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1. What is sequential sampling? Answer: Sequential sampling: This sampling design is some what complex sample design. Under this technique, the ultimate size of the sample is not fixed in advance, but is determined according to mathematical decision rules on the basis of information yielded as survey progresses. This is usually adopted in case of acceptance sampling plan in context of statistical quality control. When a particular at is to be accepted or rejected on the basis of a single sample, it is known as single sampling; when he decision is to be taken on the basis of two samples, it is known as double sampling and in case the decision rests on the basis of more than two samples but the number of samples is certain and decided in advance, the sampling is known as multiple sampling. But when the number of samples is more than two but it is neither certain nor decided in advance, this type of system is often referred to as sequential sampling. Probability sampling under restricted sampling techniques, as stated above, may result in complex random sampling designs. Such designs may as well be called mixed sampling designs for many of such designs may represent a combination of probability and non-probability sampling procedures in selecting a sample. Some of the popular complex random sampling designs are as follows: (i) Systematic Sampling. (ii) Stratified Sampling. (iii) Cluster Sampling. (iv) Area Sampling. (v) Multi-Stage Sampling. (vi) Sequential Sampling. Thus, in brief, we can say that in sequential sampling, one can go on taking samples one after another as long as one desires to do so. 2. Explain Latin Square Design used for agricultural research. Answer: Latin square design (L.S. design) is an experimental design very frequently used in agricultural research. The conditions under which agricultural investigations are carried out are different from those in other studies for nature plays an important role in agriculture. For instance, an experiment has to be made through which the effects of five different varieties of fertilizers on the yield of a certain crop, say wheat, it to be judged. In such a case the varying fertility of the soil in different blocks in which the experiment has to be performed must be taken into consideration; otherwise the results obtained may not be very dependable because the output happens to be

the effect not only of fertilizers, but it may also be the effect of fertility of soil. Similarly, there may be impact of varying seeds on the yield. To overcome such difficulties, the L.S. design is used when there are two major extraneous factors such as the varying soil fertility and varying seeds. The Latin-square design is one wherein each fertilizer, in our example, appears five times but is used only once in each row and in each column of the design. In other words, the treatments in a L.S. design are so allocated among the plots that no treatment occurs more than once in anyone row or anyone column. The two blocking factors may be represented through rows and columns (one through rows and the other through columns). The following is a diagrammatic form of such a design in respect of, say, five types of fertilizers, viz., A,B, C, D and E and the two blocking factor viz., the varying soil fertility and the varying seeds:

FERTILITY LEVEL I II III IV V

. Seeds differences

X,

?<2

A

B C

B C

D

C

D E

D E

A

B

X3 X4 X5

The above diagram clearly shows that in a L.S. design the field is divided into as many blocks as there are varieties of fertilizers and then each block is again divided into as many parts as there are varieties of fertilizers in such a way that each of the fertilizer variety is used in each of the block (whether column-wise or row-wise) only once. The analysis of the L.S. design is very' similar to the two-way ANOVA technique. The merit of this experimental design is that it enables differences in fertility gradients in the field to be eliminated in comparison to the effects of different varieties of fertilizers on the yield of the crop. But this design suffers from one limitation, and it is that although each row and each column represents equally all fertilizer varieties, there may be considerable difference in the row and column means both up and across the field. Thus, in other words, means that in L.S. design we must assume that there is no interaction between treatments and blocking factors. This defect can, however, be removed by taking the means of rows and columns equal to the field mean by adjusting the results. Another limitation of this design is that it requires number of rows, columns and treatments to be equal. This reduces the utility of this design. ln case of (2 x 2) L.S. design, there are no degrees of freedom available for the mean square error and hence the design cannot be used. If treatments are 10 or more, than each row and each column will be larger in size so that rows and columns may not homogeneous.

This may make the application of the principle of local control ineffective. Therefore, LS design of orders (5 x 5) to (9 x 9) are generally used.

3. Write a note on Z- Test. (One of the parametric test of hypothesis) Answer: TESTS OF HYPOTHESES It has been stated that hypothesis testing determines the validity of the assumption (technically described as null hypothesis) with a view to choose between two conflicting hypotheses about the value of a population parameter. Hypothesis testing helps to decide on the basis of a sample data, ether a hypothesis about the population is likely to be true or false. Statisticians have developed several tests of hypotheses (also known as the tests of significance) for the purpose of testing of theses which can be classified as: (a) Parametric tests or standard tests of hypotheses; and (b) Non-parametric tests or distribution-free test of hypotheses. Parametric tests usually assume certain properties of the parent population from which we draw samples. Assumptions like observations come from a normal population, sample size is large, options about the population parameters like mean, variance, etc., must hold good before parametric tests can be used. But there are situations when the researcher cannot or does not want make such assumptions. In such situations we use statistical methods for testing hypotheses which is called non-parametric tests because such tests do not depend on any assumption about the parameters of the parent population. Besides, most non-parametric tests assume only nominal oral data, whereas parametric tests require measurement equivalent to at least an interval scale. As a result, non-parametric tests need more observations than parametric tests to achieve the same of Type I and Type II errors.4 We take up in the present chapter some of the important parametric , whereas non-parametric tests will be dealt with in a separate chapter later in the book .

Z-Test

Z-Test is based on the normal probability distribution and is used for judging the significance of several statistical measures, particularly the mean. The relevant test statistic', Z, is worked out and compared with its probable value (to be read from table showing area under normal curve) at a specified level of significance for judging the significance of the measure concerned. This is a most frequently used test in research studies. This test is used even when binomial distribution or t-distribution is applicable on the presumption that such a distribution tends to approximate normal distribution as 'n' becomes larger. Z-test is generally used for comparing the mean of a sample to some hypothesized

mean for the population in case of large sample, or when population variance is known. Z-test is also used for judging the significance of difference between means of two independent samples in case of large samples, or when population variance is known. Z-test is also used for comparing the sample proportion to a theoretical value of population proportion or for judging the difference in proportions of two independent samples when n happens to be large. Besides, this test may be us for judging the significance of median, mode, coefficient of correlation and several other measures. 4. What are the cautions to be taken on the chi square test? Answer: CHARACTERISTICS OF CHI TEST The following are the characteristics of the Chi Square Test: (i) This test (as a non-parametric test) is based on frequencies and not on the parameters like mean and standard deviation. (ii) The test is used for testing the hypothesis and is not useful for estimation. (iii) This test possesses the additive property as has already been explained. (iv) This test can also be applied to a complex contingency table with several classes and as such is a very useful test in research work. (v) This test is an important non-parametric test as no rigid assumptions are necessary, in regard to the type of population, no need of parameter values and relatively less mathematical details are involved. CAUTION IN USING CHI SQUARE TEST The chi-square test is no doubt a most frequently used test, but its correct application is equally an uphill task. It should be borne in mind that the test is to be applied only when the individual observations of sample are independent which means that the occurrence of one individual observation (event) has no effect upon the occurrence of any other observation (event) in the sample under consideration. Small theoretical frequencies, if these occur in certain groups, should be dealt with under special care. The other possible reasons concerning the improper application or misuse of this test can be: (i) Neglect of frequencies of non-occurrence. (ii) Failure to equalize the sum of observed and the sum of the expected frequencies. (iii) Wrong determination of the degrees of freedom. (iv) Wrong computations, and the like.

The researcher while applying this test must remain careful about all these things and must thoroughly understand the rationale of this important test before using it and drawing inference in respect of his hypothesis. The above are the cautions to be taken while using the Chi Square test.

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