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UNIT 3 Chapter 6 RATES OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS

The Design Criteria, Action Plan and Evaluate steps for this project are clearly outlined in the student textbook. Ask students to read through the details to be certain that they understand and follow through. As part of their research, encourage students to contact relevant companies and organizations to ask for information. E-mail is a great way to do this. You may want to spend some time as a class developing a sample e-mail that students can modify.

Assessment and Evaluation


Thoughtlab/ ExpressLab/ Investigation Unit 3 Project: Developing a Bulletin About Catalysts and Enzymes Curriculum Expectations Specic Expectation Relating Science to Technology, Society, and the Environment I [EC 3.03] describe the use of catalysts in industry (e.g., catalytic converters) and in biochemical systems (e.g., enzymes) on the basis of information gathered from print and electronic sources Assessment Tools/ Techniques
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Achievement Chart Category


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Learning Skills
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Studentdesigned rubric Rubric for Unit 3 Project (see Assessment Rubrics, Teachers Resource CDROM)

Making Connections

Teamwork Organization

Unit 3 Review Answers


Student Textbook pages 316319

Answers to Knowledge/ Understanding Questions


Multiple Choice
1. (a) 2. (d) 3. (a) 4. (a) 5. (c) 6. (b) 7. (a) 8. (a) 9. (c) 10. (d)

Short Answer
11. In an open system, matter and energy can be freely

the surroundings. For example, in calorimetry, an exothermic reaction will result in an increase in temperature of the system. It is assumed that the surroundings are not affected. 12. The system is the part of the universe that is being studied. The surroundings are dened as the rest of the universe. In practice, the surroundings are the portion of the universe that are likely to be measurably affected by the system. For example, potassium chlorate decomposes when heated to form potassium chloride and oxygen gas. If the system is dened as reactants and products (potassium chlorate, potassium chloride and oxygen gas), the surroundings in practice include the reaction container, the heat source and the surrounding air. By denition, the surroundings are the rest of the universe. 13. (a) Chemical bonds result from electrostatic attraction between atoms. Since energy must be added to overcome this attraction, bond breaking is an endothermic process in which the enthalpy increases. Since the products have more enthalpy than the reactants, the enthalpy change has a positive value.
(b) As chemical bonds form, electrostatic attraction increases

exchanged between the system and the surroundings. For example, if an exothermic reaction takes place in an open beaker, energy can be exchanged between the system and the surroundings in the form of heat. An insulated system usually prevents the exchange of energy between the system and

and the energy of the bond system decreases. Bond formation is an exothermic process in which enthalpy decreases. Since the products have less energy than the reactants, the enthalpy change has a negative value.

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MHR Unit 3 Energy Changes and Rates of Reactions

(c) The enthalpy change of a reaction is equal to the sum

16. Energy is added for vaporization to occur and the energy

of the energy needed to break bonds, minus the sum of the energy released as new bonds form. This relationship can be expressed in the form of an equation: Hrxn bond energy reactants bond energy products 14. Since the reactants have more energy than the products, the difference in energy must be released to the surroundings. Therefore, the reaction is an exothermic reaction. 15. The greater the amount of reactant the greater the total enthalpy change once the reaction has proceeded to completion. If the quantity of reactants doubles, then the enthalpy change also doubles, and so on. For example: 1 H2O( ) H2(g) O2(g) H 285.8 kJ/mol
2

change has a positive value; energy is given off in condensation and the energy change has a negative value. However, since vaporization is the opposite process to condensation, the absolute value of the enthalpy change for each process is the same, according to Hesss Law. 17. A constant-pressure calorimeter will allow gases produced in the reaction to escape into the atmosphere, thereby maintaining a constant pressure within the calorimeter. The calorimeter should, however, allow the minimum possible quantity of heat to be absorbed from or escape into the surroundings.
18. Metals have a low specic heat capacity. In other words, it

2H2O( ) 2H2(g)

O2(g)

571.6 kJ/mol

285.8 kJ of energy must be added to decompose 18.0 g (1.00 mol) of H2O( ) . For 36.0 g (2.00 mol) of H2O( ) to decompose, 571.6 kJ of energy must be added.

takes a relatively small quantity of heat to change the temperature of a metal by 1C. Metals are also good conductors of heat. The temperature of a metal spoon would rise quickly if it were used to stir hot soup, making it uncomfortable to hold the spoon. Plastic and wood are materials that have higher specic heat capacities than metal, therefore they can absorb more heat without their temperature increasing signicantly. Also, plastic and wood do not conduct heat very well.

19.(a)(1) 4 C(graphite)

5 H2(g) C4H10(g) (2) C(graphite) O2(g) CO2(g) (3) H2(g) O2(g) H2O(g) (1) (2) 4 1 C4H10(g)

(b)

4C(graphite)

5H2(g)

4C(graphite) 4O2(g) 4CO2(g) 5 (3) 5 5H2(g) O 5H2O(g) 2 2(g) __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ C4H10(g) 4C(graphite) 4O2(g) 5H2(g)
5 O 2 2(g) 13 2

4C(graphite)
or,

5H2(g) 5H2O(g)

4CO2(g)

5H2O(g)

C4H10(g)

O2(g) 4CO2(g)

20. In its standard state at 25C and 100 kPa pressure, iodine

23. If the reaction A

is a solid, not a gas. To vapourize iodine under these conditions requires an input of 21 kJ/mol of energy. 21. The half-life is the time it takes for a reaction to be half over, i.e. for half of the reactants to be consumed. Half-life is usually expressed in units of seconds, and gives a clear measure of whether the reaction is fast or slow. 22. The statement is not true. Enthalpy change, H, is dependent only on the reactants and the products. It does not give any indication of the activation energies for the steps in the mechanism of the reaction, nor does it indicate the molecularity of the reaction or the likelihood of proper orientation of reactants. An exothermic reaction may proceed very slowly or not at all if it has high activation energies or a trimolecular step in its mechanism; conversely, an endothermic reaction may proceed very quickly if it has only one step that has a low activation energy.

B products, has a rate law: rate k[A]m[B]n, and the order of reaction is (m n), mathematically the units for k are related to the order of reaction according to the following equation:
L m n 1 mol

(Students may also simply list the units for rst, second, and third order reactions. Accept this answer also.) 24. The number of effective collisions between reactant particles per unit time determines the reaction rate. Temperature increases reactant rate because it increases the number of collisions and also increases the average energy of collisions, increasing the percentage of collisions that equal or exceed the activation energy. Increasing the surface area of a solid increases the reaction rate because it increases the number of exposed particles available for collisions. Increasing con-

Chapter 6 Rates of Chemical Reactions MHR

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UNIT 3 Chapter 6 RATES OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS

centration or pressure increases the number of particles available for a collision in a given volume. Agitating a uid reaction mixture distributes unreacted particles evenly, increasing the chance of a successful collision.
25. AB

absorbed no heat. The calculated Q rxn. will therefore be a smaller negative number than the actual Q rxn. Therefore, Hcalculated Hactual.
(c)

NaOH(s)
(reactant) enthalpy, H

Potential energy, kJ

Ea A+B H

Hdissolve = 47 kJ/mol

NaOH(aq)
product AB 28. Two events occur during the solvation process: ionic attrac-

Reaction progress 26. Initial rate is usually average rate measured over a brief

period of time at the start of a reaction. The instantaneous rate measures the rate of consumption of reactants or production of products at a given instant during the reaction. Strictly speaking, the initial rate of reaction and instantaneous rate of reaction are exactly the same only at the moment the reaction begins. In practice, the rate of a reaction is relatively constant initially. Therefore, over a brief period of time at the start of the reaction, the initial rate and the instantaneous rate will be about the same at any given moment.

tions are overcome (endothermic) and ions become hydrated or surrounded by water molecules (exothermic). In this case, more energy is absorbed to break ionic attractions than is given off during hydration of the ions. The overall process is therefore endothermic and absorbs energy from the water, decreasing its temperature. 29. First, nd the quantity of heat given off as 1.0 102 g CaO react. 1.0 102 g mol CaO 56.08 g/mol CaO 1.8 mol CaO heat produced by 1.8 mol CaO reacting 65 kJ/mol CaO 1.8 mol CaO 1.2 102 kJ Next, nd the number of moles of CH4 needed to produce 1.2 102 kJ in a combustion reaction. 1.2 102 kJ mol CH4 8.0 102 kJ/mol CH4 0.15 mol CH4 Finally, nd the volume of 0.15 mol CH4 at 100 kPa and 20C. volume of CH4 0.15 mol 24 L/mol 3.6 L CH4 30. (a) C12H22O11(s) 12O2(g)

Answers to Inquiry Questions


27. (a) Find the quantity of heat absorbed by solution:

Q soln.

msoln csoln Tsoln 101.96 g 4.184 J/gC 5.3C 2.3 103 J 2.3 kJ Q rxn Q soln 2.3 kJ

Find number of moles of sodium hydroxide. 1.96 g NaOH mol NaOH 40.0 g/mol NaOH 0.049 mol NaOH Find enthalpy change for one mol NaOH. 2.3 kJ 47 kJ/mol NaOH Hdissolve 0.049 mol NaOH (b) If the heat capacity of the calorimeter is not negligible, the calorimeter will absorb a signicant quantity of heat. This will result in a smaller temperature change, T, than would have occurred if the calorimeter had

12CO2(g)
(b) mol sucrose

11 H2O(g)

5.65

103 kJ

5.00 g sucrose 342.34 g/mol sucrose 0.0146 mol sucrose 0.0146 mol sucrose 5.65 103 kJ/mol sucrose 82.5 kJ

heat released

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MHR Unit 3 Energy Changes and Rates of Reactions

31. Label the equations in the following way:

(b) The rate does not change since rate is not proportional

(1) (2) (3)

C(graphite) CO(g) H2(g)

2H2(g) CH4(g) 1/2O2(g) CO2(g) 1/2O2(g) H2O(g) 1/2O2(g) CO(g) H2O(


)

H1 H2 H3 H4 H5

74.8 kJ 283.1 kJ 241.8 kJ 110.5 kJ 44.0 kJ

(4) C(graphite) (5)

H2O (g)

Students should multiply (1) 3; (2) 1; (3) 2; (4) 3; and (5) 2. The resulting equations add up to give the target equation. The enthalpy change for the target reaction is therefore: H 3( 74.8 kJ) ( 283.1 kJ) 2( 241.8 kJ) 3( 110.5 kJ) 2(44.0 kJ) 747.6 kJ 32. (a) A catalyst changes the reaction mechanism, lowering the activation energy for cases in which the catalyst speeds up the reaction rate. The reactants and products, however, are the same as for an uncatalyzed reaction. Therefore, according to Hesss Law, the enthalpy change is the same.
uncatalyzed reaction Potential energy catalyzed reaction

to I2(aq). 34. Students should decide on the property that will be used follow the course of the reaction, such as evolution of H2(g) (downward displacement or mass change) or change in pH. For each trial, students should use the same mass of Mg(s), the same volume of HCl(aq), keep the initial temperature the same and provide the same amount of stirring. Students should change the concentration of HCl(aq) in each trial. For example, students could suggest using concentrations of 6.0 mol/L, 3.0 mol/L, and 1.5 mol/L. From the rate data, students can determine the order of the reaction in terms of HCl(aq). Students should note for safety that 6.0 mol/L HCl(aq) is extremely corrosive and must be handled with care. If students carry out the investigation, gloves and safety glasses must be worn. 35. (a) The reaction rate will decrease. The NaOH will neutralize some of the H3O (aq) and decrease its concentration. (b) The reaction rate will decrease. Adding water decreases the concentration of CH3C(S)NH2. (c) The rate of reaction will increase, likely by roughly a factor of 4 times. (Many reactions double for each ten degree increase in temperature).

Answers to Communication Questions


36. Neutralization reactions tend to be very exothermic.

reactants 2H2O2

H products 2H2O + O2 Reaction progress

(b) Equipment might include a coffee-cup calorimeter, a

thermometer, a solution of H2O2 of known concentration, NaI(aq) and Fe(NO3)2(aq), a stirring rod, a graduated cylinder, and a timing device. The experiment should demonstrate that the rates with the different catalysts may be different, but the enthalpy change remains the same. Students should decide on a method for following the course of the reaction, e.g. tracking gas production by downward displacement or by change in mass of solution as oxygen escapes to the atmosphere. The experiment should have two parts: determining and comparing the rates for the two different catalysts (see Investigation 6-B), and determining and comparing the enthalpy changes for the two different catalysts (see Investigations 5-A and 5-B). Safety precautions should include wearing gloves and glasses. Hydrogen peroxide is reactive and should be handled with care. 33. (a) The rate doubles since rate is directly proportional to [CH3COCH3].

Therefore, neutralizing acid on the skin with a base may further damage the skin with the heat produced. Also, it is impossible to measure out the correct quantity of base to use, so there will likely be an excess (the excess base will burn the skin) or not enough (meaning the excess acid will continue to burn the skin). 37. The reactants and products in a chemical change make up the system that is under investigation. For example, a metal may react with an acid solution to produce hydrogen gas and an aqueous solution of the salt of the metal. All of these substances are part of the system. In a reaction in which the heat absorbed (endothermic), or given off (exothermic) is to be measured, all of the heat must be conned to the reaction vessel. It is therefore important to insulate the system so that the minimum possible quantity of heat is exchanged with the surroundings. The surroundings are the materials in the immediate environment such as the reaction vessel, the air surrounding the reaction, stirring devices, thermometer etc. For an isolated system, the systems temperature will increase with an exothermic reaction, and decrease with an endothermic reaction.
38. (a) The graph should be a straight line with a slope of

approximately
(b) By extrapolation,

680.

H 6.80 103 kJ/ mol C10H22. (c) The slope of graph is approximately 680 kJ/(mol C atom). Therefore: H 680 kJ/(mol C atom) (C atoms in alkane) (d) The extrapolated value should be the same since the graph is a straight line with a constant slope.
Chapter 6 Rates of Chemical Reactions MHR

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UNIT 3 Chapter 6 RATES OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS

(e) The hydrocarbon that produces the most heat per mol

41.First, nd the volume of the gas in L.

39. (a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

of hydrocarbon will be the best fuel in terms of volume. Butane has more bonds than the others and therefore has the highest Hcomb. Butane is a better fuel than methane, ethane, and propane. Students should include the idea that chemical equations can be manipulated in the same manner as algebraic equations. If a chemical reaction can be shown to be the equivalent of the algebraic sum of several other reactions, the overall heat of reaction is the algebraic sum of the H for each step. Another consequence of Hesss Law is that you can use enthalpies of formation to determine H for a reaction. Since enthalpies of formation can be found in tables, there is no need to carry out the experimental work. For a reaction in which the concentration of H3O (aq) or OH (aq) changes as the reaction proceeds, the pH also changes as the reaction proceeds. Therefore, a pH meter can be used to monitor this type of reaction. The rate-determining step is the slowest step in a reaction mechanism. Regardless of how much faster the other steps occur, the overall reaction cannot possibly go faster than the speed of the slowest step. (Students may include an analogy or example in their answers.) A catalyst provides an alternative mechanism for a chemical reaction. The alternative mechanism has activation energies that are smaller than the activation energies for the uncatalyzed reaction. Because the catalyst is regenerated unchanged at the end of the reaction, however, the reactants and products are the same for the overall reaction. The enthalpy change will therefore remain the same. (Students may include a potential energy diagram in their answers, showing uncatalyzed and catalyzed reaction pathways.)

(0.95 103 ft3) (12 in/ft 2.54 cm/in)3 (1 10 3 L/cm3) 2.7 104 L Next, nd the number of moles of methane. 2.7 104 L mol CH4 24 L/mol 1.1 103 mol Next, nd the enthalpy of combustion for methane using standard molar enthalpies of formation. CH4(g) 2O2(g) CO2(g) 2H2O(l) volume CH4 Hocomb [ Hof CO2(g) 2 ) Hof H2O(l) ] [ Hof CH4(g)] [( 393.5 kJ 2( 285.8 kJ)] ( 74.6 kJ)

890.5 kJ/mol CH4(g) Finally, nd the energy released by burning 1.1 103 mol CH4. H 1.1 103 mol 9.0 103 kJ/mol 9.9 106 kJ 107 kJ, or 0.01 GJ The claim is not valid. 42. To calculate the savings per km, the owner would need to know: I cost to convert the engine to run on propane I cost per litre for propane and for gasoline I distance travelled per 100 litres for propane (to simplify, this would need to be an average) I distance travelled per 100 litres for gasoline (to simplify, this would need to be an average) I other costs or savings involved with running the taxi on propane (e.g. pollution emission devices, exhaust system) I to simplify, assume that engine maintenance costs are the same with both fuels

Answers to Making Connections Questions


40. You would need to consider:
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the relative safety of the fuels the ratio of the dollar cost of the fuel per kJ of useful energy delivered the cost of maintaining the furnace the environmental impact of the fuel: How is the fuel obtained? How much energy is expended in order to deliver the fuel? What kinds and what quantities of byproducts are produced?

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MHR Unit 3 Energy Changes and Rates of Reactions