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Gc axit = CO32= SO42- Cl= SO32= S2 PO43- CH3COO- HCO3-

Mt s gc axit v tn gi Tn gi Gc axit Cacbonat -H SO4Sunfat - H SO3Clorua -HSSunfit -H2PO4Sunfua Photphat Axetat Hiro cacbonat =H PO42- NO3= SiO32-

Tn gi Hiro sunfat Hiro sunfit Hiro sunfua ihiro photphat Hir photphat Nitrat Silicat

L thuyt c bn v thuc th (p dng phn bit v nhn bit cc cht) Stt 1 2 3 Thuc th Qu tm Phenolphtalein (khng mu) Nc(H2O) Dng nhn - Axit - Baz tan Baz tan - Cc kim loi mnh(Na, Ca, K, Ba) - Ccoxit ca kim loi mnh(Na2O, CaO, K2O, BaO) - P2O5 - Cc mui Na, K, - NO3 - Kim loi Al, Zn - Mui Cu - Mui = CO3, = SO3 - Kim loi ng trc H trong dy hot ng ca KL - Tan hu ht KL k c Cu, Ag, Au( ring Cu cn to mui ng mu xanh) - MnO2( khi un nng) AgNO3 CuO - Ba, BaO, Ba(OH)2, mui Ba Hin tng Qu tm ho Qu tm ho xanh Ho mu hng H2 (c kh khng mu, bt kh bay ln) Ring Ca cn to dd c Ca(OH)2 Tan to dd lm qu tm ho . Ring CaO cn to dd c Ca(OH)2 - Tan to dd lm qu - Tan Tan + H2 bay ln C kt ta xanh lamCu(OH)2 Tan + c bt kh CO2, SO2 bay ln Tan + H2 bay ln ( si bt kh) Tan v c kh NO2,SO2 bay ra Cl2 bay ra AgCl kt ta mu trng sa dd mu xanh BaSO4 kt ta trng BaSO4 trng AgCl trng sa PbS en

4 5

dung dch Kim dung dch axit - HCl, H2SO4 - HNO3, H2SO4 , n - HCl - H2SO4

Dung dch mui BaCl2, Ba(NO3)2, Ba(CH3COO)2 AgNO3 Pb(NO3)2

Hp cht c gc = SO4 Hp cht c gc - Cl Hp cht c gc =S

STT 1

Cht cn nhn bit Cc kim loi Na, K( kim loi kim ho tr 1) Ba(ho tr 2) Ca(ho tr 2)

Thuc th +H2O

Nhn bit mt s loi cht Hin tng tan + dd trong c kh H2 bay ln mu vng(Na) mu tm (K) tan + dd trong c kh H2 bay ln tan +dd c + H2 mu lc (Ba) mu (Ca) tan v c kh H2 Al khng phn ng cn Zn c phn ng v c kh bay ln tan v c H2( ring Pb c PbCl2 trng) tan + dd mu xanh c kh bay ln tan c Ag trng bm vo to SO2 mi hc to P2O5 tan trong H2O lm lm qu tm ho CO2lm c dd nc vi trong

t chy quan st mu ngn la +H2O +H2O t chy quan st mu ngn la + dd NaOH +HNO3 c ngui

Al, Zn Phn bit Al v Zn

+ ddHCl

Cc kim loi + HNO3 c t Mg Pb Kim loi Cu + AgNO3 2 Mt s phi kim S ( mu vng) P( mu ) C (mu en) Mt s cht kh O2 CO2 CO SO2 SO3 Cl2 H2 Oxit th rn Na2O, BaO, K2O CaO P2O5 t chy t chy t chy

+ + + + + +

tn m nc vi trong t trong khng kh nc vi trong dd BaCl2 dd KI v h tinh bt AgNO3 t chy

bng chy Vn c CaCO3 CO2 Vn c CaSO3 BaSO4 trng c mu xanh xut hin AgCl trng sa git H2O

+H2O +H2O Na2CO3 +H2O

dd trong sut lm qu tm ho xanh tan + dd c Kt ta CaCO3

CuO 4 Cc dung dch mui a) Nhn gc axit - Cl = SO4 = SO3 = CO3 PO4

+ dd HCl ( H2SO4 long)

dd lm qu tm ho dd mu xanh

+ AgNO3 +dd BaCl2, Ba(NO3)2, Ba(OH)2 + dd HCl, H2SO4, HNO3 + dd HCl, H2SO4, HNO3 + AgNO3

AgCl trng sa BaSO4 trng SO2 mi hc CO2 lm c dd Ca(OH)2 Ag3PO4 vng

b) Kim loi trong mui Kim loi kim Mg(II) Fe(II) Fe(III) Al(III) Cu(II) Ca(II) Pb(II) Ba(II)

t chy v quan st mu ngn la + dd NaOH + dd NaOH + dd NaOH + dd NaOH (n d) + dd NaOH + dd Na2CO3 + H2SO4 Hp cht c gc SO4 mu vng muiNa mu tm mui K Mg(OH)2 trng Fe(OH)2 trng lu trong khng kh to Fe(OH)3 nu Fe(OH)3 nu Al(OH)3 trng khi d NaOH s tan dn Cu(OH)2 xanh CaCO3 trng PbSO4 trng BaSO4 trng DANG 1: CAU HOI IEU CHE A. S O PHAN NG

Cau 1: Viet phng trnh phan ng hoan thanh s o sau: 1) Ca CaO Ca(OH)2 CaCO3 Ca(HCO3)2 CaCl2 CaCO3 2) FeCl2 FeSO4 Fe(NO3)2 Fe(OH)2 Fe Fe2O3 FeCl3 Fe2(SO4)3 Fe(NO3)3 Fe(OH)3 * Phng trnh kho: - Chuyen muoi clorua muoi sunfat: can dung Ag2SO4 e tao ket tua AgCl. - Chuyen muoi sat (II) muoi sat (III): dung chat oxi hoa (O2, KMnO4,)

3)

V du: 10FeSO4 + 2KMnO4 + 8H2SO4 5Fe2(SO4)3 + K2SO4 + 2MnSO4 + 8H2O 4Fe(NO3)2 + O2 + 4HNO3 4Fe(NO3)3 + 2H2O Chuyen muoi Fe(III) Fe(II): dung chat kh la kim loai (Fe, Cu,...) V du: Fe2(SO4)3 + Fe 3FeSO4 2Fe(NO3)3 + Cu 2Fe(NO3)2 + Cu(NO3)2 SO3 H2SO4 FeS2 SO2 SO2 NaHSO3 Na2SO3 NaH2PO4 P P2O5 H3PO4 Na3PO4 Na2HPO4

4)

* Phng trnh kho: - 2K3PO4 + H3PO4 3K3HPO4 - K2HPO4 + H3PO4 2KH2PO4 ZnO Na2ZnO2 5) Zn Zn(NO3)2 ZnCO3 * Phng trnh kho: - ZnO + 2NaOH Na2ZnO2 + H2O - KHCO3 + Ca(OH)2 CaCO3 + KOH + H2O
+ X ,t A
o

CO2 KHCO3 CaCO3

6) 7) 8)

+ Y ,t A

+B +E Fe D G

9) Cau 2: R

o A + Z,t CaCl2 Ca Ca(OH)2 CaCO3 Ca(HCO3)2 Clorua voi Ca(NO3)2 KMnO4 Cl2 nc Javen Cl2 NaClO3 O2 (4) (1) Al2O3 (2) Al2(SO4)3 (3) (12) (11) (5) (6) Al Al(OH)3 (9) (8) (7) AlCl3 Al2O3 Al(NO3)3(10) Hay tm 2 chat vo c thoa man chat R trong s o sau: A B C R R R X Y Z

NaAlO

Cau 3: Xac nh cac chat theo s o bien hoa sau: A1 A2 A3 A4 A A A A A B1 B2 B3 B4

Cau 4: Hoan thanh cac phan ng sau: +E F X + A (1) (5) 4

(2) X+B (3)

+G +E H F (6) (7)

Fe
(4)
+I +L K H + BaSO4 (8) (9) +M +G X H (10) (11)

X+C X+D

B.

IEN CHAT VA HOAN THANH PHNG TRNH PHAN NG

Cau 1: Bo tuc cac phan ng sau: to to FeS2 + O2 A + B J B + D to C + D A + H2S B + L E + D C + E F F + HCl G + H2S G + NaOH H + I H + O2 + D J Cau 2: Xac nh chat va hoan thanh cac phng trnh phan ng: FeS + A B (kh) + C B + CuSO4 D (en) + E B + F G vang + H C + J (kh) L L + KI C + M + N Cau 3: Chon cac chat thch hp e hoan chnh cac PTP sau: to a) X1 + X2 Cl2 + MnCl2 + KCl + H2O b) X3 + X4 + X5 HCl + H2SO4 c) A1 + A2 (d) SO2 + H2O d) Ca(X)2 + Ca(Y)2 Ca3(PO4)2 + H2O e) D1 + D2 + D3 Cl2 + MnSO4 + K2SO4 + Na2SO4 + H2O f) KHCO3 + Ca(OH)2 d G1 + G2 + G3 g) Al2O3 + KHSO4 L1 + L2 + L3 Cau 4: Xac nh cong thc ng vi cac ch cai sau. Hoan thanh PTP: a) X1 + X2 BaCO3 + CaCO3 + H2O b) X3 + X4 Ca(OH)2 + H2 c) X5 + X6 + H2O Fe(OH)3 + CO2 + NaCl

C. PHNG PHAP IEU CHE MOT SO HP CHAT


1. ieu che oxit. Phi kim + oxi Kim loai + oxi Oxi + hp chat Nhiet phan axit (axit mat nc) OXIT Nhiet phan muoi Nhiet phan baz khong tan Kim loai manh + oxit kim loai yeu to 2N2O5 V du: 2N2 + 5O2 ; H2CO3 CO2 + H2O to to 3Fe + 2O2 Fe3O4 ; CaCO3 CaO + CO2 o t to 4FeS2 + 11O2 2Fe2O3 + 8SO2 ; Cu(OH)2 CuO + H2O to 2Al + Fe2O3 Al2O3 + 2Fe 2. ieu che axit. Oxit axit + H2O Phi kim + Hiro AXIT Muoi + axit manh a s V du: P2O5 + 3H2O 2H3PO4 ; H2 + Cl2 2HCl

2NaCl + H2SO4 Na2SO4 + 2HCl 3. ieu che baz. Kim loai + H2O Kiem + dd muoi BAZ Oxit baz + H2O ien phan dd muoi (co mang ngan) V du: 2K + 2H2O 2KOH + H2 ; Ca(OH)2 + K2CO3 CaCO3 + 2KOH ie pha n n Na2O + H2O 2NaOH ; 2KCl + 2H2O 2KOH co ngnga ma n + H2 + Cl2 4. ieu che hiroxit lng tnh. Muoi cua nguyen to lng tnh + NH4OH (hoac kiem va u) Hiroxit lng tnh + Muoi mi V du: AlCl3 + NH4OH 3NH4Cl + Al(OH)3 ZnSO4 + 2NaOH (va u) Zn(OH)2 + Na2SO4 5. ieu che muoi. a) T n chat b) T hp chat Axit + Bz Kim loai + Axit Axit + Oxit baz Oxit axit + Oxit baz Kim loai + Phi kim MUOI Muoi axit + Oxit baz Muoi axit + Baz Kim loai + DD muoi Axit + DD muoi Kiem + DD muoi DD muoi + DD muoi * Bai tap: Cau 1: Viet cac phng trnh phan ng ieu che trc tiep FeCl2 t Fe, t FeSO4, t FeCl3. Cau 2: Viet phng trnh phan ng bieu dien s ieu che trc tiep FeSO 4 t Fe bang cac cach khac nhau. Cau 3: Viet cac phng trnh ieu che trc tiep: a) Cu CuCl2 bang 3 cach. b) CuCl2 Cu bang 2 cach. c) Fe FeCl3 bang 2 cach. Cau 4: Ch t quang pirit FeS2, O2 va H2O, co chat xuc tac thch hp. Hay viet phng trnh phan ng ieu che muoi sat (III) sunfat. Cau 5: Ch t Cu, NaCl va H2O, hay neu cach ieu che e thu c Cu(OH)2. Viet cac PTHH xay ra. Cau 6: T cac chat KCl, MnO2, CaCl2, H2SO4 ac. Hay viet PTP ieu che: Cl2, hiroclorua. Cau 7: T cac chat NaCl, KI, H2O. Hay viet PTP ieu che: Cl2, nc Javen, dung dch KOH, I2, KClO3. Cau 8: T cac chat NaCl, Fe, H2O, H2SO4 ac. Hay viet PTP ieu che: FeCl2, FeCl3, nc clo. Cau 9: T Na, H2O, CO2, N2 ieu che xoa va am 2 la. Viet phng trnh phan ng. Cau 10: Phan am 2 la co cong thc NH4NO3, phan am ure co cong thc (NH2)2CO. Viet cac phng trnh ieu che 2 loai phan am tren t khong kh, nc va a voi.

Cau 11: Hon hp gom CuO, Fe2O3. Ch dung Al va HCl hay neu 2 cach ieu che Cu nguyen chat. Cau 12: T quang pyrit sat, nc bien, khong kh, hay viet cac phng trnh ieu che cac chat: FeSO4, FeCl3, FeCl2, Fe(OH)3, Na2SO4, NaHSO4. DANG 4: BAI TAP VE CONG THC HOA HOC BAI TAP Cau 1: Khi hoa tan 21g mot kim loai hoa tr II trong dung dch H2SO4 loang d, ngi ta thu c 8,4 lt hiro (ktc) va dung dch A. Khi cho ket tinh muoi trong dung dch A th thu c 104,25g tinh the hirat hoa. a) Cho biet ten kim loai. b) Xac nh CTHH cua tinh the muoi hirat hoa o. S: a) Fe ; b) FeSO4.7H2O Cau 2: Cho 4,48g oxit cua 1 kim loai hoa tr II tac dung va u vi 100 ml dung dch H2SO4 0,8M roi co can dung dch th nhan c 13,76g tinh the muoi ngam nc. Tm cong thc muoi ngam H2O nay. S: CaSO4.2H2O Cau 3: Mot hon hp kim loai X gom 2 kim loai Y, Z co t so khoi lng 1 : 1. Trong 44,8g hon hp X, so hieu mol cua Y va Z la 0,05 mol. Mat khac nguyen t khoi Y > Z la 8. Xac nh kim loai Y va Z. S: Y = 64 (Cu) va Z = 56 (Fe) Cau 4: Hoa tan hoan toan 4 gam hon hp gom 1 kim loai hoa tr II va 1 kim loai hoa tr III can dung het 170 ml HCl 2M. a) Co can dung dch thu c bao nhieu gam muoi kho. b) Tnh VH2 thoat ra ktc. c) Neu biet kim loai hoa tr III la Al va so mol bang 5 lan so mol kim loai hoa tr II th kim loai hoa tr II la nguyen to nao? S: a) mmuo = 16, 07 gam ; b) VH 2 = 3,808 lt ; c) Kim loai hoa tr II la i Zn Cau 5: Oxit cao nhat cua mot nguyen to co cong thc R2Ox phan t khoi cua oxit la 102 vC, biet thanh phan khoi lng cua oxi la 47,06%. Xac nh R. S: R la nhom (Al) Cau 6: Nguyen to X co the tao thanh vi Fe hp chat dang FeaXb, phan t nay gom 4 nguyen t co khoi lng mol la 162,5 gam. Hoi nguyen to X la g? S: X la clo (Cl) Cau 7: Cho 100 gam hon hp 2 muoi clorua cua cung 1 kim loai M (co hoa tr II va III) tac dung het vi NaOH d. Ket tua hiroxit hoa tr 2 bang 19,8 gam con khoi lng clorua kim loai M hoa tr II bang 0,5 khoi lng mol cua M. Tm cong thc 2 clorua va % hon hp. S: Hai muoi la FeCl2 va FeCl3 ; %FeCl2 = 27,94% va %FeCl3 = 72,06% Cau 8: Hoa tan 18,4 gam hon hp 2 kim loai hoa tr II va III bang axit HCl thu c dung dch A + kh B. Chia oi B. a) Phan B1 em ot chay thu c 4,5 gam H2O. Hoi co can dd A thu c bao nhieu gam muoi khan. b) Phan B2 tac dung het clo va cho san pham hap thu vao 200 ml dung dch NaOH 20% (d = 1,2). Tm C% cac chat trong dung dch tao ra.

c) Tm 2 kim loai, neu biet t so mol 2 muoi khan = 1 : 1 va khoi lng mol cua kim loai nay gap 2,4 lan khoi lng mol cua kim loai kia. S: a) mmuo = 26,95 gam ; b) C% (NaOH) = 10,84% va C% (NaCl) = i 11,37% c) Kim loai hoa tr II la Zn va kim loai hoa tr III la Al Cau 9: Kim loai X tao ra 2 muoi XBr 2 va XSO4. Neu so mol XSO4 gap 3 lan so mol XBr2 th lng XSO4 bang 104,85 gam, con lng XBr2 ch bang 44,55 gam. Hoi X la nguyen to nao? S: X = 137 la Ba Cau 10: Hon hp kh gom NO, NO2 va 1 oxit NxOy co thanh phan 45% VNO ; 15% VNO 2 va 40% VNx Oy . Trong hon hp co 23,6% lng NO con trong N xOy co 69,6% lng oxi. Hay xac nh oxit NxOy. S: Oxit la N2O4 Cau 11: Co 1 oxit sat cha biet. - Hoa tan m gam oxit can 150 ml HCl 3M. - Kh toan bo m gam oxit bang CO nong, d thu c 8,4 gam sat. Tm cong thc oxit. S: Fe2O3 Cau 12: Kh 1 lng oxit sat cha biet bang H2 nong d. San pham hi tao ra hap thu bang 100 gam axit H2SO4 98% th nong o axit giam i 3,405%. Chat ran thu c sau phan ng kh c hoa tan bang axit H2SO4 loang thoat ra 3,36 lt H2 (ktc). Tm cong thc oxit sat b kh. S: Fe3O4 Cau 13: Hon hp X gom 2 kim loai A va B co t le khoi lng 1 : 1 va khoi lng mol nguyen t cua A nang hn B la 8 gam. Trong 53,6 gam X co so mol A khac B la 0,0375 mol. Hoi A, B la nhng kim loai nao? S: B la Fe va A la Cu Cau 14: ot chay hoan toan m gam chat A can dung het 5,824 dm3 O2 (ktc). San pham co CO2 va H2O c chia oi. Phan 1 cho i qua P2O5 thay lng P2O5 tang 1,8 gam. Phan 2 cho i qua CaO thay lng CaO tang 5,32 gam. Tm m va cong thc n gian A. Tm cong thc phan t A va biet A the kh (k thng) co so C 4. S: A la C4H10 Cau 15: Hoa tan 18,4g hon hp 2 kim loai hoa tr II va III bang axit HCl thu c dung dch A + kh B. Chia oi B a) Phan B1 em ot chay thu c 4,5g H2O. Hoi co can dung dch A thu c bao nhieu gam muoi khan. b) Phan B2 tac dung het clo va cho san pham hap thu vao 200 ml dung dch NaOH 20% (d = 1,2). Tm % cac chat trong dung dch tao ra. c) Tm 2 kim loai, neu biet t so mol 2 muoi khan = 1 : 1 va khoi lng mol kim loai nay gap 2,4 lan khoi lng mol cua kim loai kia. S: a) Lng muoi khan = 26,95g b) %NaOH = 10,84% va %NaCl = 11,73% c) KL hoa tr II la Zn va KL hoa tr III la Al Cau 16: Hai nguyen to X va Y eu the ran trong ieu kien thng 8,4 gam X co so mol nhieu hn 6,4 gam Y la 0,15 mol. Biet khoi lng mol nguyen t cua X nho hn khoi lng mol nguyen t cua Y la 8. Hay cho biet ten cua X, Y va so mol moi nguyen to noi tren. S: - X (Mg), Y (S) - nS = 0, 2 mol va nMg = 0,35 mol

Cau 17: Nguyen to R tao thanh hp chat RH4, trong o hiro chiem 25% khoi lng va nguyen to R tao thanh hp chat RO2 trong o oxi chiem 69,57% khoi lng. a) Hoi R va R la cac nguyen to g? b) Hoi 1 lt kh RO2 nang hn 1 lt kh RH4 bao nhieu lan ( cung ieu kien nhiet o, ap suat). c) Neu ktc, V1 lt RH4 nang bang V2 lt RO2 th t le V1/V2 bang bao nhieu lan? S: a) R (C), R(N) ; b) NO2 nang hn CH4 = 2,875 lan ; c) V1/V2 = 2,875 lan Cau 18: Hp chat vi oxi cua nguyen to X co dang X aOb gom 7 nguyen t trong phan t. ong thi t le khoi lng gia X va oxi la 1 : 1,29. Xac nh X va cong thc oxit. S: X la P oxit cua X la P2O5 Cau 19: Hoa tan hoan toan 12,1 gam hon hp bot gom CuO va mot oxit cua kim loai hoa tr II khac can 100 ml dung dch HCl 3M. Biet t le mol cua 2 oxit la 1 : 2. a) Xac nh cong thc cua oxit con lai. b) Tnh % theo khoi lng cua moi oxit trong hon hp ban au. S: a) ZnO ; b) %CuO = 33,06% va %ZnO = 66,94% Cau 20: Cho A gam kim loai M co hoa tr khong oi vao 250 ml dung dch hon hp gom Cu(NO3)2 va AgNO3 eu co nong o 0,8 mol/l. Sau khi phan ng xay ra hoan toan ta loc c (a + 27,2) gam chat ran gom ba kim loai va c mot dung dch ch cha mot muoi tan. Xac nh M va khoi lng muoi tao ra trong dung dch. S: M la Mg va Mg(NO3)2 = 44,4g Cau 21: Nung 25,28 gam hon hp FeCO3 va FexOy d ti phan ng hoan toan, thu c kh A va 22,4 gam Fe2O3 duy nhat. Cho kh A hap thu hoan toan vao 400ml dung dch Ba(OH)2 0,15M thu c 7,88g ket tua. a) Viet cac phng trnh phan ng xay ra. b) Tm cong thc phan t cua FexOy. S: b) Fe2O3 Cau 22: Hai thanh kim loai giong nhau (eu cung nguyen to R hoa tr II) va co cung khoi lng. Cho thanh th nhat vao vao dung dch Cu(NO3)2 va thanh th hai vao dung dch Pb(NO3)2. Sau mot thi gian, khi so mol 2 muoi bang nhau, lay hai thanh kim loai o ra khoi dung dch thay khoi lng thanh th nhat giam i 0,2% con khoi lng thanh th hai tang 28,4%. Xac nh nguyen to R. S: R (Zn) Cau 23: Hon hp M gom oxit cua mot kim loai hoa tr II va mot cacbonat cua kim loai o c hoa tan het bang axit H2SO4 loang va u tao ra kh N va dung dch L. em co can dung dch L thu c mot lng muoi khan bang 168% khoi lng M. Xac nh kim loai hoa tr II, biet kh N bang 44% khoi lng cua M. S: Mg Cau 24: Cho Cho 3,06g axit MxOy cua kim loai M co hoa tr khong oi (hoa tr t I en III) tan trong HNO3 d thu c 5,22g muoi. Hay xac nh cong thc phan t cua oxit MxOy. S: BaO Cau 25: Cho 15,25 gam hon hp mot kim loai hoa tr II co lan Fe tan het trong axit HCl d thoat ra 4,48 dm3 H2 (ktc) va thu c dung dch X. Them NaOH d vao X, loc ket tua tach ra roi nung trong khong kh en lng khong oi can nang 12 gam. Tm kim loai hoa tr II, biet no khong tao ket tua vi hiroxit. S: Ba

Cau 26: Cho 2 gam hon hp Fe va kim loai hoa tr II vao dung dch HCl co d th thu c 1,12 lt H2 (ktc). Mat khac, neu hoa tan 4,8g kim loai hoa tr II o can cha en 500 ml dung dch HCl. Xac nh kim loai hoa tr II. S: Mg Cau 27: Kh hoan toan 4,06g mot oxit kim loai bang CO nhiet o cao thanh kim loai. Dan toan bo kh sinh ra vao bnh ng Ca(OH) 2 d, thay tao thanh 7g ket tua. Neu lay lng kim loai sinh ra hoa tan het vao dung dch HCl d th thu c 1,176 lt kh H2 (ktc). a) Xac nh cong thc phan t oxit kim loai. b) Cho 4,06g oxit kim loai tren tac dung hoan toan vi 500 ml dung dch H2SO4 ac, nong (d) thu c dung dch X va kh SO 2 bay ra. Hay xac nh nong o mol/l cua muoi trong dung dch X (coi the tch dung dch khong thay oi trong qua trnh phan ng) S: a) Fe3O4 ; b) CM Fe2 ( SO4 )3 = 0, 0525M Cau 28: Hoa tan hoa toan m gam kim loai M bang dung dch HCl d, thu c V lt H2 (ktc). Mat khac hoa tan hoan toan m gam kim loai M bang dung dch HNO3 loang, thu c muoi nitrat cua M, H2O va cung V lt kh NO duy nhat (ktc). a) So sanh hoa tr cua M trong muoi clorua va trong muoi nitrat. b) Hoi M la kim loai nao? Biet rang khoi lng muoi nitrat tao thanh gap 1,905 lan khoi lng muoi clorua. x 2 S: a) = ; b) Fe y 3 Cau 29: Hoa tan hoan toan 14,2g hon hp C gom MgCO3 va muoi cacbonat cua kim loai R vao dung dch HCl 7,3% va u, thu c dung dch D va 3,36 lt kh CO2 (ktc). Nong o MgCl2 trong dung dch D bang 6,028%. a) Xac nh kim loai R va thanh phan % theo khoi lng cua moi chat trong C. b) Cho dung dch NaOH d vao dung dch D, loc lay ket tua nung ngoai khong kh en khi phan ng hoan toan. Tnh so gam chat ran con lai sau khi nung. S: a) R (Fe) va %MgCO3 = 59,15% , %FeCO3 = 40,85% ; b) mMgO = 4 g va mFe2O3 = 4 g Cau 30: Hoa tan hoan toan a gam kim loai M co hoa tr khong oi vao b gam dung dch HCl c dung dch D. Them 240 gam dung dch NaHCO3 7% vao D th va u tac dung het vi lng HCl con d, thu c dung dch E trong o nong o phan tram cua NaCl va muoi clorua km loai M tng ng la 2,5% va 8,12%. Them tiep lng d dung dch NaOH vao E, sau o loc lay ket tua, roi nung en khoi lng khong oi th thu c 16 gam chat ran. Viet cac phng trnh phan ng. Xac nh kim loai va nong o phan tram cua dung dch a dung. S: M (Mg) va %HCl = 16% Dang 5: BAI TOAN NONG O DUNG DCH I. Cac loai nong o: 1. Nong o phan tram (C%): la lng chat tan co trong 100g dung dch. m C% = ct 100% mct : Khoi lng chat tan (g) Cong Thc: mdd

10

Vi: Vay:

mdd = V.D C% =

mdd : Khoi lng dung dch (g) V: The tch dung dch (ml) D: Khoi lng rieng (g/ml)

mct mct 100% = 100% mdd V.D II. Nong o mol (CM): Cho biet so mol chat tan co trong 1 lt dung dch. n CM = Cong thc: (mol/l) V m m m (mol/l) hay (M) n= Ma suy ra: CM = M = M V M.V III. Quan he gia nong o phan tram va o tan S S C% = 100% S+100 IV. Quan he gia nong o phan tram va nong o mol. mct m .1000D mct n 10D 10D CM = = M = ct = .100. = C%. Ta co: mdd V mdd .M mdd M M 1000.D 10D M CM = C%. C% = CM . hay M 10D V. Khi pha tron dung dch: 1) S dung quy tac ng cheo: @ Tron m1 gam dung dch co nong o C1% vi m2 gam dung dch co nong o C2%, dung dch thu c co nong o C% la: m1 gam dung dch C1 C2 C C2 C m 1= C m C1 C m2 gam dung dch C2 C1 C 2 @ Tron V1 ml dung dch co nong o C 1 mol/l vi V2 ml dung dch co nong o C2 mol/l th thu c dung dch co nong o C (mol/l), vi Vdd = V1 + V2. V1 ml dung dch C1 C2 C C2 C V C 1= V2 C1 C V2 ml dung dch C2 C1 C @ Tron V1 ml dung dch co khoi lng rieng D1 vi V2 ml dung dch co khoi lng rieng D2, thu c dung dch co khoi lng rieng D. V1 ml dung dch D1 D2 D D2 D V D 1= V2 D1 D V2 ml dung dch D2 D1 D 2) Co the s dung phng trnh pha tron: m1C1 + m2C2 = ( m +m2 ) C (1) 1 m1 , m2 la khoi lng cua dung dch 1 va dung dch 2. C1 , C2 la nong o % cua dung dch 1 va dung dch 2. C la nong o % cua dung dch mi. (1) m1C1 + m2C2 = m C +m2C 1 m1 ( C1 -C) = m2 ( C -C2 )

11

m1 C2 -C = m2 C1 -C 3) e tnh nong o cac chat co phan ng vi nhau: - Viet cac phan ng xay ra. - Tnh so mol (khoi lng) cua cac chat sau phan ng. - Tnh khoi lng hoac the tch dung dch sau phan ng. Lu y: Cach tnh khoi lng dung dch sau phan ng. Neu san pham khong co chat bay hi hay ket tua.

mdd sau pha g = kholng ca chathamgia n n i c t

mdd sau pha g = kholng ca chathamgia mketu n n i c t t a

mdd sau pha g = kholng ca chathamgia mkhi n n i c t

Neu san pham tao thanh co chat bay hi hay ket tua.

BAI TAP: Cau 1: Tnh khoi lng AgNO3 b tach ra khoi 75 gam dung dch bao hoa AgNO3 50oC, khi dung dch c ha nhiet o en 20oC. Biet SAgNO 200 C = 222 g ;
3

mdd sau pha g = kholng ca chathamgia mkhi m t tu n n i c t ke a

Neu san pham va co ket tua va bay hi.

SAgNO

( 50 C)
0

= 455 g .

Cau 2: Co 2 dung dchHCl nong o 0,5M va 3M. Tnh the tch dung dch can phai lay e pha c 100ml dung dch HCl nong o 2,5M. Cau 3: Khi hoa tan m (g) muoi FeSO4.7H2O vao 168,1 (g) nc, thu c dung dch FeSO4 co nong o 2,6%. Tnh m? Cau 4: Lay 12,42 (g) Na2CO3.10H2O c hoa tan trong 50,1ml nc cat (D = 1g/ml). Tnh nong o phan tram cua dung dch thu c. Cau 5: Lay 8,4 (g) MgCO3 hoa tan vao 146 (g) dung dch HCl th va u. a) Viet phng trnh phan ng. b) Tnh nong o phan tram cua dung dch HCl au? c) Tnh nong o phan tram cac chat trong dung dch sau phan ng? Cau 6: Hoa tan 10 (g) CaCO3 vao 114,1 (g) dung dch HCl 8%. a) Viet phng trnh phan ng. b) Tnh nong o phan tram cac chat thu c sau phan ng? Cau 7: Hoa tan hoa toan 16,25g mot kim loai hoa tr (II) bang dung dch HCl 18,25% (D = 1,2g/ml), thu c dung dch muoi va 5,6l kh hiro (ktc). a) Xac nh kim loai? b) Xac nh khoi lng ddHCl 18,25% a dung? Tnh CM cua dung dch HCl tren? c) Tm nong o phan tram cua dung dch muoi sau phan ng? Cau 8: Cho a (g) Fe tac dung va u 150ml dung dch HCl (D = 1,2 g/ml) thu c dung dch va 6,72 lt kh (ktc). Cho toan bo lng dung dch tren tac dung vi dung dch AgNO3 d, thu c b (g) ket tua. a) Viet cac phng trnh phan ng. b) Tm gia tr a, b? c) Tnh nong o phan tram va nong o mol/l dung dch HCl? Cau 9: Mot hon hp gom Na2SO4 va K2SO4 tron theo t le 1 : 2 ve so mol. Hoa tan hon hp vao 102 (g) nc, thu c dung dch A. Cho 1664 (g) dung

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dch BaCl2 10% vao dung dch A, xuat hien ket tua. Loc bo ket tua, them H2SO4 d vao nc loc thay tao ra 46,6 (g) ket tua. Xac nh nong o phan tram cua Na2SO4 va K2SO4 trong dung dch A ban au? Cau 10: Cho 39,09 (g) hon hp X gom 3 muoi: K 2CO3, KCl, KHCO3 tac dung vi Vml dung dch HCl d 10,52% (D = 1,05g/ml), thu c dung dch Y va 6,72 lt kh CO2 (ktc). Chia Y thanh 2 phan bang nhau. - Phan 1: e trung hoa dung dch can 250ml dung dch NaOH 0,4M. - Phan 2: Cho tac dung vi AgNO3 d thu c 51,66 (g) ket tua. a) Tnh khoi lng cac chat trong hon hp ban au? b) Tm Vml? Cau 11: Cho 46,1 (g) hon hp Mg, Fe, Zn phan ng vi dung dch HCl th thu c 17,92 lt H2 (ktc). Tnh thanh phan phan tram ve khoi lng cac kim loai trong hon hp. Biet rang the tch kh H 2 do sat tao ra gap oi the tch H 2 do Mg tao ra. Cau 11: e hoa tan hoan toan 4 (g) hon hp gom mot kim loai hoa tr (II) va mot kim loai hoa tr (III) phai dung 170ml dung dch HCl 2M. a) Co can dung dch sau phan ng se thu c bao nhieu gam hon hp muoi khan. b) Tnh the tch kh H2 ( ktc) thu c sau phan ng. c) Neu biet kim loai hoa tr (III) tren la Al va no co so mol gap 5 lan so mol kim loai hoa tr (II). Hay xac nh ten kim loai hoa tr (II). Cau 12: Co mot oxit sat cha cong thc. Chia lng oxit nay lam 2 phan bang nhau. a) e hoa tan het phan 1 phai dung 150ml dung dch HCl 3M. b) Cho mot luong kh CO d i qua phan 2 nung nong, phan ng xong thu c 8,4 (g) sat. Tm cong thc oxit sat tren. Cau 13: A la mot hon hp bot gom Ba, Mg, Al. - Lay m gam A cho vao nc ti khi het phan ng thay thoat ra 6,94 lt H2 (ktc). - Lay m gam A cho vao dung dch xut d ti het phan ng thay thoat ra 6,72 lt H2 (ktc). - Lay m gam A hoa tan bang mot lng va u dung dch axit HCl c mot dung dch va 9,184 lt H2 (ktc). Hay tnh m va % khoi lng cac kim loai trong A. Cau 14: X la hon hp hai kim loai Mg va Zn. Y la dung dch H 2SO4 cha ro nong o. Th nghiem 1: Cho 24,3 gam X vao 2 lt Y, sinh ra 8,96 lt kh H2. Th nghiem 2: Cho 24,3 gam X vao 3 lt Y, sinh ra 11,2 lt kh H2. (Cac the tch kh eu o ktc) a) Chng to rang trong th nghiem 1 th X cha tan het, trong th nghiem 2 th X tan het. b) Tnh nong o mol cua dung dch Y va khoi lng moi kim loai trong X. Cau 15: Tnh nong o ban au cua dung dch H2SO4 va dung dch NaOH biet rang: - Neu o 3 lt dung dch NaOH vao 2 lt dung dch H2SO4 th sau khi phan ng dung dch co tnh kiem vi nong o 0,1 M. - Neu o 2 lt dung dch NaOH vao 3 lt dung dch H 2SO4 th sau phan ng dung dch co tnh axit vi nong o 0,2M.

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Cau 16: Hoa tan hoan toan a gam kim loai M co hoa tr khong oi vao b gam dung dch HCl c dung dch D. Them 240 gam dung dch NaHCO3 7% vao D th va u tac dung het vi lng HCl con d, thu c dung dch E trong o nong o phan tram cua NaCl va muoi clorua km loai M tng ng la 2,5% va 8,12%. Them tiep lng d dung dch NaOH vao E, sau o loc lay ket tua, roi nung en khoi lng khong oi th thu c 16 gam chat ran. Viet cac phng trnh phan ng. Xac nh kim loai va nong o phan tram cua dung dch a dung. Cau 17: Hoa tan hoan toan m gam kim loai M bang dung dch HCl d, thu c V lt H2 (ktc). Mat khac hoan tan hoan toan m gam kim loai M bang dung dch HNO3 loang, thu c muoi nitrat cua M, H2O va cung V lt kh NO duy nhat (ktc). a) So sanh hoa tr cua M trong muoi clorua va trong muoi nitrat. b) Hoi M la kim loai nao? biet rang khoi lng muoi nitrat tao thanh gap 1,095 lan khoi lng muoi clorua. Cau 18: Hoa tan hoan toan 14,2 gam hon hp C gom MgCO 3 va muoi cacbonat cua kim loai R vao axit HCl 7,3% va u, thu c dung dch D va 3,36 lt kh CO2 (ktc). Nong o MgCl2 trong dung dch D bang 6,028%. a) Xac nh kim loai R va thanh phan phan % theo khoi lng cua moi chat trong C. b) Cho dung dch NaOH d vao dung dch D, loc lay ket tua roi nung ngoai khong kh en khi phan ng hoan toan. Tnh so gam chat ran con lai sau khi nung. Cau 19: Khi cho a gam Fe vao trong 400ml dung dch HCl, sau khi phan ng ket thuc em co can dung dch thu c 6,2 gam chat ran X. Neu cho hon hp gom a gam Fe va b gam Mg vao trong 400ml dung dch HCl th sau khi phan ng ket thuc, thu c 896ml H 2 (ktc) va co can dung dch th thu c 6,68 gam chat ran Y. Tnh a, b, nong o mol cua dung dch HCl va thanh phan khoi lng cac chat trong X, Y. (Gia s Mg khong phan ng vi nc va khi phan ng vi axit Mg phan ng trc het Mg mi en Fe. Cho biet cac phan ng xay ra hoan toan). Cau 20: Dung dch X la dung dch H2SO4, dung dch Y la dung dch NaOH. Neu tron X va Y theo t le the tch la VX : VY = 3 : 2 th c dung dch A co cha X d. Trung hoa 1 lt A can 40 gam KOH 20%. Neu tron X va Y theo t le the tch VX : VY = 2 : 3 th c dung dch B co cha Y d. Trung hoa 1 lt B can 29,2 gam dung dch HCl 25%. Tnh nong o mol cua X va Y. Dang 6: BAI TOAN VE LNG CHAT D * Khi trng hp gap bai toan cho biet lng cua hai chat tham gia va yeu cau tnh lng chat tao thanh. Trong so hai chat tham gia phan ng se co mot chat tham gia phan ng het. Chat kia co the phan ng het hoac d. Lng chat tao thanh tnh theo lng chat nao phan ng het, do o phai tm xem trong hai chat cho biet, chat nao phan ng het. Cach giai: Lap t so, v du phng trnh phan ng: A + B C + D So mol chaA (theo e t ) So mol chaB (theo e t ) + Lap t so: So mol chaA (theo PTHH) t So mol chaB (theo PTHH) t So sanh 2 t so, t so nao ln hn chat o d, chat kia phan ng het. Tnh lng cac chat theo chat phan ng het.

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BAI TAP: Cau 1: un nong 16,8 gam bot sat va 6,4 gam bot lu huynh (khong co khong kh) thu c chat ran A. Hoa tan A bang HCl d thoat ra kh B. Cho kh B i cham qua dung dch Pb(NO3)2 tach ra ket tua D mau en. Cac phan ng eu xay ra 100%. a) Viet phng trnh phan ng e cho biet A, B, D la g? b) Tnh the tch kh B (ktc) va khoi lng ket tua D. c) Can bao nhieu the tch O2 (ktc) e ot hoan toan kh B. Cau 2: un nong hon hp Fe, S (khong co khong kh) thu c chat ran A. Hoa tan A bang axit HCl d thoat ra 6,72 dm3 kh D (ktc) va con nhan c dung dch B cung chat ran E. Cho kh D i cham qua dung dch CuSO4 tach ra 19,2 gam ket tua en. a) Viet phng trnh phan ng. b) Tnh lng rieng phan Fe, S ban au biet lng E bang 3,2 gam. Cau 3: Dan 4,48 dm3 CO ( ktc) i qua m gam CuO nung nong nhan c chat ran X va kh Y. Suc kh Y vao dung dch Ca(OH) 2 d tach ra 20 gam ket tua trang. Hoa tan chat ran X bang 200ml dung dch HCl 2M th sau phan ng phai trung hoa dung dch thu c bang 50 gam Ca(OH) 2 7,4%. Viet PTP va tnh m. Cau 4: 6,8 gam hon hp Fe va CuO tan trong 100 ml axit HCl dung dch A + thoat ra 224 ml kh B (ktc) va loc c chat ran D nang 2,4 gam. Them tiep HCl d vao hon hp A + D th D tan 1 phan, sau o them tiep NaOH en d va loc ket tua tach ra nung nong trong khong kh en lng khong oi can nang 6,4 gam. Tnh thanh phan khoi lng Fe va CuO trong hon hp au. Cau 5: Tron 100 ml dung dch Fe2(SO4)3 1,5M vi 150 ml dung dch Ba(OH)2 2M thu c ket tua A va dung dch B. Nung ket tua A trong khong kh en lng khong oi thu c chat ran D. Them BaCl2 d vao dung dch B th tach ra ket tua E. a) Viet phong trnh phan ng. Tnh D va E. b) Tnh nong o mol chat tan trong dung dch B (coi the tch thay oi khong ang ke khi xay ra phan ng). Cau 6: Cho13,6 gam hon hp gom Mg va Fe c hoa tan trong 100 ml dung dch CuSO4. Sau phan ng nhan c dung dch A va 18,4 gam chat ran B gom 2 kim loai. Them NaOH d vao A roi loc ket tua tach ra nung nong trong khong kh en khoi lng khong oi nhan c chat ran D gom MgO va Fe2O3 nang 1,2 gam. Tnh lng Fe, Mg ban au. Dang 7: BAI TOAN XAC NH HON HP 2 KIM LOAI (HOAC 2 MUOI) HAY AXIT CON D * Lu y: Khi gap bai toan cho hon hp 2 kim loai (hoac 2 muoi) tac dung vi axit, e bai yeu cau chng minh axit con d hay hon hp 2 kim loai con d. Ta giai nh sau: Gia s hon hp ch gom mot kim loai (hoac muoi) co M nho, e khi chia khoi lng hon hp 2 kim loai (hoac hon hp 2 muoi) cho M co so mol ln, roi so sanh so mol axit e xem axit con d hay hon hp con d:

nhh 2 kim loai ( hoac 2 muoi) <

BAI TAP Cau 1: Cho 31,8g hon hp (X) gom 2 muoi MgCO 3 va CaCO3 vao 0,8 lt dung dch HCl 1M thu c dung dch (Z).

m hh M

< n HCl

15

a) Hoi dung dch (Z) co d axit khong? b) Lng CO2 co the thu c bao nhieu? Cau 2: Cho 39,6g hon hp gom KHSO3 va K2CO3 vao 400g dung dch HCl 7,3%,khi xong phan ng thu c kh (X) co t khoi so vi kh hiro bang 25,33% va mot dung dch (A). a) Hay chng minh rang axit con d. b) Tnh C% cac chat trong dung dch (A). Cau 3: Hoa tan 13,2 gam hon hp A gom 2 kim loai co cung hoa tr vao 400 ml dung dch HCl 1,5M. Co can dung dch sau phan ng thu c 32,7 gam hon hp muoi khan. a) Chng minh hon hp A khong tan het. b) Tnh the tch hiro sinh ra. Cau 4: Hon hp A gom 2 kim loai Mg va Zn. B la dung dch H2SO4 co nong o mol la x mol/l. - Trng hp 1: Cho 24,3g (A) vao 2 lt (B) sinh ra 8,96 lt kh H2. - Trng hp 1: Cho 24,3g (A) vao 3 lt (B) sinh ra 11,2 lt kh H2. (Cac the tch kh eu o ktc). a. Hay chng minh trong trng hp 1 th hon hp kim loai cha tan het, trong trng hp 2 axit con d. b. Tnh nong o x mol/l cua dung dch (B) va % khoi lng moi kim loai trong (A) Dang 8: BAI TOAN TANG, GIAM KHOI LNG Trng hp 1: Kim loai phan ng vi muoi cua kim loai yeu hn. * Hng giai: - Goi x (g) la khoi lng cua kim loai manh. - Lap phng trnh hoa hoc. - Da vao d kien e bai va PTHH e tm lng kim loai tham gia. - T o suy ra lng cac chat khac. * Lu y: Khi cho mieng kim loai vao dung dch muoi, Sau phan ng thanh kim loai tang hay giam: - Neu thanh kim loai tang: mkimloai sau mkimloai tr = mkimloai tag c n Neu khoi lng thanh kim loai giam: mkimloai tr mkimloai sau = mkimloai gia c m - Neu e bai cho khoi lng thanh kim loai tang a% hay giam b % th nen at thanh kim loai ban au la m gam. Vay khoi lng thanh kim loai tang a% m hay b% m. BAI TAP Cau 1: Cho mot la ong co khoi lng la 6 gam vao dung dch AgNO3. Phan ng xong, em la kim loai ra ra nhe, lam kho can c 13,6 gam. Tnh khoi lng ong a phan ng. Cau 2: Ngam mot mieng sat vao 320 gam dung dch CuSO4 10%. Sau khi tat ca ong b ay ra khoi dung dch CuSO4 va bam het vao mieng sat, th khoi lng mieng sat tang len 8%. Xac nh khoi lng mieng sat ban au. Cau 3: Nhung thanh sat co khoi lng 50 gam vao 400ml dung dch CuSO 4. Sau mot thi gian khoi lng thanh sat tang 4%.

16

a) Xac nh lng Cu thoat ra. Gia s ong thoat ra eu bam vao thanh sat. b) Tnh nong o mol/l cua dung dch sat(II) sunfat tao thanh. Gia s the tch dung dch khong thay oi. Trng hp 2: Tang giam khoi lng cua chat ket tua hay khoi lng dung dch sau phan ng a) Khi gap bai toan cho a gam muoi clorua (cua kim loai Ba, Ca, Mg) tac dung vi dung dch cacbonat tao muoi ket tua co khoi lng b gam. Hay tm cong thc muoi clorua. - Muon tm cong thc muoi clorua phai tm so mol (n) muoi. o giam khoi lng muoi clorua = a b la do thay Cl 2 (M = 71) bang CO3 (M = 60).

nmuoi =

a- b 71 60

Xac nh cong thc phan t muoi: M muoiclorua =

a nmuoi

T o xac nh cong thc phan t muoi. b) Khi gap bai toan cho m gam muoi cacbonat cua kim loai hoa tr II tac dung vi H2SO4 loang d thu c n gam muoi sunfat. Hay tm cong thc phan t muoi cacbonat. Muon tm cong thc phan t muoi cacbonat phai tm so mol muoi. n- m nmuoi = (do thay muoi cacbonat (60) bang muoi sunfat (96) 96 60 mmuoi R Xac nh cong thc phan t muoi RCO3: R +60 = nmuoi Suy ra cong thc phan t cua RCO3. BAI TAP Cau 1: Hai thanh kim loai giong nhau (eu tao bi cung nguyen to R hoa tr II) va co cung khoi lng. Tha thanh th nhat vao dung dch Cu(NO 3)2 va thanh thu hai vao dung dch Pb(NO3)2. Sau mot thi gian, khi so mol 2 muoi phan ng bang nhau lay 2 thanh kim loai o ra khoi dung dch thay khoi lng thanh th nhat giam i 0,2%, con khoi lng thanh th hai tang them 28,4%. Tm nguyen to R. Cau 2: Co 100 ml muoi nitrat cua kim loai hoa tr II (dung dch A). Tha vao A mot thanh Pb kim loai, sau mot thi gian khi lng Pb khong oi th lay no ra khoi dung dch thay khoi lng cua no giam i 28,6 gam. Dung dch con lai c tha tiep vao o mot thanh Fe nang 100 gam. Khi lng sat khong oi na th lay ra khoi dung dch, tham kho can nang 130,2 gam. Hoi cong thc cua muoi ban au va nong o mol cua dung dch A. Cau 3: Cho mot thanh Pb kim loai tac dung va u vi dung dch muoi nitrat cua kim loai hoa tr II, sau mot thi gian khi khoi lng thanh Pb khong oi th lay ra khoi dung dch thay khoi lng no giam i 14,3 gam. Cho thanh sat co khoi lng 50 gam vao dung dch sau phan ng tren, khoi lng thanh sat khong oi na th lay ra khoi dung dch, ra sach, say kho can nang 65,1 gam. Tm ten kim loai hoa tr II. Cau 4: Hoa tan muoi nitrat cua mot kim loai hoa tr II vao nc c 200 ml dung dch (A). Cho vao dung dch (A) 200 ml dung dch K 3PO4, phan ng xay ra va u, thu c ket tua (B) va dung dch (C). Khoi lng ket tua (B) va khoi lng muoi nitrat trong dung dch (A) khac nhau 3,64 gam.

17

a) Tm nong o mol/l cua dung dch (A) va (C), gia thiet the tch dung dch thay oi do pha tron va the tch ket tua khong ang ke. b) Cho dung dch NaOH (lay d) vao 100 ml dung dch (A) thu c ket tua (D), loc lay ket tua (D) roi em nung en khoi lng khong oi can c 2,4 gam chat ran. Xac nh kim loai trong muoi nitrat. Dang 9: BAI TOAN CO HIEU SUAT PHAN NG Cau 1:Trong cong nghiep ieu che H2SO4 t FeS2 theo s o sau: FeS2 SO2 SO3 H2SO4 a) Viet phng trnh phan ng va ghi ro ieu kien. b) Tnh lng axit 98% ieu che c t 1 tan quang cha 60% FeS2. Biet hieu suat cua qua trnh la 80%. Cau 2:ieu che HNO3 trong cong nghiep theo s o: NH3 NO NO2 HNO3 a) Viet phng trnh phan ng va ghi ro ieu kien. b) Tnh the tch NH3 ( ktc) cha 15% tap chat khong chay can thiet e thu c 10 kg HNO3 31,5%. Biet hieu suat cua qua trnh la 79,356%. Cau 3:Ngi ta ieu che C2H2 t than va a voi theo s o: 95% 80% 90% CaCO3 CaO CaC2 C2H2 Vi hieu suat moi phan ng ghi tren s o. a) Viet phng trnh phan ng. b) Tnh lng a voi cha 75% CaCO3 can ieu che c 2,24 m3 C2H2 (ktc) theo s o. Dang 10: BAI TOAN KHI GIAI QUY VE 100 Cau 1: Hon hp gom CaCO3 lan Al2O3 va Fe2O3 trong o co Al2O3 chiem 10,2% con Fe2O3 chiem 98%. Nung hon hp nay nhiet o cao thu c chat ran co lng bang 67% lng hon hp ban au. Tnh % lng chat ran tao ra. ap so: % Al2O3 = 15,22% ; %Fe2O3 = 14,63% ; %CaCO2 (d) = 7,5% va %CaO = 62,7% Cau 2: Hon hp A gom oxit cua mot kim loai hoa tr II va muoi cacbonat cua kim loai o c hoa tan het bang axit H2SO4 loang va u tao ra kh B va con dung dch D. em co can D thu c mot lng muoi khan bang 168% lng A. Biet lng kh B bang 44% lng A. Hoi kim loai hoa tr II noi tren la nguyen to nao ? % lng moi chat trong A bang bao nhieu. ap so: A la Mg ; %MgO = 16% va %MgCO3 = 84% Cau 3: Muoi A tao bi kim loai M (hoa tr II) va phi kim X (hoa tr I). Hoa tan mot lng A vao nc c dung dch A. Neu them AgNO3 d vao A th lng ket tua tach ra bang 188% lng A. Neu them Na2CO3 d vao dung dch A th lng ket tua tach ra bang 50% lng A. Hoi kim loai M va phi kim X la nguyen to nao ? Cong thc muoi A. ap so: M la Ca va X la Br ; CTHH cua A la CaBr2 Dang 11: BAI TOAN TONG HP Cau 1: Tron 100g dung dch cha mot muoi sunfat cua kim loai kiem nong o 13,2% vi 100g dung dch NaHCO3 4,2%. Sau khi phan ng xong thu c dung dch A co khoi lng m (dd A) < 200g. Cho 100g dung dch BaCl 2 20,8% vao

18

dung dch A, khi phan ng xong ngi ta thay dung dch van con d muoi sunfat. Neu them tiep vao o 20g dung dch BaCl2 20,8% na th dung dich lai d BaCl2 va luc nay thu c dung dch D. a) Hay xac nh cong thc muoi sunfat kim loai kiem ban au. b) Tnh nong o % cua cac chat tan trong dung dch A va dung dch D. c) Dung dch muoi sunfat kim loai kiem ban au co the tac dung c vi nhng chat nao di ay? Viet cac PTP: Na2CO3 ; Ba(HCO3)2 ; Al2O3 ; NaAlO2 ; Na ; Al ; Ag ; Ag2O. Cau 2: Hoa tan hoan toan a gam kim loai M co hoa tr khong oi vao b gam dung dch HCl c dung dch D. Them 240 gam dung dch NaHCO 3 7% vao dung dch D th va u tac dung het vi lng HCl con d, thu c dung dch E trong o nong o phan tram cua NaCl va muoi clorua kim loai M tng ng la 2,5% va 8,12%. Them tiep lng d dung dch NaOH vao E, sau o loc lay ket tua, roi nung en khoi lng khong oi th thu c 16 gam chat ran. Viet PTP. Xac nh kim loai M va nong o phan tram cua dung dch HCl a dung. Cau 3: Hoa tan hoan toan 14,2 gam hon hp C gom MgCO3 va muoi cacbonat cua kim loai R vao axit HCl 7,3% va u, thu c dung dch D va 3,36 lt kh CO2 (ktc). Nong o MgCl2 trong dung dch D bang 6,028%. a) Xac nh kim loai R va thanh phan % theo khoi lng cua moi chat trong C. b) Cho dd NaOH d vao dung dch D, loc lay ket tua roi nung ngoai khong kh en khi phan ng hoan toan. Tnh so gam chat ran con lai sau khi nung. Cau 4: Hoa tan hoan toan m gam kim loai M bang dung dch HCl d, thu c V lt H2 (ktc). Mat khac hoa tan hoan toan m gam kim loai M bang dung dch HNO3 loang, thu c muoi nitrat cua M, H2O va cung V lt kh NO duy nhat (ktc). a) So sanh hoa tr cua M trong muoi clorua va muoi nitrat. b) Hoi M la kim loai nao? Biet rang khoi lng muoi nitrat tao thanh gap 1,905 lan khoi lng muoi clorua. Cau 5: Khi lam nguoi 1026,4g dung dch bao hoa muoi sunfat cua kim loai ngam nc, co cong thc M2SO4.H2O vi 7 < n < 12 t nhiet o 80 0C xuong nhiet o 100C th thay co 395,4g tinh the ngam nc tach ra. o tan cua muoi khan o 800C la 28,3 va 100C la 9g. Cau 6: Cho hai chat A va B (eu the kh) tng tac hoan toan vi nhau co mat xac tac th thu c mot hon hp kh X co t trong la 1,568g/l. Hon X co kha nang lam mat mau dung dch nc cua KMnO4, nhng khong phan ng vi NaHCO3. Khi ot chay 0,896 lt hon hp kh X trong O2 d, sau khi lam lanh san pham chay thu c 3,52 gam cacbon (IV) oxit va 1,085g dung dch chat Y. Dung dch chat Y khi cho tac dung va u vi dung dch AgNO3 th thu c 1,435g mot ket tua trang, con dung dich thu c khi o cho tac dung vi dung dch NaHCO3 d th thu c 224 ml kh (the tch va t trong cua cac kh c ktc). a) Xac nh trong hon hp X co nhng kh nao va t le mol hay t le the tch la bao nhieu? b) Xac nh ten kh A, B va t le the tch a lay e phan ng. Cau 7: Mot hon hp kim loai X gom 2 kim loai Y, Z co t so khoi lng 1 : 1. Trong 44,8g hon hp X, so hieu mol cua A va B la 0,05 mol. Mat khac nguyen t khoi Y > Z la 8. Xac nh kim loai Y va Z. Cau 8: Cho a gam Na tac dung vi p gam nc thu c dung dch NaOH nong o x%. Cho b gam Na2O tac dung vi p gam nc cung thu c dung dch NaOH nong o x%. Lap bieu thc tn p theo a va b.

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Cau 9: Hoa tan 199,6g CuSO4.5H2O. Xac nh CuSO4 sach hay co lan tap chat. Biet rang o tan cua CuSO4 100C la 17,4. Cau 10: Hon hp M gom oxit cua mot kim loai hoa tr II va muoi cacbonat cua kim loai o c hoa tan het bang axit H2SO4 loang va u tao ra kh N va dung dch L. em co can dung dch L thu c mot lng muoi khan bang 168% khoi lng M. Xac nh kim loai hoa tr II, biet kh N bang 44% khoi lng cua M. Cau 11: Cho hon hp gom 3 oxit: Al2O3, CuO va K2O. Tien hanh th nghiem: - Th nghiem 1: Neu cho hon hp A vao nc d, khuay k thay con 15g chat ran khong tan. - Th nghiem 2: Neu cho them vao hon hp A mot lng Al2O3 bang 50% lng Al2O3 trong A ban au roi lai hoa tan vao nc d. Sau th nghiem con lai 21g chat ran khong tan. - Th nghiem 3: Neu cho vao hon hp A mot lng Al2O3 bang 75% lng Al2O3 trong A, roi lai hoa tan vao nc d, thay con lai 25g chat ran khong tan. Tnh khoi lng moi oxit trong hon hp A. Cau 12: Nung x1 gam Cu vi x2 gam O2 thu c chat ran A1. un nong A1 trong x3 gam H2SO4 98%, sau khi tan het thu c dung dch A 2 va kh A3. Hap thu toan bo A3 bang 200 ml NaOH 0,15M tao ra dung dch cha 2,3 gam muoi. Khi co can dung dch A2 thu c 30 gam tinh the CuSO4.5H2O. Neu cho A2 tac dung vi dung dch NaOH 1M th e tao ra lng ket tua nhieu nhat phai dung het 300 ml NaOH. Viet PTP. Tnh x1, x2, x3. CAC BAI TOAN TONG HP CAN LU Y Bai 1: A la hon hp Fe + Fe2O3 Cho mot luong CO (d) i qua ong ng m gam hon hp A nung nong ti phan ng hoan toan th thu c 28,0 gam chat ran con lai trong ong. Hoa tan m gam hon hp A bang dung dch HCl d thay thoat ra 2,016 lt H 2 ( ktc) biet rang co 10% hiro mi sinh tham gia kh Fe3+ thanh Fe2+. Tnh % khoi lng moi chat trong hon hp A. ap so: %Fe = 14,9% va %Fe2O3 = 85,1% Bai 2: Hoa tan hoan toan mot t oxit FexOy bang H2SO4 ac, nong thu c 2,24 lt SO2 (ktc). Phan dung dch em co can c 120 gam muoi khan. Xac nh cong thc FexOy. ap so: Fe3O4 Bai 3: Hoa tan 26,64 gam chat X la tinh the muoi sunfat ngam nc cua kim loai M (hoa tr x) vao nc c dung dch A. Cho A tac dung vi dung dch NH3 va u c ket tua B. Nung B nhiet o cao en khoi lng khong oi con lai 4,08 gam chat ran. Cho dung dch A tac dung vi dung dch BaCl2 va u c 27,84 gam ket tua. Tm cong thc X. ap so: Al2(SO4)3.18H2O Bai 4: e hoa tan 4 gam FexOy can 52,14 ml dung dch HCl 10% (d = 1,05). Xac nh cong thc phan t sat oxit tren. ap so: Fe2O3 Bai 5: Cho ba kim loai X, Y, Z co khoi lng nguyen t theo t le 10 : 11 : 23. T le ve so mol trong hon hp cua 3 kim loai tren la 1 : 2 : 3 (hon hp A). Khi cho mot lng kim loai X bang lng cua no co trong 24,582 gam hon 1 hp A tac dung vi dung dch HCl c 2,24 lt H2 (ktc). Neu cho hon hp A 10

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tac dung vi 50 ml dung dch NaOH 1M c dung dch B va hon hp chat ran C. Xac nh X, Y, Z ap so: X (Mg) ; Y (Al) ; Z (Fe) Bai 6: Khi hoa tan cung mot kim loai R vao dung dch HNO3 ac nong va H2SO4 loang th the tch NO2 thu c gap 3 the tch H2 trong cung ieu kien. Khoi lng muoi sunfat thu c bang 62,81% muoi nitrat. Tnh khoi lng nguyen t R. ap so: R = 56 (Fe) Bai 7: Cho oxit MxOy cua kim loai M co hoa tr khong oi. Biet rang 3,06 gam MxOy nguyen chat tan trong HNO3 d thu c 5,22 gam muoi. Hay xac nh cong thc cua oxit tren. ap so: BaO Bai 8: Cho 7,22 gam hon hp X gom Fe va kim loai M co hoa tr khong oi. Chia hon hp thanh 2 phan bang nhau. - Hoa tan het phan 1 trong dung dch HCl, c 2,128 lt H2. - Hoa tan het phan 2 trong dung dch HNO3, c 1,792 lt kh NO duy nhat. Xac nh kim loai M va % khoi lng moi kim loai trong hon hp X. ap so: M (Al) va %Fe = 77,56% ; %Al = 22,44% Bai 9: Chia hon hp 2 kim loai A va B co hoa tr tng ng la n va m thanh 3 phan bang nhau. - Phan 1: cho hoa tan het trong dung dch HCl, thu c 1,792 lt H2 (ktc). - Phan 2: cho tac dung vi dung dch NaOH d, thu c 1,344 lt kh 4 (ktc), con lai chat ran khong tan co khoi lng bang khoi lng 3 moi phan. - Phan 3: nung trong oxi d c 2,84 gam hon hp oxit la A2On va B2Om 1 a) Tnh tong khoi lng cua 2 kim loai trong hon hp ban au. 3 b) Hay xac nh 2 kim loai A va B. ap so: a) 2 kim loai nang 1,56 gam b) A (Al) va B (Mg) Bai 10: Hoa tan 2,84 hon hp 2 muoi cacbonat cua 2 kim loai A va B ke tiep nhau trong phan nhom chnh nhom II bang 120 ml dung dch HCl 0,5M thu c 0,896 lt kh CO2 (o 54,60C va 0,9 atm) va dung dch X. 1. a) Tnh khoi lng nguyen t cua A va B. c) Tnh khoi lng muoi tao thanh trong dung dch X. 2. Tnh % khoi lng cua moi muoi trong hon hp ban au. ap so: 1. a) A = 24 (Mg) va B = 40 (Ca) b) Khoi lng muoi = 3,17g 2. % MgCO3 = 29,57% va % CaCO3 = 70,43% Bai 11: Chia hon hp 2 kim loai A, B co hoa tr n va m lam thanh 3 phan bang nhau. - Phan 1: hoa het trong axit HCl thu c 1,792 lt H2 (ktc). - Phan 2: cho tac dung vi dd NaOH d thu c 1,344 lt kh (ktc) va 4 con lai chat ran khong tan co khoi lng bang khoi lng moi 13 phan.

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- Phan 3: nung trong oxi (d) thu c 2,84g hon hp oxit A2On va B2Om.
Tnh tong khoi lng moi phan va ten 2 kim loai A, B. ap so: mmopha = 1,56 g ; A (Al) va B (Mg) i n ---------------------------------------Dang 12: BAI TOAN BIEN LUAN * BAI TOAN XAC NH LOAI MUOI TAO THANH KHI CHO CO2, SO2 TAC DUNG VI KIEM. a) Phan ng cua CO2 hoac SO2 tac dung vi kiem cua kim loai hoa tr I (Na, K,) CO2 + NaOH NaHCO3 CO2 + 2NaOH Na2CO3 + H2O Co 3 trng hp xay ra: nNaOH (1) Neu 1 < n < 2 tao 2 muoi CO2

(2)

Neu

nNaOH 1 tao muoi NaHCO3 nCO2 2 tao muoi Na2CO3

(3) Neu )

nNaOH nCO2

b) Phan ng cua CO2 hoac SO2 vi kiem cua kim loai hoa tr II (Ca, Ba, 2CO2 + Ca(OH)2 Ca(HCO3)2 CO2 + Ca(OH)2 CaCO3 + H2O Co 3 trng hp xay ra: nCO2 (1) Neu 1 < < 2 tao 2 muoi nCa (OH )2 (2) Neu (3) Neu nCO2 nCa (OH )2 nCO2 nCa (OH )2 1 tao muoi CaCO3 2 tao muoi Ca(HCO3)2

* Lu y: e biet loai muoi tao thanh thng phai lap t le gia so mol kiem va oxit. Chu y lay so mol cua chat nao khong thay oi 2 phng trnh lam mau so e xet bat ang thc. BAI TAP: Bai 1: Cho 7,2 gam hon hp A gom 2 muoi cacbonat cua 2 kim loai ke tiep nhau trong phan nhom chnh nhom II. Cho A hoa tan het trong dung dch H 2SO4 loang, thu c kh B. Cho toan bo B hap thu het bi 450 ml Ba(OH) 2 0,2M thu c 15,76 gam ket tua. Xac nh hai muoi cacbonat va tnh % theo khoi lng cua chung trong A. ap so: - 2 muoi: MgCO3 va CaCO3 - %MgCO3 = 58,33% va %CaCO3 = 41,67% Bai 2: Hoa tan hoan toan 20 gam hon hp gom MgCO3 va RCO3 (t le mol 1 : 1) bang dung dch HCl. Lng kh CO2 sinh ra cho hap thu hoan toan bi 200ml dung dch NaOH 2,5M c dung dch A. Them BaCl2 d vao dung dch A thu c 39,4g ket tua. a) nh kim loai R. b) Tnh % khoi lng cac muoi cacbonat trong hon hp au.

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ap so: a) Fe ; b) %MgCO3 = 42% va %FeCO3 = 58% Bai 3: Cho 4,58g hon hp A gom Zn, Fe va Cu vao coc ng dung dch CuSO 4 1M. Sau phan ng thu c dung dch B va ket tua C. nung C trong khong kh en khoi lng khong oi c 6g chat ranD. Them NaOH d vao dung dch B, loc ket tua ra sach roi nung nhiet o cao en khoi lng khong oi c 5,2g chat ran E. a) Viet toan bo phan ng xay ra. b) Tnh % khoi lng moi kim loai trong hon hp. Gia thiet cac phan ng xay ra hoan toan. ap so: %Zn = 28,38% ; %Fe = 36,68% va %Cu = 34,94% Bai 4: Cho 10,72g hon hp gom Fe va Cu tac dung vi 500ml dung dch AgNO3. Sau khi cac phan ng xay ra hoan toan thu c dung dch A va 35,84g chat ran B. Chng minh chat ran B khong phai hoan toan la bac. Bai 5: Cho 0,774g hon hp gom Zn va Cu tac dung vi 500ml dung dch AgNO3 0,04M. Sau khi cac phan ng xay ra hoan toan thu c mot chat ran X nang 2,288g. Chng to rang chat X khong phai hoan toan la Ag. Bai 6: Khi hoa tan cung mot lng kim loai R vao dung dch HNO3 loang va dung dch H2SO4 loang th thu c kh NO va H2 co the tch bang nhau (o cung ieu kien). Biet khoi lng muoi nitrat thu c bang 159,21% khoi lng muoi sunfat. Xac nh kim loai R. ap so: R la Fe Bai 7: Cho 11,7g mot kim loai hoa tr II tac dung vi 350ml dung dch HCl 1M. Sau khi phan ng xong thay kim loai van con d. Cung lng kim loai nay neu tac dung vi 200ml dung dch HCl 2M. Sau khi phan ng xong thay axit van con d. Xac nh kim loai noi tren. ap so: Zn Bai 8: Mot hon hp A gom M2CO3, MHCO3, MCl (M la kim loai kiem). Cho 43,71g A tac dung het vi V ml (d) dung dch HCl 10,52% (d = 105g/ml) thu c dung dch B va 17,6g kh C. Chia B lam 2 phan bang nhau. - Phan 1: phan ng va u vi 125ml dung dch KOH 0,8M, co can dung dch thu c m (gam) muoi khan. - Phan 2: tac dung hoan toan vi AgNO3 d thu c 68,88g ket tua trang. 1. a) Tnh khoi lng nguyen t cua M. b) Tnh % ve khoi lng cac chat trong A. 2. Tnh gia tr cua V va m. ap so: 1. a) Na ; b) %Na2CO3 = 72,75% , %NaHCO3= 19,22% va %NaCl = 8,03% 2. V = 297,4ml va m = 29,68g Bai 9: Hoa tan hoan toan 0,5g hon hp gom Fe va mot kim loai hoa tr II bang dung dch HCl thu c 1,12 lt (ktc) kh hiro. Xac nh kim loai hoa tr II a cho. ap so: Be Bai 10: Hoa tan hoan toan 28,4g hon hp gom 2 muoi cacbonat cua hai kim loai kiem tho bang dung dch HCl d c 10 lt kh (54,60C va 0,8604 atm) va dung dch X. a) Tnh tong so gam cac muoi trong dung dch X. b) Xac nh 2 kim loai tren neu chung thuoc hai chu ky lien tiep. c) Tnh % moi muoi trong hon hp.

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ap so: a) m = 31,7g ; b) Mg va Ca ; c) %MgCO3 = 29,5% va %CaCO3 = 70,5%

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