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ia Systems 1: Multimed 52025

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Agenda
Properties of sound Analog audio Digital audio Audio le formats Sound recording Sound editing

Introduction
Audio is the reproduction of sound - important
means of communication. audio.

There are a number of advantages of using most obvious: interface for visual disabilities

Properties of Sound
Sound is a pressure
wave created by successively vibrating matter back and forth. the form of a sine wave.

The sound wave is in

Frequency
The number of air pressure oscillations per
second at a xed point by a sound wave second

Measured in Hertz (Hz) - number of waves per Audible range (human) = 20 Hz - 20 kHz this is where the sensation of pitch
originates

Frequency & Pitch

Frequency & Pitch


Frequency Pitch

Frequency & Pitch


Frequency Pitch Pitch

Frequency

Frequency & Pitch


Frequency Pitch Pitch

Frequency

Wavelength
The distance between waves

Amplitude
The height of the
wave

Measured in decibels
(dB or dBA)

Intensity vs. Loudness


Amplitude can be thought of as the intensity of
sound and is measurable.

Loudness of sound is a perception. Sound can be perceived differently at the various Individuals also have different hearing capacities.

frequencies (1 kHz-4 kHz is more sensitive than the lower and the higher) What is loud to one person may not be loud to another, which why loudness is a perception and cannot be measured.

dBA
10 20 30 50 60 110 120 110-120 130 180

Sound
Normal breathing Whispering at 5 ft Soft whispering Rainfall Normal conversation Shouting in the ear Thunder Rock concert Air raid Rocket launching from pad

Analog Audio
analog = the

measurement of continuous change or movement over a period of time

Digital Audio
The reproduction of sound using digital
information

The value of the signal is sampled at regular


intervals by an analog-to-digital converter (ADC)

Basic Terminology & Properties of DA

Channels Sampling rate Bit depth Quality and le size Compression Audio codecs

Channels
Stereo

Mono

Channels
Stereo
e s se d l c om p r i le w i l An u n gi t a l f e o di e s i ze o f a s te r c e t h e t w i n o f i le . b mo

Mono

Sampling Rate
ADC - the signal is sampled at regular intervals The value of each sample is rounded to the
nearest integer in a scale that varies according to the resolution of the signal

Sampling Rate
The accuracy the
reproduction to the source depends on how often the sample is taken.

Common DA Sampling Rate


8,000 Hz telephone, adequate for human speech 22,050 Hz radio 32,000 Hz miniDV digital camcorder CD, commonly used with MPEG-1 audio 44,100 Hz (VCD, SVCD, MP3) digital sound used for digital TV, DVD, DAT, 48,000 Hz lms and professional audio 96,000 or 192,400 Hz DVD-audio and HD-DVD audio tracks

Bit Depth
The number of bits used to describe each of
the samples taken from the sampling rate

Higher bit-depth audio will sound better


than lower one

the potential accuracy of a digital audio

Quality & File Size


Make the highest level (if possible) ~ 16-bit
44kHz Stereo

this produces a large le size, however, high


audio clarity

Chances to manipulate such le (to make it


smaller) :

reduce the sampling rate make it mono

Compression
Digital audio les can also
be compressed to reduce le size (MP3) is a common

MPEG-1 Audio layer-3

Compression
Digital audio les can also
be compressed to reduce le size (MP3) is a common

MPEG-1 Audio layer-3

Compression
Audio Quality

Digital audio les can also


be compressed to reduce le size (MP3) is a common

MPEG-1 Audio layer-3

Compression
Audio Quality

Digital audio les can also


be compressed to reduce le size (MP3) is a common

MPEG-1 Audio layer-3

Compression
Audio Quality

Digital audio les can also


be compressed to reduce le size (MP3) is a common

MPEG-1 Audio layer-3


File Size

Compression
Audio Quality

Digital audio les can also


be compressed to reduce le size (MP3) is a common

Lossless
WMA

MPEG-1 Audio layer-3


File Size

Compression
Audio Quality

Digital audio les can also


be compressed to reduce le size (MP3) is a common

Lossless
WMA

MPEG-1 Audio layer-3

Lossy
MP3 Real Audio

File Size

Compression
Audio Quality

Digital audio les can also


be compressed to reduce le size (MP3) is a common

later editing

Lossless
WMA

MPEG-1 Audio layer-3

Lossy
MP3 Real Audio

File Size

Compression
Audio Quality

Digital audio les can also


be compressed to reduce le size (MP3) is a common

later editing

Lossless
WMA

MPEG-1 Audio layer-3

Lossy
MP3 Real Audio

transmission
File Size

Audio Codecs
An audio codec
is a piece of software or a driver that provides support for certain audio formats for certain system.
(coder/decoder)

Audio Codecs
An audio codec
is a piece of software or a driver that provides support for certain audio formats for certain system.
(coder/decoder)

Audio Codecs
An audio codec
is a piece of software or a driver that provides support for certain audio formats for certain system.
(coder/decoder)

codec x

Audio Codecs
An audio codec
is a piece of software or a driver that provides support for certain audio formats for certain system.
(coder/decoder)

codec x

Audio Codecs
An audio codec
is a piece of software or a driver that provides support for certain audio formats for certain system.
(coder/decoder)

codec x

Audio Codecs
An audio codec
is a piece of software or a driver that provides support for certain audio formats for certain system.
(coder/decoder)

codec x

codec y

Audio Codecs
An audio codec
is a piece of software or a driver that provides support for certain audio formats for certain system.
(coder/decoder)

codec x

codec y

Audio Codecs
An audio codec
is a piece of software or a driver that provides support for certain audio formats for certain system.
(coder/decoder)

codec x

codec y

Audio Codecs
An audio codec
is a piece of software or a driver that provides support for certain audio formats for certain system.
(coder/decoder)

codec x

codec y

codec x

Audio Codecs
An audio codec
is a piece of software or a driver that provides support for certain audio formats for certain system.
(coder/decoder)

codec x

codec y

codec x

Audio Codecs
An audio codec
is a piece of software or a driver that provides support for certain audio formats for certain system.
(coder/decoder)

codec x

codec y

Audio codecs

codec x

Audio File Formats


An audio le format is a container format for storing
data on a computer system.

AIF format developed by Apple Computer supported by most web browsers AU format most one of theformat on the common
web

WAV format Microsofts audio format also one of the mostthe common format on
web

MP3 most widespread form of audio on the Internet playable on various players

created by Sun Microsystems

MIDI Format
Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI) is
typically used to play music.

MIDI les contain a set of instruction that the


computer sends to a sound card, synthesizer, or other device.

Such instructions (note and instrument

description) describe how to play the sound, rather than recording an actual rendition of the sound.

Sound Recording

Sound Recording

Sound Recording

Sound Recording

Sound Recording

Sound Recording

Sound Editing
Audacity - its GNU GPL license, its free, its cross
platform.

Tracks Waveform display Selection Trim Amplify Pitch and many more....

Digital Audio
Technologies & Applications

Portable Music Players

Before Digital

Before Digital
70s

Before Digital
70s

Before Digital
70s

CD on market (1982)

CD on market (1982)
i t al! D ig I t s

Not quite portable, is it?

Digital les? Compress em

Digital les? Compress em

CODECS

Digital les? Compress em


ATRAC

CODECS
Vorbis (OGG) AAC

WMA

Digital les? Compress em

CODECS MP3

Digital Audio Players

Digital Audio Players


1997 - MPMan
SaeHan Infomation Systems

Eiger Labs MPMAN F10 (1998) 32 MB

Digital Audio Players


1997 - MPMan
SaeHan Infomation Systems

1998 - Rio PMP300

Diamond Multimedia

Eiger Labs MPMAN F10 (1998) 32 MB

32 MB Internal Memory SmartMedia Memory Slot

Digital Audio Players

Digital Audio Players


2000 - Creative NOMAD Jukebox
Creative Labs

6 GB Harddisk $500

The Revolution

The Revolution

The Revolution
October 2001 - 1st iPod Introducing

iPod Family

Get quick and instant access to your content with multi-touch navigation. With a 3.3-inch screen and vivid 16:9 OLED display (480x272 resolution), premium entertainment is at your fingertips.*

Tune into all your favorite stations with crystal-clear reception. With an integrated HD Radio receiver, you can access a variety of HD Radio stations at no additional cost. Plus, tag the songs you like for later purchase.

Watch supported 720p HD movies, TV shows and videos in high definition on your HDTV through the Zune HD & AV Dock (sold separately). Or take them with you for premium entertainment on the go. Additional dock and HDTV are required.*

Connect, update, and buy content wirelessly from Wi-Fi hot spots. Stream millions of songs over WiFi directly to your Zune HD and turn it into a portable digital jukebox.

Surf the web anytime, anywhere you have a Wi-Fi connection. Enjoy your favorite websites with a full-featured web browser including tap-to-zoom technology, built-in accelerometer, and touchscreen QWERTY keyboard.

iTunes + iTunes Music Store

Online Music Stores

Podcast

AudioBooks

Text-to-Speech

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DAISY (Digital Accessibility Information System)