Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 111


Course title: Maritime Geography Course code: MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171

Compiled By: Mr R.G. Pradeep Faculty (RLINS)

Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171)

Page 1 of 111

Why study the oceans? The oceans affect life on earth, human life impacts the oceans, and the oceans contain fascinating physical and biological features. Examples: 1- The earth's climate is strongly linked to the currents within and moisture given off by the oceans 2- Coral Reefs seem to be endangered- "bleaching" episodes (cause unknown- pollution, global warming?) 3- Trenches, ridges and other features of the oceans bottom are huge compared to canyons and mountains on the continents and tell us much about the movements of the plates making up the earth's outer skin. Another emphasis in this course: An intro to science and its role in our society and our environment. -Understanding how science progresses, succeeds, and fails. -Some scientific theories are well established and reliable -Newer theories are subjected to debate and testing until they are accepted as the best explanations -Many theories are revised or overturned -This does not mean that science is haphazard- it is part of the normal process -We will examine the development of the theory of plate tectonics in this class How do we study the oceans? Subdivisions of ocean science: Marine geology Chemical oceanography Physical oceanography Biological oceanography The objectives of ocean are to develop an understanding for: (1) The fundamental properties of the oceans, and (2) the global processes and interactions that account for those properties (3) the way science progresses Why study the oceans? Why is it important that we know something about the oceans and how they work? o First of all, the oceans together with life are the unique features of our planet. No other planet has so much water at its surface -- and the presence of H2O in solid (glacial and sea ice) and gaseous (water vapor in the atmosphere) as well as liquid states is also very important. o In addition, the oceans are widespread, covering 70% of the planetary surface. o The oceans regulate the climate of Earth through interaction with the atmosphere. o Oceans have been present for most of Earth's history (> 4 billion years). o Many scientists accept the proposal that the first life forms originated in the sea about 3.8 billion years ago.

Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171)

Page 2 of 111

o Finally the oceans have interacted with the other great "subdivisions" of the so-called "Earth system" (Earth's crust, Atmosphere, and Life) throughout the history of our planet -- the oceans have modified the other subdivisions, and the others have had important impacts on the oceans. There are "practical" considerations as well. o Coastal areas have been sites of settlement throughout human history. Proximity to oceans provides for food resources, transportation and communication. o Modern society has begun to other resources from the sea -- oil and gas, other forms of energy (waves, tides, thermal), minerals from the sea floor, etc. o Human's use and misuse of the oceans has certainly not been without costs -- especially to certain marine communities. In order to protect marine life, we must know how the oceans operate. How do we study the oceans? Ocean science is truly multi-disciplinary, involving the Earth Sciences (Geology, Geophysics, Meteorology and Climatology) as well as the more traditional disciplines of Physics, Chemistry, and Biology. Engineering and new technologies have provided continually improving tool for the study of the seas. Traditionally, ocean science has been subdivided into the following fields of study: o Marine geology: nature and origin of ocean basins and sediments. o Chemical oceanography: dissolved salts, gases, and nutrient elements in the sea. o Physical oceanography: the physical properties and dynamics (currents, waves, tides) of the oceans and seawater. o Biological oceanography: marine organisms and their environments. o This classification is somewhat arbitrary, because there is much overlap between fields. For example, you can't really understand sediments on the deep-sea floor unless you know something about the microscopic plankton of the sea surface that produces much of the sediment. The Growth of Oceanography Oceanography: What is it? A. There is a basic difference between the terms oceanography and oceanology. 1. Oceanography is the recording and description of the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the ocean. This term inadequately describes modern scientific ocean investigations. 2. Oceanology is the scientific study of the sea by applying traditional sciences, such as physics, chemistry, mathematics, etc., to all aspects of the ocean. Historical Review of Oceanography B. There are three major stages in the history of ocean research 1. Ocean exploration was the period when people explored the ocean boundaries. Notable explorers include: The Phoenicians, Phytheas, The Polynesians, Herodotus, the Vikings, Bartholomew Diaz, Vasco de Gama, Ferdinand Magellan, and Sebastian del Cano. 2. Early scientific investigations began when people began to describe the ocean. Notable scientists include: James Cook, Matthew Fontaine Maury, Charles Darwin, C. Wyville Thomson, and Fridtjof Nansen. 3. Modern oceanography (oceanology) began in the twentieth century with interdisciplinary oceanic research and use of complex scientific instruments.
Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171) Page 3 of 111

Current and Future Oceanographic Research C. Current and future oceanographic research include: 1. More international efforts because of cost and scale of research. 2. Greater use of submersibles for deep ocean exploration. 3. Increased use of computers for modeling complex ocean processes. 4. Use of the Global Positioning System (GPS). 5. Use of remote sensing.

Origin of Earth - Theories and Hypothesis

There are various scientific theories of origin and evolution of the earth 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Nebular Hypothesis Planetesimal Hypothesis Gaseous Tidal Hypothesis Binary Star Hypothesis Gas Dust Cloud Hypothesis

Nebular Hypothesis 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. German philosopher, Kant and French mathematician, Laplace Earth, planets and sun originated from Nebula. Nebula was large cloud of gas and dust. It rotates slowly. Gradually it cooled and contracted and its speed increased. A gaseous ring was separated from nebula Later the ring cooled and took form of a planet On repetition of the process all other planets came into being The central region, nebula became sun.

y y

Sun should have the greatest angular momentum because of its mass and situated in the center, however, it has only two percent of momentum of the solar system How the hot gaseous material condensed in to rings

Planetesimal Hypothesis 1. 2. 3. 4. Chamberlin and Moulton proposed the theory in 1904 The sun existed before the formation of planets A star came close to the sun. Because of the gravitation pull of the star, small gaseous bodies were separated from the sun 5. These bodies on cooing became small planet's 6. During rotation the small planets collided and form planets

Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171)

Page 4 of 111

y y

The angular momentum could not be produced by the passing star. The theory failed to explain how the planetesimals had become one planet

Gaseous Tidal Theory 1. Jeans and Jeffrey proposed the theory in 1925 2. Large star came near the sun. Due to gravitational pull a gaseous tide was raised on the surface of the sun. 3. As the star came nearer, the tide increased in size. 4. Gaseous tide detached when star move away. 5. The shape of the tide was like spindle. 6. It broke into pieces-forming nine planets of the solar system Pirre Simon Laplace: The nebular hypothesis The history of ideas Pirre Simon Laplace is famous for his concept that the solar system formed from a spinning cloud of gas. His theory is the combined result of a mans philosophy, religion, and skills as an observer of the skies. It is important in looking at the Nebular Hypothesis that we understand something of the background of Laplace. In 1749 Pirre was born to a middle class family in Beaumont-en-Auge, France. During his schooling he first made his mark by the pious views expressed in his theological essays. His immense intellect can be seen by a brief look at some of his achievements. His academic career commenced at age 18, in 1767, with his appointment as Professor of Mathematics at the Ecole Militaire in Paris. His early scientific work was done in cooperation with Lavoisier. Together they demonstrated that the amount of heat required to decompose a compound into its elements, is equal to the heat given off when the compound is formed from its elements. Their work formed a basis for the future science of Thermochemistry. In France during the 1770s and 80s, the complex and varied systems of measurements were notorious for both hampering trade and for endless fights in court. To end this confusion, the French Academy of Science appointed a committee to standardize all weights and measures. Laplace was chosen as a member. It was decided that the new system should be decimal. Distance units, such as the meter, were chosen and represented fractions of the earths circumference. In the words of the committee this standard was not arbitrary nor peculiar to any people in the world, a thought that was intended to express the progressiveness of France after the revolution. On September 10, 1799 the kilogram and the meter were adopted as standard. Laplace and Delambre ordered a medal struck which was inscribed for all time and for all people; an inscription portraying the type of humanism that had begun to dominate Laplaces thinking, i.e. our work will last forever! The first volume of his influential Traite de la Mecanique Celeste was published in 1799. Four more volumes appeared in the next 26 years. Laplace spent much time working in astronomy. He was impressed by the remarkable order that existed in the solar system, especially the shape of the paths the planets traveled in space (near circular), and the existence of the planets in nearly one plane.
Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171) Page 5 of 111

He studied in great detail the motions of the planets and attempted to explain why the solar system was stable. He proposed that as long as the solar system was isolated and the sun did not change radically, then the solar system was so stable that it should exist indefinitely. This stability was used to refute Newtons belief that a Divine Force kept the solar system intact. His involvement in astronomy led Laplace to speculate on the origin of the solar system, with the Nebular Hypothesis first appearing in his book Exposition of a World System published in 1796. Despite the pious attitudes expressed in his early days, Laplace had by this time, reached the conclusion that the stability so obvious in the solar system, would best be accounted for by a process of evolutionary chaos. Laplace had now become one of Frances foremost Monday to Saturday atheists, in spite of his believing attendance at mass every Sunday. His theory is based largely on the observation that all then known planets revolved around the sun in the one direction. Laplace suggested that: 1. The sun was originally a giant cloud of gas or nebulae that rotated evenly. 2. The gas contracted due to cooling and gravity. 3. This forced the gas to rotate faster, just as an ice skater rotates faster when his extended arms are drawn onto his chest. 4. This faster rotation would throw off a rim of gas, which following cooling, would condense into a planet. 5. This process would he repeated several times to produce all the planets. 6. The asteroids between Mars and Jupiter were caused by rings which failed to condense properly. 7. The remaining gas ball left in the center became the sun. It is interesting to note that, apart from the Biblical account of creation this theory on the origin of the solar system has been adhered to longer than any other. It still has a wide acceptance, and it is currently being promoted in modified form by theorists such as Prentice (Australian National University). Laplaces work has had many criticisms, the more serious of which are listed below. 1. It is now known that not all planets move in the same way. At the time of Laplace, Pluto and Neptune were unknown, and both of these planets rotate from E to W. All other planets rotate from W to E. This difference cannot be explained by a theory which produces all planets from a gas cloud rotating in one direction only. 2. Laplace assumed the original cloud existed and was spinning. He did not attempt to explain where it came from and how it got to be that way. 3. All known physics indicates that a cloud of gas in space will expand and not contract. 4. The Scottish physicist, Maxwell (1831-1879) demonstrated that even a fluid ring in space would not condense into space but form a ring, such as around Saturn, or a belt of planetoids as in the asteroid belt. 5. Studies on the energy of movement of the sun and the planets shows that 98% of this energy is involved in the movement of the planets. According to Laplaces theory, most of the energy should still be in the sun. This should have resulted from the fact that as the ball of gas contracted, the energy of motion was tied up in a smaller volume. The ball spun faster, flinging rings of matter from the outside. These rings, however, were only small in mass compared to the gas ball, and therefore would have taken only small amounts of energy from the gas. 6. Laplaces theory predicts that the sun should be spinning once every few hours, but it spins only once in approximately every 25 earth days.
Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171) Page 6 of 111

7. All planets formed from Laplaces gas cloud lie in the plane of the suns equator, however several planets lie at angles to the suns plane. 8. The major objection to this theory is best illustrated by a conversation Laplace had with Napoleon: Emperor Boneparte (the man who commissioned the invention of margarine) inquired of Laplace after reading his theory-Where does God fit into your system? Laplace replied: Sire, I have no need for that hypothesis. Conclusion The Nebular hypothesis represents the outworking of a man of great intellect who carefully studied and observed the evidence through eyes that were tied to a form of practical atheism. To Laplace, theology and science were independent forms of knowledge, and science was the better way of knowing. Laplaces comments to Napoleon were not a conclusion that God was not necessary, nor do they represent a belief that God did not exist. They represented the starting point around which he built his theories: God was simply irrelevant to the everyday world of matter and energy. 1 INITIAL STATE OF THE SOLAR NEBULA -- HOT

The formation of our solar system was likely to be initiated by a supernova trigger, causing the rotation and gravitational collapse of the proto-solar cloud to form a star (the sun). The presence of correlated short-lived isotope species in meteorites is most consistent with a rapid Sun formation (< 1 Ma). These short-lived radio-nuclides were likely to have been produced in a TP-AGB star (thermally pulsing - asymptotic giant branch star) and then injected into our proto-solar cloud. Thus, the inner solar system (e.g., 3- 4 AU) experienced high temperature processing, including the melting of grains, inclusions, and chondrules (high temperature components of meteorites). These melted materials are likely products of bi-polar jets (@ ~ 3-4 AU) surrounding our early and rapidly formed sun.



The initial accretionary materials formed out of the solar cloud included high temperature condensates of oxides, metals, and silicates. The earliest formed materials are chondrules and Ca-Al-inclusions (CAI), both with formation ages on the order of < 3 Ma of T0 (where T0 = 4.6Ga, the age of our solar system). These initial condensates coalesced to form grains and larger sized fragments, and later then planetismals and ultimately planets. Collisions of smaller planetismals to form larger ones and ultimately planets adds significantly to the energy budget of planets, much of this kinetic energy is converted to thermal energy and must be dissipated from the planet's interior. Moon formation: it is commonly suggested that the Moon formed from a giant impact event; a commonly invoked model considers a Mars-sized body hitting the Earth at about 4.5 Ga, with a fraction of the total mass fissioning off to form the Moon. In addition to the many other effects of such a process, this impact event had enormous consequences for the heating of the Earth. If the Earth had a significant gaseous envelope surrounding it throughout most of its accretion, then this would have enhanced the chances of the upper portion of the mantle
Page 7 of 111

Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171)

having been wholly molten. The presences of such an atmosphere reduce the radiation of the Earths internal heat to space and produce a magma ocean scenario for the early Earth. Alternatively, if there is no surrounding atmosphere, the planet'sheat is then rapidly lost to space by radiation and one might expect little to no extensive melting of the mantle. 3 CORE FORMATIONS:
y y

The Earth is assumed to have initially accreted as a mixture of silicates and metal particles, with core separation following rapidly after much of the planet's accretion. Separation of the Earth Core heats up the mantle! Urey '52 (and later Elsasser '63; Birch '65; Flasar and Birch '73) realized that the gravitational energy released by core formation would be converted into thermal energy (best estimate: ~640 cal/gm), which would be enough to heat up the mantle by about 1000- 2000 C - thus driving mantle convection! Core Formation is early: Elsasser '63 and Birch '65 both assumed that core formation was late, ~0.5 Ga after accretion. However, recent studies on short- lived radio-nuclides (e.g., 182Hf, 98Tc) constrain core formation to being on the order of 1-5*10E7 years. Chemical observations of the relative abundances of elements in the mantle are consistent with the separation of an Fe-Ni alloy at mid to upper mantle conditions due to intense heating of the planet. It is also likely that this alloy contained sulfur and other light element components, which reduces the melting temperature of this alloy phase.


The above considerations lead to the suggestion that the Earth's mantle experienced large scale melting during accretion and core formation. Together these processes start the convective engine for the mantle. Given the likely event of the outer portion of the mantle as having experienced global melting, then one would expect that the mantle would have also experienced some degree of differentiation (crystal-liquid separation). However, there is no geochemical and/or isotopic evidence, based on a wide spectrum of crustal and mantle rocks (including peridotites and komatiites), in support of this global differentiation process. Thus, if differentiation of the mantle occurred in the Hadean, then its effects have been completely erased by the processes of rapid and vigorous convection.



The nature, origin, and composition of the Noble Gas (i.e., He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe) signature in the present-day mantle and in the early Earth is not well understood. Much of our discussion throughout this semester will rely on the models we assume for the past and present Noble Gas signature of the mantle. During accretion Noble Gases were trapped in the incoming materials and some amount of gases were ingassed into the planet from an assumed gaseous enveloped that was likely to have surrounded the early Earth. However, there are large gaps in our understanding of these early conditions and processes. Moreover, it is widely believed that presently we have degassed a substantial amount (perhaps >95%) of our inherited gas component. The most powerful observation recently is that of Honda's et al (1992), in which they demonstrated that the He-Ne isotopic systems are linked which means that, at least for
Page 8 of 111

Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171)

these isotopes, the Earth inherited this gases from a solar component. There still remains a question of whether the heavier Noble Gases have planetary or solar compositions. There are also considerable questions surrounding the amounts of Noble Gases in different mantle reservoirs and, more importantly, the isotopic compositions of these gases in the different mantle reservoirs. At best we are only placing limits on the isotopic compositions of the Noble Gases in the mantle.



The rocky planetary bodies (including the Earth) are assumed to be composed of chondritic materials. There are many different types of chondrites that contain variable amounts of volatile components (see also the handout). Note: chondrites are made of a mixture of CAI and chondrules and differening amounts of matrix material, which is where most of the volatile element component is found. The refractory elements (e.g., Ca, Al, Ti, Sc, Sr, Zr, Mo, REE, Re, Os, Th, U) are those elements whose 50% condensation temperatures are above ~1300 K for an assumed partial pressure of oxygen (e.g., 10-4 atmospheres). Ratios of refractory elements (e.g., Ca/Al, Sm/Nd) are essentially equal in all the chondritic meteorites, and by assumption the rocky planets. The non-refractory elements include, Mg, Si, Fe, O, and Ni as the major elements and, for example, Na, K, Rb, S, Cu, and Pb as trace elements. In chondritic meteorites these elements show marked variations in absolute and relative abundances with respect to each other and with respect to the refractory elements. Therefore, there is a range of K/Rb, Rb/Sr and K/U values in chondritic meteorites. Because of this the abundances of the non-refractory elements in planets must be derived through various models. The Nebular Theory of the origin of the Solar System

Any model of Solar System formation must explain the following facts: 1. All the orbits of the planets are prograde (i.e. if seen from above the North pole of the Sun they all revolve in a counter-clockwise direction). 2. All the planets (except Pluto) have orbital planes that are inclined by less than 6 degrees with respect to each other (i.e. all in the same plane).

Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171)

Page 9 of 111

3. Terrestri l pl ets are dense, rocky and small, while jovian planets are gaseous and large. I. Contraction of insterstellar cloud

Solar system formed about 4.6 billion year ago, when gravity pulled together low -density cloud of interstellar gas and dust (called a nebula).

The Orion Nebula, an interstellar cloud in which star systems and possibly planets are forming.

Initially the cloud was about several light years across. A small over density in the cloud caused the contraction to begin and the over density to grow, thus producing a faster contraction --> run away or collapse process Initially, most of the motions of the cloud particles were random, yet the nebula had a net rotation. As collapse proceeded, the rotation speed of the cloud was gradua increasing lly due to conservation of angular momentum.

Going, going, gone


Gravitational collapse was much more efficient along the spin axis, so the rotating ba ll collapsed into thin disk with a diameter of 200 AU (0.003 light years) (twice Pluto's orbit), aka solar nebula, with most of the mass concentrated near the center.

Maritime Ge

raphy ( MERI ZC 171

RL ZC 171

Page 10 of 111

As the cloud contracted, its gravitational potential energy was converted into kinetic energy of the individual gas particles. Collisions between particles converted this energy into heat (random motions). The solar nebula became hottest near the center wh much ere of the mass was collected to form the protosun(the cloud of gas that became Sun). At some point the central temperature rose to 10 million K. The collisions among the atoms were so violent that nuclear reactions began, at which point the Sun wasborn as a star, containing 99.8% of the total mass. What prevented further collapse? As the temperature and density increased toward the center, so did the pressure causing a net force pointing outward. The Sun reached a a balance between the gravitational force and the internal pressure, aka as hydrostatic equilibrium, after 50 million years.

Around the Sun a thin disk gives birth to the planets, moons, asteroids and comets. Over recent years we have gathered evidence in support of this theory.

Maritime Ge

raphy ( MERI ZC 171

RL ZC 171

Page 11 of 111

Close-up of the Orion Nebula obtained with HST, revealing what seem to be disks of dust and gas surrounding newly formed stars. These protoplanetary disks span about 0.14 light years and are probably similar to the Solar Nebula.


Layers of the Earth The earth is divided into three main layers: Inner core, outer core, mantle and crust. The core is composed mostly of iron (Fe) and is so hot that the outer core is molten, with about 10% sulphur (S). The inner core is under such extreme pressure that it remains solid. Most of the Earth's mass is in the mantle, which is composed of iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), aluminum (Al), silicon (Si), and oxygen (O) silicate compounds. At over 1000 degrees C, the mantle is solid but can deform slowly in a plastic manner.

Earth Crust: THE CRUST 1. Continental crust (25-40 kmn ) 2. Oceanic crust (~6 km) 3. Mantle 1. Upper mantle (650 km) 2. Lower mantle (2235 km) 4. Core 1. Outer core: liquid (2270 km) 2. Inner core: solid (1216 km)

Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171)

Page 12 of 111

1. The crust is much thinner than any of the other layers, and is composed of the least dense calcium (Ca) and sodium (Na) aluminum-silicate minerals. Being relatively cold, the crust is rocky and brittle , so it can fracture in earthquakes . 2. The shell of the earth, the crust, can be said to have two different thicknesses. 3. Under the oceans, it is relatively thin. It varies in thickness from 5 to 8 km. Under the land masses, it is relatively thick. The thickness of the continental crust varies from 10 to 65 km. 4. The eggshell analogy for the crust is not an exaggeration. It is paper thin compared with the radius of the earth which is approximately 6400 km. 5. The total weight of the continental crust is less than 0.3% of the weight of the earth. 6. Variations in the crust thickness are compensated by the weight of the water and the differences in the specific gravities of the crust under the oceans (3.0 to 3.1) and under the continents(2.7 to 2.8). 7. If one thinks of the crust as virtually floating on the mantle, one is less likely to wonder why the earth does not wobble as it rotates about its axis. 8. The weight of the crust plus the mantle has a reasonably uniform distribution over the globe. THE MOHO 1. The Moho, or the Mohorovicic Discontinuity, refers to a zone or a thin shell below the crust of the earth that varies in thickness from 1 to 3 km. 2. In seismology, the term "discontinuity" is used in its general sense. It refers to a change over a short distance of a material property. In this case, the "short distance" may be as long as 3 km, a trifle compared with the radius of the earth. 3. In that zone, the P-wave velocity has been observed to increase from approximately 6 to approximately 8 km/sec. 4. The Moho is considered to be the boundary between the crust and the mantle. 5. The increase in P-wave velocity is ascribed to change in composition of the medium. Rocks of the mantle are poorer in silicon but richer in iron and magnesium THE MANTLE The mantle can be thought of having three different layers. The separation is made because of different deformational properties in the mantle inferred from seismic wave measurements. (1) The upper layer is stiff. It is presumed that if the entire mantle had been as stiff, the outer shell of the earth would stay put. This stiff layer of the mantle and the overlying crust are referred to as the lithosphere. The lithosphere is approximately 80-km thick (2) Beneath the lithosphere is a soft layer of mantle called the asthenosphere. Its thickness is inferred to be several times that of the lithosphere. One may think of this as a film of lubricant although film is not exactly the word for something so thick. It is assumed that the lithosphere, protruding (meaning: extending beyond) parts and all, can glide over the asthenosphere with little distortion of the lithosphere (3) The mesosphere is the lowest layer of the mantle. Considering the vagueness in defining the lower boundary of the asthenosphere it would be expected that the thickness and material properties of the mesosphere are not well known. It is expected to have a stiffness somewhere between those of the lithosphere and the asthenosphere.

Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171)

Page 13 of 111

THE CORE It is known that the pressure increases toward the center of the earth. So does the temperature. The liquid outer layer versus the solid inner layer is rationalized by recognizing that the melting point of the material increases (with pressure) at a faster rate than the temperature as the center of the earth is approached. Internal Zones: core, mantle, crust Various lines of evidence indicate that the interior of Earth consists of three concentric shells: core, mantle, and crust. The following table lists the important physical and chemical properties of those internal shells Layers of the earth's interior Layer Depth Name (km) Crust 55 (25-90) (Continental) Crust (Oceanic) 10 (5-10) Mantle Core, Outer Core, Inner to 2900 2900-5300 5300-6370 State solid (rigid) solid (rigid) solid (ductile) liquid solid Composition "granite" basalt Mg, Fe silicates Fe, Ni metal Fe, Ni metal Density (g/cc) 2.7 3.0 4.5 11.5 13.0 Temp. deg. C <1000 <1500 15003000 4000 5000

The best evidence for this "model" of Earth's interior comes from the passage of seismic waves (earthquake-generated vibrations) through the Earth. o Earthquakes are due to the sudden release of energy stored in the crust and mantle due to movement and deformation in those layers. When the amount of deformation becomes high, rocks are displaced violently, usually along a fault zone. o Energy released by earthquakes is carried by different kinds of waves. The two most common are P-waves and S-waves.
y y

P-waves travel through liquids and solids at velocities of several km/sec. S-waves travel through solids only at somewhat lower velocities. In other words, they do not pass through the liquid outer core.

Wave velocity changes and waves are bent (refracted) as they pass through different layers. With the development of plate-tectonic theory, earth scientists realized that the outer portion of Earth (crust and upper mantle) behaves as a rigid lithosphere (broken into plates) underlain by a ductile (plastic) layer, the asthenosphere. Internal Zones: lithosphere, asthenosphere Layer Depth (km) Rheology 150 beneath Lithosphere rigid, elastic continents,
Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171) Page 14 of 111

70 beneath ocenas bottom of Asthensophere lithosphere to ~250 Minerals and Rock

ductile, plastic

Minerals are naturally occurring inorganic substances of more or less definite chemical composition, displaying more or less definite physical properties. Rocks: 1. Geologist define rock as aggregates or mass composed of one or more commonly, several of minerals. There are few exceptions to this rule: not all rocks are composed of minerals-for example, coal. 2. Engineers (or contractor) define rock to be a hard, durable material that cant be excavated without blasting. The definition is based on strength and durability. 3. Minerals are naturally occurring inorganic substances of more or less definite chemical composition, displaying more or less definite physical properties. 4. As the basic constituent of rock, minerals control much of rock behavior. Some minerals are very strong and resistant to deterioration and produce rock with similar properties, while others are much softer and produce weaker rock. More than different 2000 minerals are present in the earths crust. They can be identified by their physical and chemical properties; by standard tests; or by examination under microscope. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Color: 1. Some minerals have characteristics color due to composition of the minerals and the arrangement of the constituent atoms: for example black color of magnetite, green of chlorite and brassy yellow of pyrite 2. Minerals like quartz and calcite have variable color 3. Color cant be sole identification property Streak: 1. Color of mineral in powder form is called streak 2. Powder is obtained by crushing the mineral. 3. Color of the streak differs from color of mineral: for example the color of pyrite is brass yellow and its streak is dark green. Cleavage:
Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171) Page 15 of 111

Colour Streak Hardness: Mohs scale of hardness Cleavage Fracture Luster

1. The cleavage of the minerals is its capacity to split more readily in certain directions than in others, due to the arrangement of the atoms. 2. Minerals break with ease producing smooth surfaces is called perfect cleavage. It can be either good, distinct, indistinct and imperfect. 3. Some minerals such as mica have perfect cleavage in one direction. The feldspars, which is the most abundant of all minerals, have two cleavages. Luster: 1. Appearance of mineral in ordinary light (that is the appearance due to reflected light). Luster may be metallic, glassy, earthy, pearly or silky 2. If the minerals looks metal as do galena and pyrite, its luster is said to be metallic. If the minerals looks glassy, like quartz, its luster is glassy. Hardness: 1. The hardness of a mineral, as commonly determined on fresh material, is measured by its ability to resist scratching. If a mineral is scratched by a knife, it is softer than the knife. If it cannot be scratched by a knife, the two are equal hardness or the mineral is the harder. 2. In order to have a standard method of expressing hardness of minerals, a simple scale, known as the Mohs scale, has been universally adopted. 3. In sequence of increasing hardness from 1 to 10, the following minerals are used as standard of comparison: 4. Talc, Gypsum, Calcite, Fluorite, Apatite, Orthoclase (feldspar), Quartz, Topaz, Corundum and Diamond Other Characteristics: 1. Crystal Form: Internal atomic arrangement in definite geometric patterns is sometimes outwardly expressed in crystal form. 2. Specific Gravity is meant the weight of a substance compared with the weight of an equal volume of water. The specific gravity of quartz is 2.65. Some minerals are heavy than the others. The specific gravity of majority minerals range from 2.55 to 3.2. 3. Magnetism: A few minerals are attracted by a magnet. Of these minerals, magnetite, and pyrrhotite are the most common examples.


Continental Drift A. Based upon the fit of continental outlines and fossil and geologic evidence, Alfred Wegner proposed his hypothesis of continental drift. According to Wegner, the continents are sections of a past super continent called Pangea, which broke apart and the fragments plowed through the oceanic crust, .to their present locations Sea-Floor Spreading B. Sea floor spreading demonstrates that the sea floor moves apart at the oceanic ridges and new oceanic crust is added to the edges. 1. Rift valleys along oceanic ridge crests indicate tension, are bounded by normal faults, and are floored by recently-erupted basaltic lava flows.
Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171) Page 16 of 111

2. Axis of the oceanic ridge is offset by transform (strike-slip) faults which produce lateral displacement. 3. Whereas oceanic ridges indicate tension, continental mountains indicate compressional forces are squeezing the land together. C. The geomagnetic field is the magnetic field of the Earth. 1. Magnetometers detect and measure Earths magnetic field. 2. Moving across the ocean floor perpendicularly to the oceanic ridges, magnetometers alternately record stronger (positive) and weaker (negative) magnetic fields (called magnetic anomalies) in response to the influence of the sea floor rocks. 3. Magnetic anomalies and the rocks causing them form parallel bands arranged symmetrically about the axis of the oceanic ridge. 4. As basaltic rocks crystallize, some minerals align themselves with Earths magnetic field, as it exists at that time, imparting a permanent magnetic field, called paleomagnetism, to the rock. 5. Periodically Earths magnetic field polarity (direction) reverses poles. D. Because of their paleomagnetism, rocks of the sea floor influence the magnetic field recorded by magnetometers. 1. Rocks on the sea floor with normal polarity paleomagnetism locally reinforce Earths magnetic field making it stronger and producing a positive anomaly. 2. Rocks on the sea floor with reverse paleomagnetism locally weaken Earths magnetic field, producing a negative anomaly. 3. Rocks forming at the ridge crest record the magnetism existing at the time they solidify. 4. Sea floor increases in age away from the ridge and is more deeply buried by sediment because sediments have had a longer time to collect. 5. Rates of sea-floor spreading vary from 1 to 10 cm per year for each side of the ridge and can be determined by dating the sea floor and measuring its distance from the ridge crest. 6. Continents are moved by the expanding sea floor. Global Plate Tectonics E. Because Earths size is constant, expansion of the crust in one area requires destruction of the crust elsewhere. 1. Currently, the Pacific Ocean basin is shrinking as other ocean basins expand. 2. Destruction of sea floor occurs in subduction zones. 3. Seismicity is the frequency, magnitude, and distribution of earthquakes. Earthquakes are concentrated along oceanic ridges, transform faults, trenches and island arcs. 4. Tectonism refers to the deformation of Earths crust. 5. Benioff Zone is an area of increasingly deeper seismic activity, inclined from the trench downward in the direction of the island arc. d. Subduction is the process at a trench whereby one part of the sea floor plunges below another and down into the asthenosphere. F. Earths surface is composed of a series of lithospheric plates. Plate edges extend through the lithosphere and are defined by seismicity. 1. Plate edges are trenches, oceanic ridges, and transform faults. 2. Seismicity and volcanism are concentrated along plate boundaries.
Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171) Page 17 of 111

3. Movement of plates is caused by thermal convection of the "plastic" rocks of the asthenosphere which drag along the overlying lithospheric plates. 4. Mantle plumes originate deep within the asthenosphere as molten rock which rises and melts through the lithospheric plate forming a large volcanic mass at a "hot spot." G. Wilson Cycle refers to the sequence of events leading to the formation, expansion, contracting and eventual elimination of ocean basins. - Stages in basin history are: 1. Embryonicrift valley forms as continent begins to split. 2. Juvenilesea floor basalts begin forming as continental sections diverge. 3. Maturebroad ocean basin widens, trenches develop, and subduction begins. 4. Decliningsubduction eliminates much of sea floor and oceanic ridge. 5. Terminallast of the sea floor is eliminated and continents collide forming a continental mountain chain. CONTINENTAL DRIFT & SEA-FLOOR SPREADING Scientific "revolutions": Plate Tectonics as an example 1. "Normal Science": At the start, a collection of theories and observations that are accepted; new data are fit into those theories by expanding the theories incrementally Geology 100 years ago: Theories were developed to answer questions such as: Why are ocean fossils found near the top of Mt. Everest and in many mountain ranges? Why are mountain chains found where they are? Why are volcanoes found only in certain zones of the world? The idea that the continents move was not really considered- not really "needed" 2. "Crisis": These theories are unable to explain new observations Unexpected geological discoveries in the 20th century New data, much of it from the oceans Many attempts made to fit these data into existing theories, i.e., to continue doing "normal science" 3. "Revolution": New paradigm adopted, old theories eventually given up New paradigm- plate tectonics- explains many, many aspects of the earth Completely new way of looking at the earth- hard for many to accept Old theories given up- but not without careful weighing of the competing theories Healthy skepticism is the rule in science Eventually, the evidence FOR plate tectonics became overwhelming Note: Technology had advanced enough to put a person on the moon by 1968, and yet the most basic principle describing how the earth works was just gaining acceptance! This is partly because much of the evidence was hidden in the ocean depths, which were not explored until the mid-1900's. Continental drift, sea-floor spreading and plate tectonics

Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171)

Page 18 of 111

In the1960s, a revolutionary concept was proposed by marine geologists at Columbia University - the theory of plate tectonics. Prior to that theory, many geological phenomena were simply not explained -Why do earthquakes and volcanoes occur where they do? How are mountain ranges formed? Why do the continents on either side of the Atlantic appear to fit together? Why are there mid-ocean ridges and marginal trenches on the sea-floor? Plate tectonics is able to explain these, and many other features of our planet. Plate tectonics proposes the following:
y y y

Earth's lithosphere (the rigid, outer layer, roughly 100 km thick) is made up of a series of slabs (or plates) that move about. Plates can separate from one another, grind together, slide by one another, or one plate can slide down under another. These relative motions result in earthquakes, volcanoes, and mountains at plate boundaries.

Plate tectonics was developed from two previous notions about global processes:
y y

"Continental drift" -- continents migrate (drift) over the surface of Earth "Sea-floor spreading" -- oceanic crust forms at mid-ocean ridges, spreads laterally, and then descends back into to the mantle at marginal trenches.

To understand and appreciate the significance of plate tectonics, we begin with those concepts which led to its development.

Continental Drift: Alfred Wegener (German meteorologist) developed the concept of continental drift in the early 20th Century (although the idea had been around for centuries before-hand) Continents were assembled in a single landmass ("Pangea") about 250 m.y. ago. With time they have slowly moved to their present positions. The idea was well thought out and based on the following data: Evidence for Continental Drift

Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171)

Page 19 of 111

1. Fit of the continents across the Atlantic Ocean Atlantic coastlines fit together like a jig-saw puzzle. But if the pieces fit, the "pattern" must match also. Wegener explored whether geologic features also matched-up in his reconstruction. 2. Distribution of mountains and rock sequences Appalachian Mts. and similar ranges in Scotland and Norway connect up when continents are reconstructed. Distinctive types of rocks and patterns of folds on Africa and S. America match up well for a reconstructed Pangea. 3. Distribution of sedimentary rocks reflecting paleoclimate Rocks deposited at the Earth's surface (sedimentary rocks) reflect the climate (and hence latitude) where they form. For example, ancient coral reefs and coal swamps form in warm, humid, low latitudes. Glacial deposits should form at cold, high latitudes. Wegener found evidence for glaciated regions widely scattered in the Southern Hemisphere, and for coal deposits. His reassembled continents explains the paleoclimatic record in those sedimentary rocks. 4. Distribution of fossils: A number of identical fossil organisms are found on widely separated continents. o Cynognathus - land reptile (couldn't swim at all) in S. Amer. & Africa o Mesosaurus - fresh water reptile (couldn't swim far and not in salt water) in S. Amer. & southern Africa o Lystrosaurus - fat land reptile (would sink faster than a lead ship) in Africa, India, Antarctica o Glossopteris - fern with heavy seeds (couldn't be blown across the ocean) The distribution of those organisms only makes sense for a reconstructed Pangea Wegener believed that the evidence for continental drift was overwhelming. But the idea was not accepted at the time. It was ridiculed. The reasons were: 1. Wegener didn't have a reasonable mechanism for movement of the continents. He suggested that attractive forces of the moon caused continents to crash through the oceans (like a ship breaking through ice). Therefore, ocean crust should be deformed, but it isn't. 2. Wegener's geological evidence was derived mostly from observations located in the Southern Hemisphere. North American geologists were unfamiliar with the observations so they discounted them. Prejudice based on ignorance (scientists are human). Therefore most scientists rejected the idea of continental drift at the time. But that idea was resurrected when detailed information about the sea floor was gathered and analyzed in the 1950's and l960's. This work lead to the concept of sea-floor spreading. Sea-Floor Spreading was proposed by Harry Hess (Princeton geologist) in 1962 based on his observations of sea-floor topography. The basic components of the concept are:

Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171)

Page 20 of 111

New ocean crust is created at mid-oceanic ridges, moves laterally ("spreads") away from ridges with the motion like that of a conveyer belt, and is destroyed at trenches, where it sinks into the mantle and melts. Hess suggested that convection currents in the mantle were the driving force of sea-floor spreading. During the l960's, a number of research projects were done to test this new hypothesis. Many of these dealt with properties of the sea floor. As we shall see, these studies confirmed the concept of sea-floor spreading.


y y

Mantle Convection as the driving force Harry Hess was not the first person to propose that continental drift was real and was driven by convective overturn of the mantle- Arthur Holmes (Edinburgh) had proposed this in the 1920's. But the idea did not take hold because there were not enough corroborating data. Hess was the first to add the idea that old oceanic crust is transport back into the mjantle at the trenches, AND he recognized the role of mid-oceans ridges as the spreading sites where new oceanic crust is made and developed this idea further (1960). Thus, Hess gets credit for synthesizing the concept of sea floor spreading just as much evidence was mounting that would eventually support it.

Plate Tectonics y ... Followed closely on the heels of sea-floor spreading in 1968. The important assumptions of the theory are as follows: y The rigid outer shell of the Earth (termed the "lithosphere") is broken into a series of large slabs, or plates, that move at rates of a few centimeters per year and interact with one another at their boundaries. y Rigid plates move over a soft, underlying layer in the upper mantle termed the "asthenosphere." Global plate motion is probably driven by convection in the mantle (as Hess proposed in 1962). y Plates can consist of either (1) oceanic lithosphere only or (2) oceanic and continental lithosphere. Thus, the movement of plates provides a mechanism for continental drift -continents can move about as "passengers" on larger, lithospheric plates.
Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171) Page 21 of 111

What happens at the boundary between to plates depends on their relative motion y Plates move apart - "divergent" boundaries. These are regions where new oceanic lithosphere is being created (or will soon be created). Hess called these type boundaries "spreading centers," sites where sea-floor spreading begins. y Plates move together - "convergent" boundaries or collision zones. What happens at these boundaries depends on the type of lithosphere (oceanic or continental) that are colliding. An oceanic plate will dive into the mantle, a process called "subduction." A continental plate cannot be subducted because it is too light and thick; it will be deformed and become thicker as collision continues. y Plates slide past one another - "transform fault" boundaries. Plates are neither produced or destroyed at these boundaries, but there is a good deal of friction between the sliding plates. y Over the next several lectures, we will be interpreting the features of the sea floor. In particular, we will identify particular features with plate boundaries. As part of this, we will develop the evidence from the sea-floor that lead to the acceptance of plate tectonics and sea-floor spreading (as well as continental drift) as important theories. Evidence that supported the theory of plate tectonics and completed the scientific revolution: Simply having the idea of sea-floor spreading was not enough to convince the scientific community that continents drifted and that most of the earth's features are related to plate tectonic processes. Other evidence was mounting that eventually was fit into the new paradigm with stunning results. In addition, testable hypothese were generated and oceanic expeditions were undertaken to test them. Here is some of the evidence: Distribution of earthquakes: Earthquake epicenters do not occur randomly; most are located in long narrow zones at (a) mid-ocean ridges and (b) marginal trenches in the oceans. Since earthquakes are generated by storing and then releasing fractional energy, these zones must be places where lithsopheric plates are moving and interacting with one another -- in other words, major earthquake zones define lithospheric plate boundaries! Heat flow from the sea floor: Because the interior of Earth is hot, heat continually escapes through the crust. This heat flow is determined by the increase in temperature with depth. The greater the "temperature gradient,' the greater the heat flow. Heat flow measurements on the sea floor show that it is very high at mid-ocean ridges. This observation is consistent with the emplacement of new oceanic crust by rising convection currents. As sea floor spreads away from ridges, it cools and subsides. Thickness and age of sediments on the sea floor: Sea-floor spreading predicts that oceanic crust becomes older with distance from mid-ocean ridge spreading centers. Therefore, the thickness of sediments should increase with distance also, because there is more time for sediments to accumulate on older crust. In addition, the geologic age of the oldest sediment immediately above the basalt crust should increase with distance. We'll look at the evidence later. Magnetization of ocean crust: The regular magnetic patterns of the sea floor were first observed in the 40's and 50's. The interpretation of those patterns - resulting from periodic "reversals" of Earth's magnetic field and the continuous creation of oceanic crust - became perhaps the most convincing evidence in support of sea-floor spreading. However, when proposed in 1963, this was outlandish idea. We'll examine the evidence and interpretation later.

Provinces of the Sea Floor

Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171) Page 22 of 111

Mid-ocean ridges (MORs) are a 65,000 km-long continuous submarine mountain chain. They rise 1-3,000 meters above the adjacent ocean-basin floor. The width of MORs varies - they are relatively narrow in the Pacific, and relatively wide in the Atlantic. The depth of the crest of MORs is about 2-3,000 meters Nearly all ridges have a central "rift valley," a down-dropped region. This central region is the site of important geologic phenomena:
y y y

Weak (low-magnitude) earthquakes with a shallow focus. Evidence for recent formation of basalt (the shape of basalt boulders are similar to those that form in Hawaii when lava flows enter cold sea water). Submarine hot-springs and geysers (hydrothermal activity). These extraordinary phenomena were first discovered in 1977 in the central rifts of mid-ocean ridges in the Pacific. They probably form as sea water enters oceanic crust through cracks and fissures. This water is heated to 360 deg C when it encounters basalt magma chambers at depth. It then rapidly emerges at ridge crests as extremely hot geysers. The geysers often contain suspended mineral matter -- "black smokers" have dark sulfide minerals; "white smokers have light-colored minerals. Bacteria who live on the sulfur compounds from the geysers provide the food for a bizarre biological community. The finding of hydrothermal communities living off bacteria was completely unexpected!

Provinces of the Sea Floor - Description, Origin from Sea-Floor Spreading and Plate Tectonics Mid-ocean ridges -- Description Submarine hot-springs and geysers (hydrothermal activity). These extraordinary phenomena, first discovered in 1977 on the East Pacific Rise by the research submersible ALVIN, result from the circulation of sea water into very young oceanic crust. Sea water enters young basalt crust through cracks and fissures. This water is heated to 360 deg C when it encounters basalt magma chambers at depth. It then rapidly emerges at ridge crests as extremely hot geysers. Mid-ocean ridges -- Origin according to plate tectonics y Mid-ocean ridges are sites where new ocean lithosphere is created. They are the "spreading centers" of Harry Hess's model of sea-floor spreading. They are the divergent boundaries of plate tectonics. As oceanic plates move apart (diverge), basalt magma is transported upward by convection currents and solidifies to form new lithosphere. This process accounts for the volcanic activity (including hydrothermal) so evident at midocean ridges. y Why are there earthquakes (shallow, weak) along the axis of mid-ocean ridges? These result from tensional forces as plates are rifted apart. Earthquakes here are shallow and weak because young oceanic lithosphere is thin, hot, and relatively weak. y Why does the width of mid-ocean ridges vary from ocean to ocean? Because the rate of sea-floor spreading varies. In the Atlantic, spreading rates are 1-2 cm/yr -- the MidAtlantic Ridge is narrow. In the Pacific, spreading rates are 5-10 cm/yr -- The East Pacific Rise is more "spread out." Divergent boundaries: Go through all six frames. Note rate of spreading -- divergence A few divergent boundaries have been recognized within continents -- Continental rift systems. An example is the East African Rift. Continental rifts are regions where it appears that especially hot currents in the mantle ("mantle plumes") are rising, thining and fracturing the crust, and pulling it apart. As continents rift and separate, new ocean crust will eventually form. This is
Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171) Page 23 of 111

probably the mechanism that breaks-up continents both now (East Africa Rift) and in the past (the break-up of Pangea) Hot Spots and Plate Tectonics: Back in from Chpt. 18 -- 13 frames to ... (a) Pangaea; (b) Plume and initial rifting; (c) Further rifting and formation of new ocean basin. A total of 4 frames. Fracture zones -- Description Fracture zones are relatively deep, linear escarpments that can be thousands of kilometers long and extend across ocean basins (such as some in the Pacific). They are oriented about perpendicular to mid-ocean ridges and appear to offset the axis of mid-ocean ridges (you could also think of them as connecting offset portions of ridges). Earthquakes only occur on those portions of fracture zones that offset ridge axes. Fracture zones -- Origin according to plate tectonics That segment of a fracture zone that connects ridge axes is the boundary between between two oceanic plates that are moving in opposite directions. Thus, those segments are transform plate boundaries. Earthquakes occur because of the opposite motion of the two plates. The part of a fracture zone that extends beyond that segment (the longest part of fracture zones in the oceans) is no longer "active." Those parts used to be transform boundaries, but they are now part of a single plate. A few transform boundaries occur occur on continents. One example is the San Andreas fault in California. On the west side of the fault, the Pacific plate and a small sliver of California is sliding north past North America. Transform Boundaries: All frames. Marginal trenches -- Description Most of the deep trenches occur around the margins of the Pacific. y In the western Pacific, volcanic islands (called island arcs) occur on the continental-side of trenches. The volcanoes often erupt explosively, with great outpourings of volcanic ash. The type of volcanic rock erupted here is "andesite," different in composition from basalt of midocean ridges and elsewhere in the oceans. In addition, strong, deep earthquakes (to a depth of 700 km) occur beneath trenches and island arcs. y In the eastern Pacific along Central and South America, trenches occur just at the edge of (narrow) continental margins. Volcanic activity occurs on the continents. There are also strong, deep earthquakes. y Marginal trenches -- Origin according to plate tectonics y Marginal trenches mark convergent plate boundaries, where two plates are coming together. An oceanic plate involved in the convergence is subducted back into the mantle. Volcanic activity and earthquakes result from this subduction. y In the western Pacific, two oceanic plates are converging. This is called an "ocean-ocean" convergence. The older and cooler plate is subducted. As the plate descends, a small part of it and overlying mantle melts to produce rising blobs of magma that erupts explosively. Earthquakes occur as friction develops within the "cool" plate and between the descending plate and mantle. In fact, earthquake zones trace the descent of the plate. In the eastern Pacific, an oceanic and a continental plate are converging. This is called an "ocean-continent" convergence. The oceanic plate is subducted. Volcanic activity and earthquakes are generated in the same way as they are in the ocean-ocean convergence in the western Pacific.
Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171) Page 24 of 111

There is a third type of convergent boundary -- a "continent-continent" convergence, or collision zone. When two continental plates collide, neither can be subducted because continental crust (and lithosphere) is to bouyant and thick to be forced back into the mantle. What happens instead is that one plate penetrates into and below the other, resulting in much crustal thickening and elevation as well as deformation and earthquakes -- it's like a continental-scale train wreck! The best example is the Himalayas, the world's highest mountain range, that is the result of the collision of India with Asia that began about 45 m.y. ago. Deep-ocean basins - Description y Ocean basins are the province extending from continental margins to the mid-ocean ridge system. Typical depths are 4-6,000 m. Much of this province, particularly in the Atlantic, is a flat and feature region called the abyssal plains. Abyssal plains are flat because they are mantled by sediments, covering and obscuring and roughness of the basalt sea floor. y The thickness of sediments increases across ocean basins from mid-ocean ridges to continental margins. In addition, ocean drilling in the l960's and l970's showed that the age of basal (oldest) sediments increases with distance from mid-ocean ridges. y Although sediments can cover the existing topography of the sea floor, there are numerous features of volcanic origin, especially in the Pacific. Abyssal hills: < 100 m high, very common. Submarine seamounts: Higher, extinct volcanoes. Guyots: Flat-topped seamounts whose tops have been eroded by wave action; guyots must have been at sea-level at one time, then subsided. Coral atolls: As proposed by Darwin, atolls developed initially around a volcanic island, then evolved as the volcano subsided. Chains of volcanic islands in the middle of a basin: Hawaiian chain is the best-known example. Hawaiian chain is associated with a chain of seamounts extending to the northwest and north. Ages of these islands and seamounts increase to the northwest away from the active volcanoes on Hawaii. Deep-ocean basins - Origin according to plate tectonics y Deep-ocean basins are simply oceanic lithosphere that has cooled and subsided as it spreads away from mid-ocean ridge spreading centers, where it was created. Cooling and subsidence explains the origin of features like guyots and coral atolls -- they were once volcanic islands that subsided as lithosphere cooled and spread. The distribution and age of ocean sediments are explained because the floor of the ocean should increase in age with distance from mid-ocean ridge spreading centers. y Volcanic island and seamount chains requires a different explanation. The origin of these features is attributed to the interaction between (a) a plume of hot mantle material that is fixed in position - mantle plume, or hot spot; and (b) an oceanic plate moving over the mantle plume. Active volcanoes exist immediately above the plume. Older, extinct volcanoes have been cut-off from the plume as the plate migrated. The age of an extinct volcano (island or seamount) is the time when that part of the plate was over the mantle plume. The trend of the chain marks the direction of plate motion.

Hot Spots and Plate Tectonics: From the beginning to the "age indicating time over plume" - 14 frames. Magnetization of oceanic crust -- confirmation of sea-floor spreading and plate tectonics. When a basalt lava flow cools and solidifies, magnetic iron minerals align themselves with the direction of Earth's magnetic field at the location where they form. The minerals act like little compasses, showing us the past position of the Earth's magnetic poles. From sequences of age-dated lava flows from continents, scientists concluded that the
Page 25 of 111

y y

Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171)

y y y y y y y y y y

magnetic field of Earth has reversed itself many times in the past. That is, north and south magnetic poles swapped positions. The duration of those intervals of "normal" polarity (like today) and "reverse" polarity range from 0.1 to about 10 million years. Magnetic surveys of the sea floor (by research vessels towing a magnetometer) found an intriguing pattern of variations in the magnetic field strength. Those variations, which they termed "magnetic anomalies" were symmetrical on either side of mid-ocean ridges (and parallel to the ridges): Slightly higher-than-average field strength: positive magnetic anomaly. Slightly lower-than-average field strength: negative magnetic anomaly. The most likely explanation is that the magnetic anomalies are due to the continuous creation of ocean crust during magnetic reversals: Positive anomaly = basalt formed during time of normal polarity (therefore it adds to the total magnetic field) Negative anomaly = basalt formed during time of reverse polarity (therefore it subtracts from the total magnetic field). This interpretation gave strong and convincing support to the concept of sea-floor spreading: New ocean crust (basalt) is produced at mid-ocean ridges, and records the magnetic field (polarity) of Earth at that time. The basalt moves laterally away from the ridge like a conveyor belt, and the ocean basin becomes wider. Geomagnetic Reversals & Plate Tectonics: Run through the frames, emphasizing the animations of magnetic anomalies creation The pattern of magnetization throughout the oceans (together with drilling sediments and ocean crust) have permitted us to make a geologic map of the sea floor showing absolute ages. Note that the oldest oceanic crust is only about 200 m.y. old. Although the oceans themselves are very ancient, oceanic crust and lithosphere is continuously being created (at mid-ocean ridges) and destroyed (at marginal trenches).

Plate Motions
What drives the motion of plates? Geophysicists who study this issue conclude that convection currents in the mantle is the fundamental driving force. Convection occurs because of unveven distribution of heat sources in the mantle. Hot currents rise because they are less dense than the surrounding mantle. Currents move laterally, loose heat and cool, then sink. What are the sources of internal heat in the mantle? As we discussed earlier, the largest source is the decay of radioactive elements. So, some parts of the (deep) mantle must be more radioactive than other parts. A lesser source is "fossil heat," the heat energy trapped in the Earth during its formation. Although convection is the fundamental driving force for plate motions, how it works in detail is somewhat controversial. There are three ways that convection could make plates move: 1. "Push" - - Plates are elevated at mid-ocean ridge spreading centers by the upward push of rising convection current. Because of this elevation, they slide by gravity away from spreading centers. 2. "Drag" - - Plates are pulled away from spreading centers by fricitional drag between the plate and underflowing current. 3. "Pull" - - The weight of the subducting part of a plate (it's cool and dense) literally pulls the rest of the plate. Any combination of these "motions" could be in play for different plates. However, evidence from rates of plate motions suggest that "pull" may be dominant: Plates largely surrounded by trenches (e.g., the Pacific) move fast.
Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171) Page 26 of 111

Plates moving away from a mid-ocean ridge (e.g., the Atlantic) move slow Past plate motions and continental drift. The theories of sea-floor spreading and plate tectonics gave new "life" to Alfred Wegener's concept of continental drift. In fact, Wegener's proposals for the sequence of drifting continents over the past 250 million years fit very well with our current understanding of the history of lithospheric plate motions and the age of the sea floor. So, it is perhaps fitting to reconsider Wegener's model for the break-up of Pangea, emphasizing the important events -- including the origin of some major oceans. We will consider the "state of the world" at various times in the past. Continental Drift y Prior to 225 m.y.a. Continents were assembled into a "supercontinent" that Wegener called "Pangea" (P). Pangea was made up of two smaller masses, Gondwanaland (G) in the southern hemisphere, and Laurasia (L) in the northern hemisphere. y 180 m.y.a. G and L have nearly separated. India has drifted away from Africa and Antarctica. y 135 m.y.a. G and L have separated. India continues to move north. The South Atlantic is "born" as a narrow gulf between South America and Africa. y 65 m.y.a. South Atlantic continues to open. Africa moves north to form Mediterranean Sea. Australia begins to separate from Antarctica. y 65 m.y.a to present India collides with Eurasia. North America and Greenland split from Eurasia to form the North Atlantic. North and South America drift together (by subduction and with volcanic activity) and are joined. Arabia rifts away from Africa. y The evolution of North America -- an illustration of how continents form. y The central "core" of North America "assembled" about 1,800 m.y.a from 4-5 smaller continental segments. The margins of our continents were added by collision with younger and smaller segments of continents and ocean crust that mostly migrated from the south. These marginal "terranes" make up about 25% of the present continent. y Geologists who study ancient continental regions suggest that there is a 500 m.y. cycle of continental assemblage and rifting: y "Super-continent" -> Heat build-up at base -> Rifting & Separation -> Reassemblage y If this is correct, then we are about half-way through the cycle that began with the breakup of Pangea.


Distribution of land and sea For the Earth as a whole, 71 % of the surface is covered by oceans (and 29 % by continents). But the distribution varies with hemisphere. o Most continental land-masses are in the Northern Hemisphere (40% of N.H. is continental). o The Southern Hemisphere is dominated by oceans (83% of S.H. is oceanic) Distribution of elevations The distribution of elevations on Earth's surface is described by the hypsographic curve. The curve shows the percent of the surface between two elevations (with respect to mean sea level). The information on the curve indicates that:
Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171) Page 27 of 111

* the mean elevation of continents [+840 meters (m)], and * the mean depth of ocean basins [-3,800 m]. It is important to note that there is a sharp, narrow transition by continents and oceans. This transition reflects fundamental differences in the crust of those regions: * Continental crust: thick, less dense, buoyant. * Oceanic crust: thin, more dense, "rides lower" on the underlying mantle. Introduction to Provinces of the Sea Floor Major provinces (in terms of areal extent) include continental margins, ocean-basin floor, and mid-ocean ridges and rises. Continental margins -- are just as the name implies, the transition between continental and oceanic regions. The continental shelf is the flooded part of the continent. The continental slope is a steep feature at the edge of the shelf. The contental rise is the area at the base of the slope. A well-developed shelf, slope, and rise is typical of the wide continental margins of the Atlantic Ocean. In contrast, the margins of the Pacific Ocean are usually narrower. Submarine canyons are common on all margins. They are deep valleys that cut the outer shelf and slope. Ocean basin floor -- extends from continental rises to mid-ocean ridges. The average depth is 4-6,000 m. The ocean-basin floor is usually quite flat, especially where it is mantled by sediment. But there are numerous topographic features of volcanic origin, most commonly observed in the Pacific. These include * emergent volcanic islands and coral atolls * submergent hills, seamounts, a flat-topped seamounts called "guyots." Mid-ocean ridges and rises -- are a globe-encircling volcanic mountain range that rise about 2,000 m above the adjacent ocean-basin floor. They are one of the most impressive topographic features of our planet. Other important features that are wide-spread, but do not occupy much area include marginal trenches and fracture zones. Trenches -- are the deepest regions of the sea floor, with depths of 6-11,000 m. They occur at the margins of ocean basins, most commonly in the Pacific. * In the East Pacific (along Central and South America), trenches are at the edge of the continental margin. * In the West Pacific (also Antarctic Scotia Sea and Carribean), marginal trenches are associated with volcanic island chains called "island arcs." Fracture zones -- are faults that offset sections of mid-ocean ridges. They extend into and across the floor of ocean basins. Introduction to ocean sediments Sediments on the sea floor are derived both from continents and from biological activity at the sea surface.
Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171) Page 28 of 111

(1) Sediment on continents is produced by the weathering (break-down) and erosion of exposed rocks. Sediment is transported by rivers to continental margins. The thickest deposits of continental sediments occur beneath the continental slope and rise. Fine-grained particles can be carried by wind or surface ocean currents to the open ocean (well away from continental margins). (2) In surface waters of the open ocean, microscopic algae and protozoans (plankton) precipitate very small "shells" of CaCO3 and SiO2. These particles are deposited through the water much like snow falls on land. Some continental sediment and volcanic ash is deposited in the same way. Sediment layers in the ocean are records of processes occurring both in the oceans and on land. * The surface layer of sediments reflect modern processes (e.g., the amount of sediment carried to shelf areas by rivers, the production of biological precipitates in surface waters). * Deeper, older layers are a record of past processes. Determining ocean depths -- is done by some type of Echo Sounding (SONAR) device. This method is based on the reflection of a sound impulse from the sea floor. A strong impluse is generated electronically or by an explosion. Hydrophones on research vessels then "listen" and time the reflection of the impulse from the sea floor. Depth is determined from the velocity of sound in sea water (~1,450 m/sec) and the time required for the impulse to make the "round-trip" from the surface to the sea floor and back to the surface: D = v x (1/2) t. Sampling the sea floor -- can be done by a vareity of ship-board equipment. * Dredges and "grab samplers" scoop-up sediments and rocks at the surface. * Core tubes are lowered overboard and then dropped into soft sediment; the core tube is recovered, cut open, and the largely undisturbed sediment layers are sampled. * Drilling rigs on a few large vessels are capable of drilling a continuous core of sediment and basalt to a total length of more than 1 kilometer! Continental Margins Features of continental margins A typical profile of a continental margin would show the following features: Shelf Shelf Break Slope Rise y The continental shelf is the flooded extension of the adjacent continent and its coastal plain. The width of shelves varies from 5 to 500 km. Depth is less than 200 m. y The shelf break is the edge of the continental shelf. It marks an abrupt change in slope of the sea floor. y The continental slope marks the boundary between continents and ocean basins. The slope is relatively narrow, ranging from 10 to 100 km wide. Depth at the base of continental slopes varies from ocean to ocean. On Atlantic margins, the slope ends at about 3,000 m. Along most of the Pacific margins of North and South America, the slope descends abruptly into marginal trenches with depths up to 8,000 m. The origin of continental slopes is largely uncertain. Some slopes may have developed as faults during the intial rifting continents to form ocean basins. Others seem to be related to uplift at the edge of the continental shelf (e.g., volcanic activity, coral reef build-up).
Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171) Page 29 of 111

The continental rise is the gently-sloping transition between the continental slope and deepocean floor (and abyssal plains). Continental rises are well developed in the Atlantic, Indian, and around Antarctica; but are uncommon in the Pacific. Where present, widths vary from 100 to 1,000 km. Continental rises result from the thick accumulation of sediment from land that is transported to the shelf and then down the slope.

Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171)

Page 30 of 111

Contrasting types of continental margins y As described above, the continental margins of the Atlantic and the Pacific differ in important ways. These differences are explained by plate tectonic processes. y The typical margin of the Atlantic (as well as the Indian Ocean and around Antarctica) is called a passive margin. This type of margin has well-developed shelf, slope, and rise. According to plate tectonics, passive margins developed during continental rifting and the formation of a new ocean basin. A passive margin is the "trailing edge" of a continent-ocean plate (e.g., the North American plate). Passive margins are also called "constructive" margins because they are built seaward by the deposition of sediment. y The margin of the Pacific side of the Americas is called an active margin. In this type, continental shelves are narrow, slopes are narrow and deep, and rises are often absent. According to plate tectonics, active margins are convergent or transform plate boundaries. Thus, an active continental margin is at the "leading edge" of one of the interacting plates. Active margins are sites of important geologic activity, including earthquakes, volcanism, and mountain-building (over a long time-scale). Submarine canyons on continental margins y Submarine canyons are steep-sided, V-shaped valleys that begin on the shelf, extend down the slope, and end at the rise. They are common on both passive and active margins. y Submarine canyons are the result of erosion by rapidly flowing, sediment-rich currents called turbidity currents. Although no one has actually observed a turbidity current, we think they develop as follows: Sediment from land is transported to the edge of the continental shelf. Some "event," like an earthquake or violent storm, triggers the current -- a dense slurry of sediment a water. The turbidity current flows rapidly down the slope, eroding and transporting sediment as it goes. When it reaches the base of the slope, it slows down, spreads out, and deposits its sediment load in submarine "deltas" or fans on the continental rise and even well out into abyssal plains. We will consider ocean sediments deposited by turbidity currents later. Mid-ocean ridges -- Description Submarine hot-springs and geysers (hydrothermal activity). These extraordinary phenomena, first discovered in 1977 on the East Pacific Rise by the research submersible ALVIN, result from the circulation of sea water into very young oceanic crust. Sea water enters young basalt crust through cracks and fissures. This water is heated to 360 deg C when it encounters basalt magma chambers at depth. It then rapidly emerges at ridge crests as extremely hot geysers. Mid-ocean ridges -- Origin according to plate tectonics

Mid-ocean ridges are sites where new ocean lithosphere is created. They are the "spreading centers" of Harry Hess's model of sea-floor spreading. They are the divergent boundaries of plate tectonics. As oceanic plates move apart (diverge), basalt magma is transported upward by convection currents and solidifies to form new lithosphere. This process accounts for the volcanic activity (including hydrothermal) so evident at midocean ridges. Why are there earthquakes (shallow, weak) along the axis of mid-ocean ridges? These result from tensional forces as plates are rifted apart. Earthquakes here are shallow and weak because young oceanic lithosphere is thin, hot, and relatively weak. Why does the width of mid-ocean ridges vary from ocean to ocean? Because the rate of sea-floor spreading varies. In the Atlantic, spreading rates are 1-2 cm/yr -- the MidPage 31 of 111

Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171)

Atlantic Ridge is narrow. In the Pacific, spreading rates are 5-10 cm/yr -- The East Pacific Rise is more "spread out." Marginal trenches -- Description Most of the deep trenches occur around the margins of the Pacific.

In the western Pacific, volcanic islands (called island arcs) occur on the continental-side of trenches. The volcanoes often erupt explosively, with great outpourings of volcanic ash. The type of volcanic rock erupted here is "andesite," different in composition from basalt of midocean ridges and elsewhere in the oceans. In addition, strong, deep earthquakes (to a depth of 700 km) occur beneath trenches and island arcs. In the eastern Pacific along Central and South America, trenches occur just at the edge of (narrow) continental margins. Volcanic activity occurs on the continents. There are also strong, deep earthquakes.

Deep-ocean basins - Description


Ocean basins are the province extending from continental margins to the mid-ocean ridge system. Typical depths are 4-6,000 m. Much of this province, particularly in the Atlantic, is a flat and feature region called the abyssal plains. Abyssal plains are flat because they are mantled by sediments, covering and obscuring and roughness of the basalt sea floor. The thickness of sediments increases across ocean basins from mid-ocean ridges to continental margins. In addition, ocean drilling in the l960's and l970's showed that the age of basal (oldest) sediments increases with distance from mid-ocean ridges. Although sediments can cover the existing topography of the sea floor, there are numerous features of volcanic origin, especially in the Pacific. Abyssal hills: < 100 m high, very common. Submarine seamounts: Higher, extinct volcanoes. Guyots: Flat-topped seamounts whose tops have been eroded by wave action; guyots must have been at sea-level at one time, then subsided. Coral atolls: As proposed by Darwin, atolls developed initially around a volcanic island, then evolved as the volcano subsided. Chains of volcanic islands in the middle of a basin: Hawaiian chain is the best-known example. Hawaiian chain is associated with a chain of seamounts extending to the northwest and north. Ages of these islands and seamounts increase to the northwest away from the active volcanoes on Hawaii.


The sea floor is covered by layers of sediment (except on youngest crust at mid-ocean ridges). The oldest sediment rests on oceanic crust (and is the same age as oceanic crust). The youngest sediment is at the top. Sediment is not distributed uniformly on the sea floor. As we noted previously, there is very little sediment cover on mid-ocean ridges and up to 10,000 m beneath continental rises. The average thickness of sediments is about 500 m.
Page 32 of 111

Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171)

Rates of sediment accumulation (sedimentation rates) also vary. Sedimentation rates are typically measured in units of cm per 1,000 years. y Deep ocean (average): 0.5 - 1.0 cm/1000 yr. Continental margins: 10 - 50 cm/1000 yr Major river deltas, some bays and estuaries: as high as 500 cm/1000 yr y There are numerous sources of ocean sediments: Continents -- products of weathering and erosion Biogenic particles produced in the ocean Volcanic ash Chemical precipitates from sea water Micro-meteorites Ocean sediments are important for a variety of reasons:

(1) Ocean sediments contain valuable resources: petroleum and natural gas, minerals, etc. (2) Sediments record evidence of past processes occurring on land and in the ocean. These include: Rates of continental erosion and transport by rivers Down-slope movements of turbidity currents Biological activity in surface waters Volcanic eruptions

y y y y

Marine sedimentary provinces -- Environments of sediment accumulation Land-derived, terrigenous sediment dominates in the inner continental margin -- that area of the continental shelf near to land. Along the outer continental margin (outer shelf, slope, and rise) sediment sources are a mixture of terrigenous and pelagic -- sediment that is deposited by settling in the open ocean. In the deep sea, away from continental influences, most of the sediment is pelagic. This includes biogenic particles produced in surface ocean waters and very fine-grained windblown particles from land and volcanoes.

Particle sizes of marine sediments One way in which we classify marine sediment is by their particle size. Different common names are applied to specific size ranges (diameters): gravel, sand, silt, clay ("mud" is silt and clay). Proportions of different particle sizes in a sediment reflects contains important information about the sediment: (1) distance from source (2) mechanism of transport to the site of deposition
Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171) Page 33 of 111

How this information is recorded in sediments is explained by some simple hydrodynamic principles y Particles sink through (stationary) water at different rates. Large particles sink faster than small particles. y In moving water (rivers, ocean currents and waves) the capacity to transport particles in suspension or by bouncing along the bottom depends on velocity of water: The amount of sediment that can be carried as well as the maximum diameter of particles transported is directly proportional to "current" velocity. y Thus, rapid currents transport coarse as well as fine sediments. Slow currents may only be capable of transporting very fine sediments. y Implications for sediment distribution -- Particle size tends to decrease with increasing distance from the source of the sediment. Coarsest: beaches, near-shore, inner shelf -- where currents are strong Finest: edge of continental margin, deep ocean -- where currents are weak y "Sorting" is another way in which we classify sediments "Well sorted" - - uniform particle size (e.g., beach sand) "Poorly sorted" - - range of particle sizes y Sorting occurs during transport and the continued action of moving water (e.g., winnowing of fines from sand by wave action and currents y Sediments deposited by turbidity currents demonstrate the importance of particle-size distribution and sorting y Recall that a turbidity current is a dense slurry of poorly sorted suspended sediment traveling at speeds of 20 -30 km/hr. As a turbidity corrent flows over more gentle slopes of the continental rise and abyssal plains, its speed decreases and therefore sediments are deposited. y The largest particles settle first from fast-moving "nose" of current. Finer particles settle next as main body of current slows. Finest particles (mud) settle last from slowest moving "tail." y This style of deposition produced what is termed a "graded bed," where the largest particles are at the base and the finest at the top. Graded beds are characteristic of turbidity-flow deposits, or "turbidities. Succession of particle sizes from a turbidity flow ............ . . . . . . . . . . . . Finest sediment particles ooooooooo ooooooooo OOOOOOO OOOOOOO Coarsest sediment particles OCEAN SEDIMENTS II Sources and origins of marine sediments In the previous lecture, we discussed how sediments are classified according to where they are deposited (neritic, pelagic, etc.) and by their grain size (sand, silt, clay, etc.). Another useful and important classification scheme for classifiying ocean sediments is by their sources, or origins. In terms of the total volume of ocean sediment, the two most important "types" of sediment in this classification are lithogenous ("rock-derived") and biogenous (produced by marine organisms). Other types are hydrogenous (produced by chemical reactions in sea water) and cosmogenous (particles from outer space). Let's consider those source/origin types in more detail.
Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171) Page 34 of 111

COSMOGENOUS SEDIMENTS that accumulate in the oceans (and land) are essentially "micro-meteorites" whose composition can be either silicate (like the mantle), metal (like the core), or a mixture of the two. - Although there is a continuous "rain" of these particles on Earth, cosmogenous sediments make up a very minor component of ocean sediments -- in fact, it takes an expert to identify them. - But throughout the history of our planet, very large extra-terrestrial bodies (large meteorites, asteroids, even comets) have collided with the Earth from time to time. - The results are catastrophic! -- a large, deep crater; molten rock and ash ejected into the atmosphere, world-wide fires. - Many scientists have concluded that major impacts cause "mass extinctions," like the extinction of the dinosaurs and 80% of all living species 65 m.y. ago. HYDROGENEOUS SEDIMENTS form either by (1) direct precipitation from sea water, or (2) as a new mineral from chemical reactions between sea water and sediments on the sea floor "Salts" - - Sea water contains dissolved ions (about 3.5 % by weight). - When sea water undergoes extensive evaporation in bays or even large seas that are restricted from "communicating" (circulating) with the "open" ocean, the concentration of ions can increase to the point where they are "saturated" with respect to certain solids that we simply call "salts." - Important sea salts are NaCl (halite) and CaSO4.2H2O (gypsum). - Salts precipitate from "super-saturated" sea water in restricted basins and are deposited on the sea floor. "Manganese nodules" - - are oxides of the metals manganese (Mn) and iron (Fe). They also contain minor amounts of copper (Cu), cobalt, (Co), and nickel (Ni). - Manganese nodules occur as nodules and crusts, primarily in deepest of oceans and near midocean ridges. - Their origin is controversial. We do not know the source of the metals nor how and why they are concentrated in nodules. - The metals may be delivered as dissolved species or as sediments from land. - A more likely origin is volcanic activity and hydrothermal alteration of ocean crust at midocean ridges. Remember the "black smokers?" Much of the suspended particles are Mn and Fe oxides. LITHOGENOUS SEDIMENTS in the ocean come in two varieties: (1) terrigenous ("landderived") and (2) "red clay." Terrigenous sediments are produced by the physical and chemical "weathering" (alteration) of rocks exposed on continents. Sedimentary particles are then eroded and transported from land to the oceans. Most sediment is carried by rivers, but winds and glaciers are also important transport agents. River-transported sediment is deposited on continental margins and mostly stays there. Only a small fraction is transported to the open ocean (e.g., by turbidity currents). Terrigenous sediments make up 75 % of all the sediment that is deposited in the ocean. The thickest accumulations (up to 10 km!) occur in continental rises. But keep in mind that most terrigenous sediment remains on continental margins -- river deltas, bays, estuaries, as well as continental rises. In the Pacific, sediment from land is trapped in those environments and in marginal trenches. As a consequence, relatively little terrigenous sediment is transported to the deep-sea floor of the Pacific.
Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171) Page 35 of 111

"Red clay" is the name applied to very fine-grained (clay-sized), reddish-brown lithogenous sediment in the deep ocean. The sources of red clay are land (terrigenous) and volcanic ash. Red clay is transported to the open ocean by wind and surface currents. It is deposited by settling through the water column, that is, it is a pelagic sediment. Red clay is the dominant component of pelagic sediments in deep basins where other types of sediment are absent. BIOGENOUS SEDIMENTS are particles that are produced directly by marine organisms. - In warm shallow seas, most biogenous sediment are the shells or shell fragments of multicellular animals, such as corals and clams. - But in the open ocean (deep sea), biogenous sediment is made up of the microscopic shells (10.01 mm) of single-celled plants and animals, called plankton, that live in surface waters above about 200 m. Biogenous sediments in the open-ocean are called "oozes" (a term applied to the first biogenous sediments recovered in the mid-1800's). - Oozes of made up of the microscopic shells of calcareous and siliceous algae and/or protozoans. - By definition, biogenous oozes contain > 30% of a biogeni component; the remainder is non biogenic sediment, such as lithogenous mud. The distribution of biogeneous sediments is controlled by three important processes: 1. Production in surface waters: The growth of marine algae (which are the base of the oceanic food chain) is controlled principally by the availability of two critical nutrient elements - N (nitrogen) and P (phosphorus). These critical nutrients are mostly supplied to surface waters by deep waters that "upwell" to the surface. Therefore, biological productivity is high in areas of strong vertical upwelling -- along the equator, in certain coastal regions, and in the Southern Ocean around Antarctica. 2. Dissolution in deep waters: Deep-ocean waters are undersaturated in calcium carbonate and opalline silica. Therefore, biogenic particles tend to dissolve as they settle through the water column and as they sit on sea floor. This effect is more pronounced for calcareous sediments. In fact, calcareous oozes are absent below a certain depth called the "Carbonate Compensation Depth, or CCD. The depth of the CCD varies from ocean to ocean. It occurs at 4,000 m in the Atlantic. The CCD is shallower in the Pacific, at depths of 500 - 1,500 m. Siliceous particles dissolve more slowly as they sink and are not limited in distribution by depth as much. Nutrient supply more important in controlling the distribution of siliceous sediments. 3. Dilution: Calcareous and siliceous components can be diluted to < 30 % of the total sediment (and therfore not qualify as a "biogenous ooze") in regions where the input of terrigenous sediment is very high. This occurs along continental margins -- surface productivity is high and dissolution is minimal, but biogenous oozes don't occur because of the high influx of terrigenous sediment from continents SUMMARY -- Distribution of sediment on the sea floor (modern sediments) Terrigenous: - - continental margins and adjacent abyssal plains. Manganese nodules: - - deep basins, especially the Pacific. Red Clay: - - deep ocean regions where not diluted by biogenic particles. Calcareous oozes: - - wide-spread in relatively shallow areas of the deep sea. Siliceous oozes: - - polar and equatorial bands where nutrients are supplied to surface waters by vertical upwelling.
Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171) Page 36 of 111


Sediment in the Sea A. Size classification divides sediment by grain size into gravel, sand, and clay. 1. Mud is a mixture of silt and clay. 2. Origin classification divides sediment into five categories: Terrigenous sediments, Biogenous sediments, Hydrogenous sediments, Volcanogenic sediments, and Cosmogenic sediments. B. Factors that control sedimentation include particle size and the turbulence of the deposition environment. 1. Terrigenous sediments strongly reflect their source and are transported to the sea by wind, rivers, and glaciers. 2. Rate of erosion is important in determining nature of sediments. 3. Average grain size reflects the energy of the depositional environment. 4. Hjulstroms Diagram graphs the relationship between particle size and energy for erosion, transportation, and deposition. Sedimentation in the Ocean C. Based upon water depth, the ocean environment can be divided into the shelf, which is shallow and near a terrigenous source, and the deep ocean basin, which is deep and far from a terrigenous source. 1. Seaward, water becomes deeper and more distant from a terrigenous source. D. Shelf sedimentation is strongly controlled by tides, waves and currents, but their influence decreases with depth. 1. Shoreline turbulence prevents small particles from settling and transports them seaward where they are deposited in deeper water. 2. Particle size decreases seaward for recent sediments.
Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171) Page 37 of 111

3. Past fluctuations of sea level has stranded coarse sediment (relict sediment) across the shelf including most areas where only fine sediments are deposited today. E. Worldwide distribution of recent shelf sediments by composition is strongly related to latitude and climate. 1. Calcareous biogenous sediments dominate tropical shelves. 2. River-supplied sands and muds dominate temperate shelves. 3. Glacial till and ice-rafted sediments dominate polar shelves. F. Geologic controls of continental shelf sedimentation must be considered in terms of a time frame. 1. For a time frame up to 1000 years, waves, currents, and tides control sedimentation. 2. For a time frame up to 1,000,000 years, sea level lowered by glaciation controlled sedimentation and caused rivers to deposit their sediments at the shelf edge and onto the upper continental slope. 3. For a time frame up to 100,000,000 years, plate tectonics have determined the type of margin that developed and controlled sedimentation. G. If influx of terrigenous sediment is low and the water is warm, carbonate sediments will dominate. H. Deep-sea Sedimentation has two main sources for sediment: terrigenous material from the land and biogenous and hydrogenous from the sea. 1. Major sedimentary processes in the deep-sea include:, Bulk emplacement, Debris flows, Turbidity currents 2. Major pelagic sediments in the ocean are red clay and biogenous oozes. 3. Hydrogenous deposits are chemical and biochemical precipitates that form on the sea floor and include ferromanganese nodules and phosphorite. I. The distribution of sediments in the deep ocean varies greatly, but is strongly controlled by the compensation depth. 1. Surface Deposits are the sediments found exposed on the sea floor. 2. Deep-sea stratigraphy refers to the broad-scale layering of the sediments of the sea floor. It strongly reflects the sediment types deposited as the sea floor

CORAL REEF COMMUNITIES Coral reef are very diverse and productive marine ecosystems in shallow, tropical seas. Coral reefs are the habitat of thousands of species of invertebrates, vertebrates and algae. The coral animal is the dominant reef-builders. Corals are members of the phylum Cnidaria, the same as jellyfish and sea anemones. Corals are colonial organisms. An individual coral consists of a polyp and tentacles with sting cells (nematocysts). Corals gather food by paralyzing small fish and zooplankton (i.e., predators); they also use their tentacles to collect suspended food particles in sea water (i.e., filter feeders). Coprals reproduce by asexual "budding" and by the release of planktonic eggs and larva that are fertilized sexually. Individual corals secrete a supporting "cup" of CaCO3 that provides the structural framework of the reef. [Calcareous
Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171) Page 38 of 111

algae, foraminifera, molluscs, echinoderms also contribute to reef construction]. Corals can grow at rates of up to 10 cm/yr. There are a variety of growth forms, including massive, columnar, branching, etc. Environmental requirements of growing coral reefs: oT: >18C (23-25 is optimum), thus corals grow only between 30 N and S latitude oS: relatively high oDepth: < 50-150 m oClear water (no suspended sediment) Symbiotic zooxanthellae in coral tissue. Zooxanthellae are photosynthetic dinoflagellates that give living coral their characteristic color. Because they are photosynthetic, the presence of symbiotic zooxanthallae limits the depth of active coral growth to the photic zone. How does symbiosis between corals and zooxanthallae work? Corals provide for zooxanthellae: A constant, protected environment An abundant source of CO2 and nutrients (P, N) from coral metabolic wastes Zooxanthellae provide for corals: A source of oxygen (O2) A source of food (although zooxanthallae are not ingested by corals) Stimulate CaCO3 secretion Types of coral reefs Fringing reef -- borders shoreline Barrier reef -- further offshore, separated by lagoon Atolls -- ring-shaped These types represent a sequence in the development of coral reefs, as originally proposed by Charles Darwin. Zonation on coral reefs. Horizontal and vertical zones are determined by factors including depth and light intensity, wave action, temperature and salinity of water, and biological factors. Living base of a reef begins at about 150 m depth, although there are few species of coral at this depth. Outer slope extends over the range 15-150 m. In this environment, there is adequate sunlight for corals and algae to grow. It is also below the depth of wave action, so its reasonably well protected. Buttress zone extends from low tide to 15 m. Wave energy is absorbed and dissipated in this zone. In addition, channels in the buttress zone allow sediments on the crest and flat to be drained to the outer slope and greater depths. Reef crest is exposed at high tide. It is continuously pounded by waves. Reef flat and lagoon is a quiet-water, protected environment. It is the home to a large number of coral species. It is the habitat for thousands of species from almost every other animal phylum: fish, crustaceans, echinoderms, molluscs, etc. Environmental stress on coral reefs can result from natural causes, such as predation by star fish on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia, and from human activities (fishing, recreation, etc.). Coral bleaching is a clear indication of a reef under stress. Bleaching results from corals expelling their symbiotic zooxanthellae -- the corals loose color and turn white. The cause(s) of coral bleaching is not clearly understood. But it is most common in anomalously warm waters >32C. The increasing occurrence of colar bleaching may be an indicator of global warming.

Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171)

Page 39 of 111

COASTAL HABITATS Preview A. The term coast has a much broader meaning than shoreline and includes many other habitats and ecosystems associated with terrestrial and marine processes. 1. The six major coastal settings are: estuary, lagoon, salt marsh, mangrove swamp, and coral reef. 2. Shorelines are one of the most productive ecosystems and because they are shallow, they strongly respond to the effects of waves, tides, and weather. Estuaries B. Estuaries are semi-enclosed bodies of water where fresh water from the land mixes with seawater. 1. Estuaries originate as: drowned river valleys, fjords, bar-built estuaries, and tectonic estuaries. 2. Salinity typically grades from normal marine salinity at the tidal inlet to fresh water at the mouth of the river. C. Estuaries can be subdivided into three types based upon the relative importance of river inflow and tidal mixing. 1. Salt-wedge estuaries are dominated by the outflow from rivers. 2. Partially-mixed estuaries are dominated by neither river inflow nor tidal mixing. 3. In well-mixed estuaries tidal turbulence destroys the halocline and water stratification. 4. Because river discharge and tidal flow vary, conditions within an estuary can also change, being well-mixed when river flow decreases relative to tidal mixing, to becoming a salt-wedge estuary at times of maximum river discharge. D. The widely fluctuating environmental conditions in estuaries make life stressful for organisms. 1. Estuaries are extremely fertile because nutrients are brought in by rivers and recycled from the bottom because of the turbulence. 2. Stressful conditions and abundant nutrients result in low species diversity, but great abundance of the species present.
Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171)

Page 40 of 111

3. Despite abundance of nutrients, phytoplankton blooms are irregular and the base of the food chain is detritus washed in from adjacent salt marshes. 4. The benthonic fauna strongly reflects the nature of the substrate and most fishes are juvenile forms living within the estuary until they mature and migrate to the ocean. Lagoons E. Lagoons are isolated to semi-enclosed, shallow, coastal bodies of water that receive little if any fresh water inflow. 1. Lagoons can occur at any latitude and their salinities vary from brackish to hypersaline depending upon climate and local hydrology. 2. Bottom sediments are usually sand or mud eroded which was from the shoreline or swept in through the tidal inlet. 3. In the tropics, the water column is typically isothermal. 4. In the subtropics, salinity generally increases away from the inlet and the lagoon may display inverse flow. Salt Marshes F. Salt marshes are intertidal flats covered by grassy vegetation. 1. Marshes are most commonly found in protected areas with a moderate tidal range, such as the landward side of barrier islands. 2. Marshes flood daily at high tide and then drain through a series of channels with the ebb tide. 3. They are one of the most productive environments. 4. Marshes can be divided into two parts: Low salt marshes and High salt marshes. 5. Distribution and density of organisms in salt marshes strongly reflects availability of food, need for protection, and frequency of flooding. Mangrove Swamps G. Mangroves are large woody trees with a dense, complex root system that grows downward from the branches. 1. Mangroves are the dominant plant of the tropical and subtropical intertidal area. 2. Distribution of the trees is largely controlled by air temperature, exposure to wave and current attack, tidal range, substrate, and seawater chemistry. 3. Detritus from the mangrove forms the base of the food chain. Coral Reefs H. A coral reef is an organically constructed, wave-resistant, rock-like structure created by carbonate-secreting organisms. 1. Most of the reef is composed of loose to well-cemented organic debris of carbonate shells and skeletons. 2. The living part of the reef is just a thin veneer on the surface. 3. Corals belong to the Cnidara. a. The animal is the coral polyp. b. The corallite is the exoskeleton formed by the polyp. 4. Corals share a mutualistic relationship (mutually beneficial) with the algae zooxanthallae, which lives within the skin of the polyp and can comprise up to 75% of the polyps body weight. 5. Corals can be either solitary or colonial. 6. Corals can not survive in fresh, brackish water or highly turbid water.

Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171)

Page 41 of 111

7. Corals do best in nutrient poor water because they are easily outcompeted by benthonic filter feeders in nutrient-rich water where phytoplankton are abundant. I. Coral reefs consist of several distinct parts developed in response to their exposure to waves. 1. The algal ridge occurs on the windward side of the reef and endures the pounding waves. 2. The buttress zone is the reef slope extending down from the algal ridge. 3. The reef face extends downward from the buttress zone and usually is devoid of living colonial corals because insufficient light reaches this depth. 4. The reef terrace is landward of the algal ridge and lies at mean water level. 5. The shape of the colonial coral masses reflects the environment in which they live. J. As a result of corals growing continuously upward towards the sunlight as sea level rises and/or land subsides and, coral reefs pass through three stages of development. 1. Fringe reefs form limestone shorelines around islands or along continents and are the earliest stage of reef development. 2. As the land is progressively submerged and the coral grows upward, an expanding shallow lagoon begins to separate the fringe reef from the shoreline and the reef is called a barrier reef. 3. In the final stage the land vanishes below the sea and the reef forms a ring of islands, called an atoll, around a shallow lagoon.


Law of the Sea A. Several treaties regarding ownership and exploitation of the marine resources have been ratified in the last fifty years. 1. President Truman extended U.S. control of the marine resources from the shoreline to a depth of 100 fathoms (183 m). 2. The 1958 and 1960 Geneva Conventions on the Law of the Sea resulted in a treaty that placed the control of the sea bed, sea bed resources and water of the continental shelf under the country that owns the nearest land. 3. The 1982 United Nations Draft Convention on the Law of the Sea established Territorial waters and An Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) that extends for 200 nautical miles offshore or to the edge of the continental shelf, if that is farther. 4. Exclusive economic zones contain about 40% of the ocean and the high seas represent the remaining 60%. Mineral Resources B. Petroleum, oil, and gas are hydrocarbons derived from sedimentary rocks which were deposited in quiet, productive regions with anoxic bottom waters in which the remains of phytoplankton accumulated. 1. Deep burial resulting in high temperature and pressure converted the organic remains into hydrocarbons. a. Initially oil, but at higher temperatures and pressures, methane (CH4) natural gas were generated. 2. Pressure forced the oil and gas from the source rock into water-filled porous and permeable strata above.
Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171) Page 42 of 111

3. Because oil and gas are less dense than water, they migrated upwards until their path was blocked by an impermeable layer. 4. Oil and gas accumulated, forming a large deposit within the pores of the rock, usually sandstone. 5. Location of possible accumulations of oil and gas can be determined using seismic reflection and refraction methods to determine the configuration of rock layers. a. These methods only indicate if the configuration of rock layers have the potential to trap oil and gas. They do not indicate if oil and gas are present. C. Gas Hydrates refer to the unusual hydrocarbon deposits that consist of frozen water molecules entrapping a single molecule of methane (natural gas). 1. Gas hydrates occur in polar sediments and in deposits of the continental slope between the depths of 300 and 500 m where cold water is in contact with the sea floor. 2. These deposits contain incredibly large amounts of gas, but currently there is no economical method for its recovery. D. Sand and gravel are natural aggregates of unconsolidated sediment with grain size greater than 0.0625 mm in diameter. 1. Sand and gravel accumulate in high energy environments where strong currents and/or waves currently prevail and occur as relict sediments across the continental shelf from when sea level was lower. 2. These materials are used for construction of roads and buildings and to replenish beaches which are undergoing erosion. 3. Mining sand and gravel deposits from the shelf threatens both the benthic and pelagic communities and introduces large amounts of material into suspension. E. Manganese nodules are composed of about 20-30% manganese, 10-20% iron oxide, 1.5% nickel and less than 1% cobalt, copper, zinc and lead. 1. Locally, the nodules can be very abundant, as on the subtropical sea floor of the Pacific Ocean, where billions of kilograms occur. 2. Currently, there is no economical method of recovering the nodules from the deep sea. F. The sides of many seamounts and islands are enriched in cobalt between the depths of 1 and 2.5 km. 1. Cobalt is a strategic metal used in making jet engines and the U.S. can not produce sufficient cobalt to meet its needs. G. Phosphorus is required for growth by all organisms. 1. Phosphate deposits generally form on submarine terraces where coastal upwelling generates high productivity. 2. Organic wastes and remains accumulate in the sediment and as they decay, they release phosphorus compounds which precipitate as phosphate nodules. 3. Nodules grow at the rate of about 110mm/1000 years. 4. World consumption of phosphate is about 150 million tons per year and known supplies should last until 2050. Living Resources H. Marine finfish can be divided into the pelagic fish which live in the water column and groundfish which live on the sea floor. 1. Most of the ocean is sparsely populated because of low nutrient availability.
Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171) Page 43 of 111

2. Area of major fish production are the coastal waters and regions of upwelling. 3. Because they are economic to capture, major commercial fishes are those which form large schools. 4. The fishing industry uses sonar, scouting vessels, airplanes and satellites to locate schools and then deploy the fishing fleets to those areas. 5. Drift nets are controversial because they capture everything too large to pass through the mesh of the net and needlessly kill many organisms. a. The 1989 United Nations Convention for the Prohibition of Long Drift Nets prohibited drift nets longer than 2.5 km, but compliance is largely voluntary and impossible to enforce on the open sea. 6. World ocean fish production appears to have leveled at between 80 and 90 million tons annually. 7. Currently, the expense incurred in fishing exceeds the profit from the sale of the fish and fishing industries only survive through government subsidy. I. Mariculture is marine agriculture or fish farming of finfish, shellfish, and algae. 1. Mariculture requires raising the organisms under favorable conditions until they are large enough to be harvested for food. 2. Currently, about one out of every four fish consumed spent part of its life in mariculture and for some organisms the percentage supplied by mariculture is even larger. 3. For mariculture to be economically viable the species must be: a. Marketable. b. Inexpensive to grow. c. Trophically efficient. d. At marketable size within 1 to 2 years. e. Disease resistant. The Dynamic Shoreline Coastal Water Movement A. Breaking waves provide the energy that changes the shape and texture of the beach deposits. 1. As waves shoal (touch bottom) in shallow water celerity decreases, wavelength decreases, wave height increases, waves become less stable and refraction occurs. a. Refraction is the bending of waves towards shallower water so that they break almost parallel to the shore. 2. Waves become unstable and break in very shallow water. 3. The beach is the part of the land that touches the sea. It can be divided into the: offshore, nearshore (breaker zone, surf zone, swash zone), and the backshore 4. Position of the divisions of the beach varies with the tides, advancing landward with high tide and retreating seaward with low tide. B. Waves generate longshore currents that flow parallel to the beach and rip currents that flow perpendicularly to the beach. 1. Angle of wave approach is the acute angle (less than 90o) between the wave crest and the beach. 2. The direction of longshore current varies with the direction of wave approach.
Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171) Page 44 of 111

3. Longshore currents can also be generated by wave set-up. 4. Where two opposing longshore currents collide, they form a swift, narrow, seaward rip current. Beaches C. Beach sediments are moved by currents and waves, especially breakers. 1. A beach profile is a cross section of the beach along a line that is perpendicular to the shoreline. 2. A swell profile is concave upward with a wide, broad berm (relatively flat backshore) and steep intertidal beach face. 3. A storm profile displays erosion of the berm and a broad flat intertidal beach face. 4. A sand budget is the balance between sediment added to and sediment eroded from the beach. 5. A coastal cell occurs when sand is transported from its source, down the beach, and is lost in a submarine canyon. Coastal Dunes D. Sand dunes are formed by winds blowing sand landward from the dry part of the beach. 1. Well-developed dunes typically have a sinusoidal profile with the primary dune at the landward edge of the beach and possible secondary dunes located farther inland. 2. Vegetation on the dunes traps windblown sand on their downwind side and promotes dune growth and stability. 3. Blowouts are wind-scoured breaks in the dune or depressions in the dune ridge and commonly occur if vegetation is destroyed. 4. Dunes are best developed if sand is abundant, onshore winds are moderately strong and persistent, the tidal range is large and the beach is wide and gently sloping. 5. Sand saltates (bounces) up the windward side of the dune, collects in the wind-shadow at the top and periodically slides down the leeward face of the dune when the accumulation of sand becomes over-steepened resulting in dune migration. 6. Wave erosion of sand dunes transports sand offshore and creates a steep scarp at the base of the dune. 7. Dunes act as a natural barrier and prevent inland flooding. 8. Human activity that damages vegetation leads to dune destruction by blowouts and washover by storm waves.

Barrier Islands E. Barrier islands are islands composed of sediment that parallel the coast and form where sand supply is abundant and a broad sea floor slopes gently seaward. 1. The islands are separated from the mainland by shallow bodies of water which are connected to the ocean through tidal inlets. 2. A series of distinct environments develop across the island parallel the beach and include the nearshore zone, dune field, back-island flats and salt marshes. 3. Barrier islands are created in many ways including: sand ridges isolated by rising sea level, Sand spits breached during a storm, vertical growth and emergence of longshore sand bars.

Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171)

Page 45 of 111

4. As sea level rises, barrier islands migrate landward as washover transports sediments from the seaward side of the island to the landward side. F. Storm surge is the high water created by the accumulation of wind-blown water against the shore and the mound of water generated by the low atmospheric pressure of the storm. 1. The elevated water level allows waves to reach much farther inland than usual, especially if the storm surge coincides with a high tide. 2. Waves more easily breach the island and wash over lower areas. 3. New tidal channels may form during a storm surge. Cliffed Coasts G. A sea cliff is an abrupt rise of the land from sea level. 1. A sea cliff is most vulnerable to erosion at its base because waves that slam against the cliff compress air inside cracks which expands violently, sediment is hurled against the cliff by the waves, and sea water dissolve some rock types. 2. When sufficient rock at the base of the cliff has been removed, the upper part of the cliff collapses. 3. Collapsed material protects the base of the sea cliff from additional erosion until it is destroyed and removed. 4. Rate at which the cliff recedes is dependent upon: a. Composition and durability of cliff material. b. Joints, fractures, faults and other weaknesses in the cliff material. c. Amount of precipitation. d. Steepness of the cliff. 5. The wave-cut platform is the gentle sloping area in front of the sea cliff that was produced by sea-cliff retreat. Deltas H. A delta is an emergent accumulation of sediment deposited at the mouth of a river as it flows into a standing body of water. 1. Deltas were named after the Greek letter delta D . 2. The three major areas of a delta are delta plain ,delta front and prodelta. 3. In cross section, a deltas deposits can be divided into three sets of beds: topset beds, foreset beds, and bottomset beds. 4. As sediment accumulates the delta expands seaward with foreset beds burying bottomset beds and topset beds covering foreset beds. 5. Shape of the delta can be altered by tides, waves, and river deposition. 6. Reduction in the supply of sediment to a delta results in delta erosion and subsidence as the sediments of the delta compact. RESOURCES OF THE SEA FLOOR Economic considerations dictate whether a potentially useful material is developed as a resource (whether on land or in the oceans). Questions that must be addressed for a potential marine resource are: (1) Is there a market for the material? (2) Will extra costs of offshore production be offset by profits? Resources of the Continental Margin Building materials - - Bulk materials such as sand and gravel as well as CaCO3 shell deposits (for cement) represents the largest off-shore operation in terms of gross production. But the success of such ventures is tied to the proximity of materials to markets. Thus, the most costMaritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171) Page 46 of 111

efficient operation are in bays and along beaches, and along the inner continental shelves near major markets. Phosphate deposits - - The element phosphorus is important component of fertilizer. Phosphates deposits are recovered from the sea floor. These occur as calcium-phosphate muds, sands, and nodules on some continental shelves and slopes. Hydrocarbons (fossil fuels) - - Petroleum (liquid) and natural gasare the most valuable resource of the sea bed. One-third of the estimated global reserves of oil and gas are in continental margin sediments. At present, offshore recovery hydrocarbons is going on in the USA (Gulf Coast, California, north slope of Alaska), the North Sea, the Arabian/Persian Gulf, Indonesia, and Australia. Many other areas of potential production have not yet been explored. How do economically important hydrocarbon deposits form? Sediment of planktonic organic matter is deposited. (This is only a very small fraction of organic matter produced in surface waters -- the rest is eaten and decomposed in marine food chains.) Rapid accumulation of sediment on margins preserves deposited organic matter from decomposition. The organic matter is altered to liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons as sediment is buried to high temperatures (>100 C). Continental margins will always be the target of offshore recovery because: Drilling is in relatively shallow waters, the costs are less. Preservation of organic matter in deep-sea pelagic sediments is poor. Sulfur - - in its elemental form is an important industrial chemical. Elemental sulfur is often found on the top of subsurface geologic structures called "salt domes." Salt domes often occur along continental margins and adjacent on-land coastal areas, like the Gulf Coast of USA and Mexico. The salt (mostly halite) was deposited during the initial stages of continental rifting. In addition to a source for elemental sulfur, salt domes are also natural "traps" for petroleum and natural gas. Resources of the Deep-Sea Floor: Manganese nodules - - are potentially important sources for the metals Mn, Co, Cu, Ni. There has already breen considerable investment in locating concentrations of manganese nodules ion the seas floor and developing technologies for processesing nodules as sea. But there are currently limitations to the development of manganese-nodule mining: (a) Depressed global markets for metals. (b) High cost of development. (b) Ownership of "found" deposits on the deep-sea floor. Recent Gold Mining Activity- Black Smoker "Chimney" Deposits -- An australian company recently developed plans to mine gold from a vast deposit of minerals formed by "black smokers" on the sea floor. Plans include blasting the "chimney" deposits with explosives, recovering the fragments by dredging, then refining these ores on-shore. "Law of the Sea" Treaty (United Nations, 1982) was developed to address the question of ownwership and to regulate development of seabed resources. Some of its provisions are: 200-mile Exclusive Economic Zone. In that area, countries have the exclusive right to develop all marine resources (fisheries included). Unfortunately, there is considerable overlap between EEZ's, and consequently disputes between nations about who owns what (e.g., USA vs Canada and Cuba UN Seabed Authority regulates deep-sea mining; profits shared among all countries.


Pollution: What is it?

Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171)

Page 47 of 111

A. Pollution is the introduction by man, directly or indirectly, of substances or energy into the environment resulting in deleterious effects such as harm to living resources, hazards to human health, hindrance of marine activities, including fishing, impairing quality for use of sea water and reduction of amenities. 1. In studying pollution it is important to have a baseline from which to measure mans impact upon the environment because some of what is considered to be pollution may be occurring naturally and not caused by man. 2. Pollution tends to be concentrated in three parts of the ocean environment: the sea floor, the pycnocline, and the neuston layer. 3. Pollutants are eventually broken down by various oceanographic and biological processes. Hydrocarbons in the Sea B. Petroleum is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons, combinations of hydrogen and carbon with various amounts of nitrogen and metals. 1. Oil as it comes from the ground is called crude oil or petroleum. 2. Only a small fraction of the oil in the sea comes from major oil tanker accidents. 3. Once in the environment, an oil spill begins to be altered. 4. The rate at which the oil is dispersed and dissipated depends upon the weather, composition of the crude and the waves and currents. 5. All oil is toxic at all levels of the food chain, but degree of damage depends upon the type of petroleum and upon the specific habitat and ecosystem. 6. There are several methods employed in attempting to clean a spill: Floating booms, chemical dispersants, burning the oil at the surface, skimming, and bioremediation. Municipal and Industrial Effluents C. Each year humans produce over 20 billion tons of waste, much of which is disposed of in the ocean. 1. Most of the wastes come from farmland, cities, and industrial areas and enter the sea by way of rivers. 2. Wastes tend to be concentrated in harbors, bays, and estuaries. 3. All bodies of water have a natural capacity to clean themselves of a certain amount of pollution, but dense populations can produce so much pollution that the self-cleaning capacity is exceeded. 4. As pollution enters the sea, it can be greatly diluted depending upon the waves and currents. 5. Various pollutants behave differently depending upon their temperature, density, and solubility. 6. As effluents are released, they form a contaminant plume which increases in size with distance as the pollutant is diluted by surrounding water. D. Municipal and industrial wastes in the ocean can be divided into three general categories: sewage, metals, and artificial biocides. 1. Sewage consists of mostly human waste sludge or organic and inorganic chemicals.
Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171) Page 48 of 111

2. Heavy metal is a term loosely applied to a collection of elements such as lead, mercury, cadmium, arsenic, and copper that normally occur in trace amounts in the ocean, but become toxic in larger dosages. 3. Artificial biocides are man-made toxic chemical compounds that do not occur naturally. 4. Bioaccumulation is the process whereby organisms retain and concentrate a toxic material within their body. 5. Biomagnification is the process whereby a toxic material increases in concentration with each trophic level of a food chain. a. It results from bioaccumulation at each trophic level.

Ocean Dredging and Mining E. Dredging accounts for 80 to 90% of the material dumped at sea each year. 1. If the dredged material is clean, dumped slowly enough, and is the same material as the original substrate, it presents no long-term environmental problem. 2. Contaminated sediment represents an initial and long-term source of pollution. F. Mining of deep ocean deposits will most likely be accomplished with a hydraulic pumping system that will vacuum water, sediment, and organisms from the sea floor and bring them to the surface. 1. The majority of the organisms drawn into the system will be killed. 2. Large areas of the sea floor each day will be disrupted and stripped of life. 3. Sediment released at the surface will create a massive sediment plume as it sinks to the bottom. Overfishing G. Overfishing is removing a living resource from the sea faster than it can replace itself, and if continued sufficiently long, the resource will collapse. 1. Overfishing is possible today because: a. Technology has made it easier to locate large schools of fish and direct fishing fleets to those locations. b. Mismanagement of policies related to sustaining fish production. c. Fishermen resist quotas and misreport catches. 2. Maximum sustainable yield is the theoretical maximum amount of fish that can be removed from a population without significantly interfering with the populations ability to renew itself. 3. It has been suggested that the concept of the maximum sustainable yield be replaced by the "precautionary principle," which is to avoid anything that may damage or negatively impact a fishery. The Oceans Future H. Based upon a study by the UN, the current state of the marine environment is: 1. Most of the water of the open ocean is clean, except for heavily traveled shipping lanes.
Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171) Page 49 of 111

2. Coastal waters and shelf waters are contaminated to varying degrees everywhere and the amount of contamination depends upon population density, degree of urbanization, agricultural practices and shipping activity. 3. Coastal habitats are being severely affected and destroyed at an increasing rate. 4. Major pollutants in the ocean should be the immediate concern, but the long-term presence of minor pollutants is uncertain. 5. Too little is being done to reduce human activity on land that impacts the ocean. Impact of People on the Coastline I. Coastlines are desirable areas for human habitation, but human activity conflicts with the dynamic state of coastal systems. 1. Humans try to stabilize the coastline in two ways: by interfering with longshore sand transport, and by redirecting wave energy to prevent erosion. 2. Preventing of sand drift involves jetties and groins. 3. Redirecting wave energy involves breakwaters and seawalls. 4. Beach nourishment with sand is expensive and temporary. 5. An increase in sea level from global warming will cause more land to be flooded and threaten more coastal buildings. HUMAN INTERVENTION IN BEACH AND COASTAL PROCESSES Wave action and longshore transport can erode beaches and barrier islands and be a hazard to boat harbors. Soceity has taken measures to minimize those undesirable effects (with mixed results): "Groins" to stop beach erosion, and "jetties" to protect harbors. These barriers are constructed perpendicular to the shore. Jetties do keep large waves out of harbors, and groins are generally effective in "stabilizing" beaches. In both cases, sediment is deposited as longshore currents slow on the "upstream" side of a barrier. But when the current resumes on the downstream side, erosion occurs. "Breakwaters" to protect harbors. Breakwaters are constructed more-or-less parallel to the coast to protect the area behind them from waves. But because waves no longer reach the shore, longshore currents slow and sediment is deposited. The harbor of Santa Monica CA is being silted in by this combination of effects. In the harbor at Santa Barbara CA, sediment is continuously deposited beyond the downstream part of the breakwater. In order to keep the harbor open, constant dredging is required. Humans also interfere with natural beach processes by damming coastal rivers. This reduces the amount of sediment reaching the coast. Longshore transport tends to erode beaches in the downstream direction from the sediment-depleted river.

Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171) Page 50 of 111

Surface temperatures Latitudinal variations in solar radiation received and in the net heat budget result in average annual temperatures that decrease from the Equator to the poles. In the oceans, these latitude "belts" of ~ constant temperature are offset slightly by prevailing surface currents. Currents originating in low latitudes transport warm water poleward, while currents originating in high latitudes transport cool water toward the Equator. Seasonal variations in temperatures differ from continents to oceans. * Temperature changes from summer to winter on land are relatively high, particularly for continental interiors at mid- and high latitudes. * In contrast, seasonal variations in surface ocean temperature are relatively low because of the high heat capacity of water. * This illustrates an important point - oceans can store and release great quantities of heat with great changes in temperature. The existence of a global ocean acts to stabilize the surface temperature of Earth. Sea Ice Sea ice is - simply put - frozen sea water. Don't confuse "sea ice" with "icebergs" - icebergs are broken off pieces of glaciers that flow to the sea. Sea ice is a year-round feature of the central Arctic Ocean and around Antarctica. During winter cooling, sea ice covers the entire Artic Ocean and extends far out into the Southern Ocean. Sea ice is important in the heat and "salt" budgets of high-latitude oceans. * Recall that heat energy must be extracted for water (and sea water) to freeze. * But ice is a thermal insulator -- it does not conduct heat very well. Therefore, when a layer of sea ice forms, it slows the removal of heat (by conduction) from sea water in contact with the base of the layer, where freezing occurs. * As a consequence, the thickness of ice that forms in a winter season is typically limited to about 2 meters. * Recall also that dissolved salts are not incorporated into frozen sea water (or at least not very much - the salinity of typical sea ice is 5-10 g/kg). * Therefore, sea-ice formation promotes vertical circulation beneath the ice: the residual, saline water sinks (because it is dense) and less saline, warmer water rises. Seasonal sea-ice formation is an important process in the formation of the deepest and densest water masses in the oceans. ATMOSPHERIC MOISTURE AND PRECIPITATION I. Water The Global Perspective: Water plays a key role in the energy flows that shape our planets climate and weather. Ocean currents act to carry solar energy and latent heat poleward. Precipitation over land also provides water (and ice) that can move under the influence of gravity, carving the landforms and landscapes that provide the Earths varied surfaces. A. Three States of Water - Water can exist in three states solid (ice), liquid (water), and gas (water vapour). Changes of state from solid to liquid, liquid to gas, and solid to gas requires latent heat energy. A change of state from liquid to solid, gas to liquid, or gas to solid releases latent heat. B. The Hydrosphere and the Hydrologic Cycle - The hydrosphere includes water in all of its forms: 97.2% is ocean saltwater; 2.8% is fresh water; 2.15% is frozen in
Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171) Page 51 of 111

glaciers and ice sheets. Very small amounts make up ground water, soil water, and the water in the atmosphere. The movement of all of this water makes up the hydrologic cycle. Water moves from land and ocean to the atmosphere and atmospheric water returns to the land and ocean as precipitation. II. Humidity: The amount of water vapor present in the air varies widely from place to place and time to time. Humidity refers to the amount of water vapour present in the air. Warm air can hold more water vapour than cold air. Air at room temperature (20C) can hold about three times as much water vapour as air at 0C. A. Specific Humidity - The actual quantity of water vapor held by a parcel of air. Specific humidity is the mass of water vapour contained in a given mass of air and is expressed as grams of water vapour per kilogram of air (g/kg). Specific humidity is a measure of the quantity of water in the atmosphere that can be extracted as precipitation. B. Relative Humidity - This measure compares the amount of water vapour present in air to the maximum amount that the air can hold at a specific temperature. It is expressed as a percentage. A change in relative humidity of the atmosphere can happen in one of two ways, through direct gain or loss of water vapour or through a change of temperature. Relative humidity is measured with a sling psychrometer. III. The Adiabatic Process: The adiabatic process refers to the heating or cooling of parcels of air that occurs solely as a result of pressure change. A. Dry Adiabatic Rate - Describes the behavior for a rising air parcel that has not reached saturation. This is a fixed rate of 10C per 1000 meters of vertical rise. The dry rate refers to the fact that condensation has not occurred. B. Wet Adiabatic Rate - The cooling rate for saturated air is called the wet adiabatic lapse rate and ranges between 4 and 9C per 1000m. It is variable because it depends on the temperature and pressure of the air and its moisture content. For most saturation we can use a value of 5C/1000m. The higher rates apply only to cold, relatively dry air that contains little moisture and therefore little latent heat.

IV. Clouds: A cloud is made up of water droplets or ice particles suspended in air. These particles have a diameter in the range of 20 to 50 m. Each cloud particle is formed on a tiny centre of solid matter, called a condensation nucleus. A. Cloud Forms - Clouds are classified into four families, arranged by height; high, middle, and low clouds, and clouds with vertical development. They are grouped into two major classes on the basis of form stratiform, and cumuliform. Stratiform clouds are blanket-like and cover large areas. Cumuliform clouds are globular masses that are associated with small to large parcels of rising air. B. Fog - Fog is a cloud layer at or very close to the surface. There are two major types of fog advection and radiation. Radiation fog forms at night when the temperature of the air layer at the ground level falls below the dew point. It is associated with low-level temperature inversions. Advection fog results when a warm moist layer moves over a cold surface (a common occurrence over oceans) Sea fog, another form, is produced when a cool marine air layer comes into contact with the cold sea. This is common along the west coast of continents. V. Precipitation: Clouds are the source of precipitation. It forms in two ways. In warm clouds, fine water droplets condense, collide, and coalesce into larger and larger droplets that can fall as rain. In colder clouds, ice crystals form and grow in a cloud that contains a mixture of both ice crystals and water droplets. Precipitation comes in
Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171) Page 52 of 111

four basic forms: rain, snow, sleet, and hail. Precipitation is measured in units of depth of fall per unit of time for example, centimeters or inches per hour or per day. A. Precipitation Processes - These are processes that cause air to move upwards and then cool down to dewpoint. Air can move upward in three ways. First, it can be forced upward as a through-flowing wind. Second, air can be forced up through convection. Third, air can be forced up through the movement of air masses. B. Orographic Precipitation - Through-flowing winds are carried over mountains. As the air rises on the windward side of the range, it is cooled at the dry adiabatic rate. When cooling is sufficient, condensation sets in and clouds form. Cooling proceeds at the wet adiabatic rate and precipitation begins. After passing over the mountain summit, the air begins to descend the leeward slope. It is compressed and warmed and the cloud droplets and ice crystals evaporate or sublimate. C. Convectional Precipitation - Strong updrafts occur within convection cells vertical columns of rising air that are often found above warm land surfaces. As the cell rises, it is cooled adiabatically and its temperature decreases as it rises. If the cell remains warmer than the surrounding air and uplift continues, adiabatic cooling chills the cell below dewpoint. Condensation occurs, and the rising air column becomes a cumulus cloud. The flat base of the cloud marks the lifting condensation level at which condensation begins. D. Unstable Air - This is air that continues to lift strongly, developing into dense cumulonimbus masses. Two environmental conditions encourage their development: 1. air that is very warm and moist 2. an environmental temperature lapse rate in which temperature decreases more rapidly with altitude than it does for either the dry of wet adiabatic lapse rates E. Thunderstorms - Intense local storms associated with a tall, dense cumulonimbus cloud in which there are very strong updrafts of air. These storms can produce extensive damage, including millions of dollars of crop loss, and can generate lightning. F. Microbursts - The downdraft that accompanies a thunderstorm can sometimes be very intense. This type of intense downdraft is called a microburst. The downwardmoving air flows outward in all directions. It is often, but not always, accompanied by rain. VI. Air Quality: One of the significant human impacts on our planet is air pollution. Industrial processes and fossil fuel combustion release large quantities of unwanted and unhealthy substances into the air. A. Smog and Haze - Smog is a combination of smoke and fog. It allows hazy sunlight to reach the surface. Smog may reduce as much as twenty percent of visible sunlight from reaching the surface. Ozone is a major component of smog and is generally produced by a photochemical reaction triggered by the sun when nitrogen oxides react with hydrocarbons. Haze is simply a condition resulting when a large quantity of aerosols obscure distant objects. B. Fallout and Washout - Large particulates in the atmosphere fallout over a short period of time due to the influence of gravity. Lighter, smaller particles washout with precipitation. C. Inversion and Smog - Heat inversions are hazardous to urban communities because they trap pollutants in a low layer near the surface. Both low-level and highlevel inversions trap many poisonous industrial discharge gases and auto exhausts in the very lowest parts of the environment. D. Climatic Effects of Urban Air Pollution - Urban air pollution reduces visibility and illumination. Smog layers can cut illumination by 10 percent in the summer and
Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171) Page 53 of 111

20 percent in winter. Ultraviolet radiation is absorbed by ozone in smog. Although it reduces the risk of skin cancer, it permits increased viral and bacterial activity at ground level. Fog is enhanced by the abundance of aerosols and particulates. E. Acid Deposition - Includes acid rain and dry acidic dust particles. Acid rain simply consists of raindrops that have been acidified by air pollutants. Dry acidic particles are dust particles that are acidic in nature. They fall to Earth and coat the surface in a thin dust layer, and when wet, acidify the water on leaves and soils. A primary effect is the acidification of lakes and streams which injure aquatic plants and animals. A secondary effect is soil damage. F. Air Pollution Control - The United States and Canada have some of the strictest laws in the world limiting air pollution. Alternative energy sources, emission control of automobiles, and smokestack factories, and the trapping and processing of pollutants as they are produced, are all strategies to control air pollution. As the human population continues to grow, these problems will be more difficult to solve.

SALINITY AND COMPOSITION OF SEA WATER Water's solvent properties As noted in a previous lecture, water is an excellent solvent. That is, it is able to dissolve a range of solids, gases, and even other liquids. The reason for its solvent properties is that the polar H2O molecule interacts strongly with other polar substances. For example, most common minerals are composed of oppositely charged ions, e.g., (Na+) and (Cl-) in halite, (Ca2+) and (CO32-) in calcite. When minerals are immersed in water, the negative end of H2O coordinates to positive cation, and the positive end of H2O coordinates to negative anion. The combined effect of these strong interactions overcomes ionic bonding in the minerals and leads to dissolution. Salinity of sea water Recall that the average salinity of sea water is 35 gm dissolved salt / kg sea water (= 35 p.p.t. = 35 o/oo), and that 99% of sea water is in the range 30 to 37 g/kg. Variations in salinity are due to gains (rainfall, runoff from land) and losses (evaporation) of water. Composition of dissolved salts Almost all of the dissolved substances in sea water are cations (positively charged) and anions (negatively charged). Cations and anions must be present in equal proportions to maintain electrical neutrality. In addition, more than 99.7 % of dissolved salt are made up of only 7 ionic species. These are called "major" elements (ions, species) in sea water.

Cations (g/kg) Na+ 10.8 Mg2+ 1.3 Ca2+ 0.4

Anions (g/kg) Cl- 19.4 SO42- 2.7 HCO3- 0.1

Page 54 of 111

Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171)

K+ 0.4 Almost all of the other chemical elements are present in sea water, but at lower concentrations. These are called "minor " or "trace" elements. Although the salinity of sea water varies, major dissolved species are always present in constant proportions. That is, the ratio of major species to one another (e.g., Cl-/Na+) or major species to total salinity (e.g., Na+/S, Cl-/S) is constant regardless of salinity. Major ions that occur in constant proportions in sea water are called conservative constituents (ions, species). Their concentrations change only as salinity changes. Why do proportions of conservative species remain constant? Almost certainly, it is related to the fact that the oceans are comparatively "well stirred." That is, the mixing time for the entire ocean (< 2,000 years) is faster than the rates of addition and removal of conservative species. Most minor and trace species are non-conservative constituents. Their concentrations vary independently of salinity. Many of these chemical species are removed rapidly by biological processes. Distribution of salinity in surface ocean water When you examine a map of surface salinities, you should see that: * Highest salinities occur in the center of ocean at about 25-30 deg. latitude in both hemispheres and in enclosed seas at about the same latitude. * Lowest salinities occur in temperate latitudes (40 - 50 deg) in both hemispheres, near coasts, and in equatorial regions. This pattern of surface salinity variations is controlled primarily by variations in the "water budget" (gains vs. losses) at any locality. The cycling of H2O between the sea surface, atmosphere, and land is described by the global hydrologic cycle. The cycle is driven by evaporation (from the sea surface and land), condensation and precipitation (as rain and snow), and runoff (from land back to the oceans). * In oceanic areas, evaporation exceeds precipitation (E > P); excess water vapor is transported to land by the circulation of the atmosphere. * In continental areas, evaporation is less than precipitation (E < P); excess rainfall returns to the oceans as river runoff and groudwater flow. Variations in salinity with latitude are governed latitudinal variations in the E/P ratio (loss vs. gain of water) in the oceans. * In temperate and equatorial latitudes, E < P (or E/P < 1); hence, salinity is low in those regions. * In subtropical latitudes, E > P (or E/P > 1); hence, salinity is high in those regions. Proximity to continents can also play a role in controlling salinity. * In coastal regions close to major rivers, runoff decreases salinity. * On the other hand, salinity is high in semi-enclosed seas where evaporation is high, such as the Caribbean Sea, the Gulf of Mexico, the Mediterranean Sea, and the Red Sea. Currents modify the latitudinal bands of salinity controlled by E vs. P by transporting surface waters (and salinities) across latitude belts. * For example, the Gulf Stream transports warm, saline waters transported north and west.
Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171) Page 55 of 111

* In the eastern Pacific, south-to-north "boundary" currents and east-to-west equatorial currents transport cool, dilute waters.

The Properties of Seawater Basic Chemical Notions A. Atoms are the smallest unit which display all of the properties of the material. 1. Atoms are composed of: a. Nucleus the center of the atom consisting of positively charged particles called protons and neutrally charged particles called neutrons. b. Electrons negatively charged particles which orbit the nucleus in discrete electron shells. 2. Electrically stable atoms have the same number of electrons as protons. 3. Ions are atoms with either more or less electrons than protons and are therefore electrically charged. 4. Isotopes are atoms containing the same number of protons, but different numbers of neutrons and therefore have different weights. 5. Molecules are chemically-combined compounds formed by two or more atoms. Basic Physical Notions B. Heat results from the vibrations of atoms (kinetic energy) and can be measured with a thermometer. 1. In solids, the atoms or molecules vibrate weakly and are rigidly held in place. 2. In liquids, the atoms or molecules vibrate more rapidly, move farther apart, and are free to move relative to each other. 3. In gases, the atoms or molecules are highly energetic, move far apart, and are largely independent. 4. Melting is the transition from solid to liquid; freezing is the reverse. 5. Evaporation (vaporization) is the transition from liquid to gas; condensation is the reverse. 6. Temperature controls density. As temperature increases, atoms or molecules move farther apart and density (mass/volume) decreases because there is less mass (fewer atoms) in the same volume. The Water Molecule C. The water molecule is unique in structure and properties. 1. H2 O is the chemical formula for water. 2. Unique properties of water include: a. Higher melting and boiling point than other hydrogen compounds. b. High heat capacity, amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of one gram of water 1oC. c. Greater solvent power than an other substance. 3. Water molecules are asymmetrical is shape with the two hydrogen molecules at one end, separated by 105o when in the gaseous or liquid phase and 109.5o when ice.

Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171)

Page 56 of 111

4. Asymmetry of a water molecule and distribution of electrons result in a dipole structure with the oxygen end of the molecule negatively charged and the hydrogen end of the molecule positively charged. 5. Dipole structure of water molecule produces an electrostatic bond (hydrogen bond) between water molecules which cluster together in a hexagonal (six-sided) pattern. 6. Ice floats in water because all of the molecules in ice are held in hexagons and the center of the hexagon is open space, making ice 8% less dense than water. 7. Water reaches its maximum density at 3.98oC. a. Below this temperature increasing numbers of water molecules form hexagonal polymers and decrease the density of the water. b. Above this temperature water molecules are increasingly energetic and move farther apart, thereby decreasing density. 8. Hydrogen bonding is responsible for many of the unique properties of water because more energy is required to break the hydrogen bonds and separate the water molecules. 9. Water dissolves salts by surrounding the atoms in the salt molecule and neutralizing the ionic bond holding the molecule together. Dissolved salts form cations (positively charged ions) and anions (negatively charged ions). a. The process of water surrounding an ion is called hydration. D. Seawater consists of water with various materials dissolved within it. 1. The solvent is the material doing the dissolving and in seawater it is the water. 2. The solute is the material being dissolved. 3. Salinity is the total amount of salts dissolved in the water. a. It is measured in parts of salt per thousand parts of salt water and is expressed as ppt (parts per thousand) or abbreviated 0/00. 4. Average salinity of the ocean is about 35 0/00. E. 99% of all the salt ions in the sea are sodium (Na+), chlorine (Cl-), sulfate (SO4-2), Magnesium (Mg+2 ), calcium (Ca+2 ) and potassium (K+). 1. Sodium and chlorine alone comprise about 86% of the salt in the sea. 2. The major constituents of salinity display little variation over time and are a conservative property of seawater. F. Nutrients are chemicals essential for life. 1. Major nutrients in the sea are compounds of nitrogen, phosphorus, and silicon. 2. Because of usage, nutrients are scarce at the surface and their concentrations are measured in parts per million (ppm). 3. Concentration of nutrients varies greatly over time and because of this they are considered a nonconservative property of the sea. G. In order of decreasing abundance the major gases in the sea are nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide and the noble gases, argon (Ar), neon (Ne) and helium (He). 1. Nitrogen and the noble gases are considered to be inert because they are chemically non-reactive. H. Trace elements occur in minute quantities and are usually measured in parts per million (ppm) or parts per billion (ppb). 1. Even in small quantities they are important in either promoting life or killing it.

Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171)

Page 57 of 111

I. Marine organic compounds occur in low concentrations and consist of large complex molecules, such as fat, proteins, carbohydrates, hormones and vitamins, produced by organisms or through decay. Salinity J. Salinity is the total mass, expressed in grams, of all substances dissolved in one kilogram of seawater when all carbonate has been converted to oxide, all bromine and iodine has been replaced by chlorine and all organic compounds have been oxidized at a temperature of 480oC. 1. Principle of constant proportion states that the absolute amount of salt in seawater varies, but the relative proportions of the ions are constant. a. Because of this principle, it is necessary to test for only one salt ion, usually chlorine, to determine the total amount of salt present. 2. Chlorinity is the amount of halogens (chlorinity, bromine, iodine, and fluorine) in the seawater and is expressed as grams/kilogram or 0/00. 3. Salinity is equal to 1.8065 times chlorinity. 4. Salinometers determine salinity from the electrical conductivity produced by the dissolved salts. K. Salinity in the ocean is in a steady-state condition because the amount of salt added to the ocean (input from source) equals the amount removed (output into sinks). 1. Salt sources include weathering of rocks on land and the reaction of lava with seawater. a. Weathering mainly involves the chemical reaction between rock and acidic rainwater, produced by the interaction of carbon dioxide and rainwater forming carbonic acid. 2. Salt sinks include the following: a. Evaporation removes only water molecules. i. Remaining water becomes increasingly saline, eventually producing a salty brine. ii. If enough water evaporates, the brine becomes supersaturate and salt deposits begin to precipitate forming evaporite minerals. b. Wind-blown spray carries minute droplets of saltwater inland. c. Adsorption of ions onto clays and some authigenic minerals. d. Shell formation by organisms. 3. Lack of similarity between relative composition of river water and the ocean is explained by residence time, average length of time that an ion remains in solution in the ocean. a. Ions with long residence times tend to accumulate in the sea, whereas those with short residence times are removed. b. Rapid mixing and long residence times explain constant composition of seawater. Addition of salt modifies the properties of water. 1. Pure water freezes at 0oC. Adding salt increasingly lowers the freezing point because salt ions interfere with the formation of the hexagonal structure of ice. 2. Density of water increases as salinity increases. 3. Vapor pressure is the pressure exerted by the gaseous phase on the liquid phase of a material. It is proportional to the amount of material in the gaseous phase. a. Vapor pressure decreases as salinity increases because salt ions reduce the evaporation of water molecules. Chemical and Physical Structure of the Oceans
Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171) Page 58 of 111

M. Ocean surface temperature strongly correlates with latitude because insolation, the amount of sunlight striking Earths surface, is directly related to latitude. 1. Ocean isotherms, lines of equal temperature, generally trend east-west except where deflected by currents. a. Ocean currents carry warm water poleward on the western side of ocean basins and cooler water equatorward on the eastern side of the ocean. 2. Insolation and ocean-surface water temperature vary with the season. 3. Ocean temperature is highest in the tropics (25oC) and decreases poleward. 4. Tropical and subtropical oceans are permanently layered with warm, less dense surface water separated from the cold, dense deep water by a thermocline, a layer in which water temperature and density change rapidly. a. Temperate regions have a seasonal thermocline and polar regions have none. N. Salinity displays a latitudinal relationship related to precipitation and evaporation. 1. Highest ocean salinity is between 20-30o north and south or the equator. 2. Low salinity at the equator and poleward of 30o results because evaporation decreases and precipitation increases. 3. In some places surface water and deep water are separated by a halocline, a zone of rapid change in salinity. 4. Water stratification (layering) within the ocean is more pronounced between 40oN and 40oS. O. Density of seawater is a function of temperature, salinity and pressure. 1. Density increases as temperature decreases and salinity increases as pressure increases. 2. Pressure increases regularly with depth, but temperature and salinity are more variable. 3. Higher salinity water can rest above lower salinity water if the higher salinity water is sufficiently warm and the lower salinity water sufficiently cold. 4. Pycnocline is a layer within the water column where water density changes rapidly with depth. P. The water column in the ocean can be divided into the surface layer, pycnocline and deep layer. 1. The surface layer is about 100m thick, comprises about 2% of the ocean volume, and is the most variable part of the ocean because it is in contact with the atmosphere. a. The surface layer is less dense because of lower salinity or higher temperature. 2. The pycnocline is transitional between the surface and deep layers and comprises 18% of the ocean basin. a. In the low latitudes, the pycnocline coincides with the thermocline, but in the mid-latitudes it is the halocline. 3. The deep layer represents 80% of the ocean volume. a. Water in the deep layer originates at the surface in high latitudes where it cools, becomes dense, sinks (convects) to the sea floor and flows outward (advects) across the ocean basin. Gases in Seawater
Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171) Page 59 of 111

Q. The solubility and saturation value for gases in seawater increase as temperature and salinity decrease and as pressure increases. 1. Solubility is the ability of something to be dissolved and go into solution. 2. Saturation value is the equilibrium amount of gas dissolved in water at an existing temperature, salinity, and pressure. a. Water is undersaturated when under existing conditions it has the capacity to dissolve more gas. Gas content is below the saturation value. b. Water is saturated when under existing conditions it contains as much dissolved gas as it can hold in equilibrium. Gas content is at saturation value. c. Water is supersaturated when under existing conditions it contains more dissolved gas than it can hold in equilibrium. Gas content is above saturation value and excess gas will come out of solution. 3. The surface layer is usually saturated in atmospheric gases because of direct exchange with the atmosphere. 4. Below the surface layer, gas content reflects relative importance of respiration, photosynthesis, decay, and gases released from volcanic vents. R. Oxygen tends to be abundant in the surface layer and deep layer bottom, but lowest in the pycnocline. 1. Surface layer is rich in oxygen because of photosynthesis and contact with the atmosphere. 2. Oxygen minimum layer occurs at about 150 to 1500m below the surface and coincides with the pycnocline. a. Sinking food particles settle into this layer and become suspended in place because of the greater density of the water below. b. The food draws large numbers of organisms which respire, consuming oxygen. c. Decay of uneaten material consumes additional oxygen. d. Density difference prevents mixing downward of oxygen-rich water from the surface or upwards from the deep layer. 3. The deep layer is rich in oxygen because its water is derived from the cold surface waters which sank (convect) to the bottom. Consumption is low because there are fewer organisms and less decay consuming oxygen. 4. Anoxic waters contain no oxygen and are inhabited by anaerobic organisms (bacteria). S. Carbon dioxide is of major importance in controlling acidity in the seawater. 1. Major sources of carbon dioxide are respiration and decay. 2. Major sinks are photosynthesis and construction of carbonate shells. 3. Carbon dioxide controls the acidity of seawater. a. A solution is acid if it has excess H+ (hydrogen) ions and is a base if it has excess OH- (hydroxyl) ions. b. pH measures how acid or base water is. i. pH of 0 to 7 is acid. ii. pH of 7 is neutral. iii. pH of 7 to 14 is base.

Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171)

Page 60 of 111

c. pH is related to the amount of CO2 dissolved in water because it combines with the water to produce carbonic acid which releases H+ ions. CO2 + H2 -> H2CO3 -> H+ + HCO3 -> H+ + CO3-2 d. H2CO3 is carbonic acid, HCO3- is the bicarbonate ion, and CO3-2 is the carbonate ion. e. Changing the amount of CO2 shifts the reaction to either the right or left of the equation. i. Adding CO2 shifts the reaction to the right and produces more H+ ions making the water more acid. ii. Removing CO2 shifts the reaction to the left, combining H+ ions with carbonate and bicarbonate ions reducing the acidity. f. Dissolved CO2 in water acts as a buffer, a substance that prevents large shifts in pH. g. Dissolution of carbonate shells in deep water results because cold water under great pressure has a high saturation value for CO2 and the additional CO2 releases more H+ ions making the water acid. h. Warm, shallow water is under low pressure, contains less dissolved CO2 and is less acidic. Carbonate sediments are stable and do not dissolve. The Ocean as a Physical System T. Water is recycled from the ocean to the land and returned to the sea. 1. The reservoirs of water include: a. Oceans cover 60% of the Northern Hemisphere and 80% of the Southern Hemisphere and contains 97% of Earths water. b. Rivers, lakes and glaciers. c. Groundwatercontains a larger volume of water than all of the water in lakes and rivers. 2. The hydrologic cycle describes the exchange of water between ocean, land, and atmosphere. a. On land precipitation exceeds evaporation. b. In the ocean evaporation exceeds precipitation. 3. The ocean is part of a biogeochemical system in which land undergoes weathering and weathered products are transported to the sea where they may be deposited directly or used by organisms and later deposited as organic remains or organic wastes. Deposits are buried, lithified, and recycled by plate tectonics into new land which is weathered and the cycle repeats. The Ocean Sciences: Chemical Techniques U. Water samples must be collected in inert containers and isolated as they are recovered so as to prevent contamination. 1. The Nisken bottle has valves at each end which are automatically closed when a weight, called a messenger, is sent down the cable and causes the bottle to flip over and seal itself. 2. Sample depth can be determined from cable inclination and length or with a pulsating sound source. 3. Reversing thermometers automatically record the temperature of the water from which the sample is taken. As the sample bottle and thermometer turn over, a gap forms at the base of the mercury column
Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171) Page 61 of 111

which prevents the temperature reading from changing. Temperature can also be determined electronically. The Ocean Sciences: Desalinization V. Desalinization is the process of producing potable (drinkable) water from seawater using one of the following methods. 1. Distillation is the evaporation of seawater and the condensation of the vapor. 2. Freezing can produce salt-free ice which can be melted for water. 3. Reverse osmosis is placing seawater under pressure and forcing water molecules through a semi-permeable membrane leaving a brine behind. 4. Electrodialysis is using electrically charged surfaces to attract cations and anions leaving a fresh water mass between them. 5. Salt absorption is using resins and charcoal to absorb ions from seawater.

The Ocean Sciences: Other Physical Properties of Water W. Sea ice is ice that forms by the freezing of seawater; icebergs are detached parts of glaciers. 1. As seawater freezes, needles of ice form and grow into platelets that gradually produce a slush at the sea surface. 2. As ice forms, the salt remains in solution, increasing salinity and further lowering the freezing point of the water. 3. Depending upon how quickly the ice freezes, some salt may be trapped within the ice mass, but it gradually is released. 4. Pancake ice is rounded sheets of sea ice that become abraded along the edges as ice masses collide. 5. Pressure ridges are the buckled edges of sea ice masses that have collided. 6. Sea ice thickens with time from snow added above and water freezing below. 7. Sheets of ice are broken by waves, currents, and wind into irregular, mobile masses, called ice floes. X. Amount of light entering the ocean depends upon the height of the sun above the horizon and the smoothness of sea surface. 1. 65% of light entering the ocean is absorbed within the first meter and converted into heat. Only 1% of light entering the ocean reaches 100m. 2. Water displays the selective absorption of light with long wavelengths absorbed first and short wavelengths absorbed last. 3. In the open ocean, blue light penetrates the deepest. 4. In turbid coastal waters light rarely penetrates deeper than 20m. and the water appears yellow to green because particles reflect these wavelengths. 5. The photic zone is the part of the water column penetrated by sunlight. 6. The aphotic zone is the part of the water column below light penetration and permanently dark. Y. The speed of sound in water increases as salinity, temperature and pressure increase, but in the ocean, the speed of sound is mainly a function of temperature and pressure. 1. Above the pycnocline increasing pressure with depth increases the speed of sound despite the gradual decrease in temperature. 2. Within the pycnocline, the speed of sound decreases rapidly because of the rapid decrease in temperature and only slight increase in pressure.
Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171) Page 62 of 111

3. Below the pycnocline the speed of sound gradually increases because pressure continues to increase, but temperature only declines slightly. 4. SOFAR Channel is located where sound speed is at a minimum. Refraction of sound waves within the channel prevents dispersion of the sound energy and sound waves travel for 1000s of kilometers within the channel. The Ocean Sciences: Sea Surface Microlayer Z. The sea surface microlayer is the water surface to a depth of a few hundred micrometers. It is critical for the exchange between the atmosphere and the ocean. 1. Neuston layer is the habitat of the sea surface microlayer and is inhabited by the neuston, all organisms of the microlayer. 2. Processes that transport matter to the surface layer from below are: a. Diffusion random movement of molecules. b. Convection vertical circulation resulting in the transfer of heat and matter. c. Bubbles the most important process because bubbles absorb material and inject it into the air as they burst. 3. Processes within the microlayer can be divided into the: a. Biological bacteria and plankton are much more abundant in the layer than below. b. Photochemical effect the interaction of ultraviolet light and organic compounds. PROPERTIES OF WATER AND SEA WATER Introdution Although we all take it for granted, H2O is an exceptionally important substance on our planet. * As water, ice, and vapor in the atmosphere, H2O is the most common substance on Earth's surface; but it is rare on other planets in the Solar System. * Liquid H2O (water) is essential for life, and the medium in which life first developed. * H2O also has important (and unusual) physical and chemical properties: - Water is an excellent "solvent" (it can dissolve large amounts of many different kinds of substances). - Water in the oceans absorbs and stores large amounts of solar energy (heat). - The fact that H2O can exist as a solid and gas as well as a liquid at Earth's surface is important in regulating the climate of Earth. Structure of the H2O molecule - - D&D T-25 a, b The H atoms are bonded to the O atom by strong covalent bonds. This is common for many simple molecules made up of two or more atoms. But unlike many molecules, H2O is nonlinear; that is, the angle between H-O bonds is 105 degrees (instead of 180 degrees as in linear molecules like CO2). The non-linear results in an unequal distribution of electrical charge in the molecule: the "H end" is positively charged, and the "O end" is negatively charged. The fact that H2O is an electrically "polar" molecule accounts for many of its unusual properties: * In water and ice, H2O molecules are held together by a type of chemical bonding called "hydrogen bonding" (or H-bonds) where opposite ends of molecules are oriented toward one another. * Intra-molecular hydrogen bonding is surprisingly strong, equivalent to about 10% of the energy of covalent bonds between H and O atoms. * The additional attractive force of hydrogen bonding accounts for: - the molecular structure of crystalling ice and liquid water
Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171) Page 63 of 111

- the strong ability of water to dissolve other polar substances, such as ionic solids (salts) - D&D T-25 c, d The states of H2O - - As everyone knows, H2O exists in three distinct states (or phases) - - Ross T-29, a 1. Ice: All H2O molecules are H-bonded in a regular crystalline structure 2. Liquid: Free molecules and "ice-like" clusters of molecules 3. Vapor: Free molecules only A significant amount of energy is liberated or absorbed in these phase changes.- Ross, T-31, right side Ice <-->Water -- 80 calories/gram at 0 deg C required (absorbed) to melt ice liberated when ice freezes Water<-->Vapor -- 540 calories/gram at 100 deg C required (absorbed) to evaporate liquid water liberated when water vapor is condensed. [Water evaporates and condenses at <100 deg C. For example, the energy absorbed/liberated is 585 cal/g at 20 deg C.] Why is so much energy involved in the phase changes of H2O? -- because of the strength of Hbonds in water and ice. A lot of energy is required to break H-bonds (melting, evaporation). Conversely, the same amounts of energy are liberated when H-bonds are formed (freezing, condensation). Phase changes of H2O at Earth's surface are important processes: * Evaporation of surface sea water is the principal source of water vapor in the atmosphere; it drives the hydrologic cycle * Condensation of water vapor is the principal source of heating the atmosphere (even more than direct heating by solar radiation). Heat capacity (or specific heat) is a property of a substance that describes how efficiently the substance holds heat energy. Heat capacity is defined as "the energy required to raise the temperature of one gram of a substance by 1 deg C". The heat capacity of liquid water is 1 [calorie} / [gram - deg C]. That is, it takes one calorie of heat to raise the temperature of one gram of water by one degree C. A unique feature of water is that its heat capacity is the highest of all common liquids and solids. For example, the heat capacity of common rocks (such as basalt and granite) and soils is only about 0.2 [calorie] / [gram - deg C]. The large contrast in heat capacity between water and earth materials has important consequences: * Large bodies of water (lakes, ocean) can gain or lose large quantities of heat (thermal energy) with little change in temperature. [The high heat of evaporation contributes to this effect also.] * In contrast, land surfaces heat and cool to a greater extent in response to the same input of solar energy. Density - of a substance describes its mass per unit volume and is usually expressed as grams per cubic centimeter (g/cm^3). * The density of pure water (at 4 deg C) is 1.000. * The density of ice is 0.92. This is another unusual property of H2O! For almost all other substances, the density of the solid phase is greater than that of the liquid phase. Why does this "density inversion" occur for H2O?

Large bodies of water tend to be "stratified" according to density. The least dense water is at the surface, and the most dense water is at the bottom; this is termed "stable density stratification." For example, the oceans are stratified by density, with surface waters at about 1.021-1.023 and bottom water at 1.028. -- D&D Fig. 7.3
Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171) Page 64 of 111

Effect of temperature on the density of pure water - - D&D T-26, bottom The maximum density of pure water occurs at 4 deg C. At higher temperatures, density decreases because of "thermal expansion" (most liquids behave this way). At lower temperatures, density also decreases. This is because more "open" ice-like clusters of water molecules become important at <4 deg C. This unusual density behavior at low temperatures has implications for the cooling of a fresh-water lake during the winter. [Consider a sketch]. * Ice forms at the surface of lakes when the temperature reaches 0 deg C, the freezing point. * But the bottom of the lake -- the densest layers -- remain at 4 deg C and will not freeze. * Only if we could vigorously stir the lake (not likely) could bottom waters reach the freezing point. Sea Water The total dissolved salt content of a parcel of sea water is its salinity. The average salinity of sea water is 35 grams of dissolved salt per kilogram of sea water [35 g/kg, or 35 parts per thousand (p.p.t. or o/oo). 99% of all sea water has a salinity in the range 30 to 37 g/kg. The presence of dissolved salts (as charged ions) effects the physical properties of sea water by altering interactions between H2O molecules: * Boiling point is elevated. Average sea water would boil at 103 deg C. (not very important because no place in the surface ocean is that hot). * Freezing point is depressed - Sea water begins to freeze at -2 deg C. - Salt is excluded from ice. - Unfrozen water is saltier and freezes at an even lower temperature. (There will always be some saline brine left at very low T) * Temperature of maximum density is depressed - Seawater does not have temperature of maximum density above the freezing point - As sea water cools, it becomes progressively denser until it freezes. - Progressive increase in density promotes sinking and vertical circulation. * Density: - warm, surface waters1.021 g/cm^3 - cold, deep waters1.028 g/cm^3 As we shall discuss later, density of sea water increases as temperature decreases and as salinity increases. This is important to deep circulation in the oceans. Deep-water "masses" form at the surface of oceans by cooling and increase in salinity (freezing, evaporation). They sink to a level (depth) governed by density.


In our introduction lesson, we learned the location of the seven continents and the five oceans. Remember, all of the world's land is located somewhere on one of the seven continents. The United States is located on the continent of North America. We also learned that the five oceans cover most of the earth's surface.

Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171)

Page 65 of 111

Do you remember the names of the continents? They are North America, South America, Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia/Oceania, and Antarctica.

Do you remember the names of the oceans? They are the Atlantic Ocean, Pacific Ocean, Indian Ocean, Arctic Ocean, and Southern Ocean. The world is a very large place! If we want to find certain places on a map or globe, it helps to divide the world up into smaller sections. In this lesson we will learn how to locate the continents by dividing the earth up into smaller sections and by using grid lines. Hemispheres We can divide the world in half, two different ways. First, lets split the world into northern and southern halves. The imaginary line that runs all the way around the world, dividing it into two equal halves, is called the equator. Any place above the equator is in the Northern Hemisphere. Any place below the equator is in the Southern Hemisphere. The United States, on the continent of North America, is located in the Northern Hemisphere.

Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171)

Page 66 of 111

We can also divide the world in half another way, separating east from west. The imaginary line that divides the world into equal east and west halves, is called the Pri e Meridian. Any place to the left of the Prime Meridian is in the Western Hemisphere, while any place to the right of the Prime Meridian is in the Eastern Hemisphere. The United States, on the continent of North America, is located in the Western Hemisphere. Prime Meridian

Equator Prime Meridian


Two very important places on a map or globe are the poles. The North Pole is located at the very top of the Northern Hemisphere. The South Pole is located at the very bottom of the Southern Hemisphere. The equator is exactly half way between the North Pole and South Pole. Each of the seven continents is located in at least two hemispheres. Look at our continent of North America. It lies in the Western Hemisphere and the Northern Hemisphere. Prime Meridian

Equator Prime Meridian


If we travel south to the continent of South America, we stay in the Western Hemisphere. Notice that the equator runs through South America. Therefore, South America is located in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, making the continent a part of three different hemispheres.

Maritime Ge

raphy ( MERI ZC 171

RL ZC 171

Page 67 of 111

Even further south, across the Southern Ocean, lies the continent of Antarctica. Antarctica is also a part of three hemispheres. Antarctica is located entirely in the Southern Hemisphere, but the Prime Meridian runs through the continent. Therefore, Antarctica is also located in the Eastern and Western Hemispheres. Prime Meridian

Equator Prime Meridian


Australia/Oceania, like North America, is located in only two hemispheres. All of Australia is located south of the equator, and east of the Prime Meridian. This means that Australia/Oceania is located in the Southern and Eastern Hemispheres. North of Australia, lies the largest continent in the world, Asia. Most of Asia is located in the Northern Hemisphere. However, some small islands that make up the southeast part of Asia, are south of the equator. Therefore, Asia is located in the Northern, and Southern Hemispheres. All of Asia lies east of the Prime Meridian, so it is in the Eastern Hemisphere. Prime Meridian

Equator Prime Meridian


All of Europe is located in the Northern Hemisphere, but the Prime Meridian runs through part of the continent. So, Europe is also located in three hemispheres, the Eastern, Western, and Northern Hemispheres.


Maritime Ge

raphy ( MERI ZC 171

RL ZC 171

Page 68 of 111

One continent is in all four hemispheres! Do you know which continent is left? If you guessed Africa, you are correct. Both the equator, and Prime Meridian run through Africa. The continent of Africa is located in the Northern, Southern, Eastern, and Western Hemispheres!

A port is a location on a coast or shore containing one or more harbors where ships can dock and transfer people or cargo to or from land. Port locations are selected to optimize access to land and navigable water, for commercial demand, and for shelter from wind and waves. Ports with deeper water are rarer, but can handle larger, more economical ships. Since ports throughout history handled every kind of traffic, support and storage facilities vary widely, may extend for miles, and dominate the local economy. Some ports have an important, perhaps exclusively military role. Port types The terms "port" and "seaport" are used for different types of port facilities that handle oceangoing vessels, and river port is used for river traffic, such as barges and other shallow-draft vessels. Some ports on a lake, river, or canal have access to a sea or ocean, and are sometimes called "inland ports". A fishing port is a port or harbor facility for landing and distributing fish. It may be a recreational facility, but it is usually commercial. A fishing port is the only port that depends on an ocean product, and depletion of fish may cause a fishing port to be uneconomical. In recent decades, regulations to save fishing stock may limit the use of a fishing port, perhaps effectively closing it. A "dry port" is a term sometimes used to describe a yard used to place containers or conventional bulk cargo, usually connected to a seaport by rail or road. A warm water port is where the water does not freeze in winter time. Because they are available year-round, warm water ports can be of great geopolitical or economic interest. A seaport is further categorized as a "cruise port" or a "cargo port". Additionally, "cruise ports" are also known as a "home port" or a "port of call". The "cargo port" is also further categorized into a "bulk" or "break bulk port" or as a "container port". A cruise home port is the port where cruise-ship passengers board (or embark) to start their cruise and also debark (or disembark) the cruise ship at the end of their cruise. It is also where the cruise ship's supplies are loaded for the cruise, which includes everything from fresh water and fuel to fruits, vegetable, champagne, and any other supplies needed for the cruise. "Cruise home ports" are a very busy place during the day the cruise ship is in port, because off-going passengers debark their baggage and on-coming passengers board the ship in addition to all the supplies being loaded. Currently, the Cruise Capital of the World is the Port of Miami, Florida, closely followed behind by Port Everglades, Florida and the Port of San Juan, Puerto Rico. A port of call is an intermediate stop for a ship on its sailing itinerary, which may include up to half a dozen ports. At these ports, a cargo ship may take on supplies or fuel, as well as unloading and loading cargo. But for a cruise ship, it is their premier stop where the cruise lines take on passengers to enjoy their vacation.

Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171)

Page 69 of 111

Cargo ports, on the other hand, are quite different from cruise ports, because each handles very different cargo, which has to be loaded and unloaded by very different mechanical means. The port may handle one particular type of cargo or it may handle numerous cargoes, such as grains, liquid fuels, liquid chemicals, wood, automobiles, etc. Such ports are known as the "bulk" or "break bulk ports". Those ports that handle containerized cargo are known as container ports. Most cargo ports handle all sorts of cargo, but some ports are very specific as to what cargo they handle. Additionally, the individual cargo ports are divided into different operating terminals which handle the different cargoes, and are operated by different companies, also known as terminal operators or stevedores.

PORTS IN INDIA India has a long coastline spanning 7600 kilometres forming one of the biggest peninsulas in the world. It is serviced by 11 government and 1 corporate major ports and 185 notified minor and intermediate ports Major ports handled over 80% of all cargo traffic in 2007. However, the words "major", "intermediate" and "minor", do not have a strict association with the traffic volumes served by these ports. As an example, Mundra Port, a newly developed minor port in the state of Gujarat registered a cargo traffic of around 28.8 million tonnes per annum during the financial year of 2008, which is higher than that of many major ports[ The classification of Indian ports into major, minor and intermediate has an administrative significance. Indian government has a federal structure, and according to its constitution, maritime transport falls under the "concurrent list", to be administered by both the Central and the State governments. While the Central Shipping Ministry administer the major ports, the minor and intermediate ports are administered by the relevant departments or ministries in the nine coastal states of West Bengal, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Karnataka, Goa, Maharashtra and Gujarat. Several of these 185 minor and intermediate ports are merely "notified", with little or no cargo handling actually taking place. These ports have been
Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171) Page 70 of 111

identified by the respective governments to be developed, in a phased manner, a good proportion of them involving Public-private partnership. Cargo handling is projected to grow at 7.7% until 2013-14. Some 60% of Indias container traffic is handled by the Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust in Navi Mumbai. It has just 9 berths compared to 40 in the main port of Singapore. It takes an average of 21 days to clear import cargo in India compared to just 3 in Singapore.

SHIPYARD Shipyards and dockyards are places which repair and build ships. These can be yachts, military vessels, cruise liners or other cargo or passenger ships. Dockyards are sometimes more associated with maintenance and basing activities than shipyards, which are sometimes associated more with initial construction. The terms are routinely used interchangeably, in part because the evolution of dockyards and shipyards has often caused them to change or merge roles.
Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171) Page 71 of 111

Countries with large ship building industries include South Korea, Australia, Japan, China, Germany, Turkey, Poland and Croatia. The shipbuilding industry tends to be more fragmented in Europe than in Asia. In European countries there are more smaller companies, compared to the fewer, larger companies in the ship building countries of Asia. Most ship builders in the United States are privately owned, the largest being Northrop Grumman, a multi-billion dollar defense contractor. The publicly owned shipyards in the US are Naval facilities providing basing, support and repair. Shipyards are constructed by the sea or by tidal rivers to allow easy access for their ships. In the United Kingdom, for example, shipyards were established on the River Thames (King Henry VIII founded yards at Woolwich and Deptford in 1512 and 1513 respectively), River Mersey, River Tees, River Tyne, River Wear and River Clyde - the latter growing to be the World's preeminent shipbuilding centre. Sir Alfred Yarrow established his yard by the Thames in London's Docklands in the late 19th century before moving it northwards to the banks of the Clyde at Scotstoun (190608). Other famous UK shipyards include the Harland and Wolff yard in Belfast, Northern Ireland, where the Titanic was built, and the naval dockyard at Chatham, England on the Medway in north Kent. The site of a large shipyard will contain many specialised cranes, dry docks, slipways, dust-free warehouses, painting facilities and extremely large areas for fabrication of the ships. After a ship's useful life is over, it makes its final voyage to a shipbreaking yard, often on a beach in South Asia. Historically shipbreaking was carried on in drydock in developed countries, but high wages and environmental regulations have resulted in movement of the industry to developing regions.

In the United Kingdom civil time is legally still based on GMT, and since this is now the same as UTC the broadcast time signals, still sometimes known as the Greenwich Time Signal, indicate UTC in winter and BST in summer.[12] Those countries marked in dark blue on the map above use Western European Summer Time and advance their clock one hour in summer. In the United Kingdom, this is known as British Summer Time (BST); in the Republic of Ireland it is called Irish Standard Time (IST)[13] officially changing to GMT in winter. Those countries marked in light blue keep their clocks on UTC/GMT/WET year round. INTERNATIONAL DATE LINE The International Date Line (IDL) is an imaginary line on the surface of the Earth opposite the Prime Meridian (Greenwich, England) where the date changes as one travels east or west across it, when UTC/GMT Coordinated Universal Time (Greenwich Mean Time) is 12 noon. Roughly along 180 longitude, (opposite Greenwich at meridian), it corresponds to the time zone boundary separating 12 and +12 hours. (Note: the IDL is drawn with diversions to pass around some territories and island groups.) Crossing the IDL travelling east at 1200 UTC (noon at Greenwich) results in a day or 24 hours being subtracted (so the traveler repeats the date to the west of the line). Crossing west results in
Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171) Page 72 of 111

a day being added, that is, the date is the eastern side date plus 1 calendar day. The line is necessary in order to have a fixed, albeit arbitrary, boundary on the globe where the calendar date resets. In practice, of course, the Change-Date Line moves around the globe as the midnight time line (2400 hours local time), the moment at which the date changes to the next day at each point on the globe. This time is always approximately equal to 1200 noon on the opposite side of the globe. This site: http://24timezones.com , shows times, time zones, day and night around the globe (constantly updated). The IDL is at the far right and far left of the map (as explained in the Geography section that follows). The moving midnight (date change) line is approximately in the middle of the shaded area which represents nighttime.


Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171)

Page 73 of 111

Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) is a term originally referring to mean solar time at the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, London. It is the same as Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) and when this is viewed as a time zone the name Greenwich Mean Time is especially used by bodies connected with the United Kingdom, such as the BBC World Service,[1] the Royal Navy, the Met Office and others. Before the introduction of UTC on 1 January, 1972 Greenwich Mean Time (also known as Zulu time) was the same as Universal Time (UT) which is a standard astronomical concept used in many technical fields. Astronomers no longer use the term "Greenwich Mean Time". In the UK, GMT is the official time only during winter; during summer British Summer Time is used. GMT is the same as Western European Time.[2] Noon Greenwich Mean Time is not necessarily the moment when the noon sun crosses the Greenwich meridian (and reaches its highest point in the sky in Greenwich) because of Earth's uneven speed in its elliptic orbit and its axial tilt. This event may be up to 16 minutes away from noon GMT (this discrepancy is known as the equation of time). The fictitious mean sun is the annual average of this nonuniform motion of the true Sun, necessitating the inclusion of mean in Greenwich Mean Time. Historically the term GMT has been used with two different conventions for numbering hours. The old astronomical convention (before 1 January 1925) was to refer to noon as zero hours, whereas the civil convention during the same period was to refer to midnight as zero hours. The latter convention is modern practice (on and after 1 January 1925) for astronomical as well as civil purposes. The more specific terms UT and UTC do not share this ambiguity, always referring to midnight as zero hours. COORDINATED UNIVERSAL TIME oordinated Universal Time (UTC)[1] is a time standard based on International Atomic Time (TAI) with leap seconds added at irregular intervals to compensate for the Earth's slowing
Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171) Page 74 of 111

rotation.[2] Leap seconds are used to allow UTC to closely track UT1, which is mean solar time at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich. The difference between UTC and UT1 is not allowed to exceed 0.9 seconds so, if high precision is not required, the general term Universal Time (UT) may be used.[3] In casual use, when fractions of a second are not important, Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) can be considered equivalent to UTC or UT1. In fact, saying "GMT" often implies either UTC or UT1. For this reason, saying "GMT" is generally avoided in technical contexts, with an unambiguous terminology of "UTC" or "UT1" preferred instead.[3] Time zones around the world can be expressed as positive or negative offsets from UTC as in this list; UTC replaced GMT as the basis for the main reference time scale or civil time in various regions on 1 January 1972.[4]

INDIAN STANDARD TIME Indian Standard Time (IST) is the time observed throughout India and Sri Lanka, with a time offset of UTC+05:30. India does not observe daylight saving time (DST) or other seasonal adjustments, although DST was used briefly during the SinoIndian War of 1962 and the Indo Pakistani Wars of 1965 and 1971.[1] In military and aviation time, IST is designated E* ("EchoStar").[2] Indian Standard Time is calculated on the basis of 82.5 E longitude, which is just west of the town of Mirzapur, near Allahabad in the state of Uttar Pradesh.[3]


Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171)

Page 75 of 111

Territorial waters, or a territorial sea, as defined by the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea[1], is a belt of coastal waters extending at most twelve nautical miles from the baseline (usually the mean low-water mark) of a coastal state. The territorial sea is regarded as the sovereign territory of the state, although foreign ships (both military and civilian) are allowed innocent passage through it; this sovereignty also extends to the airspace over and seabed below. The term "territorial waters" is also sometimes used informally to describe any area of water over which a state has jurisdiction, including internal waters, the contiguous zone, the exclusive economic zone and potentially the continental shelf.


INTERNATIONAL TRADE is exchange of capital, goods, and services across international borders or territories.[1]. In most countries, it represents a significant share of gross domestic product (GDP). While international trade has been present throughout much of history (see Silk Road, Amber Road), its economic, social, and political importance has been on the rise in recent centuries. Industrialization, advanced transportation, globalization, multinational corporations, and outsourcing are all having a major impact on the international trade system. Increasing international trade is crucial to the continuance of globalization. Without international trade, nations would be limited to the goods and services produced within their own borders. International trade is in principle not different from domestic trade as the motivation and the behavior of parties involved in a trade do not change fundamentally regardless of whether trade is across a border or not. The main difference is that international trade is typically more costly than domestic trade. The reason is that a border typically imposes additional costs such as tariffs, time costs due to border delays and costs associated with country differences such as language, the legal system or culture. Another difference between domestic and international trade is that factors of production such as capital and labour are typically more mobile within a country than across countries. Thus international trade is mostly restricted to trade in goods and services, and only to a lesser extent to trade in capital, labor or other factors of production. Then trade in goods and services can serve as a substitute for trade in factors of production. Instead of importing a factor of production, a country can import goods that make intensive use of the factor of production and are thus embodying the respective factor. An example is the import of laborPage 76 of 111

Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171)

intensive goods by the United States from China. Instead of importing Chinese labor the United States is importing goods from China that were produced with Chinese labor. International trade is also a branch of economics, which, together with international finance, forms the larger branch of international GLOBAL TRADE Global trade is the exchange of raw materials, goods and services across the geographical borders of countries across the globe. Foreign trade got its first impetus from the industrial revolution in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century. Rapid development in transportation facilities resulted in a surge in international trade in the twentieth century. Today, international trade has taken the form of outsourcing and multinational companies (companies that have a presence in several countries). The History of World Trade World trade was prevalent much before the formation of nation states. Some important examples of ancient long distance trade are: The Egyptians imported spices from Arabia and the Land of Punt (present day Somalia). The Ptolemaic dynasty, which ruled in Egypt from 305 BC to 30 BC, traded with India. Arabian vessels were used to transport Indian goods to Aden. Chinese goods made their way to India, Persia and Rome through the silk route. From the eighteenth century, industrialization and colonization went hand in hand. The European nations increased their political power through trade. They exploited trading opportunities in eastern countries like India. Present Global Trade Scenario There was a dramatic rise in world trade volumes in the twentieth century. While in 1928, world exports amounted to US$31.7 billion, this figure had risen to US$4,215,000.2 billion by 1994. Studies conducted by the UNCTAD in 1994 show that trade in commercial services rose much faster than merchandise trade between 1970 and 1990. The G-7 group, comprising of the US, France, Germany, the UK, Italy, Japan and Canada, has always commanded a dominant position in world trade. Gradually the significance of certain Asia Pacific nations, such as China, Singapore, India, Hong Kong, Taiwan and Korea, has risen. World Trade Organization The World Trade Organization (WTO) is the most powerful body for controlling the dynamics of global trade. It has the power to enforce its rules through sanctions and helps in the formulation of trade agreements between various countries. It also oversees that agreement terms are adhered to by the participating countries and resolves disputes. International Trade Models The theory of international trade and its possible effects can be explained with the help of the following models: Absolute Advantage Theory Country A is said to have absolute advantage over country B if it can produce commodity C with lower cost of resources than Country B. On the other hand Country B can have an absolute advantage over country A in the production of commodity D. In this case the countries A and B would benefit by trade. Adam Smith put forward his theory of absolute advantage.
Page 77 of 111

y y y y y y

Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171)

Comparative Advantage Theory According to this theory a country would produce and specialize in those commodities in which it has comparative advantage in terms of resources. The relative factor endowments in a country play a vital role to govern the pattern of trade. Heckscher-Ohlin Model According to this theory a country will export that good which utilizes its abundant its factor of production more intensively. Conversely, the country will import goods that utilize factors of production that re locally less abundant in nature. Hence we see that variation in the factor endowments play a key role in the pattern of international trade in the case of the HeckscherOhlin Model. On testing this theory empirically Wasily Leotieff found that this theory might not hold true always. For instance United States was found to export commodities that were labor intensive although it was a capital abundant country itself. This phenomenon was termed as the Leontief Paradox. Specific Factors Model This model assumes labor to be mobile but capital fixed in the short run. According to this model if the price of a commodity increases then the producer of that used the specific factor to produce the good would profit. The model is most suited for particular types of industries. Gravity Model According to this model the distance between the countries would influence the pattern of trade. Econometric findings have also supported this assumption.

Benefits of International Trade International trade has flourished over the years due to the many benefits it has offered to different countries across the globe. International trade is the exchange of services, goods, and capital among various countries and regions, without much hindrance. The international trade accounts for a good part of a countrys gross domestic product. It is also one of important sources of revenue for a developing country. With the help of modern production techniques, highly advanced transportation systems, transnational corporations, outsourcing of manufacturing and services, and rapid industrialization, the international trade system is growing and spreading very fast. International trade among different countries is not a new a concept. History suggests that in the past there where several instances of international trade. Traders used to transport silk, and spices through the Silk Route in the 14th and 15th century. In the 1700s fast sailing ships called Clippers, with special crew, used to transport tea from China, and spices from Dutch East Indies to different European countries. The economic, political, and social significance of international trade has been theorized in the Industrial Age. The rise in the international trade is essential for the growth of globalization. The restrictions to international trade would limit the nations to the services and goods produced within its territories, and they would lose out on the valuable revenue from the global trade. The benefits of international trade have been the major drivers of growth for the last half of the 20th century. Nations with strong international trade have become prosperous and have the

Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171)

Page 78 of 111

power to control the world economy. The global trade can become one of the major contributors to the reduction of poverty. David Ricardo, a classical economist, in his principle of comparative advantage explained how trade can benefit all parties such as individuals, companies, and countries involved in it, as long as goods are produced with different relative costs. The net benefits from such activity are called gains from trade. This is one of the most important concepts in international trade. Adam Smith, another classical economist, with the use of principle of absolute advantage demonstrated that a country could benefit from trade, if it has the least absolute cost of production of goods, i.e. per unit input yields a higher volume of output. According to the principle of comparative advantage, benefits of trade are dependent on the opportunity cost of production. The opportunity cost of production of goods is the amount of production of one good reduced, to increase production of another good by one unit. A country with no absolute advantage in any product, i.e. the country is not the most competent producer for any goods, can still be benefited from focusing on export of goods for which it has the least opportunity cost of production. Benefits of International Trade can be reaped further, if there is a considerable decrease in barriers to trade in agriculture and manufactured goods. Some important benefits of International Trade
y y y y y y y y y

Enhances the domestic competitiveness Takes advantage of international trade technology Increase sales and profits Extend sales potential of the existing products Maintain cost competitiveness in your domestic market Enhance potential for expansion of your business Gains a global market share Reduce dependence on existing markets Stabilize seasonal market fluctuations

FTA, Free Trade Agreement Free trade is commerce between countries without government interference and protective duties. An agreement between various countries to trade goods and services without preferences, quotas, tariffs or excise duties is known as an FTA or a free trade agreement. A free trade agreement minimizes certain complications involved in commercial exchange to boost trade based on comparative advantage. Comparative advantage is the ability of a country to produce goods at a cost lower than another country. Free Trade Agreement: Importance There are a number of things that make free trade agreements important. Obstacles such as taxes, quotas and tariffs are removed. The inability to distort trade policies gives every player an equal opportunity in the global market. The absence of government interference prevents the formation of monopolies and oligopolies. Capital can move freely across territorial borders.
Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171) Page 79 of 111

y y

Free access to markets and market information. Greater opportunities of employment, with the free movement of labor between countries.

History of Free Trade Agreements The theoretical questioning of protectionism began in England and other parts of Europe during the sixteenth century. Rationalizations were made to advocate the policy of free trade. Adam Smith, in the mid-eighteenth century, proposed the thought that free trade was the reason for the prosperity of most of the civilizations. The emergence of the Dutch as an economic power, after the dominance of Spain declined, brought the free trade versus mercantilism dispute into the limelight. Classical liberals promoted the concept of free trade on the basis of its favorable position in terms of world security. FTA: List of Agreements Some of the important free trade agreements operating among the various nations of the world are listed below:
y y y y y

North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA): Mexico, Canada and the US. European Economic Area (EEA): EU and non-EU members of Europe ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA): Southeast Asian nations Latin American Integration Association (ALADI): South American countries Commonwealth of Independent States Free Trade Agreement (CISFTA): CIS

Free trade agreements also strengthen the political relations between countries apart from benefiting them commercially. European Trade, Trade With Europe, Trade In The EU European trade is a complex but efficient system, involving 50 European countries in total, with 27 nations in the European Union (EU). Formed in 1993, the EU works on the same trade objectives as that of the European Economic Community (EEC). It has developed a single market and customs union among its member states. European Trade: Significance of EU Trade in the EU is characterized by free movement of goods, services and people. The freedom of capital flow facilitates uninhibited investment in the real estate and stock markets. All EU member countries follow the same trade policies for all sectors, including agriculture and fisheries. These two sectors account for a significant portion of exports. Trade in the EU has become simpler with the adoption of the common currency known as the Euro by 16 member states. Benefits of using the Euro are: Creates a single market
y y y y

Maintains price stability in member states Minimizes exchange rate problems Simplifies travel for European citizens Insulates the eurozone from external economic shocks by boosting internal trade
Page 80 of 111

Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171)

European Trade: Imports Some import related facts pertaining to European trade are:
y y

The EU is a customs union. So, all member states are subjected to the same import duties. The imports from the US face the Most-Favored-Nation (MFN) tariff. The MFN tariff is also applicable to other countries which signed the World Trade Organization (WTO) agreement. The tariffs on certain processed products are determined on the basis of their ingredients. Tariffs on fruits or vegetables are dependent on season and daily import price.

Trade with Europe: Exports An EU state does not levy taxes for exports to other member states. According to the Eurostat data for January 2009, the largest exporters among the EU countries are France, Germany and Netherlands Taxes may, however, be levied on goods exported outside the EU. The global recession in 20072008 led to a sharp decline in its trade volumes. Some truly critical exports that the European countries continued with are:
y y y y y y

Machinery: All of Europe. Automobiles: The UK, France, Germany, Spain and Italy. Aircraft: France and Germany. Electronics: The Netherlands, Germany and Italy. Military equipment: The UK, Germany, France, Italy. Food products such as wine, pastas, cheese, chocolates, beer and agricultural products: This spans both Western and Northern Europe.

Some of the critical ports in the EU are Southampton, Antwerp and Hamburg. European Trade: Global Share The International Monetary Fund (IMF) indicates that the EU accounts for 31% of the global economic output. The combined GDP of the EU nations exceed the GDP of the US. The EU is the largest exporter and second largest importer in the world. With its strong presence in the world economy, the EU assumes a highly strategic role in devising foreign policies in the WTO, Group of Eight (G-8) summits and the United Nation (UN). Trade In India Trade and commerce have been the backbone of the Indian economy right from ancient times. Textiles and spices were the first products to be exported by India. The Indian trade scenario evolved gradually after the countrys independence in 1947. From the 1950s to the late 1980s, the country followed socialist policies, resulting in protectionism and heavy regulations on foreign companies conducting trade with India. Indias international trade situation improved when Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi reformed the trade policies in the late 1980s. With tax
Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171) Page 81 of 111

reforms, deregulations and privatization initiatives, India has attracted the global markets attention. India Trade: Market Share A significant boost to Indias trade in the late twentieth century resulted in the country getting the tag of an emerging economy. According to a report published by the World Trade Organization (WTO) in May 2007, Indias share in the global market for merchandise and services rose from 1.1% in 2004 to 1.5% in 2006. Commerce and Industry Minister Kamal Nath expects this figure to cross 2% in 2009. According to leading management consultancy McKinsey & Co, the growth of Indias economy can match that of China (about 10% per annum) if the former eliminates the main impediments to trade. India Trade: Exports Indian exports comprise mainly of engineering and textile products, precious stones, petroleum products, jewelry, sugar, steel chemicals, zinc and leather products. Most of the exported goods are exempt from export duties. Duties are levied on processed agricultural products, sheep, goat and bovine leather. India also exports services to several countries, primarily to the US. In fact, India is among the worlds largest exporters of services related to information and communication technology (ICT). It is also the key destination for business process outsourcing (BPO). According to the Information Economy Report 2007-2008, the ICT industry accounted for 5.4% of Indias GDP in 2006, up from 4.8% in 2005. Backed by ICT-related exports, the services sector accounted for 37% of the countrys total exports in 2006, up from 18% in 1995. India Trade: Imports Indias major imports comprise of crude oil, machinery, military products, fertilizers, chemicals, gems, antiques and artworks. Imported goods are divided into the following categories:
y y y y

Freely importable items: For these items, no import license is required. They can be freely imported by an individual or a firm. Licensed imports: These imports comprise of precious and semi-precious stones, firearms, pharmaceuticals, insecticides, and plants and animals. Canalized items: These items can only be imported by public sector firms. For example petroleum products fall under this category. Prohibited items: Items such as unprocessed ivory, animal rennet and tallow fat cannot be exported to India.

India Trade: Critical Ports Ports that are critical to Indias trade are:
y y y y y

Alang (Gujrat) Beypore (Kerala) Kalicut (Kerala) Goa Mumbai

Page 82 of 111

Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171)

Chennai and Ennore (Chennai)

World Trade Blocs

Apart from the global trading agreements, there are many regional trading blocs designed for reducing protectionism and fostering world trade. Some of the trade blocs in the world are as follows: 1. European Free Trade Association (EFTA) Countries such as United Kingdom, Austria, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Portugal and Switzerland joined for a better trade in the region in the year 1960. Under this EFTA group they abolished all types of protectionism. In the year 1972 both UK and Denmark abandoned their membership. 2. North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) NAFTA was started in the year 1988 with US-Canada free trade agreement. This was further extended to include Mexico in 1994. NAFTA presently has extended to the Latin American Countries. 3. Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) This was made by the petroleum producing countries in the year 1960.The member countries of this group are Algeria, Ecuador, Gabon, Indonesia, Iran, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates and Venezuela. 4. Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) The member countries of ASEAN are Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Philippines and Singapore. This was formed in the year 1967. India is an associate member in the group. 5. South Asian Association For Regional Cooperation (SAARC) Countries such as India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Maldives and Sri Lanka have formed SAARC with an objective of making better trade in the region.


Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171)

Page 83 of 111

OCEAN CIRCULATION -- INTRODUCTION Surface Circulation * Horizontal currents in upper few 100 meters; speed = about 1 m/s * Driving force: prevailing winds initiate currents * Modifying factors: deflection by ... 1) Coriolis effect [right in N.H., left in S.H.] 2) Continents o * General pattern -- rotary circulation (gyres); major gyres centered in sub-tropics Deep Circulation * Driving force: creation of dense water masses at the surface of high-latitudes oceans (particularly the Atlantic). y Cold: seasonal cooling y Salinity: seasonal sea-ice fm. and evaporation y * Modifying factors: deflection by ... 1) Coriolis effect 2) Continents and mid-ocean ridges * General pattern -- sinking, spreading, eventual upwelling

Winds drive surface currents, BUT... y Deflection of surface currents by Earth's rotation and continental positions o Atlantic -- rotary, or circular motion- the gyres (concentrate on N. Hemisph.) o Equatorial currents Gulf Stream North Atlantic Drift --climate effects Canary Current
o Currents in the North Pacific Ocean - - California Current - - Kuroshio Current - - North Pacific Drift - - polar currents (Alaska, Oyashio) - - Equatorial Counter Current (deflected by Asia)
Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171) Page 84 of 111

General model of wind-driven currents and gyres o Trade winds and westerlies by themsleves would create circular motion o Additional help from Coriolis Effect and Continents Circulation around Antarctica No continental barriers Continuous current (surface-to-deep water) Deep Circulation- Convection in the Oceans

Controls on the density of seawater -- T, S, pressure (depth) y Temperature - - The most important factor controlling surface density - - Warm waters are at surface, especially at low and mid latitudes - - Cold waters formed during seasonal cooling at high latitudes tend to sink y Salinity - - Important at high latitudes in the open ocean where waters are uniformly cold - - - - Seasonal cooling and sea-ice formation --> Increases S and density and thus leads to sinking - - Important in coastal areas and marginal, semi-enclosed seas where evaporation is high - - - - High surface S --> Sinking and outflow at depth to adjacent oceans y Pressure (depth) - - Sea water is compressible (density increases with pressure) - - But pressure effects do not cause seawater to sink (or rise) - - So we can ignore the effects of depth in our analysis y Temperature and salinity control the density of surface sea water and thus its tendency to sink. y Density-driven circulation is "thermohaline" circulation. T and S are determined by processes occuring at the surface: - - Exchange of heat with atmosphere (T) - - Exchange of water with atmosphere (S) y Surface and deep circulation are coupled in the "Global Conveyor Belt" - - Transport of surface waters to high latitudes - - Sinking and flow at depth - - Upwelling -- return to surface Surface Currents

y y y y

Introduction: Kon-Tiki demonstrated currents in equ. Pac. Ponce de Leon used Gulf Stream to return Colonial sea captains charted position of GS by temp. B. Franklin mapped GS Deep circulation and upwelling also occur Relationship between solar heating, winds, wind stress and surface currents Defelction by "rotation" and continental position -- North Atlantic as an example Deflection of equatorial currents by South America ---> (G. of Mexico, Florida Current) ---> Gulf Stream Gulf Stream (- North Atlantic Drift): > warms Britain (compare to Labrador) > splits into two currents (continental deflection)
Page 85 of 111

Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171)

y y

y y y y

-- Norwegian Current --> Norway, Arctic Russia -- S-flowing (cool) Canary Current North Atlantic "gyre" [clockwise circulation] Sargasso Sea (warm, saline waters) in the center Mixing (upwelling) of Labrador Current and Gulf Stream off of New England and maritime Canada ---> nutrient rich waters phytoplankton production major fisheries Pacific Ocean surface currents Equatorial Counter Current (equatorial deflection by Asia) General model of wind-driven currents and gyres Circulation around Antarctica Prevailing westerly winds; no continental barriers Antarctic Circumpolar Current -- surface-to-deep current encircling Antarctica.

Ocean Circulation -- an introduction. We usually describe ocean circulation as two separate systems (although, as we shall see, they are coupled). Surface circulation describes the large-scale horizontal-flowing currents in the upper few hundred meters of the oceans. We think of these currents as largely wind-driven; that is, prevailing winds initiate surface currents. They are modified (deflected) by the Coriolis effect and by continental barriers. The general pattern of surface currents are large, rotating "gyres." Major gyres are centered in subtropical oceans. Deep circulation is driven by the creation of dense masses of water at the surface of high-latitude oceans, particularly in the Atlantic. Cooling, sea-ice formation, and evaporation produce dense water-masses at the surface that sink and spread laterally. Deep current of the ocean are deflected as they flow by the Coriolis effect and by continental and mid-ocean ridge barriers. "Ocean Currents and Wind" -- Historical demonstration of surface currents Relationship between solar heating, winds, wind stress and surface currents Deflection of surface currents by Earth's rotation and continental positions in the North Atlantic -- rotary, or "gyric" motion Equatorial currents Gulf Stream North Atlantic Drift --climate effects Canary Current Upwelling and nutrient supply Currents in the North Pacific Ocean California Current Kuroshio Current North Pacific Drift polar currents (Alaska, Oyashio) Equatorial Counter Current (deflected by Asia) General model of wind-driven currents and gyres Circulation around Antarctica No continental barriers Continuous current (surface-to-depth)
Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171) Page 86 of 111

Atmospheric Processes
o Density of air is controlled by temperature, pressure, and moisture content.  Warm air is less dense than cold air and moist air is less dense than dry air.  Air pressure is the weight of the air from Earths surface to the top of the atmosphere and equals 1.04kg/cm2 (standard air pressure, one atmosphere) at sea level.  Low-pressure zone is where air density is lower than in surrounding areas because the air is warmer or has a higher moisture content.  High-pressure zone is where air pressure is higher than in surrounding area because of cooling or lower moisture content.  Fluids (air and water) flow from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure.  Change in pressure across a horizontal distance is a pressure gradient. y Greater the difference in pressure and the shorter the distance between them, the steeper the pressure gradient and the stronger the wind.  Movement of air across a pressure gradient parallel to Earths surface is called a wind and winds are named for the direction from which they come. In contrast, ocean currents are named for the direction towards which they travel. o Rotation of the Earth strongly influences winds.  Global winds blow in response to variation in pressure related to uneven solar heating (insolation) of Earths surface.  Coriolis deflection is the apparent deflection of objects moving across Earths surface to the right of direction of travel in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left of direction of travel in the Southern Hemisphere. o Three major convection cells are present in each hemisphere.  The Hadley cell extends from the Equator to about 30o latitude.  The Ferrel Cell extends from 30 o to about 50o latitude.  The Polar Cell extends from 90 o to about 50o latitude. Surface Ocean Currents o Wind-driven currents are produced by the interaction between the wind and the water.  As wind moves across the water, collision of air molecules with water molecules inefficiently transfers energy from the air to the water.

Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171)

Page 87 of 111

Water moves at about 34% of the wind speed. Zonal wind flow is wind moving nearly parallel to latitude as a result of Coriolis deflection.  Westerly-driven ocean currents in the trade winds, easterly-driven ocean currents in the Westerlies and deflection of the ocean currents by the continents results in a circular current, called a gyre, which occupies most of the ocean basin in each hemisphere. o Pressure gradients develop in the ocean because the sea surface is warped into broad mounds and depressions with a relief of about one meter.  Mounds are caused by convergences, places where water flows together and sinks.  Depressions are caused by divergences, places from where water rises to the surface and flows outward.  Water flowing down pressure gradients on the oceans irregular surface is deflected by Coriolis and the amount of deflection is a function of location and speed. o With time, wind-driven surface water motion extends downward into the water column, but speed decreases and direction changes because of Coriolis deflection.  Eckman Spiral is the spiraling pattern described by changes in water direction and speed with depth.  Eckman transport is the net transport of water by wind-induced motion. y Net transport of the water in an Eckman spiral has a Coriolis deflection of 90o to the direction of the wind.  Along coastal areas Eckman transport can induce downwelling or upwelling by driving water towards or away from the coast, respectively. o Langmuir circulation is a complex horizontal helical (spiral) motion that extends parallel to the wind.  Adjacent helices rotate in opposite directions creating alternating zones of convergence and divergence.  Material floating on the surface becomes concentrated in the zones of convergence and form sea stripes which parallel the wind direction. o Geostrophic flow allows currents to flow long distances with no apparent Coriolis deflection.  Coriolis deflects water into the center of the gyres, forming a low mound.  As height of the mound increases, the pressure gradient steepens pushing the water outward in an attempt to level the mound.  When the pressure gradient equals Coriolis deflection, the current flows parallel to the wind around the mound as a geostrophic current and this is called geostrophic flow.  Gyres in the Northern Hemisphere rotate clockwise and in the southern hemispheres counterclockwise.  The current flow pattern in gyres is asymmetrical with narrow, deep and swift currents along the basins western edge and broad, shallow slower currents along the basins eastern edge.  The geostrophic mound is deflected to the western part of the ocean basin because of the eastward rotation of the Earth on its axis.  The Sargasso Sea is a large lens of warm water encircled by the North Atlantic gyre and separated from cold waters below and laterally by a strong thermocline.  Western boundary currents, such as the Gulf Stream, form a meandering boundary separating coastal waters from warmer waters in the gyres center. Deep Ocean Circulation
Page 88 of 111

Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171)

o Thermohaline circulation is a density driven flow of water generated by differences in salinity or temperature.  Water at the surface is exposed to more rapid changes in salinity through evaporation or precipitation and in temperature through cooling or heating.  Once water is isolated from the atmospheric influences, salinity and temperature are largely set for an extended period of time.  Based upon depth, surface water masses can be broadly classified as Central waters (from 0 to 1 km), Intermediate waters (from 1 to 2 km), and Deep and bottom waters (greater than 2 km).  Most deep and bottom water originated at the surface where cooling and increased salinity raised their density until they sank.  Ocean basins interconnect and exchange water with each other and with the surface. Inter-ocean basin circulation and exchange between surface and deep water appears largely driven by waters of the North Atlantic. o The major thermohaline currents appear to flow mainly equatorward, but this is because they originate in the polar regions and their outward flow is confined between the continents.  Warmer water (>10oC) is confined between 45o north and south latitude.  Poleward of 45o, density of water increases because of declining temperature and increased salinity because of evaporation or ice formation.  The water sinks to a density-appropriate level and then slowly flows outward in all directions across the basin until they are blocked by a continent.  Deep water gradually mixes with other water masses and eventually rises to the surface.  The Atlantic Ocean has the most complex ocean stratification containing the following layers: Antarctic Bottom Water, Antarctic Deep Water, North Atlantic Deep Water, Arctic Intermediate Water, and Mediterranean Intermediate Water  The Pacific Ocean has a less complex stratification, is weakly layered, displays sluggish circulation and is remarkably uniform below 2000m.  The Indian Ocean has the simplest stratification consisting of Common Water, Antarctic Intermediate Water, and Red Sea Intermediate Water.  Climate change affects thermohaline circulation; Increased freshwater influx to the North Atlantic from melting polar ice reduces salinity and density of surface water, and could shut down NADW downwelling, changing weather patterns in Europe and North America. Water Flow in Semi-enclosed Seaway o Most seas are indentations into continents, partially isolated from the ocean and strongly influenced by continental climate and river drainage.  As Atlantic Ocean water flows through the Straits of Gibraltar into the Mediterranean Sea at the surface, warm, highly saline Mediterranean Sea water flows out through the Straits at the bottom.  In the Black Sea the surface water is brackish because of excess precipitation and river inflow.


Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171)

Page 89 of 111

The major surface current systems of the world oceans are initiated by global winds (i.e., trades, westerlies, etc.) and deflected by the Coriolis effect and continents. Surface current systems are made up of a series of E-W currents (wind-driven) and N-S "boundary"currents (deflection) that are coupled together in major rotational gyres. Water transport at the surface and at depth by wind-driven currents and Coriolis deflection. V. W. Ekman addressed this problem from a theoretical perspective. Ekman's model showed that surface currents move a 45 deg. to the direction of prevailing winds; the deflection is due to the Coriolis effect -- to the right in the N.H. and left in the S.H. With greater depth, successive layers are deflected even more, producing what is called the "Ekman spiral" of water movement to a depth of about 150 m. Ekman further showed that the net transport of water from the surface to 150 m is at 90 deg. to the wind direction (again, right in N.H., left in S.H.). Continuous rotary flow of surface currents around gyres. Ekman's model really helps us understand this phenomenon. First of all, because Ekman transport is at right angles to the direction of prevailing wind, it actually forces water to flow into the center of a gyre, creating a "hill" of water. (The middle of the Sargasso Sea in the tropical North Atlantic is 1.5 meters higher than the edges!) But then gravity tends to force water down and away from that hill. When gravity and Ekman transport balance one another, there is a steady-state flow of currents parallel to the elevation contours of the hill. Currents flow around the hill due to the Coriolis effect -- they are continuously deflected as they travel over long distances. Keep in mind that this situation is analogous to winds circulating around high-pressure zones. Intensification of western boundary currents. The flow of currents around NorthernHemisphere gyres is not symmetrical. Currents flowing south to north on the western side of gyres (western boundary currents) are strong, narrow, and deep, such as the Gulf Stream. In contrast, currents flowing on the eastern side (e.g., Canary Current) are slow, broad, and shallow. Several factors probably contribute to this western intensification: Trade winds displace currents to west side. Because of the piling up of waters on the west side, there is increased friction between the currents and continents, and currents must flow faster. The Coriolis effect increases with latitude. Thus, northward-flowing currents are given an additional "twist" as they move. Intensification of western boundary currents is less important in the Southern Hemisphere. Deflection of West Wind Drift around Antarctica by South America and Africa create strong currents on eastern side of Pacific and Atlantic. Deflection of South Equatorial Current in the Pacific to the north by the islands of Indonesia decreases the flow of water to the south. Upwelling and downwelling induced by Ekman transport. In the open ocean, Ekman transport can drive surface waters apart creating zones of upwelling, or force them together creating zones of downwelling. In coastal areas, Ekman transport can drive surface waters away from coasts (upwelling) or force them onto coasts (downwelling). Regions of important upwelling and downwelling include the following: Equatorial upwelling in the open ocean. Trade winds generate Equatorial currents, and the net transport of water is away from the Equator. Upwelling along west side of continents, especially South America and Africa. Strong northward-flowing currents parallel to these (Southern Hemisphere) coasts transports water away from the coasts. Upwelling and downwelling along coasts due to seasonal wind changes and current flow. Upwelling is important to the biology of the seas because it brings nutrient-rich deep waters close to surface, creating regions of high productivity.
Page 90 of 111

Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171)

Eddies in surface circulation. Eddies are rings of circulating water, 10-100 km in diameter. They develop at the boundaries of major surface currents, like the Gulf Stream. Major currents meander much like rivers. When the meanders become extreme, part of the current or adjacent water through which the current moves can become pinched off -- a rotating eddy is formed. Waters in eddies have different properties (T, S, motion) than the water masses or currents in which they are embedded. The rotary motion in eddies can extend to great depths and even stir-up bottom sediments. In that way, eddies are analagous to "storms" in the oceans.

SURFACE CIRCULATION y El Nio events are changes (periodic oscillations) in surface-ocean and atmospheric conditions in the Equatorial Pacific that occur about every 3 to 7 years. During an El Nio, warm surface water develops off the coasts of Peru and Ecuador, extending northward to Central America, Mexico, and even the USA. Trade winds decrease in the Eastern Pacific, sometimes to nothing! In addition, atmospheric pressure tends to decrease in the Eastern Pacific and increase in the Western Pacific. As a result, the area of heavy rainfall migrates eastward (from Indonesia, etc.) to the Central Pacific. y El Nio conditions in the Equatorial Pacific changes weather patterns for a number of months in wide-spread areas of the world. Summer droughts are severe in Southeast Asia, India, Australia, and Africa because the normal summer monsoon conditions are blocked. Heavy rainfall and storms occur in the central Pacific and the Pacific coast of South America during the summer, and in the USA Gulf Coast and California during the winter. Alaska, western Canada, and northern USA have unusually mild winters. y One of the most intense El Nios of the past 150 years was the 1997-98 event. This El Nio created predictably severe winter stroms and rain in the southwestern USA, California, Texas, and much of the Gulf Coast. y La Nia conditions are exactly the opposite of those of El Nio -- strong trade winds and relatively cool surface water in the Eastern Pacific. We are coming into a La Nia now. La Nia conditions are also felt world-wide. For example, they are typically associated with severe hurricanes (e.g., the recent Hurricanes Georges and Mitch) and with dry summers in the midwestern USA. y Normal conditions. In the absence of El Nino, cool surface water occur in the eastern Equatorial Pacific. Because of prevailing trade winds and Ekman transport, there is significant upwelling along the coast of western South America. In addition, winds and ocean currents transport warm waters to the Asian (western) side of the Pacific. As a consequence of the piling up of warm surface waters, sea level is higher and the thermocline (see below) is deeper in the Western Pacific.
Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171) Page 91 of 111

El Nino conditions. The Trade Winds and Equatorial Currents diminsh, and hence there is less effective westward transport of warm surface water. As a result, the sea surface and thermocline tend to flatten out. In addition, warm waters that had piled-up in the Western Pacific migrate eastward, creating a "lid" of warm water that inhibits upwelling in the Eastern Pacific. As upwelling of nutrient-rich waters decreases, so does the production of phytoplankton (marine algae) that is the base of the food chain. Consequently, the populations of fish (e.g., anchovies) and fish-eating birds decrease dramatically and rapidly. El Ninos can be ecological disasters in the eastern Equatorial Pacific and the coastal waters of South America. Feedback and Oscillations. The El Nio phenomenon oscillates, that is, it occurs, dies out, and eventually builds up again every few years. Why? Because it is really two processes, one oceanic, the other atmospheric, that depend on each other. An El Nio develops as follows:  Warm surface water develops off the coasts of Peru and Ecuador  This causes atmospheric pressure decreases in Eastern Pacific  This causes the trade winds to weaken, especially in the East Pacific  This causes less effective westward transport by Trade Winds  This causes greater migration of warm waters eastward (feedback loop connecting to 1. above) This is a positive feedback situation; change in the ocean causes a change in the atmosphere which in turn increases the changes in the ocean, which in turn increases the changes in the atmosphere, and so on...Each change is amplified by the response or "feedback" from the other process. Eventually, the El Nio stops increasing and dissipates because of other processes (note that once it starts to die out, feedback is again important- decreases lead to more decreases) This leads to oscillations: conditions fluctuate back and forth. The El Nio is triggered somehow, grows because of the feedback/amplification, then dies out. Many natural phenomena on the earth are like this; complex interrelationships make it possible for small changes to grow into much larger ones. These interrelationships make it difficult to predict or understand many natural phenomena on our earth, such as El Nio, other aspects of our weather, global warming (i.e., the greenhouse effect), and ice ages. Deep Circulation of the Oceans. The driving force for deep circulation is the creation of dense (thus cold and saline) water masses at the surface of high-latitude oceans, particularly in the Atlantic. These dense water masses sink and spread laterally, creating deep current. Like surface currents, deep currents are modified (deflected) by the Coriolis effect and by continental barriers; in addition, deep currents are deflected by mid-ocean ridges in some cases. In studying currents in the deep ocean, it is useful to desribe the general vertical structure of the ocean, i.e., the depth zones of the oceans. Surface zone = Mixed layer. This zone extends to a depth of about 100 m; the depth can change seasonally. Water in the zone are mixed by the turbulence of wave actions, winds, and currents. In other words, temperature and salinity are fairly uniform in this zone. Pycnocline = Thermocline = Halocline. In this "cline" zone, extending down to about 1,000 m , temperature, salinity, and hence density change rapidly. This is a transition zone between the surface, mixed layer and the ... Deep ocean. Below about 1,000m the temperature and salinity are pretty uniform. Subtle variations in T and S in the deep ocean reflect and identify different water masses. Controls on the density of sea water. We've discussed this in several previous lectures. But now the issue is more important because density dictates whether surface waters will sink and become part of the deep-ocean layer and deep circulation.

y y

y y

Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171)

Page 92 of 111

Temperature is the most important factor controlling density of surface waters in the open ocean. Note that warm waters remain at the surface -- in the mixed layer at low and midlatitudes. Cold waters formed during seasonal cooling at high latitudes tend to sink into the deep ocean. Salinity is an important influence on density at high latitudes in the open ocean where surface waters are uniformly cold. Small increases in salinity, such as during seasonal seaice formation, controls which cold surface waters will actually sink. Saline waters that overflow from marginal, semi-enclosed seas (Mediterranean, Caribbean, Red Sea) are dense enough to sink and become part of deep circulation in major ocean basins. Pressure (depth) does, in principle, effect the density of sea water. Because water and sea water are slightly compressible, density increases with pressure. So, as sea water sinks, its density increases. But pressure effects do not cause sea water to sink, and therefore have nothing to do with how and where deep-water masses form at the surface. Temperature and salinity control the density of surface sea water and thus its tendency to sink. Density-driven circulation is therefore called "thermohaline" circulation. The temperature and salinity of sea water are determined by processes occuring at the sea surface: Exchange of heat with the atmosphere controls T Exchange of water with the atmosphere controls S Why do the densest water masses of the oceans form at high latitudes in the Atlantic Ocean? The Atlantic extends to higher latitudes in both the Northern and Southern Hemisphere than the Pacific. Thus, high-latitude surface waters are cold. In addition, the Atlantic is a little more saline than the Pacific. Two factors contribute to this. (1) Because of atmospheric circulation (Trade Winds), water vapor evaporating from the Equatorial Atlantic is transported to the Equatorial Pacific across Central America -- the Atlantic is "exporting" water to the Pacific. (2) Saline water flows out of the Mediterranean and Caribbean to the Atlantic. There is no similar situation in the Pacific.


The densest water masses of the world ocean are formed at high latitudes in the Atlantic because (1) The Atlantic and adjacent seas extend to highest latitudes and thus have coldest surface temperatures. (2) North Atlantic surface waters are relatively saline. Water vapor that evaporates in the North Atlantic is transported by atmospheric circulation (mostly the Trade Winds) to the Pacific. In addition, saline waters that flow out of the Mediterranean and Caribbean increase the salinity of the North Atlantic. There are three major bottom- and deep-water masses that form at high latitudes in the Atlantic: 1. Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW)
Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171) Page 93 of 111

2. North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) 3. Antarctic Circumpolar Water (ACW) Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) forms during seasonal cooling and sea-ice formation in the Weddell Sea (adjacent to Antarctica). AABW forms with a temperature of -0.5 deg. C and salinity of 34.8 g/kg. It flows northward along the sea floor in the Western Atlantic well into the Northern Hemisphere. (It is restricted from the east side of the Atlantic by the Mid-Atlantic Ridge system.) North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) is a mixture of cold surface currents flowing out of the Arctic Ocean with saline surface waters of the North Atlantic. It is the largest deep-water mass. During winter cooling, sea-ice formation, and evaporation NADW sinks south of Greenland with T = 2-4 deg. C and S = 34.9 g/kg. It flows south over AABW in the Western Atlantic. Antarctic Circumpolar Water (ACW) forms as NADW upwells off Antarctica, cools further, and mixes with Antarctic waters, including AABW. It flows eastward (as the Antarctic Circumpolar Current) around Antarctica then northward into Indian Ocean and into Pacific Ocean. ACW forms the deep and bottom waters of those oceans. Intermediate (shallower) water masses in the world ocean Mediterranean Intermediate Water (MIW) occurs in the Atlantic at a depth of ~ 1 km. It is the outflow of saline (~35.5 ppt) but warm (~10C) water from the Mediterranean Sea. Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) [in all oceans] and Arctic Intermediate Water (AIW) [in the Pacific] both form by the convergence of surface waters at 40 - 50 deg. lat. These intermediate waters are cold (~5C) but not very saline (~34 g/kg). They sink and spread laterally at depths of about 1 km. Deep circulation and water masses in the Pacific and Indian Oceans. The bottom and deep waters in both of these major basins is Antarctic Common Water. In the Pacific, intermediate waters (both AIW and AAIW) are formed by sinking of cold surface waters in sub-polar latitudes. In the Indian, there is obviously no intermediate waters from the Arctic! But AAIW is observed. In addition, there is an outflow of warm and saline waters from the Red Sea to form an intermediate water mass in the northern Indian Ocean. Global Conveyor Belt. This is the term that a prominent oceanographer recently applied to the coupling of thermohaline (deep) and wind-driven (surface) circulation. It describes the global transport of sea water (and the heat and salt that sea water contains) by the overall circulation of the oceans. The conveyor belt begins with the formation of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW), the largest water mass in the ocean. This is where saline North Atlantic surface waters sink into the abyss to begin their thousand-year journey in the deep sea. NADW flows southward to the coastal seas of Antarctic, where it upwells, cools again, and mixes with Antarctic waters to form Antarctic Common Water (ACW). ACW flows eastward around Antarctic and northward to fill the Indian and Pacific basins. Obviously, water that sinks into the abyss must eventually come back to the surface. This occurs as upwelling of deep water in Equatorial and high-latitude oceans due to slight warming by heat from Earth's interior escaping at the sea floor, especially in the Eastern Pacific. Water that upwells in the Pacific returns to the North Atlantic by surface currents. Equatorial currents in the Pacific carry water through the islands of Indonesia. Circulation in the Indian Ocean carry water around the southern tip of Africa. Once into the South Atlantic, surface currents move water to the Equator. Because of the bulge of South America , Equatorial currents in the Atlantic are largely deflected toward the north to form the Gulf Stream and the North Atlantic Drift. The journey is complete! The Global Conveyor Belt has been operating pretty much as described above for the past 10,000 years. Vigorous thermohaline circulation has sucked warm surface waters into the highlatitude North Atlantic, thus warming northern Europe. But it hasn't always operated that way! Evidence from deep-sea sediments indicate that the conveyor actually shut-down 10-15,000 years ago. As a consequence, northern Europe was cold (and partly glaciated). What caused the
Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171) Page 94 of 111

conveyor to stop? The most likely explanation is that low-salinity (and hence low-density) waters covered the North Atlantic. This would have inhibited sinking and slowed (or stopped) the formation of NADW. Where did the low-salinity water come from? Probably the partial melting of glaciers that covered Canada at that time.



Waves are one of the most familiar features of the sea surface. Most of us who have observed waves along a shore are almost hypnotized by their undulating motion and building power as the crash along a cliff or roll onto a beach. But what exactly are waves? How do they form? Waves are periodic oscillations in the water surface; the motion is back-and forth as well as up-and down. In fact, the motion of water as a wave passes if orbital. Although our senses seem to tell us that water is transported in the direction a wave is moving, that is not always the case. In general, wave motion transmits energy and not water. Energy is supplied to the water by some sort of "distrubance," or wave-generating force, that acts to either elevate or depress the surface. Gravity tends to counteract the "uneven" surface. The result is a wave that is propogated away from the disturbance. Origin and types of waves. Waves are classified by their generating force. * The most common type are wind-generated waves. This is the origin for most of the waves we observe in the ocean or lakes. * Tsunami (often mistakenly called "tidal waves") are very long waves generated by a disturbance on the sea floor, usually an earthquake. Tsunamis are most common in the Pacific because earthquakes are common around the edge of that basin. Tsunamis can be very destructive as the come on shore in coastal areas or islands. * Tides behave as gigantic waves in the ocean. As we shall see, tides are generated by the gravitational attraction of the Moon and Sun and centrifugal forces of Earth's rotation. * Seiches are another type of wave that can occur in bays and harbors. Seiches are produced
Page 95 of 111

Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171)

by waves that are reflected from the edges of the basin to produce oscillating water levels and currents. Wave parameters -- how we describe waves. Crest and Trough: the high-point and low-point of a wave Height, H: distance between crest a trough. Note that the energy transmitted by a wave is proportional to the square of its height: wave E prop. to H2 Wavelength, L: distance between two successive crests or troughs. Steepness, H/L: waves become unstable and break when H/L > 1/7. Period, T: the time required for two successive crests or troughs to pass a point in space. The period of a wave is determined solely by the wave-generating force (wind, earthquake, etc.). It does not change as the wave travels -- it is a "conservative" property of a wave. Velocity of an individual wave, C = L/T Velcoity of a wave group, V: Waves move away from their source (distrubance) in groups (or trains) with similar periods. Group velocity is less than the velocity of individual waves in the group. Note also that the energy of waves is transported at the group velocity. Actual waves at sea have complex more forms than simple "sine" waves. Individual waves interact in a process called "interference." Constructive interference occurs when waves are "in phase" (crests match crests, etc.), producing high waves. Destructive interference, and low waves, results when waves are "out of phase."

Orbital motion of water in a wave. The advancing wave "front" we observe is transmitting energy. The actual motion of water in a wave is orbital. Because of internal friction in water, the diameter of orbital motion decreases with depth. There is little or no orbital motion at water depths greater than one-half the wavelength, i.e., at D > 1/2 L. This is the depth of "wave action." In other words, waves can stir up water to depth of about one-half their wavelength. The shape of orbital motion depends on the wavelength of a wave and depth of water over which it travels. * In relatively deep water, where D > 1/2 L, the orbits remain circular. Orbital wave motion does not "feel" the bottom. This relationship defines what are called "deep-water" waves. * In relatively shallow water, where D < 1/20 L, the orbits become elliptical as wave motion is impeded by the bottom. This relationship defines "shallow-water" waves. * In both cases, it's not simply a matter of water depth, but the relationship between water depth and wavelength. Waves in the Open Ocean (1) Wind-generated waves... are "deep-water" waves according to the above classification. In other words, the orbital wave motion of these waves extends to no more than a few hundred meters below the sea surface. Typical parameters for wind-generated waves are listed below: H = 1 - 15 m L = 50 - 500 m T = 5 - 20 sec C = 30 -100 km/hr depth of orbital motion (wave action) = 1/2 L = 25 - 250 m (much shallower than typical ocean depths, thus "deep-water" waves) The mathematics of wave theory gives us relationships between L (wavelength), T (period), and C (velocity)
Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171) Page 96 of 111

L = (g/2)T2, where g is the acceleration of gravity (9.80 m/s2) Since C=L/T, then by substitution we can derive that: C = 1.56T and C = 1.25L = 1.25[L]1/2 (In all of these expressions, T is in the units of seconds, L is in meters, and C is in meters/sec) So L, T, and C are all related to one another; they are not independent parameters for deep-water waves. For example, both velocity C and wavelength L increase with increasing period T. That means we can calculate the both C and L from measuring T (which is relatively easy to do). The energy transfered from winds to the sea surface controls the characteristics of waves, i.e., their height, period, wavelength, etc. The most important factors for energy transfer are Wind speed (the most important factor) Wind duration (how long the wind blows in a constant direction) Wind fetch (the distance over which wind blows in a constant direction) As speed, duration, and fetch increase, there is an increase in H, T, L, and C of waves that are generated. In other words, strong winds blowing for a long time over a long distance produce high waves with long periods and long wavelengths that travel fast. Wind-generated, deep-water waves in the open ocean have an interesting and important characteristic. Waves with long periods and wavelengths have higher velocities and thus escape more rapidly from the regions where they are created (storm centers of high winds). This is called "dispersion." Waves tends to sort themselves out by T and L as they are trnasmitted across the oceans. Dispersion accounts for what we call "swell" at sea -- the long, uniform waves in the open sea that have moved far from their source area. (2) Tsunamis . . are generated usually by an earthquake that displaces (by faulting) the sea floor. Their typical wave characteristics in the open ocean are as follows: T = 10 -20 min (600-1,200 s) L = 100 - 200 km (100,000 - 200,000 m) H=1-2m

Two important characteristics to note about Tsunamis: (a) They are not perceptible in the open ocean. Their H/L ratio is very small. A tsunami would pass beneath a ship without being detected at all! (b) They are shallow-water waves (D < 1/20 L). Their wavelength is much greater than the depth of the ocean.

Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171)

Page 97 of 111

Wave theory shows that the velocity of a shallow-water wave depends only upon depth of water, D: C = [gD] = [gD]1/2 For a typical ocean depth of 4,000 m, a tsunami travels at at 200 m/s (or 400 mph) in the open ocean! So tsunamis travel at the maximum allowed velocity of waves in the sea. Their speed is limited only by depth of the oceans! WAVES ALONG COASTS Coastal Waves y Coastal regions, where land and sea meet, are very dynamic places. Much of the "dynamism" of coasts is due to the encroachment of waves. As waves in the ocean come onshore, they create a variety of features -- erosion of cliffs, or headlands; formation of beaches; transport of sediment parallel to coasts, etc. Very large waves, such as storm waves and tsunamis, can be particularly destructive in coastal communities. But even more subtle effects, like the continuous longshore transport of sediment, can have undesirable consequences for coastal development. We should recognize that the effects of wave activity are natural phenomena; they are problems for humans only because we have chosen to inhabit dynamic coastal areas. y Seiches are "standing waves" that can occur in harbors, bays, partially enclosed seas, and even ocean basins. We experience a seiche as a periodic rise and fall of water levels around the margins of a basin and periodic flow of surface currents, sometimes rather strong. All "basins" have a natural resonance period that is determined by the depth and dimensions (width, length) of the basin. If an entering wave has the same period, it will be reflected in the basin and a standing wave will be set up. Waves from the open ocean and tides can cause a coastal basin to "seiche." Winds that pile-up water on one side of a basin (or a lake) can have the same effect. y Tsunamis are very long ocean waves generated by submarine earthquakes. In the open ocean, a tsunami is inperceptible because its height (usually 1-2 m) is very small compared to its wavelength (100-200 km). But as a tsunami moves through shallower and shallower water, its height is amplified -- some tsunamis are more than 20 m high! The energy of tsunami waves can also be focused by bottom topography and man-made barriers Waves of this height can be -- and have been -- devastating to coastal communities. y An obviously important concern for coastal and island communities is the ability to predict whether an earthquake at sea will produce and potentially damaging tsunami. Unfortunately, we can't make such predictions with any degree of accuracy. Why not? Because not all large earthquakes produce a tsunami. Marine geologists are finding that large vertical displacements of the sea floor are required to produce a tsunami. Such displacements can sometime occur with a minor quake, or not at all in a major quake. We usually don't know about vertical displacements until well after a quake -- too late for a "tsunami alert." In addition, tsunami waves can be reflected by bottom topography and the continental margin, thus sparing coastal communities of their devastating effects.

Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171)

Page 98 of 111

ENCROACHMENT OF WIND-GENERATED WAVES ON SHORE y As wind-generated, deep-water waves from the open ocean move on shore, their characteristics (wave parameters) and direction change. In addition, encroaching waves produce currents that move water and sediments parallel to coasts. y Changes in wave parameters . . occur because the orbital motion of deep-water waves begin to "feel the bottom" as they move through shallower and shallower water. Most (but not all) of the parameters become increasingly controlled by water depth: C and L decrease T remains constant (remember that the period of a wave does not change!) H increases because wave energy is confined to a smaller area (as L decreases) Waves become "shallow-water" waves when D < L/20. C and L become entirely controlled by depth. As waves move further onshore, the top of the wave advances more rapidly than the deep portion because of friction with the sea floor. Waves become unstable and break to form surf when H/L > 1/7. This occurs when the depth of water is approximately equal to wave height. As waves break and strike the coast (or run up a beach), their energy is dissipated. y Changes in wave direction: refraction of waves. As waves move onshore, the wave fronts tend to bend, or be difracted. This happens because different parts of a wave front are advancing through waters of different depth. Because depth controls velocity, those parts moving in shallow water travel slower than those parts in deep water. Refraction occurs whenever waves advance on a coast at an oblique angle (i.e., not parallel to the coast). Refraction also occurs as waves move over an irregular sea-floor topography (with shallow and deep regions) onto an irregular coastline (with headlands, or clffs, and bays). In this case, refraction focuses wave fronts and wave energy on headlands, thus eroding them. In addition, refraction results in the divergence of wave energy from bays. y Longshore transport . . is the consequence of waves advancing on a coastline at an oblique angle (almost always the case). Waves run-up a beach at an angle -- this is termed wave "swash." But water runs back down the beach ("backswash") at right angles to the beach front, i.e., directly downslope by gravity. The resultant "imbalance" in direction of water motion produces a longshore current parallel to the beach. Longshore currents are capable of carrying suspended sediments -- and remember that the amount of sediment transported is directly proportional to current speed. So, in places where wave energy is diminished -- by either natural or man-made effects -- longshore-current speed decreases and sediment is deposited. Longshore currents that converge in embayments produce rip currents, strong seaward-flowing currents that can carry sediment offshore.

Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171)

Page 99 of 111

BEACH PROCESSES Beaches are regions of coasts where sediments (usually sand or coarser particles) are accumulating. The source of beach sediment is rivers and the erosion of headlands. Beaches are particularly dynamic environments, constantly changing in size and shape as a result of wave action and longshore transport. During the summer, waves tend to be gentle and transport sediment landward. Beaches are at their widest during the summer. During the winter, storms at sea produce larger waves that erode beaches and transport the sediment seaward. Longshore transport also alters the shape and profile of a beach Where wave action is strong, sediment is eroded and transported Where wave action is reduced, sediment is deposited. HUMAN INTERVENTION IN BEACH AND COASTAL PROCESSES

Wave action and longshore transport can erode beaches and barrier islands and be a hazard to boat harbors. Soceity has taken measures to minimize those undesirable effects (with mixed results): "Groins" to stop beach erosion, and "jetties" to protect harbors. These barriers are constructed perpendicular to the shore. Jetties do keep large waves out of harbors, and groins are generally effective in "stabilizing" beaches. In both cases, sediment is deposited as longshore currents slow on the "upstream" side of a barrier. But when the current resumes on the downstream side, erosion occurs. "Breakwaters" to protect harbors. Breakwaters are constructed more-or-less parallel to the coast to protect the area behind them from waves. But because waves no longer reach the shore, longshore currents slow and sediment is deposited. The harbor of Santa Monica CA is being silted in by this combination of effects. In the harbor at Santa Barbara CA, sediment is continuously deposited beyond the downstream part of the breakwater. In order to keep the harbor open, constant dredging is required. Humans also interfere with natural beach processes by damming coastal rivers. This reduces the amount of sediment reaching the coast. Longshore transport tends to erode beaches in the downstream direction from the sediment-depleted river.


1) Properties of Ocean Waves a) Waves are the undulatory motion of a water surface. i) Parts of a wave are, Wave crest, Wave trough, Wave height (H), Wave Amplitude, Wavelength (L),and Wave period (T). ii) Wave period provides a basis for the wave classifications: Capillary waves, Chop, Swell, Tsunamis, Seiches. b) Most of the waves present on the oceans surface are wind-generated waves. i) Size and type of wind-generated waves are controlled by: Wind velocity, Wind duration, Fetch, and Original state of sea surface. ii) As wind velocity increases wavelength, period and height increase, but only if wind duration and fetch are sufficient. iii) Fully developed sea is when the waves generated by the wind are as large as they can be under current conditions of wind velocity and fetch.

Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171)

Page 100 of 111

iv) Significant wave height is the average wave height of the highest 1/3 of the waves present and is a good indicator of potential for wave damage. 2) Wave Motions a) Progressive waves are waves that move forward across the surface. i) As waves pass, wave form and wave energy move rapidly forward, not the water. ii) Water molecules move in an orbital motion as the wave passes. iii) Diameter of orbit increases with increasing wave size and decreases with decreasing water depth. iv) Wave base is the depth to which a wave can move water. v) If the water is deeper than wave base, orbits are circular and there is no interaction between the bottom and the wave, but if the water is shallower than wave base, orbits are elliptical and become increasingly flattened towards the bottom. vi) There are three types of waves defined by water depth: Deep-water wave, Intermediate-water wave, and Shallow-water wave. vii) Celerity is the velocity of the wave form, not the water. viii) The celerity of a group of waves all traveling at the same speed in the same direction is less than the speed of the waves within the group. 3) Life History of Ocean Waves a) Fetch is the area of contact between the wind and the water and is where wind-generated waves begin. i) Seas is the term applied when the fetch has a chaotic jumble of new waves. ii) Waves continue to grow until the sea is fully developed or becomes limited by fetch restriction or wind duration. iii) Wave interference is the momentary interaction between waves as they pass through each other. Wave interference can be constructive or destructive. iv) Because celerity increases as wavelength increases, longer waves travel faster than short waves. b) The shallower the water, the greater the interaction between the wave and the bottom alters the wave properties, eventually causing the wave to collapse. i) Celerity decreases as depth decreases. ii) Wavelength decreases as depth decreases. iii) Wave height increases as depth decreases. iv) Troughs become flattened and wave profile becomes extremely asymmetrical. v) Period remains unchanged. Period is a fundamental property of a wave vi) Refraction is the bending of a wave into an area where it travels more slowly. c) Wave steepness (stability) is a ratio of wave height divided by wavelength (= H/L). i) In shallow water, wave height increases and wavelength decreases. ii) When H/L is larger than or equals 1/7 (H/L 1/7), the wave becomes unstable. iii) There are three types of breakers:, Spilling breakers, Plunging breakers, and Surging breakers. d) Storm surge is the rise in sea level resulting from low atmospheric pressure associated with storms and the accumulation of water driven shoreward by the winds. i) Water is deeper at the shore area, allowing waves to progress farther inland. ii) Storm surge is especially severe when superimposed upon a high tide. 4) Standing Waves a) Standing waves or seiches consist of a water surface "seesawing" back and forth. i) A node is an imaginary line across the surface which experiences no change in elevation as the standing wave oscillates. It is the line about which the surface oscillates. ii) Antinodes are where there is the maximum displacement of the surface as it oscillates and are usually located at the edge of the basin.
Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171) Page 101 of 111

iii) Geometry of the basin controls the period of the standing wave. A basin can be closed or open. iv) Standing waves can be generated by storm surges. v) Resonance amplifies the displacement at the nodes and occurs when the period of the basin is similar to the period of the force producing the standing wave. 5) Other Types of Progressive Waves a) Internal waves form within the water column on the pycnocline. i) Because of the small density difference between the water masses above and below the pycnocline, wave properties are different compared to surface waves. ii) Internal waves display all the properties of surface progressive waves including reflection, refraction, interference, breaking, etc. iii) Any disturbance to the pycnocline can generate internal waves, including: Flow of water related to the tides., Flow of water masses past each other, Storms, or Submarine landslides. b) Tsunamis were previously called tidal waves, but are unrelated to tides. i) Tsunamis consist of a series of long-period waves characterized by very long wavelength (up to 100 km) and high speed (up to 760 km/hr) in the deep ocean. ii) Because of their large wavelength, tsunamis are shallow-water to intermediate-water waves as they travel across the ocean basin. iii) They only become a danger when reaching coastal areas where wave height can reach 10 m. iv) Tsunamis originate from earthquakes, volcanic explosions, or submarine landslides.

TIDES y Periodic rise and fall of water level along coastlines related to the phases of the Moon. Cause -- balance of two celestrial forces: 1. Gravitational attraction between Earth and the Moon (and Sun). 2. Centrifugal forces in the rotation of the Earth around the center of mass (center of gravity) of the Earth-Moon system. y Types of tides -- periods and "inequalities" in high (H) and low (L) tidal levels. y Diurnal tides -- period of about 24 hr, with 1 H and 1 L per day Semi-diurnal tides -- period of about 12 hr, with 2 H and 2 L per day Semi-diurnal mixed tides -- same as semi-diurnal but with unequal high and low tides. "Spring" & "Neap" tides -- variation in high and low tidal levels with a period of about 2 weeks. Tidal periods and inequalities -- Equilibrium Theory of Tides. y Gravitational attraction (G) between the Moon (M) and Earth (E) holds the bodies together. G is directed along the "line of centers." G is slightly different for all other points on and within the Earth (due to small but significant differences in distance to the Moon's center of mass). y Centrifugal force (C) of rotation of the Earth-Moon system tends to pull the bodies apart. E and M rotate about a common center of mass (T = 29.5 days). C has same magnitude and direction for all parts of the Earth (the center and everywhere else). y G and C are exactly balanced (equal and opposite) at centers. But G and C are not balanced at Earth's surface. Excess G immediately beneath the Moon produces a
Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171) Page 102 of 111

bulge toward the Moon (and the Sun). Excess C at the "antilunar" point produces a bulge away from Moon (and the Sun). Explaining types of tides from Equilibrium Theory:

y y

Semi-diurnal tides . . occur as the Earth rotates beneath the tidal bulges. Any location on Earth should experience 2 high tides and 2 low tides per revolution (per day). Expected T = 12 hrs exactly -- the case for solar semi-diurnal tides. Lunar semi-diurnal tides: T = 12 hr 25 min. Moon revolves as Earth spins. Any location on Earth's surface must rotate a little further each day (about 50 min. more rotation) to keep up. "Lunar tidal day" = 24 hr 50 min. Period of the lunar semi-diurnal tide is one-half of that, or 12 hr 25 min. Diurnal tides and semidiurnal mixed tides . . occur because the Moon and the Sun are not directly overhead at the Equator, but at a different latitude. -- "Declination" Sun's declination -- 23.5 deg N to 23.5 deg S, T = 1 year Moon's declination -- 28.5 deg N to 28.5 deg S, T = l8.6 years (the "lunar cycle"). Tidal bulges are in both the N. and S. Hemispheres. Resulting tides as Earth rotates: Diurnal immediately beneath the bulge Semi-diurnal at the Equator Semi-diurnal mixed elsewhere

Tides are the periodic rise and fall of water level along coastlines. The occurence of tides are related to the phases of the Moon, which was first recognized by Pliny the Elder in the first century. Tides result from the interaction (balance) of two celestrial processes: Gravitational attraction between Earth and the Moon (and Sun). Centrifugal forces in the rotation of the Earth around the center of mass (center of gravity) of the Earth-Moon system.

Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171)

Page 103 of 111

y y

y y y y

Types of tides are defined by their periods and by the "inequalities" in high (H) and low (L) tidal levels. Diurnal tides -- period of about 24 hr, with 1 H and 1 L per day Semi-diurnal tides -- period of about 12 hr, with 2 H and 2 L per day Semi-diurnal mixed tides -- same as semi-diurnal but with unequal high and low tides. 2-week tides ("Spring" & "Neap" tides -- variation in high and low tidal levels with a period of about 2 weeks. In order to explain tidal periods and inequalities, we consider the effects of tide-raising forces on a model Earth that is entirely covered by oceans. This approach is called the Equilibrium Theory of Tides. Gravitational attraction (G) between the Moon (M) and Earth (E) holds the bodies together as they rotate around one another (actually, around their common center of mass). Gravitational attraction is directed along the "line of centers" between the two planets, i.e. between their respective centers of mass. But the gravitational attraction of the Moon is slightly different for all other points on and within the Earth. This is due to small but significant differences in the distance from those points to the Moon's center of mass. Centrifugal force (C) of rotation of the Earth-Moon system tends to pull the bodies apart. As noted above, the Earth and Moon rotate about a common center of mass with period of 29.5 days. This is commonly referred to as the "lunar month." Centrifugal forces have the same magnitude and direction for all parts of the Earth (the center and everywhere else). Centrifugal and gravitational forces between the Earth and Moon are exactly balanced (equal and opposite) at their centers. But the forces are not balanced at Earth's surface. Excess G immediately beneath the Moon produces a bulge toward the Moon (and the Sun). Excess C at the "antilunar" point produces a bulge away from Moon (and the Sun). With this explanation of tide-raising forces from the Equilibrium Theory, let's see why we get different types of tides. Semi-diurnal tides . . occur as the Earth rotates beneath the tidal bulges. This means that any location on Earth should experience 2 high tides and 2 low tides per revolution (per day). If this were the case, we would expect the period of semi-diurnal tides (the interval between high tides or low tides) to be exactly 12 hours, one-half of the Earth's rotational period. This is indeed the case for solar semi-diurnal tides, tides produced by the Sun's gravitational attraction. But the period of most lunar semi-diurnal tides is 12 hr 25 min, a little longer than expected. Why does this happen? The Moon is not stationary. It rotates around the Earth (actually, the common center of mass) with a period of 29.5 days. Any location on Earth's surface must rotate a little further each day (about 50 min. more
Page 104 of 111

Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171)

y y

y y

y y y y

rotation) to keep up with the passage of the Moon overhead. So, the "lunar tidal day" is 24 hr 50 min.; and the period of the lunar semi-diurnal tide is onehalf of that, or 12 hr 25 min. Diurnal tides and semidiurnal mixed tides . . occur because the Moon and the Sun are in a position that is either north or south of the Equator. That is, the Moon and Sun are not directly overhead at the Equator, but at a different latitude. We call the position with respect to the Equator the "declination" of the Moon and/or Sun. Sun's declination -- 23.5 deg N to 23.5 deg S, with a period of 1 year Moon's declination -- 28.5 deg N to 28.5 deg S, with a period of l8.6 years (the "lunar cycle"). Because of declination, the tidal bulges are not at the Equator but rather in both the Northern and Southern Hemisphere. As the Earth rotates beneath these (hemispheric) bulges, the resulting tides are: Diurnal immediately beneath the bulge Semi-diurnal at the Equator Semi-diurnal mixed elsewhere Two-week variations in tidal ranges -- spring and neap tides -- are caused by changes in the alignment of the Earth-Moon-Sun (EMS) system. When the three bodies are oriented along a straight line, lunar and solar tides reinforce one another to produce a maximum in tidal range -- spring tides. This alignment occurs at the time of a "Full Moon" and "New Moon." When the EMS system forms a right angle, lunar and solar tides interfere with one another to produce a minimum in tidal range -- neap tides. This alignment occurs at the time of a "FirstQuarter Moon" and "Third-Quarter Moon." Actual tides in ocean basins and coastal areas. Observed tides are more complex than predicted by the Equilibrium Theory. Tidal periods and ranges do not exactly follow this simple model. The general explanation is that any given ocean basin and coastal area responds differently to the tide-generating foces. Continents are barriers to the passage of tidal bulges. Tides behave as shallow water waves -- their wavelength is about one-half Earth's diameter! Therefore, tidal "waves" cannot keep up with the passage of the Moon (and Sun) overhead. The direction and speed of tidal waves are altered by: friction with the sea floor reflection from continents and continental margins refraction as they move into shallow, coastal waters Tides are subject to the Coriolis effect because of the long distances and long durations of tidal motions. Because of Coriolis deflection, tides in some basins tend to rotate around a central node just like a standing wave.

Tidal prediction . . is an ancient art, and one that is essential for a maritime community. Sailors have tranditionally time their exit from a port for the falling tide, and their entry to a rising tide. Tidal predictions are made for the l8.6 year lunar cycle; over that interval, the Moon completes all possible positions with respect to the Earth. Tidal predictions are done as follows: 1. Record observed tides (period, tidal range, inequalities, etc.) 2. Compare observations to E-M-S positions at the exact time. 3. Determine the specific components of E-M-S tide-raising forces that contribute to tidal periods and ranges. 4. Determine the local factors influencing tides; these are the "dynamic responses"of an ocean basin or a particular coastal area to tide-raising forces.

Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171)

Page 105 of 111


Tidal Characteristics a) Tides have a wave form, but differ from other waves because they are caused by the interactions between the ocean, Sun and Moon. i) Crest of the wave form is high tide and trough is low tide. ii) The vertical difference between high tide and low tide is the tidal range. iii) Tidal period is the time between consecutive high or low tides and varies between 12 hrs 25 min to 24 hrs 50 min. iv) There are three basic types of daily tides defined by their period and regularity: Diurnal tides, Semidiurnal tides, and Mixed tides. v) Over a month the daily tidal ranges vary systematically with the cycle of the Moon. vi) Tidal range is also altered by the shape of a basin and sea floor configuration.

Origin of the Tides b) Tides result from gravitational attraction and centrifugal effect. i) Gravity varies directly with mass, but inversely with distance. ii) Although much smaller, the Moon exerts twice the gravitational attraction and tidegenerating force as the Sun because the Moon is closer. iii) Gravitational attraction pulls the ocean towards the Moon and Sun, creating two gravitational tidal bulges in the ocean (high tides). iv) Centrifugal effect is the push outward from the center of rotation. v) Latitude of the tidal bulges is determined by the declination, the angle between Earths axis and the lunar and solar orbital plane. vi) Spring tides occur when Earth, Moon and Sun are aligned in a straight line and the tidal bulges display constructive interference, producing very high, high tides and very low, low tides. (1) Spring tides coincide with the new and full moon. vii) Neap tides occur when the Earth, Moon, and Sun are aligned forming a right angle and tidal bulges displaying destructive interference, producing low high tides and high low tides. (1) Neap tides coincide with the first and last quarter moon. viii) Earth on its axis and the Moon in its orbit both revolve eastward and this causes the tides to occur 50 minutes later each day.
Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171) Page 106 of 111

c) Movement of tides across ocean basins is deflected by Coriolis, blocked by continental landmasses and forms a rotary wave, which each day completes two cycles around the basin if the tide is semidiurnal or one cycle if it is diurnal. i) High tide at the ocean basins western edge creates a pressure gradient sloping downward towards the east. ii) As water flows down the gradient, Coriolis deflects water towards the equator, where it accumulates and establishes a pressure gradient sloping downward towards the pole. iii) Water flowing down this gradient is deflected eastward, forming a pressure gradient sloping downward to the west. iv) Westward flow along this gradient is diverted poleward forming a pressure gradient sloping downward toward the equator. v) Finally, the flow toward the equator is deflected westward, completing the cycle. d) A rotary wave is part of an amphidromic system (rotary standing wave) in which the wave progresses about a node (no vertical displacement) with the antinode (maximum vertical displacement) rotating about the basins edges. i) Cotidal lines connect points on the rotary wave that experience high tide at the same time. (1) Cotidal lines are not evenly spaced because tides are shallow water waves and their celerity depends upon water depth. ii) Corange circles are lines connecting points which experience the same tidal range. (1) The lines form irregular circles that are concentric about the node. (2) Tidal range increases outward from the node. iii) Amphidromic systems rotate clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere and counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere because of the difference in the direction of Coriolis deflection. iv) Irregular coastlines distort the rotary motion. v) Actual tide expressed at any location is a composite of 65 different tidal components. Tides in Small and Elongated Basins e) In long and narrow basins, tides can not rotate. i) Currents in these basins simply reverse direction between high and low tide, flowing in with the high tide and out with the low tide. ii) Cotidal and corange lines are nearly parallel to each other. iii) Tidal ranges increase if a bay tapers landward because water is funneled towards the basins narrow end. 1. 4.Tidal resonance occurs if the period of the basin is similar to the tidal period. a. Resonance can greatly enhance the tidal range. iv) A tidal bore is a wall of water that surges upriver with the advancing high tide. Tidal Currents f) The movement of water towards and away from land with the high and low tides, respectively, generates tidal currents. i) Flood current is the flow of water towards the land with the approaching high tide. ii) Ebb current is the flow of water away from the land with the approaching low tide. iii) Far off shore the tidal currents inscribe a circular path over a complete tidal cycle. iv) Near shore the tidal currents produce simple landward and then seaward currents. Power from Tide
Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171) Page 107 of 111

g) Electricity can be generated from tidal currents if the tidal range is greater than 5 m in a large bay connected to the ocean by a narrow opening. i) A dam is constructed across the opening and water is allowed to flow into and out of the bay when sufficient hydraulic head exist to drive turbines and generate power.

Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171)

Page 108 of 111


Climate Change A. Oceans are critical to the dynamic processes and states of climate 1. Ocean water stores and redistributes immense quantities of heat a. The Gulf Stream b. Upwelling B. Climatic warming may occur because of the rapid buildup of CO2 in the atmosphere C. C.Molecules of CO2 permit sunlight to pass through the air and heat the Earth s surface, but absorb and trap heat that is radiated from the ground and ocean D. The amount of CO2 in the atmosphere has increased 44 percent over the last 150 years E. The oceans absorb 30 to 50 percent of CO2 emissions created by burning fossil fuels F. Global warming can cause polar ice caps to melt, resulting in sea level rise G. Global and regional wind and precipitation patterns could change H. Effects of climate change could vary geographically 1. Some regions will experience longer growing seasons and more rainfall 2. Others will suffer and become hotter and drier I. Climate warming will affect oceans and ocean life in diverse and complex ways Global Climate Impact on the Coast A. Coastal ecosystems are affected by a variety of environmental variables 1. Sea level 2. Temperature 3. Wave action 4. CO2 concentration, etc. B. These ecosystems have difficulty adapting to rapid environmental changes C. Current estimates predict that sea level will rise 10 to 90 cm by the year 2100 1. Some inhabited islands and coastal areas will be submerged by the end of this century 2. Coastal deltas plains are particularly vulnerable to seawater incursion a. They are subsiding under a heavy sediment load, which accelerates the relative rise of sea level 3. Storm surges are expected to be higher than usual a. They will result in more flooding, erosion, and damage to coastal property 4. Intrusion of seawater into groundwater aquifers will contaminate the freshwater supplies of coastal communities 5. Anthropogenic structures interfere with ecosystems ability to adapt to environmental change a. They prevent coastal ecosystems from shifting landward as water levels rise 6. Many marsh plants rot after prolonged exposure to seawater D. Salt marshes and mangrove swamps: 1. provide natural protection from storm surges and coastal flooding 2. serve as critical nurseries and refuges for many species of shellfish and finfish E. Their demise: 1. opens the shoreline to greater erosion and damage 2. will have major negative impact on commercial fisheries F. Possible ways to alleviate the effects of sea level rise include: 1. Elevating buildings and infrastructure 2. Engineering of coastal areas to offset or prevent erosion 3. Planned relocation of coastal buildings and other infrastructure 4. Prohibiting future coastal development
Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171) Page 109 of 111

G. Water temperature influences behavior and mortality of marine organisms H. Changes in water temperature can affect: 1. predator-prey relations 2. ecological niches 3. resource allocations 4. species distribution 5. timing of reproduction or rate of development I. These alterations can be detrimental to the survival of populations and species J. Aquaculture in coastal areas is a rapidly increasing source of human food 1. Rising temperatures could mean that microbial infections of aquacultured organisms increase K. Warmer coastal water may foster more frequent and larger algal blooms, such as red tides 1. This can devastate shellfish fisheries and cause human illness and death . The Impact of Global Climate Change in the Open Ocean A. The temperature and salinity of seawater cause dense water masses to sink 1. This helps drive a global "conveyor belt" of water movement B. Climate change will influence deep-water flow 1. Atmospheric effects control seawater density C. It is hard to predict how climate change will affect thermohaline circulation D. Melting of ice sheets decreases ocean salinity E. Decreased salinity is expected to slow down the rate of downwelling in the North Atlantic 1. If prolonged, may shut it down entirely F. Shutdown of circulation would cut off the supply of oxygen-rich water to the deep sea 1. This would cause hypoxia and anoxia in the deep ocean, inducing mass extinctions G. Arctic sea-ice is melting at an alarming rate during the summer months H. Melting sea ice affects mammals adapted to ice-covered water 1. Arctic seals require extensive areas of ice for breeding and resting 2. These seals are essential prey for walruses and polar bears I. Sea-ice also affects plankton productivity, which is the basis of the food web J. The absence of sea-ice during summer will allow open water to absorb more heat 1. This will accelerate seawater temperature increase K. Increased water temperature: 1. Delays onset of winter freezing 2. Promotes an earlier spring breakup of sea-ice cover L. As waters warm: 1. Warm-water species displace cold-water species 2. Phytoplankton populations decrease M. Food webs must readjust to these changes, sometimes causing collapse of populations N. As CO2 builds up in the lower atmosphere, more of it diffuses into the ocean O. CO2 complexes with water molecules to form carbonic acid 1. This increases the acidity of the seawater P. Ocean acidification also decreases the amount of carbonate ions in the water 1. This impacts organisms that secrete calcium carbonate shells and reefs Q. Coral reef-building could decrease 20 to 30 percent this century R. Warmer waters also increase the changes of coral bleaching events What Do We Know, What Do We Do? A. We know that human activities are degrading the environment B. We can: 1. adopt sustainable lifestyles 2. form forward-looking political affiliations 3. think up novel solutions to environmental problems C. If we work to mitigate the causes now, we can slow even stop environmental change
Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171) Page 110 of 111

1. Many ecosystems are resilient and biota can adapt to some environmental changes D. Scientists can provide insight into ecosystems across many scales of time and distance 1. Understanding an ecosystem helps us identify how we can address its degradation E. We must all work together to enact policy changes to achieve a sustainable relationship with nature

Maritime Geography ( MERI ZC 171/NTRL ZC 171)

Page 111 of 111