means song, or ,and its verb which means to sing, . What do we do during a ?During a ,we sing! The word from: .+This is one of the ways the Hebrew language: we take a noun and add a special .For example, the suffix can mean: a. place- ( ,library, baker) b. collection of things- ( ,vegetation, a drinking fountain) c. vessels and tools- ( , , ,earphone, umbrella, parasol, canteen) d. a smaller version of something- ( ,cookie, hot dog) e. articles of clothing- ( ,shawl, visor) f. food- ( , ,bun/roll, tomato, mushroom) The - in the word represents an of songs by the different at camp. Each sings a special song. Do you know another meaning of the word ? Heres a hint: One of the 39 ( the types of work we are not supposed to do on Shabbat) is ,like . ,So what is the connection between ,to sing, and ,to cut? Rav Kook said that songs are very important and can help us. When we sing, we cut all of the , The bad and negative branches of our bodies and souls. On One Foot The word comes from the word ,to sing, and it also has a connection with the action of cutting branches. For Your Entertainment:

The Academy for Hebrew Language decided that the word jungle would be called a in Hebrew, from the root ,or song. For Thought- How can we cut the bad branches, on Shabbat specifically? On Shabbat we say the line: . What do you think this means? What might the connection be?

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Amount of Time: 5-6 Origin of the Word: Intended Audience: , , Dictionary Definition: A combination of ( play) and ( song)- a musical Key Words: -Remember -Impressive -Show -Rhinoceros -Cable railway -Soccer -Lighthouse -Appearance -Revelation -Playwright -Visualize - Astrologer Developing the conversation- What do we most about camp many years later? What is the thing that is most and amazing over the course of the summer? Of course, the play that each does is the most fun part of the summer! But how did we get the word ?Do you recognize any other words in Hebrew that are a combination of two nouns? This word is made up of the two nouns , + what we also call a . This is another way to enrich the Hebrew language. Here are more examples of words that are combinations of two nouns: ) +horn + nose(=

) +car + cable(= )+ball +foot(= ) +tower +light(= We already talked about the word ;what about the word ?The word can mean a ,a picture. This word is found many times in the Tanakh, such as here in Genesis (Breisheet): ( The word of God came to Abraham in a vision.) In other words, Abraham has a of God in a ,a . What do we call someone who writes a ?A ! From this word, we also get the verb ,such as in Psalm 27: ( To look at Gods beauty and to visit Gods temple.). Or, in the every day: ( May our eyes see Your return to Zion). We also have the saying . On One Foot When we come to see a show that includes songs, we are seeing a . For Thought- Who was the ( dreamer) of the Jewish state?

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Amount of Time: 5-6 Origin of the Word: Intended Audience: , , Dictionary Definition: A collection of dances and dancers. Phrases: - Dance to the tune of something - Dance at two weddings Key Words: -Dance - Heaven forbid - Back again -Displays -Collection - Dance out - Synonym - Dancing in the vineyards - Matchmaking Day -Goes around

-Cycle - God forbid Developing the conversation- What is another word that you know for ?What is the connection between and and ? What is the connection between and Yom Kippur? Weve already discussed and ,but we also love ,and at camp there are many times that we dance. We also have a special evening in which each can ; we call this . Were already talked about the suffix .We said that it can represent an of something. Just as we have an of songs that we call ,we also have an of dances that we call . The word means to move, , to jump for joy. From this, we get the saying: . In other words, to carry something out according to ones own understanding. (To march to your own beat) We also have the saying: , or to do two things at once. In Hebrew, we have a for ;that word is .We have written in the Mishnah (Taanit 4:8): Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel said: There were no days as good for the Jews as the 15th of Av or Yom Kippur, because on those days, the young women of Israel would go out in borrowed white garments so as not to embarrass those who did not have much. All of the garments needed to be dipped (in the Mikvah). And the daughters of Jerusalem would go out and . If is the same as ,then ( dancer) is the same as .As it is written in the Torah, ( . And Miriam the prophet, the sister of Aaron, took the drum in her hand and all of the women came out after her with drums and dance.) This is what we call , the day of love, . The daughters of Israel go out to the vineyards and there they would dance and meet young men. The meaning of is to return again and again, something and comes back to its starting point. is linked with the word or ,and is the same as .The concept of going in a circle is the link between them. The dances in a circle, and the is the return of something over and over to its starting point, just like a circle. The process of ,the repeating of something in a cycle, is described in the Mishnah as . There is a new saying, , that combines the idea of from the Tanakh and from the Talmud. Today, we say . In the Middle Ages, people would say: . Today, we have similar sayings that come from many different time periods: from the

Tanakh, from the Talmud, from the Middle Ages, and from our time. None are linked in their origin to . On One Foot The words and have the same meaning. In a ,we all dance. For Thought- According to the idea that and are synonyms, what additional name would the Academy of Hebrew Language suggest for ?

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Amount of Time: 5-6 Origin of the Word: Babylonian Intended Audience: , , Dictionary Definition: The fourth month of the Biblical calendar Key Words: -Fast -Source - Hebrew calendar - Babylonian Exile -Idol - God of fertility -Heat - Low heat melts metal -Melting -Crab - Constellation - Multiplying water crabs -Troubles - Began the siege of Jerusalem - Mourning customs - Tablets (of the commandments) were broken - Between the bridges Developing the conversation- Who knows the origin of the word ?Why do we on ? How much time is there between and ? What do we call these days between the two fasts?

The of the name of the month is like that of all of the other names of the months :they all originated . The name is mentioned in the Tanakh as the name of the Babylonian :the . This is mentioned in the book of Ezekiel (8:14): ( . Then He brought me to the opening of the gate of Gods house in the north, and behold, there were women sitting and crying for Tammuz.) The origin of the name, according to the commentators discussing this verse, is an aramaic word that means .This god would use heat to do his work, and his eyes, which would , were portrayed as ,so that it looked like the statues of him were crying. This name was given to the month in the middle of the summer, to symbolize the heat of the summer. The name is also the Arabic and Turkish name for the month of July, on the Gregorian Calendar. The astrological sign of the month is ,because of the that looks like a that can be seen in the sky during this month, and also because of during this month. The month of is very important in , because it was during this month that the people of Israel experienced many throughout history. The date , when , was established by the rabbis as a fast day that begins , the three weeks between and , when the Temple was destroyed in Jerusalem. These three weeks are called because of a verse in ( Lamentations 1:3): ( . , Judah has gone into exile because of affliction and great slavery. She dwells among the nations and finds no rest. All of her pursuers overtook her between the bridges.) During this period, many Jewish communities adopted the custom of observing on this day. There are five things that the rabbis described happening on and five on : On : the sacrifice was discontinued, , the city was breached, Apastimos burned the Torah, and an idol was put up in the hall of the Temple. On : Our ancestors were told that they would not enter the land of Israel, the first Temple was destroyed, the second Temple was destroyed, Beitar was captured, and the city of Jerusalem was destroyed. As it says in Mishnah Taanit 4:6: ( When Av starts, we decrease our happiness) On One Foot The name is that of a Babylonian god who dies and is born anew during the summer. In Judaism, this is the fourth month, the month during which the walls of Jerusalem were broken. For Your Entertainment: There is a verse in the Tanakh, in Genesis (Breisheet 15:13) that includes all of the fast days: ( It will surely be known to you that your offspring will be strangers.) = = =

( ) = ( ) = =

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Amount of Time: 5-6 Intended Audience: , , Origin of the Word: Babylonian Dictionary Definition: The fifth month of the biblical calendar. The month in which, according to tradition, the Temple in Jerusalem was destroyed. Key Words: -Spring - ,Reeds -To harvest -Fire - Month of harvest - Cut trees for the altar campaign -Exposes -Calamity -Mourning -Peak -Destruction -Lion -Redemption -Reduce -Careful -Acrostic Developing the conversation- What important word does the word remind you of? What is the connection between and the month of ?What is the connection between and ?The month of is the fifth month of the year beginning with ,the first month of the year in the time of the first Temple. The name of the month, just like the names of the other months, comes from , the Babylonian exile. Its root is from the Akkadian word abo, or .In Babylonian, the meaning of the word is .This month is called because of the great heat that we feel at this time of year. Others say that the name comes from abo sarni which means . During this month, it was customary for different needs. In the Temple, the month of

marked the end of the time in which, according to the Babylonian Talmud (Bava Batra 121a) they . The word ,or exile, is one of the most important words in the history of the Jewish people. This was the event during which the people had to leave the land of Israel for other lands that did not belong to them, lands in which they did not choose to live. The word usually refers to the land to which the Jews were exiled, or to the land from which they were expelled. The phrase , for example, refers to the exile of the people of Judah, who were expelled to live in Babylonia by the Babylonians. The root of the word is ,..and from it we get the similar word ,or diaspora. From this root we recognize other words, such as ( revealed), ( discover), and more. What is the connection between these words and the people who went into ?One who goes into is someone whom others from his or her place of origin, from his or her land. When we talk about something that is long and boring, we say: ( as long as the exile). The month of is also called ( Av of Consolation) because many believe that this is a month of on the Hebrew calendar, that came to with the of the Temple on . There is an aggadah in the Talmud that tells that the Mashiach will be born during the month of and his name will be ( Menachem). According to Jewish tradition, the astrological sign of this month is an .This sign is connected with the blessing of Bilam: ( They are a nation that rises up like a lion.) That is to say, despite the decrees and troubles that they faced, the nation will rise up from the to . The rabbis said in the Mishnah (Taanit 26:2): ( When the month of Av comes in, we reduce our happiness), because the days of this month are days of mourning for the destruction of the Temple. Therefore, we do not make celebratory feasts, eat meat, or drink wine. Sephardic Jews are only for the week of , from after the end of until after . On One Foot The name of the month of comes from the word ( barley), the crop that is harvested during this month. During this month we mourn for the of the Temple and the . For Thought- What book of the Tanakh has five chapters, four of which are written in ? For Your Entertainment: In the Shulchan Aruch, there is a trick to remember all of the important Jewish holidays, beginning with Pesach. It goes according to the language of ( The first and last letters match up, 2nd and 2nd from last, and so on). )( Shavuot, Yom Yerushalayim () Rosh Hashana and Rishon (first days) of Sukkot and Shemini Atzeret ()

First day of Pesach () Second day of Pesach () Third day of Pesach ()

Fourth day of Pesach () Fifth day of Pesach () Sixth day of Pesach () Seventh day of Pesach ()

Simchat Torah (Kriyat-Reading the Torah) () Yom Kippur (and other Fast Days) () Purim () Yom Haatzmaut ()

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Amount of Time: 5-6 Origin of the Words: Intended Audience: , , Word Key: - Prophetic picture - To observe -Prophet -Famous - Establishment of the (Jewish) state -Play -Playwright -Vision -Outlook - Weather -Forecaster -Comfort -Series Developing the conversation- The before is called Shabta Deporanuta and also , named after the that begins with the words: ( The vision of Isaiah son of Amotz) A is a , a prophecy that the world will become a better place. The word comes from the root ...The meaning of the word means . A person who is a generally refers to someone who can see the future, things that a normal person would not be able to see. A person who looks at the stars for signs of prophecy is called a .Benjamin Zeev (Theodore) Herzl wrote the book ( The Jewish State) more than 120 years ago, and in it he spoke of a state that would one day belong to the Jews. When we speak of the prophets of Israel, many come to mind: (The vision of the end of days) was the prophecy of Isaiah which predicted the days in which

there would be peace all over the world. ( The vision of the dry bones) was the prophecy of Ezekiel which spoke of the dead coming back to life. The prophecy of Herzl and his fellow dreamers about is called ( The Zionist Vision). There are other words that come from the root ...When we to go the theater, we see a , and the person who wrote it is called a .A show that we both see and hear is called a . The way things seem to us: people, homes, and more about our lives, is called ,or outlook. When we want to know what the will be, to know what kind of clothing to wear, we listen to ( the weather forecast) on the television or radio, to hear what the says. The ,just like the ,predicts something; he predicts . There is another important during the month of ,called . This is the first after . This also gets its name from the first words of its ,in which Isaiah tells the people ( Be comforted, my people). After this ,we begin to read a of seven of ( comfort) that lead up to . These are known as ( the seven of comfort). For Thought- Can you read this sentence?

Hint: It is connected with the month of .

( ) 71
Amount of Time: 4-5 Origin of the Word: Intended Audience: , , Dictionary Definition: A mother and father Key Words: -Teaching - Mount Moriah -Direction -Role -Established -To show -Myrrh -Fear

Developing the conversation- In your opinion, what is the relationship between: ? , , , They all come from the same root in :the letters ...which means ,way, and indeed, the of is ,to instruct, the correct way, just like a ( teacher) and ,upon which the Temple . The rabbis suggested many explanations for the name : -From the language of -It was from that to the people of Israel. -From the language of -It was from this mountain that sacrifices were offered, and the incense rose. -From the language of -This mountain evokes ( the fear of God) On One Foot The role of , ,is the correct ,the right path. For Your Entertainment: A student once wrote to me: In school they want us to, -get up in the morning like ( chickens) -run to school like ( gazelles) -to be diligent like ( ants) -to copy from the blackboard like ( monkeys) -and to sit quietly like ( fish) ... after all of that, the teachers are angry and wonder why we act like ( animals)!

( ) 81
Amount of Time: 4-5 Origin of the Word: Aramaic Intended Audience: , , Dictionary Definition: A way of sending letters, telegrams, and packages all over the world Phrases: - Air mail - Certified mail - PO box - Carrier pigeon - E-mail

Key Words: -Ball -Mailman -Campfire -Transfer -Shipping -Package -Turned - In ancient times -Message - ,Round -Generation -Apartment Developing the conversation- Is there a connection between and or ?How is connected to these words as well? Well, is a way words in text or money, or by means of a letter or a . Anything that is sent in the is called a . The is delivered by the . The meaning of the word comes from the Aramaic word for .This is because ,in order something, one would need for many days in order to deliver .At first, people passed on orally, through word of mouth, but when writing developed, they began sending written on paper and papyrus. If the word is connected with the word ( moving around), you can also see that a is ,it rolls, and . From this, we can also connect the word -its connected to the rotation ( )of the years, ( the circle of life). The word is also connected to words, because in the past, homes were built in the shape of a . Even is related- we sit in a around it. The , he walks around, and delivers . On One Foot The word comes from which means to go around. From here, we get words like: , . , ,All of these words relate to the concept of going around. For Thought- What word did Eliezer ben Yehuda first come up in Hebrew instead of ? Hint: The runners went out quickly (to deliver the message). For Your Entertainment: The Arabic saying is related to our word as well. Just as we explained that and

are related to and going around, when we say we mean to say to be careful, change your focus and attention, and turn to go in the right direction.

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Amount of Time: 4-5 Origin of the Word: Intended Audience: , , Dictionary Definition: A holiday that was established in Israel during the time of the Second Temple, during which the young women of Jerusalem would go out and dance in the vineyards. Key Words: -Hatred -Reconciliation -Echoes - Go out in borrowed white clothing -To cause shame - () Dancing in the vineyards - Find partners -Vintage - Establishment of the (Jewish) state - It is traditional events in the secular public - Performances -Adopted - Singles -Weddings Developing the conversation- In your opinion, what is the meaning of the word ( love)? ?What is the connection between Yom Kippur and ? The fifteenth day of is celebrated in the fifth month (according to the biblical calendar). The month of is filled with mourning, until we get to which is a day of happiness and love. In Israel, is celebrated as a day of and .The of this holiday can be found in the Tanakh in the book of ( Judges). In the Mishnah, as the end of Tractate Taanit the day is described: Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel said, There were no days as great in Israel as and .On these days, the young women of Jerusalem , in order not anyone who did not have their own. And the young women of Jerusalem went out and ). (

On this holiday, the young women of Jerusalem would wear white clothing and go out to dance in the vineyards in order . From the Tanakh, its clear that this holiday is mentioned as related to and to .The holiday of comes at the time of ( grape harvest), between July and September. The connection between and can be found in the book ( Song of Songs). In modern Israel, after , we have come back to this holiday, and call it (Valentines Day). One of the an evening of love () on the beach of the ( Sea of Galilee). There are for anyone who attends. In recent years, the religious community this day, and there are many gatherings of as well as many all over the country on . On One Foot The holiday of is a day of love that we first learn about in the book of ( Judges) in the Tanakh. For Thought- The numeric value (in gematria) of is 13. What else in Judaism is connected to the number 13? For Your Entertainment: There are many holidays in Judaism that come on the 15th day of the month. ( For the Jews there was light and happiness). When there is light, there is happiness: The 15th of is The 15th of is ( The holiday of love) The 15th of is The 15th of is ( , Tu Bishvat, the holiday of the trees) The 15th of is

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Amount of Time: 4-5 Origin of the Word: Intended Audience: , , Dictionary Definition: -A strong feeling of connectedness and being drawn to another person. -The opposite of . Phrases of : - Platonic love - Egoism, loving yourself - Love for other people

- Love of money Phrases of : - Hatred of cruelty - Hate for no reason - Strong hatred - Everlasting hatred Key Words: -Similarity -Falling in love -Brotherhood - The three principles of the French Revolution - , ,Liberty, Equality, Fraternity - Brotherhood of Warriors -Antisemitism - The bush was a thorny bush -Sting Developing the conversation- This is a great opportunity to explain the origin of the word .Lets look at the word in different languages: Hub in Arabic Love in English Amour en Francais Amore in Italien Amor in Espanol Shalik in Swedish We see that there is a between many of the the languages, such as French, Italian, and Spanish, which are all Latin-based languages. The origin of the word love is related to ,or heart. When we were kids, we drew ,hearts, and wrote love in English. In ,the origin of the word is from ,or to give something. What is then in this case? Is it just the desire to receive something from another person? No! (love your neighbor as yourself)- just as I enjoy receiving something from another person, so too do I want to give him/her, because someone else is happy to receive something from me. In English, there is one word that distinguishes between to love and to fall in love. It seems that it is not a coincidence that this extra word, to fall, is exactly what happens in .We fall when we love and are loved. The word means friendship, closeness between people.

are: . , ,The word comes from the word ,which teaches the idea that the connection between people is similar to that between siblings. The saying emphasizes the special relationship between people who go to war together and find themselves in tough situations. What is the origin of the word ? The Talmud (in Tractate Shabbat Chapter 9) explains the source of through a play on words: God gave the Torah to the Jews on ( Mount Sinai), and and sound similar. Because the Torah was given at ,there is in the world against Jews. As the Gemara explains, ( from here, hatred descended on the world). There are some who say that comes from the ( the burning bush). that Moses saw. From here, we understand that someone who is someone who someone else, just like the on the . Who is a ( friend)? One who ,helps you to connect with others. And the ( friend)? He is someone who gives you ; + when you combine them you get the number value 28 (each .)41 =The number 28 also represents ( strength). This teaches us that our friends, our ,have .

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Amount of Time: 4-5 Origin of the Word: Intended Audience: , , Dictionary Definition: The national holiday of the State of Israel that recognizes that day on which the state was declared. Key Words: -Independence -Bone -Celebrating -Opportunity - Not be dependent on - Functions on its own -Dependent -Itself - Self-confidence - Self- pity - Self-service - Self-respect - Thirteen horizontal stripes

- Blue rectangle with fifty stars -Symbolize - The thirteen original colonies -Rebelled Developing the conversation- According to your opinion, is there a connection between and ? This time of year, we in the United States of America, so this is an to talk about the word and on words that are connected to it. To be ( independent) means on others. Someone who is is . The opposite of is ,which comes from the word ,which is the opposite of the word .Someone who is on another person or thing is . The word means: oneself, and no one else. The word means: to do someone oneself without anyone elses help. For example: Moses did the work to save his people. Him, and no one else. Also: Moses did the work ,without the help of anyone else. We say that an egoist only loves , thinks only about ,and worries only about . Someone who is confident in has , and one who pities has . Lets think of more: and . The American Flag: The flag of the United States ( ) is a flag that has that are red and white, and . The fifty stars the fifty states of the United States, and the thirteen stripes the that against the British, and that were the first states of the United States. On One Foot The word is related to ,or . Someone who is not on anyone else is . For Your Entertainment: The Rav Kook said that the word is a combination of . + The letter represents ,or faith. With the ,or physical body, a person also needs strong ,and then that person can have . For Thought- How many presidents have there been in the United States? How old is the United States?

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Amount of Time: 4-5 Origin of the Word:

Intended Audience: , , Key Words: -Amusement -Contact, Cleared -Offering -Leisure - Twice as much attention -Devote -Prayer Developing the conversation- According to your opinion, how did we get the word ?Is there a connection between this word and ( clock)? We sing: ( Is my son Efraim dear? Is he a delightful child?). We say in the Amidah: . We sing on Shabbat: . What is the relationship between and as well as ? Our story begins with one of the first stories in the Tanakh, when God received the from Hevel (Abel), . This means that God did not accept Cains offering. God did not ,wasnt open to him, wasnt to him. In other words, when I have fun with someone, I have ,I am ( open), I have .If means ,to face someone, then is twice the ,and . On Shabbat we are open, ,just as the writer of wrote: ( Take heed of the cry of my people), turn to accept the prayers of the people of Israel. Just as You paid attention to the of Abel, just as You accepted this offering and received it, so too should You accept my prayer. A child whom we love a lot and to whom we a lot of time, is a child of .Just as Jeremiah said, God loves the people of Israel, who is for God a , a child that God ,to whom God devotes a lot of time and love. In the time of Eliezer Ben Yehuda, a clock was called ( instructor of the hours). He invented the word .A shows us why we and give attention to things. It is the teacher of our time. On One Foot The word can mean ,free time. From here we get the word ,which shows us the ,our free time. For Your Entertainment: When Eliezer Ben Yehuda arrived: Instead of calling it a book of words ( ) he called it a ( dictionary) Instead of calling it pajamas, he called it Instead of calling it houses of eyes ( ,) he called it ( glasses) Instead of calling it a teacher of the hours ( ) he called it a ( clock)

For Thought- 1. How was a called in the Tanakh? (Hint: You can find it in II Kings 20) 2. Who wrote the song ( ? Hint: You can find the answer in the beginning of each stanza)

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Amount of Time: 4-5 Origin of the Word: Intended Audience: , , Key Words: -Feel - To precisely define - The creators of the Hebrew language - Movement and change -Renewal -Movement -Unintentionally - Second division -Borrowed -Growing smaller -Germ - Self-respect Developing the conversation- The word comes from two words: ? Its impossible it and . The understood that is a process of changes. If there is no change and everything remains static, and yesterday is no different from tomorrow, its as if there is no .It seems that all words related to have meanings related to : As we saw earlier, it comes from the concept of ( openness), . From renewal,

Comes from ,wind, another type of Comes from It repeats itself constantly, it changes and comes back again The word in is a second in English. Many people may ask: is it that there is one word both in Hebrew and in English that has the same two meanings? means both coming after what is first, as well as a unit of time. This is not .In the year 1891 Eliezer Ben Yehuda explained why he chose the word to represent 1/60 of a minute, or a second. He said it means, . The rabbis agreed to divide each rotation (hour) into sixty units, called minutes. One of these sixty units was further divided into sixty units, each called a .Ben Yehuda the word from other languages, and translated it into . In Italian, for example, they still use the original terms of these words: minuti primi and minuti secondi. The word minute comes from the Latin word minus which means ,and is represented by a small line. The word ( minute) is also used to describe things that are small, such as ,or ( -a small life). This, ,is the same process that led to the word microbe- it comes from the words micro bio. For Your Entertainment: We dont use the phrase around the clock in Hebrew. There is a saying from the Tanakh instead: ( day and night). This phrase originates in the book of Joshua. God tells Joshua after the death of Moses: ( This Torah should not leave your mouth, but you should speak of it day and night). You can also say: All of the hours in the day- the whole day and the whole night. Or: without pause. : - The past- is no more - The future- is not yet - The present- like the blink of an eye - Worry- for what? Let me describe a bank that deposits 86,400 shekel into your account each morning. The bank

does not transfer over what is left at the end of each day to the next day, and each night, it removes whatever money that was not spent during the day. What would you do? Spend every shekel, of course! In reality, everyone has a bank like this- its called .Every morning, it gives you 86,400 . Every night, like a lost opportunity, it erases every second that you did not use for a worthy cause. It does not transfer over whatever was not spent during the day. It does not allow for any overdraft. Each day, it opens a new account for you. Every night, it eliminates the remaining balance from the day. If you fail to use the moments of the day, the loss is completely your own. There is no way to go back. There is no way to save for tomorrows account. You must live in the present in the moments of today. This investment is for your betterment, for your health, for your happiness, and for your success! The clock ticks, reflecting the best parts of the day! - The word refers to a situation in which the time is right to do something. We often use the phrase ( that the window of opportunity opened). In other words, now is the right time to carry out something that had previously been difficult to do, as if the window had been closed before now. The word is from the root ,...because is related to the right to do something. There are different types of .Some are that need to be utilized immediately, and we call these ( opportunities that wont return, what we would call once in a lifetime), or , which in English is known as a golden opportunity. Sometimes we waste a ,we dont take advantage of it when it comes, but sometimes we are given a ( second opportunity or second chance). There are many words that come from the root ...that remind us that so much of what we do is dependent on time, and how much we need to think about it. When we receive a (invitation), it tells us what time the event what we will be attending will start. When we say during the Pesach Seder ( I am ready and invited to tell the story of the Exodus from Egypt), we mean that the time has come to read the story. When we pay ( in cash), we are saying that we have money at the right time, which is right now.

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Amount of Time: 4-5 Origin of the Word: Intended Audience: , , Dictionary Definition: A request to God, a plea Key Words: -To hope

-Thought -Judges -To incriminate - Memorial sign - To aspire for true law -Faith -Destiny - ,Repentance, prayer, and charity remove the evil decree - The main center of prayer -Forms -Must Developing the conversation- In ,the word comes from the root ...which means .As it says in Genesis 48:11: ( , : Israel said to Joseph: I had not hoped to see your face, but God has shown me both you and your offspring). According to the Maharal of Prague (a great rabbi), is connected to ,as in ( You brought advice and made judgment), just as the are called (arbitrators), because they judge according to their .And people are thinkers... this relates to the meaning of as well: are between the eyes, and ,memory, is in ones . According to another interpretation of the word ,the word comes from ,to judge ourselves. on myself. According to traditional religious ,through ones situation and can change for the better, as we say on Rosh Hashanah: , . In Judaism, ( we pray) three each day. The morning is called the of the .The afternoon is called , and the evening is called . On Shabbat, holidays, and Rosh Chodesh, there is an additional after called , which we do in place of , the sacrifice that was brought in the Temple on these days. For all of these ,the that we repeat in different is , also known as , which comes from the fact that we are , to stand for it. On One Foot The word comes from ...Each person judges him or herself, and establishes his or her . For Your Entertainment: The rabbis taught: The forefathers established our :Abraham established , Isaac established , and Jacob established ( Jerusalem Talmud Tractate Brachot 4). We can see that , the second letter of each of their names hints at the first letter of the that they established: -

- - We can also use , the third letter of their names matches the third letter of the that they established: - - -= For Thought- What is the meaning of the word that we use so often during ?Is there a connection with the word ?

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Amount of Time: 4-5 Intended Audience: , , Dictionary Definition: Communication, all of the actions that are done in order to connect to another person, and to pass information from place to place. Key Words: -Communication -Clothing -Compound -Correspondence -Bridge - Dialogue - Symposium - No talking while eating Developing the conversation- What word reminds you of the word ?Is there a connection with the word ? This word shares the same form in Hebrew as the words in this rhyme: ( killing ability) sounds like ,and and . The word represents that which is related to ,or connection. When we connect two things, we are using a ,which is a type of . While we are talking about ,we should also talk about:

A conversation between two people, a dialogue A conversation between more than two people, what we would call a symposium. The word comes from ,or conversation. From this word we get the saying: . On One Foot The word refers to everything related to the ,connection, between people and places. For Your Entertainment: We spoke in 8 about and .We spoke about the word ,and how each of its parts are ( fitting and coordinate). The opposite of is ( lie). A has no ( coordination), there is no between different pieces of it. Therefore, a is the opposite of a .From this idea, we get the saying: (sometimes communication is a lie). For Thought- How did we get the word ( car)? What about ?

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Amount of Time: 4-5 Intended Audience: , , Origin of the Word: Latin, English, Greek Key Words: -Terms -Veteran -Discussion - Holy books -Distinguish -Symbols - ,Pour, melt -Casting - Power system -Wire - When an electric current that is too large crosses - Pop-up mechanism - Jumping switch -Flavors -To mix -Fluids

-Treatment - Spill back -Binding -Burial shroud - ,Surround, envelop - Even if a snake is wrapped around his heel Developing the conversation- The computer only recently entered our world, but now it is difficult to live without it. Its worthwhile to note that for all of the different that are used in , there are corresponding words in . Dont say computer, say . Dont say screen, say . Dont say mouse, say . Dont say e-mail, say Dont say ethernet, say . Dont say printer, say . Dont say file, say . Dont say site, say . Dont say forum, say . Dont say chat, say . Dont say attachment, say or . Dont say disk on key, or USB, say . Dont say backup, say . Dont say font, say . The word ( font), is similar to the word ( body). This is not only a nice word, but it is also ,and comes from the Babylonian Talmud. There, it has the same meaning: The in Tractate Megillah discusses the letters with which were written. It says there: Here, in our ,and there, in their ( .This means, we between each ( script), our own writing in ,and writing in other languages.) In some places in the Talmud, the word as written as ,a form that is more related to its original root in Greek, graph. All of the words coming from this root are related to and ,letters. The source: The Latin verb fundere means . ,From here we get the English word foundry, or a ( -place for casting). That which spills and flows is fusus in Latin. From here, we get the word fuse which is in . A fuse is called a in . In the past, not many years ago, there was a jam in our power system that was given the Hebrew name ,because it had a that would melt when . Today, there is no ( melting wire) in fuses. Instead, there is a part that has a and stops the flow of electricity. In order to renew the flow, one needs to restore the to its proper place. Despite the change in technology, we still call the fuse .

This melting, called fusion in English, also occurs in the kitchen, when there is a melting, or a mixing of .Are you confused? It seems that you are suffering from confusion, which comes from the same source as fusion: Confusion comes from the Latin root confundere, which means to pour together, .And just so that you dont end up in a difficult situation when you need an infusion, an insertion of fluid, are poured into your body. (heaven forbid) that these would exit your body by diffusion, known as in .In any case, all of this costs a lot of money that you probably wont get back. If you do, its called a refund, ,which comes from that same Latin root, meaning that which is ,in the opposite direction. And if they dont want to refund your money, that is a refusal, or . @ = Is there a connection between the words ( sandwich) to or ? They are all related to the root ...which means . ,In the Mishnah in Tractate Brachot we read: ( . One who is praying the Shmoneh Esreh cannot stop in the middle, even if a snake is wrapped around his heel.) From here, we can understand that is the part that a book, the . In addition, , wrap, the dead. Also, a ,or strudel, is a type of cookie that comes from this root, because the dough wraps around the filling. A is a sandwich, which gets its name from the Duke of Sandwich who would his meals in two slices of bread. In the Pesach Haggadah we learn about Hillel who would matzah and maror together. Because of this, the name was proposed as another term for sandwich.