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THE KASHMIR SERIES

OF

TEXTS AND STUDIES.

f

tfcxte jmrt

tudiw.

No. XXXI.

THE

SWACCHANDA=TANTRA

WITH COMMENTARY

BY

KSHEMARAJA.

EDITED WITH NOTES

BY

f>ANDlT MADHUSUDAN KAUL SHASTRl, M. A., M. o. L.,

Superintendent Research Department,

JAMMU AND KASHMIR STATE,

SRINAGAR.

Published under the Authority of the Government of

His Highness Lieut.-General Maharaja

Sir PRATAP SINGH SAHIB BAHADUR,

0. C. S. I.,

G. C. I. E.,

MAHARAJA OF JAMMU AND KASHMIR STATE.

BOMBAY t

AT THE 'NlKNAYA-SAGAR 1 PRESS.

1921.

869005

II

R

II

3*

( All rights reserved ).

Printed by Ramchandra Yesu Shcrlge, at the * Nirnaya-sagar' Press

23, Kolbhat Lane, Bombay.

Published by Pandit Madhusudan Kaul Shastrl,M. A.,M. o. L,,

for the Research Department,

Jammu and Kashmir State, SRINAGAR.

1

SRIS\VACCHANDA*TANTRAM,

PREFACE,

The present

edition of the Swacchanda-Tantram 1

based on collation of

the

\vith the " Uddyota " is

following manuscripts:

A.

Belongs to Pandita Raja Ram S'astri, late

Principal of the Rajakiya Pathas'ala, Srinagar. The

Ms. is an old one and written out on old Kashmiri paper in S'arada character. It is generally correct.

A copy of the same by Pandita Sridhara Gadaroo, who

formerly worked in this office, lies in the Library of

this Department.

This was written out by Rajanaka Ratna-

1608 Anno S'aka as is manifest from the

kantha in

colophon 2 of the first Patala. It is very old and belongs to Pandita Kantha Kaula Sahib of Purushayar,

B.

Srinagar, Kashmir.

Character, old S'arada. Paper,

1.

The Honourable Sir

John

Woodroffe of the

Calcutta High Court was found by my predecessor to use

the edition of this book prepared by this Department, and

Pandita Kara Bhatta, a Pandita of this Department, was

suspected to have given him assistance by way of supplying

him with the edited text of this Department.

But the

Home Minister, Jammu and Kashmir State, after institut-

ing full enquiries in the matter, dropped it for reasons on

record in this office.

2.

The colophon runs thus

( f^fic^t ^T

TO^rflM ?&!% ( 5^<: ) <5TFto *M ^, *'. e ; 4762) i. e.

*<?T J Fi' 3 ^T I

Has

been copied by me Ratna Kantha in 1608 S'aka year,

corresponding to the Laukika year 4762."

II

PREFACE.

Kashmiri. Leaves, worm-eaten and repaired here and

there.

The Ms.

is bound in

leather

and carefully

preserved.

Slips of pen are occasionally

herein.

met with

C.

This Ms. belongs to Pandita Lasa Dutta of

Srinagar. S'arada character.

old and there

the book.

It is written

It

are some

out

on

Kashmiri paper in

seem

to

does not

be very

mistakes sparsely found in

In preparing this Tantram for the press the Pandits

of this Department have, as usual, contributed their

mite to make the edition really useful and interesting

the

by their learned labour and scholarly help for

Sanskrit knowing public, especially for those who are

keenly interested in the Tantrik lore. For this they

deserve my heartfelt thanks. The English staff too

has similarly won my thanks as it has in every way

facilitated the preparation of the book for the Press.

MADHUSUOAN HAUL.

SRNSWACCHANDA--TANTRAM,

INTRODUCTION.

Introductory.

The Swacchanda-Tantram is one of the leading

Tantras of the Dakshina-chara as it panegyrises and

initiates into the secret worship of Ayhora, the Right

mouth of the Swacdianda-Lhairava. 1 Unlike Mrgendra & Matanga, Tantras of the Dakshindchdra where the

doctrines discussed are understood to represent the

dualistic school of philosophy, the Swacchanda-Tantra

adheres to the purely monistic side or the Adwaita

System of the Saiva Philosophy and is considered to be

one of the best authorities on the Saivaistic Initiation

or

Siva

Dikshd, its

cheif theme being meditation

( Updsand ) and ritual ( Kriyd ). The very name 2 of the

book indicates its inborn tendency towards the pure

monism which, to distinguish it from other systems of

philosophy, may safely be designated as the Trika

system of Kashmir.

1 Swacchanda-Bhairava ia represented as having the

Vdmadeva, &

five faces Is'dna, Tatpurusha, Sadyojdta,

Aghora, (respectively representing, in name, U'rdhva Vaktra,

Purva Vaktra, Pas'chimo, Fakira, Dakshiya Vaktra, & Vdma Vaktra) which are the symbols of His fivefold glory i. e.

The same divine

Chit, A'nanda, Icchd, Jndna & Kriyd.

faces are said to be the five respective sources of Urdhvd-

mndya, Ptirvdmndya, Pas'chimdmndya, Dakshindmqdya &

Vdmdmndya,

2 Swacchanda is synonymous with Swatantra or one

possessed of Swdtantrya or Free Will, the keynote of the

Kashmir S'aivaisra,

IV

INTRODUCTION,

Trika System.

The Trika System of Kashmir seems to be very old

and only a few vestiges reminiscent of its predominant

influence in the past are found lingering in some of the

families in Kashmir. ( Cf. The family of the Tikkoos.

The term Tikkoo is an Apabhrams'a of TriJea ). This

system has been peculiarised by its native tendency to

of pure

monism and consequently to emphasise the difference

in its outlook from those of

systems which teach ttoe^eternal Saiva faith in the

aspects of Bheda ( diversity ) and Bheddbheda ( diversity- in-unity ).

other philosophical

discuss doctrines

and practices

in the light

Divine Authorship of theTantra.

Just like other Tantras, Swacchanda Tantra is

regarded as an Agama S'dstra and, hence, of superhu-

man authorship.

It takes

between Devi & Bhairava,

the

of a

dialogue Perusal of a few intro-

form

ductory verses leads us to understand that the present

Tantra is an abstract of the original Swacchanda Tantra

which is said to have been a very voluminous Tantra 1

consisting of a hundred crore of verses and consequently baffling the power of study by men particularly in the Iron Age wherein shortlivedness, penury, and mental

and moral lassitude prevail,

The

Commentary.

only commentary now available on the

Swacchand-Tantram is known by

the

name

of

INTRODUCTION.

V

"Uddyota". That there were several commentaries

on the Tantram in question before is evidenced by a

few allusions confronted with here and there in the

volume of the book. The first reference that we come

across on page 4, Patala II of the Smicchanda Tantra,

viz., ( ^ T%^*farftnfTn: etc. etc.), clearly convinces

us about the existence of another commentary on the

Tantra without any mention either of its name or the

author.

Further on, we find the second reference

etc.,

leaf

119,

Ms.

B,

Pat. X.) which,

in plain terms, gives us the name of

one of the commentaries anterior to the " Uddyota"

as Vrhat Tikd, at the same time making us acquainted

with the author's own name, mz. } Bhullaka Edjdnaka.

Xo definite information can be had about this author

of Vrhattika. The same uncertainty is felt about his

compositions also. The method of interpretation is

far different from that

of the Uddyota.

Several in-

dications induce us to believe that profane meanings

were given to the hallowed sentences by the followers

of the dualistic systems of S'aiva Philosophy, ( Cf. the

references on pages 75 and 72 of the II Patala). Other

commentaries, to all intents and purposes, seem to

have

run on the dualistic

lines though there is no

explicit confession made by Kshemaraja thereabout.

The commentaries most probably did exist during his

time, but neither of them is to be had at present.

The Author of the Uddyota.

The author of the commentary, the Uddyota, is

Kshemaraja as

commentary, which is

. The commentary

explains the moot points in the Tantra in the light of

pure monism, which endeavour on the part of the

author is, it is believed, first of its kind and is indica-

tive of the fact that some of the pre-S'iva-Sutra-Tantras

is

evident from the

of

the

fifth

verse

in the beginning

VI

INTRODUCTION;

were commented upon on the lines of dualism nay

pluralism, the corroboration whereof is made by a triad

of verses at the end of the commentary (Uddyota), which runs as under:

I.

ii.

ill.

n

I. "The venerable Swacchand-Tantra does not

brook the dualistic interpretation. Its very name has shattered to pieces such a notion, viz., the theory of

dualism; for any such theory is opposed to the doctrine of "Free-Will".

II. People, under the inebriation due to constant

imbibing of the dualistic view, do fail to perceive the

Reality in the nature of the free and pure Chit.

III. It is, therefore, that the commentary called

Uddyota (lit. blaze of light), surcharged, as it is, with

the ambrosia of pure monism, is here undertaken to

remove the dark notions that hang about as a result of

the dualistic interpretations handed down to us.

Kshemaraja's Parentage.

A veil of mystery hangs over the parentage of

the

Kshemardja.

From the

verses 1 at the end

of

I

H (Stav. oh P. 130

Scries X.)

1XTUODUCTIOX,

VII

Vivrti on Stawachintdmani ( Xo. X of the series of

this Department), it is manifest that he lived at the

Vijaycs'wara, the modern Bijbiftdra ( in Kashmiri Vyajibror ), a town about thirty miles off Srinagar on the

eastern side, where he, being once requested, or rather

encouraged by one S'tirdditya, son of one Gundditya,

commented upon Ndrdyana Bhatta's Stawachintdmani.

No mention of Silrdditya alluded to above has been

made

in

the Kashmir Rdjatarangini, which fact

suggests that he had, presumably, done little or no-

thing to attract the notice of the historian Kalhana and to place himself far above the masses.

Date of Kshemaraja.

One has not

to exercise his brain very much in

grappling with the problem of the time of Kshemaraja,

as it will be at once got at by catching hold of the fact that he feels proud to share the honour of pupilage to

Mahamaheswaracharya Abhinava Gupta, who, as ad-

mitted on all hands, lived either in the latter half of

the Xth or in the early part of the Xlth century A. D.

Kshemaraja's Style of Commenting.

Kshemaraja's style of commenting is modelled

upon that of Abhinava Gupta, the voluminous writer

on the Adwaita S'aiua Philosophy. It is philological,

Occasion-

vigorous, generally pithy but to the point.

ally, the author does full justice to the text with due

attention to the economy of words pregnant enough

to express his deep erudition in the field of Adwaita

S'aivaism of Kashmir.

Works by the Author.

The chief existing works of Kshemaraja are:

( i ) Vimars'ini on the'S'iva Sutras.

( 2 ) Vivrti on Stavachintamaui.

(3) Utpalastotravali Tika.

VIII

INTRODUCTION

(4) Parapraves'ika.

( 5 ) Swacchandoddyota.

( 6 ) Vijfianabhairavoddyota.

(7) Netra-Uddyota.

( 8 ) Pratyabhijna Hrdaya. ( 9 ) Spanda Nirnaya.

( 10 ) Spanda Sandoha. ( 1 1 ) Dwanyaloka-lochanoddyota.

(12) Tika on Samba-paiichas'ika.

Another work namely Tattwa sandoha viz., ( Shat-

Trimsattattwa sandoha) has been ascribed to Kshemardja

by Mr. J. C.

Chatterji (see his

Kashmir 'Saivaism-

P a g e 35) which seems to be open to

objection, as

several quotations from the Dipika (Comm. on Yogini

Hrdaya by Amitananda Natha, pupil to Punya-nanda

Natha ) on Yogini Hrdaya, clearly entitle Amitananda

Natha to the authorship of the book in question.

Arrangement Observed in the Swachhandatantram.

fifteen Patalas or

No sense of harmony seems to have ad-

chapters.

equately been used in the arrangement of the chapters

as some of them are imp roportionally lengthy while

The names of the Patalas

the others are very small.

are given below, each one of them indicating the sub-

ject it deals with:

The Tantram

consists

of

(1) *T*?teTC: I

(2) ar^frffrc:!

(3)

(6)

(7)

(8)

INTRODUCTION,

IX

(11)

(12) vTK1Tf^*J TORT

(15)

Conclusion,

In fine, the Swacchanda-Tantram is one of the

best Mantra S'astras. The dogmatic formulas discussed

therein can be apprehended only with the aid of the

best S'aiva Teachers of the Valley.

What with its

fascinating treatment of the Ritual or S'aivaistic Ini-

tiation, what with its description of charms and the

Mantra S'akti, and lastly, what with its dealings with

the

occult

and

wondrous

powers

of

the

Yoga,

Swacchanda-Tantra ranks high among other Tantras

as

it chiefly aims at the realization

of the Adwaita

Tattwa or the height

unalloyed bliss.

of spirituality which is but an

3rd NmT^o.}

MADHUSUDAN KAUL.

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