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Management of Cultural Workforce Diversity: An Effort to Improve Interpersonal Relationships among Teaching Fraternity

Sonal Pundhir Asstt. Professor, Anand Engineering College Anand Engineering College, Keetham Agra-Mathura Road, Agra. E-mail: sonalaec@gmail.com Ankita Saxena Associate Lecturer, Anand Engineering College Anand Engineering College, Keetham Agra-Mathura Road, Agra. E-mail: ankitaaecsaxena@gmail.com Chetna Verma Associate Lecturer, Anand Engineering College Anand Engineering College, Keetham Agra-Mathura Road, Agra. E-mail: chetnamahaur@rediffmail.com

Abstract Workforce diversity means similarities and differences among employees in terms of age, cultural background, physical abilities and disabilities, race, religion, gender, and sexual orientation. No two humans are alike. People are different in not only gender, culture, race, social and psychological characteristics but also in their perspectives and prejudices. Society had discriminated on these aspects for centuries. Diversity makes the work force heterogeneous. "Culture is a set of rules or standards that, when acted upon by the members of a society, produce behavior that falls within a range of variance the members consider proper and acceptable." This paper focuses on cultural diversity and its impact on interpersonal relationships among employees. The research will be conducted in various institutes situated at Agra Mathura highway. The main objective of the research is to find out the various methods that can help in managing the culturally diversified workforce. Afterall management is the ultimate solution. Keywords: Diversity, Culture, Workforce, Interpersonal relations

INTRODUCTION No two humans are alike. People are different in not only gender, culture, race, social and psychological characteristics but also in their perspectives and prejudices. Society had discriminated on these aspects for centuries. Diversity makes the work force heterogeneous. The work-force diversity used in the corporate world today is the varied characteristics of employees working in same organization. Despite the magnitude of the ethical, legal, economic, social, and political dimensions that define diversity initiatives in the workplace, the fields of human resource development and continuing professional education have yet to develop an integrated vision for creating more inclusive work environments. There are issues being raised. Dominant groups including top-level managers are not fully prepared to accept the reality. There are communication problems as well. But then there are enormous benefits too. Organizations that are still lacking in this field will have to initiate measures to make their workforce diverse in order to compete or even survive in the coming decades. A modern definition of culture is given by anthropologist William A. Haviland in Cultural Anthropology as follows: "Culture is a set of rules or standards that, when acted upon by the members of a society, produce behavior that falls within a range of variance the members consider proper and acceptable." In other words, culture does not refer to the behavior that is observed but to values and beliefs, which generate behavior. Some modern definitions of culture tend to be inclusive of the "emerging culture" of society. For instance, in Culture and Modernity, Roop Rekha Verma defines culture as "a system of the patterns and the modes of expectations, expressions, values, institutionalization and enjoyment habits of people in general. The set of shared attitudes, values, goals, and practices that characterizes an institution, organization or group is known as culture. Diversity is defined as the condition of being different. In other words, it means dissimilarity and variance between things. The differences could be in size, weight, age, texture, and so on. Cultural diversity usually means a country where you have many cultures living together in harmony. Cultural diversity is having people of different races, cultures, religions, nationalities, ethnic groups and backgrounds making up a community. Cultural diversity is a term used to mean that a group or area contains people from many different cultures and backgrounds. These areas are considered diverse because everyone is unique and different. Cultural diversity includes the range of ways in which people experience a unique group identity, which includes gender, age, place, gender, nationality, language, religious beliefs. An organizations culture tends to determine the extent to which it is culturally diverse. Every individual is different from each other because of their different religion, educational background to which they belong, age and the perception. When different types of people in terms of thinking, perception, generation come together to work at the same place then definitely a situation may come where not all these different types of people may agree at the same point. At that point of time it is going to affect the interpersonal relationship among people. Culture is a very wide term that is why the researcher is focusing over some psychological aspects like perception and behavior and the third aspect is language. First, we will take perception. Perception is a process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions to give meaning to their environment. It is not necessary that two people view the same thing in same manner this thing will definitely going to affect the interpersonal relationship among individuals. The next aspect is behavior. People react differently in different situations it means how an individual react or responds towards a particular situation, person and object describes his behavior. Perception is formed through culture and perception helps in forming behavior. The third aspect that affects interpersonal relationship is language. People may speak different languages at work place because of different geographical region to which they belong. An organization's success and competitiveness depends upon its ability to embrace diversity and realize the benefits. When organizations actively assess their handling of workplace diversity issues, develop and implement diversity plans, multiple benefits are reported such as: Diversity stimulates innovation and productivity and creates an excellent culture that can outperform the competition. A multicultural organization is better suited to serve a diverse external clientele in a more increasingly global market. Such organizations have a better understanding of the requirements of the legal, political, social, economic and cultural environments of foreign nations (Adler, 1991). In research-oriented and hi-tech industries, the broad base of talents generated by a gender-and ethnic-diverse organization becomes a priceless advantage. Creativity thrives on diversity

(Morgan, 1989). Multicultural organizations are found to be better at problem solving, possess better ability to extract expanded meanings, and are more likely to display multiple perspectives and interpretations in dealing with complex issues. Organizations employing a diverse workforce can supply a greater variety of solutions to problems in service, sourcing, and allocation of resources. Employees from diverse backgrounds bring individual talents and experiences in suggesting ideas that are flexible in adapting to fluctuating markets and customer demands. A diverse collection of skills and experiences (e.g. languages, cultural understanding) allows a company to provide service to customers on a global basis. A diverse workforce that feels comfortable communicating varying points of view provides a larger pool of ideas and experiences. However, there are some of the disadvantages also due to culturally diversified workforce some of them are: There is an increase in the cost of training. This increase comes from costs associated with seminars, programs and lectures given to promote diversity in the corporation. A disadvantage of diversity in the workplace is an increase in conflicts. Increases in labor turnover and absenteeism are another disadvantage in having a diverse workplace. Diversity does not fare as well under conditions of uncertainty and complexity, which may lead to confusion and frustration. Diversity can make it harder to arrive at an agreement on a particular course of action, and can result in negative dynamics and cultural clashes. "Diversity Management" is a strategy to promote the perception, acknowledgement and implementation of diversity in organizations and institutions. The organization should create such a working environment as will increase the motivation, satisfaction, and commitment of diverse people. Performance standards must be clearly and objectively established, effectively communicated, and used on objective criteria without any bias. Managers must understand their firms culture first and then implement diversity strategies according to that culture (Hayes, 1999).Training and development programs will improve the skills in dealing with the day-to-day diversity dilemmas. Mentoring programs, involvement of experienced advisors and helps others for a period of years. Encourage the use of a common language in the workplace. Recommended steps that have been proved successful in excellent organizations are: Top companies make assessing and evaluating their diversity process an integral part of their management system. A customizable employee satisfaction survey can accomplish this assessment for your company efficiently and conveniently. It can help your management team determine which challenges and obstacles to diversity are present in your workplace and which policies need to be added or eliminated. Reassessment can then determine the success of you diversity in the workplace plan implementation. Choosing a survey provider that provides comprehensive reporting is a key decision. That report will be the beginning structure of your diversity in the workplace plan. The plan must be comprehensive, attainable and measurable. An organization must decide what changes need to be made and a timeline for that change to be attained. The personal commitment of executive and managerial teams is necessary. Leaders and managers within organizations must incorporate diversity policies into every aspect of the organization's function and purpose. Attitudes toward diversity originate at the top and filter downward. Management cooperation and participation is required to create a culture conducive to the success of an organizations plan. Recommended diversity in the workplace solutions include: Involve every employee possible in formulating and executing diversity initiatives in your workplace. Encourage employees to express their ideas and opinions and attribute a sense of equal value to all. This practice provides visibility and realizes the benefits of diversity in the workplace. Use it as a tool to shape your diversity policy. Launch a customizable employee satisfaction survey that provides comprehensive reporting. - Use the results to build and implement successful diversity in the workplace policies. As the economy becomes increasingly global, our workforce becomes increasingly diverse. Organizational success and competitiveness will depend on the ability to manage diversity in the workplace effectively. Evaluate an organization's diversity policies and plan for the future, starting today. LITERATURE SURVEY This study tries to assess the impact of cultural diversity on interpersonal relationship among teaching fraternity. From past years, many researchers have studied different aspects of interpersonal relationship in educational institutes and various other areas not only at all India level but also at international level. The various findings of past researches were of great help for the researcher to sort out the different factors to be used in the study. This review also helped in finding out the differences between the past researches and the current research on the same topic. Let us look at glance on the earlier researches.

Cultural diversity : implications for workplace management Donatus I. Amaram (Nov.4 2007).In this study the researcher is emphasizing on the effects of cultural diversity on organizational behavior and the advantages & disadvantages of culturally diversified workforce.Critical review of literature on workforce diversity Ongori Henry & Agolla J. Evans (27 June, 2007) the author focuses on how to increase the organizational effectiveness in this competitive world by nurturing, cultivating & appreciating the diverse workforce.Cultural diversity and negotiations a global perspective Prof. Rajesh Asrani. In the first part of this paper the researcher tries to explore the meaning of culture, role of culture in finding global opportunities and second part has a major emphasis in understanding the dynamics of successful international business negotiations and strategies that work in the current multi cultural business arena. This paper gives some suggestions on appropriate behavior coupled with acculturation, assimilation & maintenance of the new culture. A journal of the Bombay Management Association (Jan. 2009) emphasizing over the reasons responsible for the diversity in Indian workplace, different kinds of diversities and how to manage those diversities. Workforce diversity in India & the U.S. Dr. Karine Schomer (2007) focuses on demographic differences between India and U.S. Workplace diversity Josh Greenberg (2004) focuses on the challenges faced by the organization due to culturally diversified workforce and how to make best possible use of culturally diversified workforce. Interpersonal Relationship between Teachers and Students: An Intercultural Study on Chinese and Australian Universities by Suxian Zhan This paper investigates the differences in interpersonal relationship between teachers and students at Chinese and Australian universities. The results indicate that cultures, ideology and gender have a great influence on the perceptions of interpersonal relationship between teachers and students, particularly from the Chinese perspective; the significance of this relationship goes beyond the setting of current teaching and learning and strengthens further in a wider social context. Interpersonal Relationships in a Global Work Context Jeffery Sanchez-Burks and Michal E. Mor Barak (2005) the researcher has discussed ones perceptions, values, and behavior in such situations reflect deep-seated beliefs about the nature of interpersonal work relationships. He further emphasized that to understand and manage these differences requires understanding the nature of cultural diversity and how it influences relational and communication styles. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Statement of the Problem Diversified workforce is the latest and current trend in every organization today. Due to the culturally diversified workforce in some or the other way, people are facing lot many problems at the workplace. As if the diversified workforce may experience less cooperation from some of their colleagues but to achieve the organizational goals each member must be effective in terms of its functioning in the particular department. However, firing is not the solution. This research is focused on finding out the problems faced by the employees due to culturally diversified workforce. A second contribution of this chapter is to suggest the ways to manage the diversified workforce in such a way that people can easily work with the diversified workforce and can bring quality results altogether. This research has been conducted in various Institutions situated at NH-2 Agra- Mathura highway. Proposed Work The major concern of the research is to focus on culturally diversified workforce and its consequences on interpersonal relationships in educational institutions and an attempt has been made to associate the variables of workforce diversity with the success of any organization. Nowadays to find a homogeneous workforce, especially in big organizations is rarely possible, whereas the fact is that people from different cultural backgrounds are working together under one roof. But here the real togetherness is actually missing. The another main motive of this research is to suggest counseling & mentoring techniques that can help removing the problems like absenteeism, employee turnover due to culturally diversified workforce from educational institutes.

Research Objectives To identify whether diversified workforce exist in various educational Institutions situated at Agra Mathura Highway To find out whether workforce diversity can hinder interpersonal relationship. To find out whether workforce diversity is actually a boom or a curse for an organization. To prove that management of workforce diversity is a future trend to maintain healthy relationships.

Hypothesis Testing Ho: There is no significant relationship between the thought of having problems with diversified workforce and experience among the employees. Calculated 2 7.872 Table Value .706 DF 8 Remarks significant at 5 percentage

Factor EXPERIENCE

Population and sample design Keeping all the objectives of research in mind, we conducted a detailed study and collected primary data through questionnaires and personal interviews from the faculty members of different colleges of Sharda Group. This research has been conducted in Sharda Group of Institutions situated at NH-2 Agra- Mathura highway. There are six colleges of Sharda Group of Institutions at Agra Mathura highway. These six colleges consist of total population of 1500 faculty members. For the purpose of the research, 10% of the total population was selected by random proportionate sampling method, as there was a chance for every faculty member to fill the questionnaires. Therefore, the sample size for the research came out to be 150. Analysis and Interpretation Profile of the respondents For the purpose of this research, the institutes of Sharda group situated at Agra Mathura highway were selected. The total population in the institutes was 1500 and the sample chosen for the research was 150 employees. Population & sample size is depicted in table no.1 along with the column-chart presentation. The personal characteristics like age and experience are depicted together in table no.2 and total.

Table No.1 SAMPLING PROCEDURES Sampling Total population 1500 Sample study 150

1indicates total population and 2 indicates the sample size Table No. 2 Demographic Details of the Respondents AGE 20-30 NUMBER OF RESPONDENTS 58 PERCENTAGE 37.9

30-40

51

33.3

Above 40 EXPERIENCE 0-2 2-5 Above 5

41 NUMBER OF RESPONDENTS 61 52 37

26.9 PERCENTAGE 39.9 34 24.2

Factors affecting interpersonal relationship and culturally diversified workforce To find out the effects of diversified workforce on working employees the analysis was made on the factors explaining effects of diversified workforce and need for management of diversity. The given table shows all the factors that were analyzed and their frequencies along with its percentage and the weighted average that was arrived using the Likerts scaling technique. The factors included some negative aspects and they have gained weightage more than normal mean, which is three, and therefore they are considered as unfavorable, like having problems due to diversified workforce 3.8 and employees preferring working with the people of their own culture 3.97 etc. The factors, which were positive and gained weightage more than 3, which is again more than normal mean, so were considered as favorable responses. So all the above factors which were negative and have weightage more than 3(normal mean) are considered to be the major problems due to culturally diversified workforce.

TABLE NO.3

Factors relate to culturally diversified workforce I am working with culturally diversified workforce I am facing some problems due to diversified workforce I am facing problems like language, attitude clashes, difference in perceptions etc. If I get an opportunity I would prefer working with the people of my own culture I have informal relationships only with the people of my own culture.

SA 5 32.7% (50)

A 4 52.3% (80)

N 3 13.1% (20)

D 2 0% (00)

SD 1 0% (00)

Point analysis

Agreeability

Mean

Standard deviation

4.2

1.80

.655

19.6% (30) 22.9% (35)

45.8% (70) 44.4% (68)

26.1% (40) 29.4% (45)

6.5% (10) 1.3% (2)

0% (0) 00% (00)

3.8

2.20

.835

3.90

2.09

.763

29.4% (45)

39.2% (60)

26.1% (40)

3.3% (05)

0% (0)

3.97

2.03

.839

32.7% (50)

35.9% (55)

29.4% (45)

00% (00)

00% (00)

4.03

1.97

.798

I have good understanding only with the colleagues of my own culture I feel lack of understanding between me and my culturally diversified colleagues Management should suggest various strategies to manage diversified workforce.

39.2% (60)

29.4% (45)

26.1% (40)

3.3% (05)

00% (00)

4.07

1.93

.895

19.6% (30)

35.9% (55)

39.2 (60)

3.3% (05)

0% (00)

3.73

2.27

.816

42.5% (65)

35.9% (55)

19.6% (30)

00% (00)

00% (00)

4.23

1.77

.763

(Note: numbers in bracket represents the frequency; numbers in the bottom represents the percentages. The tick symbol represents the favorableness and cross symbol indicates the unfavourableness) Findings: As this paper focused on cultural workforce diversity and its impact on interpersonal relations, it has been found that: Employees are facing various problems due to culturally diversified workforce like language problem (which is acceptable and is not due to thoughts of the employees), attitude clashes, and difference in perceptions, which is directly related to human behavior. Further taking diverse workforce as a problem employees felt that they are more comfortable and in tune with the people of their own caste, creed, religion etc which leads to discriminatory behavior and unhealthy relations in the organization. The problem do not ends here it continues with the thought of the employees that they form informal groups only with the employees of their own culture which shows that their will be lack of organizational citizenship behavior due to such thoughts. Suggestions:

After considering all the findings in the research it becomes a compulsion for the researchers to suggest, the ways to handle the shortcomings found during the survey. It is really a big matter of concern for all HR professionals as one side we say that we should include new trends in HR policies and on the other hand, the latest trend like workforce diversity is treated as a problem. However, this problem can be solved by adopting various policies like encouraging the use of common language in the organization among the employees, by conducting various motivational and mentorship programs, by keeping the channels of communication open among the employees and employers, by encouraging employee participation. Further one should accept the fact it is not the matter of culture in fact it is the matter of quality. Therefore, quality has to be maintained and not thrown out.

REFERENCES

Adler, N.J. (1991). International Dimensions of Organizational Behavior, Boston: PWS Kent Publishing Company.
A journal of the Bombay Management Association (Jan., 2009) Cultural diversity: implications for workplace management Donatus I. Amaram (Nov.4 2007) .Critical review of literature on workforce diversity Ongori Henry & Agolla J. Evans (27 June,2007) Cultural diversity and negotiations a global perspective Prof. Rajesh Asrani. Faculty.insead.edu/maddux/personal/documents/PSPBTrustPaper. http://www.academicjournals.org/ajbm http://www.accessmylibrary.com/article-1G1-65645042/twenty-first-century-reception.html

Interpersonal Relationship between Teachers and Students: An Intercultural Study on Chinese and Australian Universities by Suxian Zhan Interpersonal Relationships in a Global Work Context Jeffery Sanchez-Burks and Michal E. Mor Barak (2005)

Organizational behavior by L.M. Prasad


Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia en.wikipedia.org/wiki/cultural diversity www.aare.edu.au/04pap/zha04171.pdf rel bw teachers and stud. www.cnr.berkeley.edu/ucce50/ag-labor/7labor/12.htm webuser.bus.umich.edu/jeffrysb/managing%20diversity.pdf .Workforce diversity in India & the U.S. Dr. Karine Schomer (2007) Workplace diversity Josh Greenberg (2004)

Forwarded message ---------From: sgegr veltech-hightech <sgegr.vtht@gmail.com> Date: Tue, 7 Jun 2011 23:12:10 +0530 Subject: Re: Submission of full paper for ISSN Publication To: sonal pundhir <sonalaec@gmail.com> Dear Ms.Sonal Pundhir, Greetings from Vel Tech High Tech!!! We are very glad to inform you that your paper has been accepted for publication in Conference Journal with ISSN No. We request you to edit the paper to implement the following points and send it back to us as early as possible. 1. Size of the full paper to confirm to publication norms ( not exceeding 3000 words including tables and charts excluding title page and references) 2. Rectify the formatting mistakes ( single line spacing/ font / font

size ) 3. Edit the style of Footnotes/ References Find attached the file Publication & Reference format Regards, Dr.P.S.Valarmathy & Ms.D.AnuRadha 9444268645/9940625888 Review Team Show quoted text

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Your paper ( with D. R. Somashekhar and Sonal Pundhir ) entitled 'Towards more effective and healthy relations among employees: A study among teachers in India' has been reviewed and accepted for publication in the INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT. Your paper has been scheduled to appear int he first available issue of IJM ( Dec 2011, vol. 28, no. 4). Each author will receive a copy of this issue sent by airmail as soon as it appears.

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Management of Workforce Diversity: A Step towards Healthy Relationships among Teaching Fraternity In India
By D. R. Somashekhar Director General, Sarkar Rawat Institute of Technology, Datia . E-mail: somashekard@yahoo.com Sonal Pundhir

Asstt. Professor, Anand Engineering College Anand Engineering College, Keetham Agra-Mathura Road, Agra. E-mail: sonalaec@gmail.com Ankita Saxena Associate Lecturer, Anand Engineering College Anand Engineering College, Keetham Agra-Mathura Road, Agra. E-mail: ankitaaecsaxena@gmail.com

Abstract Workforce diversity means similarities and differences among employees in terms of age, cultural background, physical abilities and disabilities, race, religion, gender, and sexual orientation. No two humans are alike. People are different in not only gender, culture, race, social and psychological characteristics but also in their perspectives and prejudices. Society had discriminated on these aspects for centuries. Diversity makes the work force heterogeneous. "Culture is a set of rules or standards that, when acted upon by the members of a society, produce behavior that falls within a range of variance the members consider proper and acceptable." This paper focuses on cultural diversity and its impact on interpersonal relationships among employees. The research was conducted in institutes of SGI, situated at Agra Mathura highway. The research concluded that workforce diversity is strength for any organization but people still stick to their views related to caste, religion etc and so consider diversity as a problem.

Keywords: Diversity, Culture, Workforce, Interpersonal relations INTRODUCTION No two humans are alike. People are different in not only gender, culture, race, social and psychological characteristics but also in their perspectives and prejudices. Society had discriminated on these aspects for centuries. Diversity makes the

work force heterogeneous. The work-force diversity used in the corporate world today is the varied characteristics of employees working in same organization. Despite the magnitude of the ethical, legal, economic, social, and political dimensions that define diversity initiatives in the workplace, the fields of human resource development and continuing professional education have yet to develop an integrated vision for creating more inclusive work environments. There are issues being raised. Dominant groups including top-level managers are not fully prepared to accept the reality. There are communication problems as well. But then there are enormous benefits too. Organizations that are still lacking in this field will have to initiate measures to make their workforce diverse in order to compete or even survive in the coming decades. A modern definition of culture is given by anthropologist William A. Haviland in Cultural Anthropology as follows: "Culture is a set of rules or standards that, when acted upon by the members of a society, produce behavior that falls within a range of variance the members consider proper and acceptable." In other words, culture does not refer to the behavior that is observed but to values and beliefs, which generate behavior. Some modern definitions of culture tend to be inclusive of the "emerging culture" of society. For instance, in Culture and Modernity, Roop Rekha Verma defines culture as "a system of the patterns and the modes of expectations, expressions, values, institutionalization and enjoyment habits of people in general. The set of shared attitudes, values, goals, and practices that characterizes an institution, organization or group is known as culture. Diversity is defined as the condition of being different. In other words, it means dissimilarity and variance between things. The differences could be in size, weight, age, texture, and so on. Cultural diversity usually means a country where you have many cultures living together in harmony. Cultural diversity is having people of different races, cultures, religions, nationalities, ethnic groups and backgrounds making up a community. Cultural diversity is a term used to mean that a group or area contains people from many different cultures and backgrounds. These areas are considered diverse because everyone is unique and different. Cultural diversity includes the range of ways in which people experience a unique group identity, which includes gender, age, place, gender, nationality, language, religious beliefs. An organizations culture tends to determine the extent to which it is culturally diverse. Every individual is different from each other because of their different religion, educational background to which they belong, age and the perception. When different types of people in terms of thinking, perception, generation come together to work at the same place then definitely a situation may come where not all these different types of people may agree at the same point. At that point of time it is going to affect the interpersonal relationship among people. Culture is a very wide term that is why the researcher is focusing over some psychological aspects like perception and behavior and the third aspect is language. First, we will take perception. Perception is a process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions to give meaning to their environment. It is not necessary that two people view the same thing in same manner this thing will definitely going to affect the interpersonal relationship among individuals. The next aspect is behavior. People react differently in different situations it means how an individual react or responds towards a particular situation, person and object describes his behavior. Perception is formed through culture and perception helps in forming behavior. The third aspect that affects interpersonal relationship is language. People may speak different languages at work place because of different geographical region to which they belong. An organization's success and competitiveness depends upon its ability to embrace diversity and realize the benefits. When organizations actively assess their handling of workplace diversity issues, develop and implement diversity plans, multiple benefits are reported such as: Diversity stimulates innovation and productivity and creates an excellent culture that can outperform the competition. A multicultural organization is better suited to serve a diverse external clientele in a more increasingly global market. Such organizations have a better understanding of the requirements of the legal, political, social, economic and cultural environments of foreign nations (Adler, 1991). In research-oriented and hi-tech industries, the broad base of talents generated by a gender-and ethnic-diverse organization becomes a priceless advantage. Creativity thrives on diversity (Morgan, 1989). Multicultural organizations are found to be better at problem solving, possess better ability to extract expanded meanings, and are more likely to display multiple perspectives and interpretations in dealing with complex issues. Organizations employing a diverse workforce can supply a greater variety of solutions to problems in service, sourcing, and allocation of resources. Employees from diverse backgrounds bring individual talents and experiences in suggesting ideas that are flexible in adapting to fluctuating markets and customer demands. A diverse collection of skills

and experiences (e.g. languages, cultural understanding) allows a company to provide service to customers on a global basis. A diverse workforce that feels comfortable communicating varying points of view provides a larger pool of ideas and experiences. However, there are some of the disadvantages also due to culturally diversified workforce some of them are: There is an increase in the cost of training. This increase comes from costs associated with seminars, programs and lectures given to promote diversity in the corporation. A disadvantage of diversity in the workplace is an increase in conflicts. Increases in labor turnover and absenteeism are another disadvantage in having a diverse workplace. Diversity does not fare as well under conditions of uncertainty and complexity, which may lead to confusion and frustration. Diversity can make it harder to arrive at an agreement on a particular course of action, and can result in negative dynamics and cultural clashes. "Diversity Management" is a strategy to promote the perception, acknowledgement and implementation of diversity in organizations and institutions. The organization should create such a working environment as will increase the motivation, satisfaction, and commitment of diverse people. Performance standards must be clearly and objectively established, effectively communicated, and used on objective criteria without any bias. Managers must understand their firms culture first and then implement diversity strategies according to that culture (Hayes, 1999).Training and development programs will improve the skills in dealing with the day-to-day diversity dilemmas. Mentoring programs, involvement of experienced advisors and helps others for a period of years. Encourage the use of a common language in the workplace. Recommended steps that have been proved successful in excellent organizations are: Top companies make assessing and evaluating their diversity process an integral part of their management system. A customizable employee satisfaction survey can accomplish this assessment for your company efficiently and conveniently. It can help your management team determine which challenges and obstacles to diversity are present in your workplace and which policies need to be added or eliminated. Reassessment can then determine the success of you diversity in the workplace plan implementation. Choosing a survey provider that provides comprehensive reporting is a key decision. That report will be the beginning structure of your diversity in the workplace plan. The plan must be comprehensive, attainable and measurable. An organization must decide what changes need to be made and a timeline for that change to be attained. The personal commitment of executive and managerial teams is necessary. Leaders and managers within organizations must incorporate diversity policies into every aspect of the organization's function and purpose. Attitudes toward diversity originate at the top and filter downward. Management cooperation and participation is required to create a culture conducive to the success of an organizations plan. Recommended diversity in the workplace solutions include: Involve every employee possible in formulating and executing diversity initiatives in your workplace. Encourage employees to express their ideas and opinions and attribute a sense of equal value to all. This practice provides visibility and realizes the benefits of diversity in the workplace. Use it as a tool to shape your diversity policy. Launch a customizable employee satisfaction survey that provides comprehensive reporting. - Use the results to build and implement successful diversity in the workplace policies. As the economy becomes increasingly global, our workforce becomes increasingly diverse. Organizational success and competitiveness will depend on the ability to manage diversity in the workplace effectively. Evaluate an organization's diversity policies and plan for the future, starting today. LITERATURE SURVEY This study tries to assess the impact of cultural diversity on interpersonal relationship among teachers. From past years, many researchers have studied different aspects of interpersonal relationship in educational institutes and various other areas not only at all India level but also at international level. The various findings of past researches were of great help for the researcher to sort out the different factors to be used in the study. This review also helped in finding out the differences between the past researches and the current research on the same topic. Let us look at glance on the earlier researches. Cultural diversity : implications for workplace management Donatus I. Amaram (Nov.4 2007).In this study the researcher is emphasizing on the effects of cultural diversity on organizational behavior and the advantages & disadvantages of culturally diversified workforce.Critical review of literature on workforce diversity Ongori Henry & Agolla J. Evans (27 June, 2007) the author focuses on how to increase the organizational effectiveness in this competitive world by nurturing, cultivating & appreciating the diverse workforce.Cultural diversity and negotiations a global

perspective Prof. Rajesh Asrani. In the first part of this paper the researcher tries to explore the meaning of culture, role of culture in finding global opportunities and second part has a major emphasis in understanding the dynamics of successful international business negotiations and strategies that work in the current multi cultural business arena. This paper gives some suggestions on appropriate behavior coupled with acculturation, assimilation & maintenance of the new culture. A journal of the Bombay Management Association (Jan. 2009) emphasizing over the reasons responsible for the diversity in Indian workplace, different kinds of diversities and how to manage those diversities. Workforce diversity in India & the U.S. Dr. Karine Schomer (2007) focuses on demographic differences between India and U.S. Workplace diversity Josh Greenberg (2004) focuses on the challenges faced by the organization due to culturally diversified workforce and how to make best possible use of culturally diversified workforce. Interpersonal Relationship between Teachers and Students: An Intercultural Study on Chinese and Australian Universities by Suxian Zhan This paper investigates the differences in interpersonal relationship between teachers and students at Chinese and Australian universities. The results indicate that cultures, ideology and gender have a great influence on the perceptions of interpersonal relationship between teachers and students, particularly from the Chinese perspective; the significance of this relationship goes beyond the setting of current teaching and learning and strengthens further in a wider social context. Interpersonal Relationships in a Global Work Context Jeffery Sanchez-Burks and Michal E. Mor Barak (2005) the researcher has discussed ones perceptions, values, and behavior in such situations reflect deep-seated beliefs about the nature of interpersonal work relationships. He further emphasized that to understand and manage these differences requires understanding the nature of cultural diversity and how it influences relational and communication styles. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Statement of the Problem Diversified workforce is the latest and current trend in every organization today. Due to the culturally diversified workforce in some or the other way, people are facing lot many problems at the workplace. As if the diversified workforce may experience less cooperation from some of their colleagues but to achieve the organizational goals each member must be effective in terms of its functioning in the particular department. However, firing is not the solution. This research is focused on finding out the problems faced by the employees due to culturally diversified workforce. A second contribution of this chapter is to suggest the ways to manage the diversified workforce in such a way that people can easily work with the diversified workforce and can bring quality results altogether. This research has been conducted in Sharda Group of Institutions situated at NH-2 Agra- Mathura highway. Proposed Work This research will be focusing on finding out how much the organization is culturally diversified. This research will be conducted this research in educational institutes because teachers are real gurus if they will not behave rationally then how will they teach to their students because teachers help in building the nation. In addition, whether the cultural differences like perception, behavior and language are going to affect the interpersonal relationship among the faculty members. Further, the research will be finding out the advantages and disadvantages faced by the organization and problems faced by employees due to cultural differences. The another main motive of this research is to suggest counseling & mentoring techniques that can help removing the problems like absenteeism, employee turnover due to culturally diversified workforce from educational institutes. Research Objectives To identify whether diversified workforce exist in Sharda Group of Institutions. To find out whether workforce diversity can hinder interpersonal relationship. To prove that management of workforce diversity is a future trend to maintain healthy relationships.

Hypothesis Testing

Ho: There is no significant relationship between the thought of having problems with diversified workforce and experience among the employees. Calculated 2 7.872 Table Value .706 DF 8 Remarks significant at 5 percentage

Factor EXPERIENCE

Population and sample design Keeping all the objectives of research in mind, we conducted a detailed study and collected primary data through questionnaires and personal interviews from the faculty members of different colleges of Sharda Group. This research has been conducted in Sharda Group of Institutions situated at NH-2 Agra- Mathura highway. There are six colleges of Sharda Group of Institutions at Agra Mathura highway. These six colleges consist of total population of 1500 faculty members. For the purpose of the research, 10% of the total population was selected by random proportionate sampling method, as there was a chance for every faculty member to fill the questionnaires. Therefore, the sample size for the research came out to be 150. Analysis and Interpretation Profile of the respondents For the purpose of this research, the institutes of Sharda group situated at Agra Mathura highway were selected. The total population in the institutes was 1500 and the sample chosen for the research was 150 employees. Population & sample size is depicted in table no.1 along with the column-chart presentation. The personal characteristics like age and experience are depicted together in table no.2 and total. Table No.1 SAMPLING PROCEDURES Sampling Total population 1500 Sample study 150

1indicates total population and 2 indicates the sample size

Table No. 2 Demographic Details of the Respondents AGE 20-30 NUMBER OF RESPONDENTS 58 PERCENTAGE 37.9

30-40

51

33.3

Above 40 EXPERIENCE 0-2 2-5 Above 5

41 NUMBER OF RESPONDENTS 61 52 37

26.9 PERCENTAGE 39.9 34 24.2

Factors affecting interpersonal relationship and culturally diversified workforce To find out the effects of diversified workforce on working employees the analysis was made on the factors explaining effects of diversified workforce and need for management of diversity. The given table shows all the factors that were analyzed and their frequencies along with its percentage and the weighted average that was arrived using the Likerts scaling technique. The factors included some negative aspects and they have gained weightage more than normal mean, which is three, and therefore they are considered as unfavorable, like having problems due to diversified workforce 3.8 and employees preferring working with the people of their own culture 3.97 etc. The factors, which were positive and gained weightage more than 3, which is again more than normal mean, so were considered as favorable responses. So all the above factors which were negative and have weightage more than 3(normal mean) are considered to be the major problems due to culturally diversified workforce. TABLE NO.3

Factors relate to culturally diversified workforce I am working with culturally diversified workforce I am facing some problems due to diversified workforce I am facing problems like language, attitude clashes, difference in perceptions etc. If I get an opportunity I would prefer working with the people of my own culture I have informal relationships only with the people of my own culture.

SA 5 32.7% (50)

A 4 52.3% (80)

N 3 13.1% (20)

D 2 0% (00)

SD 1 0% (00)

Point analysis

Agreeability

Mean

Standard deviation

4.2

1.80

.655

19.6% (30) 22.9% (35)

45.8% (70) 44.4% (68)

26.1% (40) 29.4% (45)

6.5% (10) 1.3% (2)

0% (0) 00% (00)

3.8

2.20

.835

3.90

2.09

.763

29.4% (45)

39.2% (60)

26.1% (40)

3.3% (05)

0% (0)

3.97

2.03

.839

32.7% (50)

35.9% (55)

29.4% (45)

00% (00)

00% (00)

4.03

1.97

.798

I have good understanding only with the colleagues of my own culture I feel lack of understanding between me and my culturally diversified colleagues Management should suggest various strategies to manage diversified workforce.

39.2% (60)

29.4% (45)

26.1% (40)

3.3% (05)

00% (00)

4.07

1.93

.895

19.6% (30)

35.9% (55)

39.2 (60)

3.3% (05)

0% (00)

3.73

2.27

.816

42.5% (65)

35.9% (55)

19.6% (30)

00% (00)

00% (00)

4.23

1.77

.763

(Note: numbers in bracket represents the frequency; numbers in the bottom represents the percentages. The tick symbol represents the favorableness and cross symbol indicates the unfavourableness) Findings: As this paper focused on cultural workforce diversity and its impact on interpersonal relations, it has been found that: Employees are facing various problems due to culturally diversified workforce like language problem (which is acceptable and is not due to thoughts of the employees), attitude clashes, and difference in perceptions, which is directly related to human behavior. Further taking diverse workforce as a problem employees felt that they are more comfortable and in tune with the people of their own caste, creed, religion etc which leads to discriminatory behavior and unhealthy relations in the organization. The problem do not ends here it continues with the thought of the employees that they form informal groups only with the employees of their own culture which shows that their will be lack of organizational citizenship behavior due to such thoughts. Suggestions:

After considering all the findings in the research it becomes a compulsion for the researchers to suggest, the ways to handle the shortcomings found during the survey. It is really a big matter of concern for all HR professionals as one side we say that we should include new trends in HR policies and on the other hand, the latest trend like workforce diversity is treated as a problem. However, this problem can be solved by adopting various policies like encouraging the use of common language in the organization among the employees, by conducting various motivational and mentorship programs, by keeping the channels of communication open among the employees and employers, by encouraging employee participation. Further one should accept the fact it is not the matter of culture in fact it is the matter of quality. Therefore, quality has to be maintained and not thrown out.

REFERENCES

Adler, N.J. (1991). International Dimensions of Organizational Behavior, Boston: PWS Kent Publishing Company.
A journal of the Bombay Management Association (Jan., 2009) Cultural diversity: implications for workplace management Donatus I. Amaram (Nov.4 2007) .Critical review of literature on workforce diversity Ongori Henry & Agolla J. Evans (27 June,2007) Cultural diversity and negotiations a global perspective Prof. Rajesh Asrani. Faculty.insead.edu/maddux/personal/documents/PSPBTrustPaper. http://www.academicjournals.org/ajbm http://www.accessmylibrary.com/article-1G1-65645042/twenty-first-century-reception.html Interpersonal Relationship between Teachers and Students: An Intercultural Study on Chinese and Australian Universities by Suxian Zhan

Interpersonal Relationships in a Global Work Context Jeffery Sanchez-Burks and Michal E. Mor Barak (2005)

Organizational behavior by L.M. Prasad


Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia en.wikipedia.org/wiki/cultural diversity www.aare.edu.au/04pap/zha04171.pdf rel bw teachers and stud. www.cnr.berkeley.edu/ucce50/ag-labor/7labor/12.htm webuser.bus.umich.edu/jeffrysb/managing%20diversity.pdf .Workforce diversity in India & the U.S. Dr. Karine Schomer (2007) Workplace diversity Josh Greenberg (2004)