Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 20

CHRISTIAN LIVING 103 COMMITMENT

Introduction

CHRISTIAN

This work-textbook focuses on developing the students a more mature personal understanding and integrating the learning to their daily living and realizing a personal commitment to GOD and others as true Christians. This part begins by understanding the principles of morality in general: concept of morality: ethics, morality its norms, definition and importance, also deals with humans acts, determinants and modifiers of morality, freedom and sin, conscience and law. CHAPTER ONE THE CONCEPT OF MORALITY Ethics Etymological Definition: Ethics is derived from the Greek word ethos which means characteristic way of acting. In Latin word it is equivalent to mos, mores, which means tradition or custom. Ethos includes cultural mannerism, religion, politics, laws, and social aspirations of a group of people. In our study, ethos refers to those characteristic belonging to man as a rational being, endowed with intellect and will. The ethos of man as a man is revealed in the following: 1. He is able to distinguish between good and evil, right or wrong, moral and immoral. 2. He feels within himself an obligation to do what is good and to avoid what is evil. 3. He feels himself accountable for his actions, expecting reward or punishments for them. In other words, man is endowed by nature with a moral sense. He is self-conscious of his dignity and submits to the duty of doing what is good and avoiding what is wrong. This much is expected of man: that he conducts himself according to the dictates of reason. Ethics, its meaning Ethics is defined as a science of morality of human acts. And because actions reflects the motives of the doer, Ethics is said to be the study of human motivation, and ultimately, of human rational behavior. Human Acts are those actions performed by man, knowingly and freely. They are also called deliberate or intentional actions, or, voluntary actions. As such, they are differentiated from the so called acts of man which are instinctive and involuntary.

CHRISTIAN LIVING 103 COMMITMENT


Morality Morality, its meaning

CHRISTIAN

Morality is the quality of human acts by which they are constituted as good, bad, or indifferent. That which is good is described as moral; that which is bad is immoral, and that which is indifferent is amoral. a. Description of morality it is the quality of human acts which leads us to call some of them good, evil or indifferent. Now, why do we call anything good, evil, or indifferent?
A thing is good inasmuch as its serves as an end of such tendency. Example, I call may coat a good coat if it furnishes me what I want in a coat, such as, warmth, style, fits, good cloth, good tailoring, etc. A thing is evil inasmuch as it fails to serve its ends. Such being the end of human action, it follows that human acts are good inasmuch as they serve to carry the agent on towards the attainment of this end, and not good, or evil, inasmuch as they fail to lead towards the last end, or even lead away from it

b. Norms of morality these are the standards of rightfulness or wrongness of


an action, the goodness or the evilness of an action. Eternal Law (Divine reason), is the ultimate norm of morality, but that which serves man immediately in action, conscience (Human reason) is the proximate norm of morality. In reality, then, there are not two norms but only one; for conscience is the judgment of human reason recognizing and applying the Eternal Law in individual human acts. c. Definition of Morality Morality is the relation of human acts to their norm. Morality is the property of a free act, that is, it is certainly present characteristic of a free act. It is the relation which the act bears toward the norm or measure of what it should be toward the norm of morality.
N.b. The two terms, namely, Ethics and Morality therefore, have identical meaning. But Ethics is differentiated from Morality, since Ethics studies human conduct in the light of reason, while Morality studies human conduct in the light of revelation with emphasis on the supernatural end, i.e., the union with God.)

Virtuousness, being a man Being a man manliness connotes virility the term man is derived from the Latin word vir. Thus, manliness came to be applied not only to males, but also to humankind, as an adjective that describes the universal traits of men and womens rationality, power, dominion. From the word vir, virtus came to signify the strengths of a man - a set of qualities that contribute to his excellence as a person. It was from the Latin word virtus that we derived the English term virtue, which we now use to denote the set of good habits that a person may acquire and employ for the pursuit of his personal perfection or excellence.

CHRISTIAN LIVING 103 COMMITMENT

CHRISTIAN

Men have the natural inclination to perform good acts. This is do because man is created as, and ordained to be, good. Furthermore, men also have the inclination to exhibits actions following certain patterns. Our actions are not totally unrelated to one another. These patterns, when they reached a level of consistency, and become embedded in us, constitute habits. Good habits are called virtues, bad habits are called vices. A person who has the habit or inclination to do good is said to be virtuous. On the contrary, one who has the habit of doing wrong is vicious. Esto Vir! Figure 1. Schematic Diagram ETHICS
*In the light of reason

Characteristic way of acting

Actions

MORALITY
*In the light of revelation

Good Habits

Evil

Good habits = Virtues The importance of morality

Bad habits = Vices

1. Ethics is an indispensable knowledge. Without moral perception, man is only an animal. Without morality, man as rational being is a failure. 2. Moral integrity is the only true measure of what man ought to be. 3. Morality is the foundation of every human society; every culture admits the importance of morality as a standard of behavior.

CHRISTIAN LIVING 103 COMMITMENT


THE HUMAN ACTS

CHRISTIAN

Action constitutes a person, an individual in control of himself and accountable to himself. In this section we will distinguish the human act from the acts of man.

1. Human acts- are actions which man performs knowingly, freely and 2.
voluntary. (ex. Reading, writing, watching, punching, running, diving etc.) Acts of man- actions which are instinctive and are not within the control of the will. Such actions are biological and physiological movement in man. (ex. Digestion, blood circulation, heartbeat.)

ESSENTIAL ATTRIBUTES OF HUMAN ACTS Man is hold liable or responsible in all his actions. The essential attributes of human acts will explicitly elaborate how man will be judged as responsible for his actions. 1. Knowledge - an act must be performed by a conscious agent (doer) who is aware of what he is doing and of its consequences. Children below the age of reason, the insane and the senile are considered incapable of acting knowingly. 2. Freedom - an act must be performed by an agent who is acting freely, i.e., by his own volition and powers. An action done under duress and against ones will is not entirely a free action. 3. Will - an agent must perform willfully. The willfulness is the resolve to perform an act in the here and now, or in some future time. MORAL DISTINCTION Human acts may either be in conformity or not with the dictates of reason. Dictates of reason refers to the shared consciousness of prudent people about the propriety of a certain action or manner of behavior. It is also the norm of morality which is the standard by which actions are judged as to their merits or demerits. On the basis of their relation to the norm of morality, actions are classified into: 1. Moral actions- actions in conformity with the norm of morality. They are good and permissible. 2. Immoral actions- actions which are not in conformity with the norm of morality they are bad or evil and are not permissible. 3. Amoral actions- actions which stand neutral in relation to the norm of morality. These are neither good nor bad in themselves. But certain amoral actions may become good or bad because circumstances attendant to them.
Example, Playing basketball is an amoral act, but playing basketball when one is supposed to be attending a class is wrong but playing basketball for the sake of brotherhood is good.

CHRISTIAN LIVING 103 COMMITMENT


IMPUTABILITY OF HUMAN ACTS

CHRISTIAN

A human act is done by a person who is in control of his faculties, intellect and will. A person assumes responsibility and accountability for his actions. Imputability means the person performing the act is liable for such act. It involves the notion of guilt or innocence. Actions are either praiseworthy or blameworthy. Actions are attributed to the doer as their principal cause. DETERMINANTS OF MORALITY Morality consists in the conformity or non-conformity of an act with the norm. Human acts relate to the norm under the following aspects: in itself, in its motive and in its circumstances. These three aspects are called the determinants of morality because they determine how an act is rendered good or bad on the basis of its relation with the norm. In human parlance, a human act is good when it is good in itself, in its motive or purpose, and its circumstances. A defect coming from any of these aspects renders an act morally objectionable.
For example: helping a needy is a good action in itself. It becomes bad if the purpose or motive for helping is just to impress other people. This shows how a morally good action may become morally objectionable on account of the motive of the doer.

The act in itself To consider an act in itself is to regard its nature. Actions are bad if they disturb the harmony within the action person (dehumanize a person.) they are unfit to the natural and spiritual tendencies of the human soul. Moral evils also produce physical harm and damage of oneself and others. 1. Intrinsic evil- intrinsic implies a quality inherent in a thing. Thus, an intrinsic evil act is an act which is evil by its very nature. Its functional purpose is wrong. Intrinsically evil acts are evil not only because they cause unjust harm and sufferings to others, but above all they dehumanize their perpetrators, reducing them to the level of beasts.

2. Extrinsic evil- extrinsic implies a quality which is superficially added to a


thing in a manner that a coat of paint covers the surface of the wall without modifying the essentiality of the wood constituting the wall. Example: eating meat by the Catholics on Fridays of Lent or the giving of alms to beggars as prohibited by law in Manila. The motive of an act Motive refers to the purpose which the doer wishes to achieve by such action. Without a motive, an act is meaningless, an accident. The assumption is for the motive to be good. A good motive is one which is consistent with the dignity of the human person. A good motive is one which is in accordance with truth, justice, prudence and temperance. Bad motives, on the other hand, grow from selfishness because such motives provoke actions detrimental to others.

CHRISTIAN LIVING 103 COMMITMENT

CHRISTIAN

The end does not justify the means No matter how good the intended result of an act may be, if the means to achieve such result is defective, the acts can never be justified and be considered as morally acceptable. The worthiness of the purpose does not make an evil act good. Msgr. Paul Glenn gives the following insights on the effects of the motive on the action: 1. 2. 3. 4. An act which is done on account of an evil motive is grievously wrong. A good action done on account of an evil motive becomes evil itself. A good action done on account of good purpose acquires an additional merit. An indifferent act may either become a good or bad depending on the motive.

Circumstances of the act An act is an event. It happens in a definite time and place. It is accompanied by certain elements which contribute to the nature and accountability of such act. Morality takes into account the circumstances surrounding the act. These circumstances are:

1. Who- refers primarily to the doer of the act. At times, it could refer to the
receiver of the act. This circumstance includes the age, status, relation, family background, educational attainment, health and socio-economic situation of the person/s involved.
Nota Bene: The moron, the insane, the senile, and the children below the age of reason are considered incapable of voluntary acts and therefore are exempted from moral accountability. However, people with higher educational attainment are presumed to know better than those with little education. Therefore the liability is greater. Persons vested with authority have higher accountability than those who merely follow their command or order. The relationship between people involved in act may modify the nature of such act. (eg., parricide and homicide.)

2. What- refers to the act itself and to the quality and quantity of the results of
such act.

3. Where- refers to the circumstance of place where the act is committed. 4. With whom- refers to the companion or accomplices in an act performed. The
more people are involved in the commission of an act, the greater and more serious is the crime.

5. Why- refers to the motive of the doer. 6. How- refers to the manner how the act is made possible. 7. When- refers to the time of the act.
Observations: 1. Circumstances may either increase or decrease the wrongfulness of an evil act. 2. Circumstances may also either increase or decrease the merits of a good act.

CHRISTIAN LIVING 103 COMMITMENT

CHRISTIAN

3. Some circumstances may alter the nature of an act. (eg., difference between a hold-up and stealing.) MODIFIERS OF HUMAN ACTS The ideal is for man to act deliberately, but this is not always possible though. Factors that influence mans inner disposition towards certain actions are called modifiers of human acts. They affect the mental or emotional state of a person to the extent that the voluntariness involved in an act is either increase or decreased. Man reacts and responds to stimulus. Authors point to the following as modifiers of human acts: ignorance, passion, fear, violence and habit.

1. Ignorance- is the absence of knowledge which a person ought to possess. In the


realm of morality everyone of age of reason is expected to know at least the general norms of good behavior. Kinds of ignorance:

a. Vincible ignorance- can easily be reminded through ordinary


diligence and reasonable efforts. a.1 Affected ignorance- the type which a person keeps by positive efforts in order to escape responsibility.

b. Invincible ignorance- the type which a person possesses without


being aware of it, or having awareness of it and lacks the means to rectify it. Principles of ignorance

1. Invincible ignorance renders an act involuntary. A person cannot be


held morally liable if he is not aware of his state of ignorance. (Not responsible)

2. Vincible ignorance does not destroy but lessens the voluntariness


and the corresponding accountability over the act. A person who becomes aware of the state of ignorance has the moral obligation to rectify it by exercising reasonable diligence in seeking the needed information. To act with vincible ignorance is to act imprudently. (lessens responsibility)

3. Affected ignorance, though it decreases voluntariness, increases the


accountability over the resultant act. Certainly, refusing to rectify ignorance implies malice; this malice becomes greater when ignorance is used as an excuse for not doing the right thing. (Greater responsibility) 2. Passions- or concupiscence, are either tendencies towards desirable objects (positive emotions), or tendencies away from undesirable or harmful things (negative emotions). They are either moral or immoral. However, man is bound to regulate his emotions and submit them to the control of reason.

CHRISTIAN LIVING 103 COMMITMENT

CHRISTIAN

Kinds of Passions: 1. Antecedent passions- those that precede an act. Antecedent passions always predispose a person to act. 2. Consequent passions- those that are intentionally aroused and kept. They are therefore voluntary in cause. Principles of passions:

1. Antecedent passions do not always destroy voluntariness, but they


diminish accountability for the resultant act. Antecedent passions weaken the will power of a person without, however, completely obstructing his freedom. (lessens responsibility)

2. Consequent passions do not lessen voluntariness, but may even


increase accountability. This is because consequent passions are the direct results of the will which fully consents to them instead of subordinating them to its control. (Greater responsibility.) 3. Fear the disturbance of the mind of a person who is confronted by an impending danger or harm to himself or loved ones. Kinds of fear 1. An act done with fear- fear is a normal response to danger. Such actions are voluntary, because the doer is in full control of his faculties and acts in spite of his fear. 2. An act done out of fear- fear becomes a positive force compelling a person to act without careful deliberation. Principles of fear:

1. Acts done with fear are voluntary. (responsible) 2. Acts done out of fear, however great, is simply voluntary, although it
is also conditionally voluntary. (Responsible)

3. Acts done out of intense fear or panic are involuntary. (not


responsible) 4. Violence refers to any physical force exerted on a person by another free agent for the purpose of compelling said person to act against his will. Principles of violence:

1. External actions or commanded actions, performed by a person 2.


subjected to violence, to which reasonable resistance has been offered, are involuntary and are not accountable. (not responsible) Elicited acts or those done by the will alone, are not subject to violence and are therefore voluntary. (responsible)

CHRISTIAN LIVING 103 COMMITMENT

CHRISTIAN

5. Habits- a lasting readiness and facility, born of frequently repeated acts, for acting in a certain manner. They assume the role of a second nature, moving one who has them to perform certain acts with relative ease. Principle of habits:

1. Actions done by force of habit are voluntary in cause, unless a


reasonable effort is made to counteract the habitual inclination. a. Habits are either good or bad. We speak here of bad habits which lead to immoral actions. b. Every action emanating from habit is said to partake of the voluntariness of those previous acts. Therefore, for as long as the habit is not corrected, every action done by force of that habit is voluntary and accountable. c. When a person decides to fight his habit, and for as long as the effort towards this purpose continues, actions resulting from such habit maybe regarded as acts of man and not accountable. The cause of that habit is no longer expressly desired.

CHRISTIAN LIVING 103 COMMITMENT

CHRISTIAN

CONSCIENCE Conscience is our capacity to discern what is morally good or evil, with the inner sense of being obliged to do good and avoid evil. It is exercise when persons are engaged in deliberating and deciding the course of action they ought to take in a given situation, in fidelity to the kind of person they are called to be before God, in communion with others. Conscience is the proximate norm of morality. It is proximate because it is what directly confronts an action as good or bad. Its function is to examine, to judge, and to pass a sentence on all moral actions. It is defined as an act of the practical judgment of reason deciding upon an individual action as good and to be performed or as evil and to be avoided. It is a practical judgment because it is an inference whose conclusion leads to something practicable. The main function of conscience is to determine what ought to be done in a given situation. After the commission of the act, conscience assumes the role of approving or reproaching. A reproving conscience is called guilty conscience. Kinds of conscience 1. Correct or true conscience- judges what is good as good and evil as evil. 2. Erroneous conscience- judges incorrectly that what is good is evil and what is evil is good. 3. Certain conscience- a subjective assurance of the lawfulness or unlawfulness of a certain act. This implies that the person is sure of his decision. 4. Doubtful conscience- a vacillating (indecisive) conscience, unable to form a definite judgment on a certain action. It must first be allowed to settle its doubts before an action is performed. 5. Scrupulous conscience- a rigorous conscience, extremely afraid of committing evil. It is meticulous and wants incontrovertible proofs before it act. 6. Lax conscience- one which refuses to be bothered about the distinction of good and evil. It rushes on and is quick to justify itself. Many Filipinos who act on the impulse of bahala na on matters of morality are acting with lax conscience. Compulsory nature of conscience Insofar as conscience operates within the realm of truth and sound reason, it is compulsory. When error creeps in, we should always trace it to its roots in order to eradicate it. It is only when conscience impels us to act according to our rational insights that it is truly the voice of God. But when it deviates from the correct norm, than it ceases to be rational and is no longer the voice of God, but our own evil work.

10

CHRISTIAN LIVING 103 COMMITMENT

CHRISTIAN

LAW According to St. Thomas Aquinas, law is the ordinance of reason, promulgated for the common good by one who is charge of the society. 1. it is an ordinance of reason, because rational deliberations indented to guide men towards what is good for them and for the society. 2. it is promulgated, because it is made known to the people who are bound to observe them. 3. by one who is charge of the society, because a person of authority has the power to implement the legitimate exercise of a law. Laws are necessary to man because they regulate human activity. Without laws, there will surely be anarchy or chaos, since each one will be acting according to his/her wishes without regard for the common good. Laws are like signs in the street which guide us towards our destination. Kinds of Law

1. Divine Positive Law- those promulgated or made known to us by special


command of God. They are explicit demands of our essential tendencies as rational beings. The Decalogue (10 Commandments) of Moses is an example of Divine Positive Law.

2. Human Positive Law- those promulgated by a legitimate authority, either the


State or the Church. It is intended to preserve harmony and peace within a society and to direct each member of that society to wok towards the common good. Nota bene: Human Positive Laws are subject to err because man, as its author is fallible. Laws are made to give direction to our life but there are important things that can go beyond the law and that is Love as the work of God who gave the Divine law.

11

CHRISTIAN LIVING 103 COMMITMENT

CHRISTIAN

Freedom Freedom is most abused and misused word. How easily young people use the word without really knowing the reality the word carries. This lesson will give us a change to reflect on the meaning of freedom and how it is basically related to our human becoming. * The experience of freedom comes with the feeling of peace, a certain sense of wholeness, of being one with oneself, with others, with God. The contrary experience is the experience of Unfreedom. It is an experience that leaves one with a deep satisfaction about oneself. It comes with the feeling that something is a miss, or something has gone awry. It is an experience of brokenness, as one loses a sense of self, of being truly centered in others and in God. Meaning / definition Our general understanding of freedom 1. Doing what I want. 2. The quality of being free. 3. The quality or state of not being forced coerced or constrained by fate, necessity or circumstances in ones choice or action. What freedom is not? 1. It is not a right to say and do anything, to do good. 2. It is not an individual possession, but a shared freedom with others in the community. 3. It is not found in prejudice, deceit or ignorance, but truth. Thus, Jn 8:32 pronounces, The truth will set us free. Then, what is an AUTHENTIC Human Freedom? Authentic human freedom is a shared capacity with others in the community for choosing not anything all but what is GOOD, in order to become our true selves. It is always relational. Thus, one cannot just do what he / she pleases to do, even if it hurts the welfare and well-being of others. Persons achieve the dignity of their freedom as Gods image and likeness when they choose the good and pursue it. Authentic human freedom involves the following. 1. Freedom from everything that opposes our true self-becoming with others in the community. Impediments: a. Interior obstacles such as ignorance, fear, personality defects, vices, prejudices or psychological defects. b. Exterior forces such as violent force, threat of violence.

12

CHRISTIAN LIVING 103 COMMITMENT

CHRISTIAN

2. Freedom for growing as full person before God and our fellow human person in love.

Responsibility and Freedom The root of responsibility is human freedom. Responsibility means the habitual capacity to address or attend to the making of free choices, and the mature readiness to answer for ones deeds, borne out of ones perception of the good laden in the objective pursued or desired. It is the ability to make free choices and the preparedness to be accountable for choices made is a consequence of knowledge and a person who knows fully wee the aspects, dimension and consequences of his choices, and can stand up to them, is truly free. Every person is responsible for all his free acts, being accountable for ones deeds, however, is only one aspect of responsibility. There is another side to responsibility which needs to be emphasized here its anticipatory aspect. It requires a contemplation of the best course of action to take in a specific situation. There is an essential difference between freedom and responsibility, freedom is a natural endowment, whereas responsibility is not. Responsibility is a companion of freedom. It is that value which somehow puts freedom in check, and assures that the exercise of this gift must be maximized in service and the pursuance of what is good. N.b.: The greatest obstacle to authentic freedom is SIN. Liberation to true freedom means first and foremost, liberation from the radical slavery of sin. Freedom is not the liberation to do anything whatever. It is the freedom to do the goodit finds its true meaning in the choice of moral good.

13

CHRISTIAN LIVING 103 COMMITMENT

CHRISTIAN

Sin Definition / meaning of sin

1. It is not simply doing something wrong or making mistakes.


2. It is a product of mans freedom. (JPII) 3. It is an utterance, a deed or a desire contrary to the eternal law. (St. Augustine) 4. It is an offense against reason, truth and right conscience; it is a failure in genuine love of God and neighbor caused by a perverse attachment to certain good. The Sense of Sin Read John 1:8-10 Moral life requires that we must recognize in ourselves the tendency to sin and acknowledge ourselves as sinners when we have done evil. A true sense of sin is a GRACE from God. 1. The sense of sin is weakened by SECULARISM. 2. Men are caught up in the flagrant CONSUMERISM that surrounds us. 3. Through radio, TV and cinemas, men continually faces so many examples pf bribery and corruption in business and government, cheating in family lie and lying in personal relationships that we often up realizing for our own misdeeds: anyway, everybody does it. The threefold Dimension of sin

1. The personal dimension of sin


a. By committing sin, man misses his proper destiny and his failure must inevitably result in disharmony and frustration. b. The sin deprives his life of its meaning or at least gives it less meaning. c. The sinner gets caught in a vicious cycle of self-produced bondage, anxiety and guilt. (c.f. Proverbs 8:35) 2. The social dimension of sin Many sins affect our fellowmen more or less directly by causing harm to them. a. b. c. d. sin of lovelessness and injustice sins of scandal and evil cooperation laziness and addiction to narcotics thoughts of revenge

3. Sin as rejection of God a. As a refusal to cooperate with Gods plan. b. As a refusal to accept his dependence of God. c. As a denial to the honor and obedience due to God

14

CHRISTIAN LIVING 103 COMMITMENT

CHRISTIAN

d. As a separation from the love and communion with God e. As an injury against God. Sins of Omission and Commission a. Sin of Omission is the failure to perform an obligatory act. Failure to respond to God and neighbor. b. Sin of Commission is the performance of a forbidden act. Actions which distort our true relationship with others. The Capital Sins (Read: Galatians 5:19-21) a. b. c. d. e. f. g. Pride exalting oneself beyond what is due and true. Anger- destructive aggressiveness. Gluttony excessive indulgence in food or drinks. Envy begrudging others their talents, success and wishing them evil. Sloth laziness and escape from exerting effort. Covetousness desiring what belongs to others, leading to dishonesty. Lust disordered desire for, or in ordinate enjoyment of sexual pleasure.

Kinds of sins

a. Mortal Sin a deadly or fatal sin, it kills the relationship between God and
man. In order to consider sin as mortal these three conditions must be present. a. The action must be seriously wrong b. The person knows that what he / she does is wrong c. With full consent of the will.

b. Venial Sin in not yet fatal sinfulness. It consist of light matter which does
not cut at the heart of the relationship

15

CHRISTIAN LIVING 103 COMMITMENT

CHRISTIAN

CHAPTER TWO THE FOUNDATIONS OF MORALITY: THE DECALOGUE AND 8 BEATITUDES The Decalogue means ten words these words sum up the Law given by God to the people of Israel in the context of the Covenant mediated by Moses. This Decalogue, in presenting the commandments of love of God (the first three) and of ones neighbor (the other seven), traces for the chosen people and for every person in particular the path to a life freed form the slavery of sin. You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, with all your soul, and with all your mind The first commandment: I am the Lord your God, you shall not have other gods before me This commandment is first because it is the foundational commandment; all other commandments have their origin and basis in this commandment. This means that any violation against the basic human rights and values protected by other commandments is a violation against God. Likewise, God is truly worshipped when the human person is respected and loved. This follows that when we violate others in general we also violated God. What does God prohibit by this command, You shall not have other gods before me (Exodus 20:2)? This commandment forbids: 1. Polytheism and Idolatry, which divinizes creatures, power, money or even demons. 2. Superstitions which is a departure from worship due to the true God and which expresses itself in various forms of divination, magic, sorcery and spiritism. 3. Irreligion which is evidenced: in tempting God by word or deed; in sacrilege, which profanes sacred persons or sacred things, above all the Eucharist; and in simony, which involves the buying or selling of spiritual things. 4. Atheism which rejects the existence of God, founded often on a false conception of human autonomy. 5. Agnosticism which affirms that nothing can be known about God, it involves indifferentism and practical atheism. The second commandment: You shall not take the name of the Lord your God in vain.

16

CHRISTIAN LIVING 103 COMMITMENT

CHRISTIAN

Our human experience tells us that the first thing we want to know to a person is his or her name. this commandment clarifies to us that Gods name is differ form all other names, because the names of a person embodies singular uniqueness, knowing the name of a person is having an initial access to his or her mystery, history and stories about him or her. It is the same thing with God, knowing the name of God provides us a hint to know about His mysteries, His History, and his undying love story for us. How does one respect the holiness of the Name of God? One shows respect for the holy Name of God by blessing it, praising it and glorifying. It is forbidden therefore, to call on the Name of God to justify a crime. It is also wrong to use the holy Name of God in any improper way as in blasphemy (which by nature is a grave sin), curse, and unfaithfulness to promise made in the Name of God. What does God prohibit by this command, You shall not take the name of God in vain (Exodus 20:7)? This commandment forbids: 1. It forbids false oath because one calls upon God who is truth itself to be the witness to a lie. As Saint Ignatius of Loyola said that, Do not swear, whether by the Creator or by any creature except truthfully, of necessity and with reverence. 2. Perjury is to make a promise under oath with intention of not keeping it or top violate a promise made under oath. It is a grave sin against God who is always faithful to his promises. 3. Blasphemy is directly opposed to this commandment, it consist in uttering against God inward or outward words of hatred, or defiance, in speaking ill of God, in misusing Gods name. Third commandment: Remember to keep holy the Sabbath day. (Ex. 20:8;Dt.5:12) Remember to keep holy the Sabbath day How does one keep Sunday holy? Christians keep Sunday and other days of obligation holy by participating in the Eucharist of the Lord and refraining from those activity which impede the worship of God and disturb the joy proper to the day of the Lord or necessary relaxation of mind and body. Activities are allowed on the Sabbath which are bound up with family needs or with important social service, provided that they do not lead to habits prejudicial to holiness of Sunday, to family life and to health. Honor your father and your mother What does the fourth commandment require? It commands us to honor and respect our parents and those whom God, for our good, has vested with authority. What are the duties of children toward their parents?

17

CHRISTIAN LIVING 103 COMMITMENT

CHRISTIAN

Children owe respect, gratitude, docility (submissiveness) and obedience to their parents. In paying them respect and fostering good relationships with their brothers and sisters, children contribute to the growth in harmony and holiness in family life in general/ What are the duties of parents towards their children? Parents have the first responsibility for the education of their children and they are the first herald of faith for them. To provide, as far as possible their physical and spiritual needs. You shall not kill Why must human life be respected? Human life must be respected because it is sacred, form its beginning human life involves the creative action of God and it remains forever in special relationship with the Creator who is its sole end. It is not lawful for anyone directly to destroy an innocent human being. This is gravely contrary to the dignity of person and holiness of the Creator. Do not slay the innocent and the righteous ( Exodus 23:7). What is forbidden by the fifth commandment? The fifth commandment forbids as gravely contrary to the moral law: Direct and intentional murder and cooperation in it; direct abortion, willed as an end or as means, as well as cooperation in it. Attached to this sin is the penalty of excommunication because, from the moment of his or her conception, the human being must be absolutely respected and protected in his integrity; Direct euthanasia which consist in putting an end to the life of the handicapped, the sick or those near death by an act or by the omission of a required action; Suicide and voluntary cooperation in it, insofar as it is a grave offense against the just love of God, of self, and of neighbor. Ones responsibility may be aggravated by the scandal given; one who is psychologically disturbed or is experiencing grave fear may have diminished responsibility. The sixth commandment: Thou shall not commit adultery What responsibility do human persons have in regard to their own sexual identity? God has created human being as male or female, equal in personal dignity, and has called them to a vocation of love and of communition. Everyone should accept his or her identity as male or female, recognizing its importance for the whole of the person, its specificity and complementary. What is chastity? Chastity means the positive integration of sexuality within the person. Sexuality becomes truly human when it is integrated in a correct way into the relationship of one person to another. Chastity is a moral virtue, a gift of God, a grace, and a fruit of the Holy Spirit. What are the principal sins against chastity?

18

CHRISTIAN LIVING 103 COMMITMENT

CHRISTIAN

Grave sins against chastity differ according to the object: adultery, masturbation, fornication, pornography prostitution, rape and homosexual acts. These sins are expressions of the vice of lust. These kinds of acts committed against the physical and moral integrity of minors become even more grave The seventh commandment: you shall not steal What does the seventh commandment require? The seventh commandment requires respect for the goods of others through the practice of justice and charity, temperance and solidarity. In particular it requires respect for promises made and contracts agreed to, reparation for injustice committed and restitution of stolen goods, and respect for the integrity of creation by the prudent and moderate use of mineral, vegetables and animal resources of the universe with special attention to those species which are in danger of extinction. What is forbidden by the seventh commandment? Above all, the seventh commandment forbids theft, which is the taking or using of anothers property against the reasonable will of the owner. This can be done also by paying unjust wages; by speculation of the value of goods in order to gain and advantage to the detriment of others; or by the forgery of checks or invoices. Also forbidden is tax evasion or business fraud; willfully damaging private or public property; usury; corruption; the private abuse of common goods; work deliberately done poorly; and waste. The eighth commandment: you shall not bear false witness against your neighbor What is forbidden by the eight commandment? The eighth commandment forbids false witness, perjury, and lying, the gravity of which is measured by the truth it deforms, the circumstances, the intentions of the one who lies, and harm suffered by its victims; rash judgement, slander, defamation and calumny which diminish or destroy the good reputation and honor to which every person has a right. Flattery, adulation, or complaisance, especially if directed to serious sins or toward the achievement of illicit advantages. A sin committed against truth demands reparation if it has caused harm to others. What is required by the eighth commandment? The eighth commandment requires respect for the truth accompanied by the discretion of charity in the field of communion and impairing of information, where the personal and common good, the protection of privacy and the danger of scandal must all be taken into account; in respecting professional secretes which must be kept, save in exceptional cases for grave and proportionate reasons; and also in respecting confidences given under the seal of secrecy. The ninth commandment: you shall not covet your neighbors wife What is required by the ninth commandment?

19

CHRISTIAN LIVING 103 COMMITMENT

CHRISTIAN

The ninth commandment requires that one overcome carnal concupiscence in thought and in desire. The struggle against such concupiscence entails purifying the heart and practicing the virtue of temperance. What is forbidden by the ninth commandment? The ninth commandment forbids cultivating thoughts and desires connected to action forbidden by the sixth commandment. How does one reach purity of heart? In the battle against disordered desires the baptized person is able, by the grace of God, to achieve purity of heart through the virtue and gift of chastity, through purity of intention, purity of vision (both exterior and interior), discipline of imagination and of feelings and by prayer. The tenth commandment: you shall not covet your neighbors possessions What is required and what is forbidden by the tenth commandment? This commandment, which completes the preceding commandment, requires an interior attitude of respect for the property of others and forbids greed, unbridled covetousness for the goods of others, and envy which is the sadness one experiences at the sight of anothers goods and the immoderate desire to acquire them foe oneself.

20

Похожие интересы