Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 86

BANK EXAMS COACHING CENTER E Mail: tnsmani@gmail.com By T.N.

Subramaniyan (Retd Bank Manager) 8893495638

TEST NO: 1 1) 397 * 397 + 104 * 104 + 2 * 397 * 104 = A) 250001 B) 251001 C) 260101 D) 261001 2) 6897 is divisible by A) 11 B) 19 C) 11 & 19 D) not by 11 & 19 3) A number is divisible by 899 gave a reminder 63. if divided by 29 what is the Reminder? A) 3 B) 4 C) 5 D) 10 4) A number divided by 4, 5, & 6 successively, reminder is 2, 3 &4. What is the number? A) 214, B) 476 C) 954 D) 1908 5) The highest number that will divide 43, 91, & 183 so as to give the same reminder A) 4, B) 7 C) 9 D) 13 6) A, B & C starting at the same time, running around a circular stadium. They can complete the round in 252, 308, & 198 seconds. When they will meet? A) 26 18 B) 42 36 C) 45 D) 46 12 7) 1 + 2 + 3 ++9 = 2025 then what is .11 + .22 + .33 + .99 is close to A) 0.2695, B) .3695 C) 2.695 D) 3.695 8) (O.96 - O.1) / (.96 + .96 + .1) = A) O.86 B) 0.95 C) 0.97 9) 45 - [28 - {37 (15 X)} ] = 58 A) - 29 B) - 19 C) 19 10) 2 3 /4 2 2/3 11 1/12 = ? A) 39/48 B) 5/4 C) 169/144 D) D) D) 1.06 29 99/104 5

11) a/b = 4/3 then (6a + 4b) / (6a -5b) = A) - 1 B) 3 C) 4 D)

12) (1/ 1*2*3) + (1/ 2*3*4) + (1/3*4*5) + (1/4*5*6) = A) 7/30 B) 11/30 C) 13/30 D) 17/30 13) (856+167) + (856 167) / 856*856 + 167*167 = A) 1 B) 2 C) 689 D) 1023 _____ 14) (3 N ) = 729. Then N = A) 6 B) 8 C) 10 D) 12 ________________________ 15) (.081 * .484) / (.0064 * 6.25) = A) 0.9 B) 0.99 C) 9 D) 99 _ _ __ __ __ 16) (3 + 6) / 5 3 2 12 - 32 + 50 ) = A) 3 B) 3 2 C) 6 D) 3 __ __ __ _

BANK EXAMS COACHING CENTER E Mail: tnsmani@gmail.com By T.N.Subramaniyan (Retd Bank Manager) 8893495638 17) (3 + 1) / (3 1) = A, (3 - 1 / 3 +1) = B THEN A + B = A) 10 B) 13 C) 14 D) 15 18) The average of 5 numbers is 27. If one is excluded the average is 25. What is the number? A) 25 B) 27 C) 30 D) 35 19) The average age of husband and wife is 23 at marriage. After 5 years one year old child is added. What is the average of the family now? A) 19 B) 23 C) 28.5 D) 29.3 20) Three numbers are in the ratio of 3: 4: 6. Their product is 1944. What is highest? A) 6 B) 12 C) 18 D) 24 21) The sum of three numbers, multiples of 3 is 72. What is the largest number? A) 21 B) 24 C) 27 D) 30 22) The total age of A & B is 12 years more than the total age of B & C, C is how many, Years younger to A? A) 12 B) 24 C) C> A D) Data inadequate 23) 5 a = 3125, then 5 a - 3 = A) 125 B) 625 C) 1625 24) 3 x - y = 27, 3 x + y = 243 then x =? A) 0 B) 2 C) 4 D) 6 25) 60% of 264 is the same as A) 10% of 44, B) 15% of 1056 C) 30% of 132, D) NONE 26) The number which exceeds 16% of it by 42 is A) 50 B) 52 C) 58 D) 60 27) If 20% A = B, 40% of b = C then 60% of (A + B) = A) 30% 0F C, B) 60% of C, C) 75% of C , D) NONE 28) Price of TV decreased by 25%, but sales increased by 20%, what is the effect? A) NO Effect B) Loss 5% C) Gain 5% D) Loss 10 29) What percent decrease in salary would exactly cancel out 20% increase? A) 16.66% B) 18% C) 20% D) 33.33% 30) By selling for Rs.100 trader got a gain of Rs.15. what is the gain percentage? A) 12 B) 15 C) 300 /17 D) 17 31) A BAG MARKED AT Rs.80 sold for Rs.68. What is the rate of discount? A) 12 B) 15 C) 300 /17 D) 17 32) Which of the following is greatest? A) 7:15, B) 15: 23 C) 17:25 D) 21: 29 33) 4 Weavers, weaves 4 mats in four days. Then how many mats would be woven D) 25

BANK EXAMS COACHING CENTER E Mail: tnsmani@gmail.com By T.N.Subramaniyan (Retd Bank Manager) 8893495638 - by 8 weavers in 8 days? A) 4 B) 8 C)

12

D) 16

34) 2 Men & 7 Boys can do a work in 14 days. 3 Men & 8 boys in 11 days. Then how many days will take for 8 Men & 6 Boys to complete thrice the work? A) 18 B) 21 C) 24 D) 30 35) A & B in 8 days and B & C in 12 days, A,B & C jointly in 6 days can do a work. Then A & C in how many days can do the same work? A) 4 B) 6 C) 8 D) 12 36) Out of three numbers sum of the first two is 45, second and third is 55. The sum of 3rd and thrice the 1st are 90. What is the third number? A) 24 B) 25 C) 30 D) 3 37) The difference between A & B is 10, 15 years age A is twice of B. What is the Present age of A now? A) 25 B) 35 C) 45 D) 55 ___ 38) 2 x = 3 32. Find the value of x A) 5 B) 3 C) 3/5 D) 5/3 39) If 75% of X is added to 75 then the result is the same number. What is the number? A) 50 B) 60 C) 300 D) 400 40) A is 150% more of B. then B is what percent of A? A) 33.33 B) 40 C) 66.66 D) 75 41) In a city 40% people are illiterate, 60% are poor. Out of the rich 10% are illiterate. What the percentage of poor people is illiterate? A) 36 B) 40 C) 60 D) 50 42) Some articles were bought at 6 for Rs.5/ and sell 5 for Rs.6. What is % of gain? A) 30 B) 33.33 C) 35 D) 44 43) RAJU sells 25 articles at Rs.45 after allowing 10% discount, earns 50% profit. If discount not allowed what is the percentage of gain? A) 60 B) 60.66 C) 66 D) 66.66 44) What is the compounded ratio of 2:3, 6:11, and 11:2 ? A) 1:2 B) 2:1 C) 11:24 D) 36:121 45) 15 Men take 21 days at 8 hours, to do a work. How many days 21 Women in 6 hours can do the work if 3 W = 2 M A) 18 B) 20 C) 25 D) 30 46) 10 Men can complete in 15 days, 15 Women in 12 days. Then in how many days 10 M & 15 Women can do the same work? A) 6 B) 6.33 C) 6.66 D) 7.66 47) A starts by 2.30 pm drove a car at 60 KM/ hr. B started by 3 pm drove at 75 KM/hr When they can meet? A) 4.30 B) 4.45 C) 5 D) 5.15 PM 48) Two trains are running opposite direction with the same speed, each length 120 Meter The time taken is 12 Sec. What is the speed? A) 10 B) 18 C) 36 D) 72 49) A sum of money at simple interest is to 815 in three years and 854 in 4 years. What is the sum?

BANK EXAMS COACHING CENTER E Mail: tnsmani@gmail.com By T.N.Subramaniyan (Retd Bank Manager) 8893495638 A) 550 B) 650 C) 698 D) 700 50) Sum will become 13380 after 3 years, and 20070 in six years at compound interest What is the sum? A) 8800 B) 8890 C) 8920 D) 9040 51) Perimeter of a triangle is 30 cm, area is 30cm 2 Length is 13 cm, then what is the Smallest side? A) 3 B) 4 C) 5 D) 6 52) A man runs round a circular field of radius 50 m at a speed of 12 km/hr. What is the Time taken to complete 20 rounds? A) 30 M B) 32 M C) 34 M D) NONE A 53) 4913 relates to 54) 1521 relates to 55) 729 relates to 16 39 23 23 35 12.5 6 B 17 29 36 27 25 25 4 8 575 1000 C 19 49 27 3 17 45 503 9 625 8000 D 18 19 NONE 19 55 1250 2 11 675 27000

56) 10 100 1000 then 2 529 12167 57) 15625 relates to 58) 125000 relates to

59) 49: 121: 169 = X: 11: 13 Then X = 7 60) 16 81 256 X 61) Which one is ODD 525 100

62) One year from today A will be twice old as he was 12 years ago. How old he is now 20 22 25 27 63) A is three times of B. C was twice old as A four years ago. In four years A is 31. What is the present age of B & C? A) 9 46 B) 9 50, C) 10 46, D) 10 50 64) Father is now thrice old as his son. 5 years back he was 4 times. What is age of the son in years? A) 12 B) 15 C) 18 D) 20 65) If a & b are odd numbers, then which of the following is an even number A) A + B B) AB+2 C) AB D) A+B+1

66) Which of the following is a prime number? A) 161 B) 221 C) 373 D) 437 67) The difference between the squares of two consecutive odd numbers is always

BANK EXAMS COACHING CENTER E Mail: tnsmani@gmail.com By T.N.Subramaniyan (Retd Bank Manager) 8893495638 Divisible by A) 3 B) 6 C) 7 D) 8 68) The LCM of 2/3, 3/5. 4/7, 9/13 is A) 36 B) 1 /36 C) 1 /1365 D) 12 /455 69) The greatest number that exactly divides 105 1001 2436 is A) 3 B) 7 C) 11 D) 21 70) The greatest number which can divide 1356 1868 2764 leaving the same reminder 12 in each case is: A) 64 B) 124 C) 156 D) 260 71) 52416 312 = 168 then 52.416 0.0168 = A) 3.12 B) 312 C) 3120 D) NONE 72) (180 * 15 12 *20) / (140 * 8 + 2 *55) = A) 1/ 7 B) 4 /5 C) 2 D) 4 73) One fourth of the tank = 135 Lit. Then what is 180 lit forms part of the tank? A) 1 /6 B) 1 /3 C) 2 / 3 D) 2 / 5 _ _ __ __ __ __ _ __ 74) [ {(3 2) (6 - 3)} { ( 4 3 ) (6 - 2)} - { (6) ( 8 - 12 }] = A) 3 - 2 B) 3 + 2 C) 5 3 D) 1 75) P + Q = 10100, Q + R = 12500 P + R = 10400, then P = A) 3500 B) 4000 C) 4050 D) 5000 76) Average of all is 8000, out of which 7 people average is 12000 and the rests Average is 6000. How much the rest constitute? A) 7 B) 14 C) 21 D) 28 77) What is the sum of two consecutive even numbers, if the difference of their square is 84 ? A) 34 B) 38 C) 42 D) 46 78) 54 is divided into two parts. Sum of 10 times of one and 22 times of the second - is 780. The bigger number is: A) 24 B) 34 C) 30 D) 32 79) In 10 years A will be twice old as B was 10 years ago. If A is now 9 years older Than B, what is B now? A) 19 B) 29 C) 39 D) 49 80) If 8 1 / 5 * 2 x = 2 1 /5 then x = A) 1 /5 B) - 1 /5 C) 2 /5 D) -2 / 5 81) 2 X = 3 Y = 6 Z then (1/x + 1 /y + 1 /z) = A) 0 B) 1 C) 3/2 D) - 1 / 2 82) X = 5 + 26, then (x 1) / x = A) 2 B) 22 C) 3 D) 23 83) If x = 90% y then y what percent of X? A) 90 B) 101 1/9 C) 111 1/9 D) 190 84) A salary is 40% of B, which is 25% of C, What is C in terms of A? A) 5 B) 10 C) 15 D) 20 85) A mixing three varieties costing Rs. 50, 20 & 30 @ 2:3: 4 ratio. Selling at Rs.33 Per kg what is the percentage of profit? A) 8 B) 9 C) 10 D) 11

BANK EXAMS COACHING CENTER E Mail: tnsmani@gmail.com By T.N.Subramaniyan (Retd Bank Manager) 8893495638 86) A bought an article 10% less than the cost, and sold the same 10% more than the cost. What is the percentage of profit or loss? A) No profit / loss B) 20 % loss C) 20 % profit D) NONE 87) Scooter and TV price is @ 7:5, Scooter costs 8000 extra. Then what is cost of scooter A) 20000 B) 24000 C) 28000 D) 32000 88) The fourth proportional of 5, 8, 15 is A) 12 B) 24 C) 19 D) 20 89) The mean proportional between 234 and 104 = { Apply the formula mean = ( a * b) } A) 12 B) 39 C) 54 D) 156 90) The third proportional of .36 and .48 is A) 0.64 B) 0.1728 C) 0.42 D) 0.94 91) If 10% of X = 20% of Y, then X: Y = A) 2:1 B) 1:2 C) 5:1 D) 1:5 92) A: B: C is 5:7:8 in profit share and worked for 14 / 8 / 7 months respectively What is the ratio of investment? A) 5:7:8 B) 28:49: 64 C) 38:28:21 D) NONE 93) 3Men or 6 Boys can do a work, in 10 days with 7 hours each day. How many days it Will take for 6 men and 2 boys with 8 hours a day to complete twice the work? A) 6 B) 7.5 C) 8.5 D) 9 94) A can do a work in 40 days. He worked for 8 days and B finished the balance work in 16 days. How much days require for A & B work together? A) 13.33 B) 15 C) 20 D) 56 95) Trains average speed = 100 kmph. Total distance 600 km. Every 75km a stop with 3 Min. What is the total time? A) 6 H 21M B) 6H 24 M, C) 6H 27 M, D) 6 H 30 M 96) A sum becomes three times in 4 years under compound interest. With the same interest when it will become 27 times? A) 8 YRS B) 12 YRS C) 24 YRS D) 36 YRS 97) a = (6 + 5) b = ( 6 5) then 2a 2 - 5ab + 2b2 = A) 43 B) 39 C) 31 D) 27 98) 30% of X = 12.6 then X = A) 41 B) 43 C) 42 D) 40 99) X & Y are in the ratio of 4:3. What is As increase to B? A) 25 B) 33.33 C) 36 D) 20 100) Median of X = 10, 2, 14, 5, 8, and 16 A) 11 B) 10 C) 9 D) 8

BANK EXAMS COACHING CENTER E Mail: tnsmani@gmail.com By T.N.Subramaniyan (Retd Bank Manager) 8893495638

ANSWER FOR TEST NO : 1 1 B 2 1 C 4 1 C 6 1 A 8 1 A 2 C 2 2 A 4 2 D 6 2 C 8 2 B 3 C 2 3 D 4 3 D 6 3 B 8 3 C 4 A 2 4 C 4 4 B 6 4 B 8 4 B 5 A 2 5 B 4 5 D 6 5 A 8 5 C 6 D 2 6 A 4 6 C 6 6 C 8 6 D 7 C 2 7 D 4 7 C 6 7 D 8 7 C 8 A 2 8 D 4 8 C 6 8 A 8 8 B 9 C 2 9 A 4 9 C 6 9 B 8 9 D 1 0 D 3 0 C 5 0 C 7 0 A 9 0 A 1 1 C 3 1 B 5 1 C 7 1 C 9 1 A 1 2 A 3 2 D 5 2 D 7 2 C 9 2 D 1 3 B 3 3 D 5 3 B 7 3 B 9 3 B

OK 1 4 D 3 4 B 5 4 A 7 4 C 9 4 A 1 5 B 3 5 C 5 5 B 7 5 B 9 5 A 1 6 D 3 6 C 5 6 A 7 6 C 9 6 B 1 7 C 3 7 B 5 7 B 7 7 C 9 7 B 1 8 D 3 8 D 5 8 C 7 8 B 9 8 C 1 9 A 3 9 C 5 9 A 7 9 C 9 9 B 20 C 40 B 60 C 80 D 100 C

BANK EXAMS COACHING CENTER E Mail: tnsmani@gmail.com By T.N.Subramaniyan (Retd Bank Manager) 8893495638

TEST NO: 2 01) If the sum of the three Prime numbers are 100. One of them exceeds another by 36, then one of the numbers is? A) 7 B) 29 C) 41 D) 67 02) The HCF of 9 /10, 12 /25, 18 /35 and 21 /40 is A) 3/ 5 B) 252 / 5 C) 3 /2800 D) 63 / 700 03) The numbers are in the ratio of 1:2:3 . Their HCF is 12. The numbers are A) 4 8 12, B) 5 10 15 C) 10 -20 -30, D) 12 -24 -36 04) 34.95 + 240.016 + 23.98 = A) 298.0946 B) 298.111 C) 298.946 D) 299.09 05) The value of (1 / 4) + (1 /4*5) + (1 / 4*5*6) = A) 0.3075 B) 0.3082 C) 0.3083 D) 0.3085 06) 1.5 X = 0.04 Y then (Y X) / (Y+ X) = A) 730 /77 B) .73 /77 C) 7.3 / 77 D) NONE 07) The value of 25 5 [2 + 3{2 -2(5 3) +5} - 10] / 4 = A) 5 B) 23.25 C) 23.75 D) 25 08) (4 +4 * 18 6 - 8) / (123 * 6 146 * 5) = A) 1 B) 2 C) 6.65 D) 7.75 09) (17 / 3) {6x+5) / 6 }= 2 then x = A) 2 B) 3 C) 4 D) NONE 10) ( A /B) = 4 / 5, B / C = 15 /16 find ( C - A) / ( C + A ) = A) 1 /7 B) 7 / 25 C) 3 / 4 D) NONE 11) Express 2 / 3 of 1 / 4 of Rs.25.20 as fraction of 3 / 2 of Rs.36 A) 5 / 8 B) 5 / 42 C) 7 / 90 D) 11 / 90 12) {(469 + 174) (469 - 174)} / 469 * 174 = A) 2 B) 4 C) 295 D) 643 13) {(785*785*785) + (435*435*435)} / {(785*785 +435*435 785*435} A) 350 B) 785 C) 1220 D) 1320 _______ 14) (X / 169) = (54 / 39) = A) 108 B) 324 C) 2916 D) 4800 ____________ 15) (X 1) (Y + 2) = 7 X & Y are being positive whole numbers then the value Of X & Y are A) 8 5 B) 15 12, C) 22 19 D) None __ 16) (3 - 1/3) = A) 3 / 4 B) 4 / 3 4/3 D) NONE 17) (5 + 2 3) / (7 + 4 3) = A + B 3 then a & b are A) -11 & - 6, B) -11 & 6 C) 11 & -6, D) 6 & 11 18) {1 / ( 9 - 8) } - {1 / ( 8 - 7) } + { 1 / ( 7 - 6)} {1 / ( 6 - 5 )} + {1 / (5 + 4)} = A) 0 B) 1 / 3 C) 1 D) 5

BANK EXAMS COACHING CENTER E Mail: tnsmani@gmail.com By T.N.Subramaniyan (Retd Bank Manager) 8893495638 19) (3 + 6) / (5 3 - 2 12 - 32 + 50) = A) 3 B) 3 2 C) 6

D)

NONE

20) A factory got 600 men & 400 women. The average wage is 25.50 per day. If women get Rs.5 less than men than what is their wage? A) 25 20 B) 27.5 22.5 C) 30 25 D) 32.5 27.50 21) Total age of A & B is 12 years more than B & C; C is how many years younger to A A) 12 B) 24 C) C is elder to A, D) Data inadequate 22) In ten years, A will be twice as old as B was ten years ago. If A is nine years now older than b, the present age of B is A) 19 B) 29 C) 39 D) 49 23) 28% OF 450 + 45% 0F 280 = A) 256 B) 252 C) 250 D) 248 24) Price of oil increased by 25%. How much a person reduce his consumption for no increase in income? A) 25 B) 30 C) 20 D) 16 25) 0.02 is what percent of 0.2? A) 1 /100 B) 1 /10 C) 10 D) 100 26) X % OF Y is equal to Z, what percent of X = Z? A) Y / 100 B) Y / 100 C) 100 /Y D) 100 / Y 27) In a city 40% are illiterate and 60% are poor. Among the rich, 10% are illiterate. What percentages of the poor are illiterate? A) 36 B) 40 C) 60 D) None 28) Raj purchased 20 dozens of apple at Rs.375 per dozen. He sold them at each Rs.33 What is the percentage of profit? A) 3.5% B) 4.5% C) 5.6% D) 6.5% E) None 29) If loss is 1/3 of selling price, what is the loss percentage? A) 16.66 B) 33.33 C) 25 D) 20 30) Raj bought pencils at 6 per a rupee. How many for a rupee must he sell to get A gain of 20%? A) 3 B) 5 C) 6 D) 4 E) 7 31) A gift article marked at Rs.80 is sold for Rs.68. What is the rate of discount? A) 15 B) 20 C) 17 D) 12 32) Raj sold a book for 209 after allowing successive discount of 12 % and 5% What is the original price? A) 250 B) 252 C) 269 D) 226 33) Raj get 30% discount on MRP sold it for Rs.8750 with 25% of profit on the Price he bought. What is the MRP? A) 10000 B) 12000 C) 16000 D) Inadequate data 34) If 782 is divided into three parts to 1/ 2: 2 / 3: 3 / 4 then what is the first part? A) 184 B) 204 C) 190 D) 196 E) 200 35) Sum of three numbers square is 1250. They are in the ratio of 3:4:5.What is sum? A) 60 B) 90 C) 50 D) 30 E) 40 36) Two numbers are 20% and 50% more than the third number. What is the ratio? Of the two numbers? A) 5:7 B) 3:5 C) 6:7 D) 4:5 E) None 37) A mixture is to be 9:4 proportions. If A is 24 then what is B?

BANK EXAMS COACHING CENTER E Mail: tnsmani@gmail.com By T.N.Subramaniyan (Retd Bank Manager) 8893495638 A) 10.33 B) 10.66 C) 9.66 D) 9.33 D) E) 21:29 9

38) Which of the following is greatest? A) 7:15 B) 15:23 C) 17:25

39) Capital ratio is 2:3: 5 of A B C, if the profit is 4650 what is the share of A? A) 930 B) 1395 C) 2325 D) None 40) Out of the total profit 2000, A gets 1000, B gets 600 As capital is 10000 What is Bs capital? A) 5000 B) 4000 C) 6000 D) 2000 41) J-2-Z, K-4-X, I-7-V, , H-16- R, M-22- P, What is the missing? A) I 11 T, B) L -11 9, C) L -12 T, D) L 11 T, E) L 12 S 42) 112 * 5 4 = A) 6700 B) 70000 C) 76500 D) 77200 43) 106 * 106 + 94 * 94 A) 20072 B) 20032 C) 21032 D) 23032 44) Which one is divisible by 24? A) 35728 B) 63810 C) 537804 D) 3125736 45) Three numbers LCM is 2400. They are in the ratio of 3:4:5, What is their HCF? A) 90 B) 40 C) 120 D) 200 46) Find the greatest number that will divide 43, 91, & 183 so as to leave same reminder A) 4 B) 7 C) 9 D) 13 47) Which one is less than 7 / 8 but greater than 1 / 3? A) 1 / 4 B) 23 / 24 C) 11 / 12 D) 17 / 24 48) The value of 1 /4 + 1 / ( 4*5) + 1 / ( 4 * 5 * 6) correct to four decimal A) 0.3075 B) 0,3082 C) 0.3083 D) 0.3085 49) ( 10.3* 10.3* 10.3 +1) / ( 10.3*10.3 * - 10.3 + 1) = A) 11.3 B) 12.3 C) 10.3 D) 9.3 50) A /B = 3 /4, 8a + 5b = 22 find the value of A ? A) 1 / 2 B) 3 / 2 C) 2 / 3 D) 1 51) The value of 100* 10 - 100 + 2000 100 = A) 29 B) 780 C) 979 D) 920 52) a / b = 4 / 3 Then find the value of (6a +4b) / ( 6a- 5b) = A) - 1 B) 4 C) 5 D) 3 53) 4 x + 5 y = 83, 3x / 2 y = 21 / 22 then what is y x ? A) 11 B) 7 C) 4 D) 3 54) How many pieces of 85 cm can cut from a cloth of 42.5 meters? A) 30 B) 60 C) 40 D) 50 55) What fraction of an hour is a second? A) 1 / 60 B) 1 /12 C) 1/ 120 D) 1 / 3600 56) ( X + Y + Z - 64 ) / (XY YZ ZX) = - 2, X + Y = 3Z, What is Z? A) 2 B) 3 C) 4 D) 5 __ ___ ____ ___ ____ 57) 10+[ 25+ {108 + (154 + 225 )}] = A) 4 B) 6 C) 8 D) 10

10

BANK EXAMS COACHING CENTER E Mail: tnsmani@gmail.com By T.N.Subramaniyan (Retd Bank Manager) 8893495638 _________ __________ ________ 58) {(225 / 729) - (25 / 144) } + (16 / 81) = A) 1 / 48 B) 5 /48 C) 5 /16 D) 5 /32 _________ 59) If y = 5, them find the value of 10 y ( y - y ) A) 500 B) 2005 C) 100 D) 502 ___________ 60) ( 18* 14* Y) = 84 then the value of y = A) 22 B) 24 C) 28 D) 32 __ ____________ 61) 3A = 4B = 6C, A+B+C = 2729, then what is ( a + b + c) = A) 329 B) 629 C) 81 D) 87 62) Average of 50 numbers is 30. Two numbers 35 & 40 removed. What is the average? A) 28.68 B) 29.68 C) 30.68 D) 31.68 63) Raj scored 108 runs in the eleventh innings and the average rose by 6. What is the present average? A) 60 B) 55 C) 52 D) 48 64) 3 years ago average of five members is 17. A baby having born, the average Remains the same. What is the age of the baby? A) 1 B) 2 C) 3 D) 4 65) The numbers are in the ratio of 3:4:6 and the product is 1944. What is the largest number? A) 6 B) 12 C) 18 D) None 66) The sum of two numbers is 40, difference is 4. The ratio of the number is A) 11:9 B) 11:18 C) 21:19 D) 22:9 67) Age of father 10 years ago was thrice his son. Ten years after he is twice of the Son. What is the percentage of Father and son? A) 52 B) 7:3 C) 9:2 D) 13:4 68) X = 5 + 2 6 then ( x 1) / x = A) 2 B) 22 C) 3 D) - 22 69) 35% of a number is 12 less than 50% of that number. Then the number is A) 40 B) 50 C) 60 D) 80 70) After deducting a commission of 5%, a set costs Rs.9595. What is the MRP? A) 10100 B) 10500 C) 10075 D) 10000 71) 1100 BOYS AND 700 GIRLS wrote an exam. 42% of boys and 32% of girls Passed. What is the total percentage of failure? A) 60 B) 62.66 C) 64.5 D) 75 72) If x% of x is 64 then what is x? A) 30 B) 80 C) 800 D) 6400 73) X is increased by 20% first and then by another 20%. To reach the original leve How much it is to be reduced? A) 40 B) 44 C) 30 5//9 D) 20 74) Rajs salary is 50% excess than Vijay. How much Vijay is less than raj? A) 33 B) 33.5 C) 33.33 D) 33.66 75) X is 6 times of Y. Then the percent of y is less than X is

11

BANK EXAMS COACHING CENTER E Mail: tnsmani@gmail.com By T.N.Subramaniyan (Retd Bank Manager) 8893495638 A) 16.66 B) 60 C) 10 D0 83.33

76) A trader mixes 26 kg of rice at Rs.20 with 30 Kg of rice at Rs.36. His selling Price is Rs.30. What is the profit percent? A) 5 B) 6 C) 8 D) 10 E) None 77) A trader marked 30% on the cost price. Allowed discount of 10%. What is profit? A) 20% B) 40% C) 17% D) 10% 78) If 144 is divided into four parts at 13, 10, 7 and 6. What the largest part? A) 50 B) 52 C) 54 D0 56 79) Income of A & B is 5:4, Expenses is 3:2. Each saves Rs.1600. Income of A is A) 4000 B) 3800 C) 3600 D) 3400 80) As investment is three times of B and period is half of B. Bs profit is Rs.5000, then What is the profit of A? A) 15000 B) 10000 C) 7500 D) 5000 81) Some persons can do a work in 16 days. Two times of such persons will do half -of the work in how many days? A) 12 B) 4 C) 2 D) 16 82) A can do a work in 20 days, B can do in 15 days. If both work together for 6 days how much work finished? A) 3 /5 B) 7 /10 C) 4 /5 D) 7 / 8 83) 3 MEN, 4 Women and 6 Children can complete a work in 7 days. A women can do double of a man, a man can do twice the child, then how many women can do the work? A) 7 B) 8 C) 12 D) cannot be determined 84) Excluding stoppages the speed of a bus is 54 KMPH and including stoppage is 45 KMPH. How many minutes the bus stop per hour? A) 9 B) 10 C) 12 D) 15 85) Two trains of equal length running on parallel on the same direction with 46 kmph and 36 kmph. The faster one crosses the slower in 36 seconds. What is the length of train? A) 82 B) 80 C) 72 D) 50 86) Two jars A & B contain milk and water mixed in the ratio 5:2. & 7: 6. If we mix In what ratio we will get a mixture in a new ratio 8: 5 ? A) 4:3 B) 3:4 C) 5:6 D) 7:9 87) What is the total interest paid on 7200 @ SI 6% for 5 years? A) 2610 B) 2060 C) 2160 D) 2600 88) A man borrows a sum at compound interest @ 9%. When it will become double? A) 9 B) 10 C) 8 D) 7 89) Area of rectangle field is 460 square. Meter. The length is 15% more than the breadth What is the breadth? A) 15 B) 22.5 C) 25 D) 20 90) Find the odd man out 253 136 352 460 324 631 244 A) 253 B) 324 C) 352 D) 460 91) A man buys a ring for 1950. Sells it for 2200 at a credit of one year rate 10% A) GAIN 50 B) No loss or profit c) Loss 50 D) gain 150 92) Twice of A is thrice of B. Bs capital is four times of C. Total profit is 16500. What is the share of B?

12

BANK EXAMS COACHING CENTER E Mail: tnsmani@gmail.com By T.N.Subramaniyan (Retd Bank Manager) 8893495638 A) 4000 B) 6000 C) 7500 D) 6600 93) A sum of Rs.53 distributed to A ,B & C. A is getting 7 more than B and B is getting 5 more than C. How much C got? A) 18 B) 10 C) 7 D) 12 94) RAJ BUYS PETROL AT Rs.7.50, Rs.8, and Rs.8.50 per liter for successive year. Each year he spends Rs.4000. What is the average price? A) 7.98 B) 8 C) 8.25 D) 8.10 95) 2 = 1.4142. What is the value of 7 / (3 + 2) A) 1.5858 B) 3.4852 C) 3.5858 D) 4.4142 96) The sum of the first 20 terms of the series 1 / 5*6 + 1/6*7 + 1 / 7*8 . A) O.16 B) 1.6 C) 16 D) None 77) The value of (241.6 * 0.3814 * 6.842) / (0.4618 * 38.25 * 73.65) = A) 0.2 B) 0.4 C) 0.6 D) 1 98) (4.2 * 42 - 1.9 * 19) / 2.3 * 6.1 = A) 0.5 B) 1 C) 1.9 D) 4.2 99) 7.5*7.5 + 37.5 + 2.5*2.5 A) 30 B) 60 C) 80 D) 100 100) (0.137 + 0.098) - (0.137 0.098) = A) 0.4 B) 0.235 C) 0.25 D) 4 1 D 2 1 A 4 1 D 6 1 D 8 1 B 2 C 2 2 C 4 2 B 6 2 B 8 2 B 3 D 2 3 B 4 3 A 6 3 D 8 3 A 4 C 2 4 C 4 4 D 6 4 B 8 4 B 5 C 2 5 C 4 5 B 6 5 C 8 5 D 6 B 2 6 D 4 6 A 6 6 A 8 6 D 7 C 2 7 C 4 7 D 6 7 B 8 7 C 8 D 2 8 C 4 8 C 6 8 B 8 8 C 9 A 2 9 C 4 9 A 6 9 D 8 9 D 1 0 B 3 0 B 5 0 B 7 0 A 9 0 B 1 1 C 3 1 A 5 1 D 7 1 B 9 1 A 1 2 B 3 2 A 5 2 B 7 2 B 9 2 B 1 3 A 3 3 A 5 3 C 7 3 C 9 3 D 1 4 B 3 4 B 5 4 D 7 4 C 9 4 A 1 5 A 3 5 A 5 5 D 7 5 D 9 5 A 1 6 C 3 6 D 5 6 C 7 6 A 9 6 A 1 7 C 3 7 B 5 7 A 7 7 C 9 7 B 1 8 D 3 8 D 5 8 C 7 8 B 9 8 B 1 9 D 3 9 A 5 9 A 7 9 A 9 9 D 20 B 40 B 60 C 80 C 100 D

13

BANK EXAMS COACHING CENTER E Mail: tnsmani@gmail.com By T.N.Subramaniyan (Retd Bank Manager) 8893495638 TEST NO: 3 01) FIND THE ODD MAN OUT: 1 - 2 - 6 - 15 - 31 - 56 - 91 A) 31 B) 56 C) 91 D) 15 02) Find out the value of X in (3 X 4) * 4 = 1216 A) 0 B) 2 C) 5 D) 4 03) {(856 + 167) + (856 157)} / (856 + 167) = A) 1 B) 2 C) 680 D) 1023 04) HCF of the numbers is 8, which one of the following can be never be their LCM A) 24 B) 48 C) 56 D) 60 05) Which one number does not lie between 4 / 5 & 7 / 13? A) 1/ 2 B) 2 / 3 C) 3 / 4 D) 5 / 7 06) .009 / x = 0.01 then X = A) 0.0009 B) 0.09 C) 0.9 D) 9 07) (0.0203 * 2.92) / (0.0073 * 14.5 * 0.7) = A) 0.8 B) 1.45 C) 2.40 D) 3.25 08) (.06 + .47 + 0.079) / (.006 + 0.047 + 0.0079) = A) 1000 B) 100 C) 10 D) 1 09) (343 - 113 ) / (343 + 113 + 456) = A) 113 B) 343 C) -113 D) 230 10) (4+ 4*18 6 8) / (123*6 146*5) = A) 1 B) 2 C) 6.65 D) 7.75 11) If P /Q = 7, what is the value of (p+q) / (p q)? A) 1 / 3 B) 2 / 3 C) 4 / 3 D) 7 / 8 12) If (a b) is 6 more than(c + d) and (a + b) is 3 less than (c d) then (a c) is A) 0.5 B) 1 C) 1.5 D) 2 13) A + B + C = 13, A + B + C = 69. Find ab + bc + ca? A) - 50, B) 50 C) 69 D) 75 14) Find the value of (x / 15) (x/ 135) = 1 A) 15 B) 25 C) 35 D) 45 15) (3 1/ 3) = A) 3 / 4 B) 4 / 3 C) 4 / 3 D) None 16) ( 7 + 5) / (7 5) = A) 2 B) 6 35 C) 6 +35 D) 1 ____________________________________________ 17) (0.081 * 0.324 * 4.624) / (1.5625 * 0.0289 * 72.9 * 64) = A) 0.24 B) 0.024 C) 2.4 D) 24 ________ 18) 3 .000216 = A) 0.6 B) 0.06 C) 0.006 D) None 19) What is the average of first nine Prime numbers? A) 9 B) 11 C) 11 1/9 D) 11 2/9 20) The average of five numbers is 27. By eliminating one number average is 30 What is the eliminated number? A) 27 B) 30 C) 15 D) 25

14

BANK EXAMS COACHING CENTER E Mail: tnsmani@gmail.com By T.N.Subramaniyan (Retd Bank Manager) 8893495638 21) Average of A, B &C is 45. A & B is 40. B & C is 43. What is B? A) 20 B) 31 C) 26 D) 55 22) Sum of two numbers is 25 and their difference is 13. Find their product. A) 114 B) 104 C) 315 D) 325 23) Total age of A & B is 12 years more than the total age of B & C. C is how much younger to A? A) 12 B) 24 C) Elder to A, D) None 24) Today father is three time of his son. After 8 years he is 2.5. Times. Then after 8 years how many times he is more than his son? A) 2 B) 2.5 C) 2.75 D) 3 25) In a fraction, numerator increased by 40%, denominator is increased by 80% What is the fraction of the original to the new fraction? A) 1 /2 B) 7 / 9 C) 7 / 18 D) None 26) By selling an article for Rs.100 Raj gains Rs.15.What is gain percentage? A) 15% B) 12.66% C) 300 /17% D) 17 % 27) If loss is 1/3 of selling price, what is the loss? A) 16.66 B) 20 C) 25 D) 33.33 28) Cost of 12 books equal to the selling price of 8 books. What is gain %? A) 25 B) 33.33 C) 50 D) 66.66 29) RAJ sold two items for 308 each. On one he got a gain of 12% and on the second he got a loss of 12%. What is the profit / loss percentage? A) No loss B) - 36/25 % C) + 36 /25 % D) +72 /25% 30) A book marked at Rs.80 sold for Rs.68. What is discount rate? A) 12 B) 15 C) 20 D) None 31) Find the value of X, in X+ 1X + 2X + X3 + X1 = 21X A) 4 B) 6 C) 8 D) 9 E) 5 32) 106* 106 + 94*94 = A) 20032 B) 20072 C) 21032 D) 23032 33) When a number divided by 899 gives reminder 63. if the same number is divided by 29, what will be the reminder? A) 3 B) 4 C) 5 D) 10 34) Which one is greatest? A) 7 / 8 B) 13 /16 C) 31 / 40 D) 63 / 80 35) Which one is correct 101 + ( 27 / 10000) = A) 0.01027 B) 0.10127 C) 101.00027 D) 101.000027 36) Which one is smallest in? A) 13 /16, B) 15 / 19, C) 17 / 21 D) 7 / 8 37) Fins the value of Y in ( 128 16 * y 7 * 2) / (7 8*6 + y) = 1 A) 3 B) 14 C) 16 D) 17 E) 18 38) A team won three matches more than they lost. Win = 2, loss = 1 point. How many matches they play to score 23 points? A) 17 B) 20 C) 37 D) 40 39) Total of 324 coins of 20 ps & 25 Ps. Sum equal to Rs.71. How many 25 ps coins? A) 120 B) 144 C) 124 D) 200 40) Two tables and three chairs cost 3500. Three table and two chairs cost 4000 How much table cost?

15

BANK EXAMS COACHING CENTER E Mail: tnsmani@gmail.com By T.N.Subramaniyan (Retd Bank Manager) 8893495638 A) 1500 B) 1000 C) 750 D) 500 41) Two pants and five shirts cost 1600. With the same he can buy only one pant and Six shirts. What is the cost of 12 shirts? A) 1200 B) 2400 C) data not adequate d) None 42) 53824 = A) 202 B) 232 C) 242 D) 332 ________________________________ 43) 10 + [25 + {108 + (154+225)}] = A) 4 B) 6 C) 8 D) 10 44) [(625) / 11) *(14 /25) * (11/ 196) ] A) 6 B) 5 C) 8 D) 11 45) Find the value of X, (x/ 128) = (162 / x) A) 12 B) 14 C) 144 D) 196 ______ 46) (X/169) = 54 /39 Find the value of X A) 108 B) 324 C) 2916 D) 4800 47) Simplify [3 (1/3)] = A) 3/ 4 B) 4 /3 C) 4 / 3 D) None 48) (7 +5 / (7 - 5) = A) 1 B) 2 C) 6 - 35 D) 6 + 35 ____________ 49) (3 (4 + (12/125) = A) 5/3 B) 8 / 5 C) 9 /5 D) 12 / 5 50) Mean of 50 entries was 36, An entry for 48 was taken as 23 What is the correct mean? A) 36 B) 36.2 C) 36.4 D) 36.5 51) Average weight of A, B & C is 45 A & B is 40, B & C is 43. Then what is the weight B? A) 17 B) 20 C) 26 D) 31 52) 3 Years ago average is A & B is 18. Now c is joining the average is 22. What is The age of C? A) 24 B) 27 C) 28 D) 30 53) Total students 600. The average of boys is 12/ Girls average is 11. Average of all 11.75. How many girls are there? A) 150 B) 250 C) 200 D) 300 54) If one third of the one fourth of a number is 15. Then three tenth of that number is? A) 35 B) 54 C) 36 D) 45 55) X & Y are 4:3 now. After six years X will be 26. What is the age of Y? A) 12 B) 15 C) 20 D) 21 56) Which one is not Prime Number? A) 241 B) 337 C) 391 D) 571 57) 360 * 17 = A) 5120 B) 5320 C) 6120 D) 6130 58) A number Q divided by 119 reminder is 19. If it is divided by 17 then, What is the reminder? A) 3 B) 2 C) 7 D) 10 59) The difference between two numbers is 1365. If the larger number divided by smaller, Quotient is 6 and reminder is 15, then what is the smaller number? A) 270 B) 295 C) 240 D) 300

16

BANK EXAMS COACHING CENTER E Mail: tnsmani@gmail.com By T.N.Subramaniyan (Retd Bank Manager) 8893495638

60) 4 61 + 4 62 + 4 63 + 4 64 is divisible by A) 3 B) 10 C) 11 D) 13 61) The least number of five digits which is exactly divisible by 12, 15, & 18 is A) 10020 B) 10015 C) 10080 D) 10010 62) Which fraction lies between 3 /4 & 5 / 6? A) 1 /2 B) 2 /3 C) 9 /10 D) 4 /5 63) [8(3.75) + 1] / (7.5 - 6.5) = A) 9 B) 2.75 C) 8.5 D) 4.75 64) 100 * 10 - 100 + 2000 100 = A) 780 B) 29 C) 920 D) 979 65) How many 1 / 8 s are there in 37 A) 300 B) 400 C) 500 D) 600 66) A/B = 4 /5, B/C = 15 /16 then (C - A) / (C+A) = A) 1 /7 B) 7 /25 C) 3 /4 D) 1 th 67) A got 1 / 3, B got 2 / 5 of the reminder. The rest divided by C & D equally. What is the portion of D? A) 1 /4 B) 1 / 6 C) 1 / 5 D) 1 / 7 68) If y = 5 then what is the value of 10y ( y - y ) A) 50 2 B) 100 C) 200 5 D) 500 __________ 69) 3A = 4B = 6C, A + B+ C = 27 29 then (a + b+c) A) 29 B) 81 C) 87 D) 89 70) The average of 20 numbers is Zero. How many may be greater than Zero? A) 9 B) 19 C) 10 D) 1 71) The average of 2 7 6 & X is 5, average of 1 6 - X Y 18 is 10. What is the value of Y? A) 20 B) 30 C) 10 D) 5 72) Sum of two numbers is 25; difference is 13, what is their product? A) 104 B) 114 C) 315 D) 325 73) The sum of three numbers is 136. The ratio of one & two is 2:3. Two and three is 5:3. what is the second number? A) 40 B) 48 C) 60 D) 72 74) In 10 years A is twice older as B was 10 years ago. If A is 9 years older than B, what is the age A? A) 19 B) 49 C) 29 D) 39 75) 2X = 3Y = 6 -Z, then (1 / X + 1 /Y + 1 / Z) = A) 0 B) 1 C) 3 / 2 D) 2/3 76) If 120 is 20% of a number, then 120% of that number is? A) 20 B) 120 C) 360 D) 720 77) 20% of votes are invalid. A got 55% of the valid votes. Total votes 7500. How much B got? A) 2700 B) 2900 C) 3000 D) 3100 78) If 20% of A = B and 40% of B = C then 60% of (A + B) = How much of C? A) 30% B) 60% C) 75% D) None 79) Class average is 80. 10% of students scored 95, 20% scored 90. What is the Of average remaining students? A) 65 B) 72 C) 75 D) 85

17

BANK EXAMS COACHING CENTER E Mail: tnsmani@gmail.com By T.N.Subramaniyan (Retd Bank Manager) 8893495638 80) Selling price of 45 lemons for rs.40. His loss is 20%. How many should he sell for? Rs. 24 to gain 20%? A) 16 B) 18 C) 20 D) 2 81 TO 86 F is in the middle of D & C. B&C are adjustant. A is not adjustant to C or B. D is not adjustant to C or E. The arrangement is Hexagon. 81) Which are not correct neighbors? A) A&F B) D & F C) B & E D) C & F 82) Who is at the same distance, from D as E is from D? A) B B) C C) D D) F 83) Which of the following is in the right sequence? A) AFB B) FAE C) BCF D) DAB 84) D is neighbour of A, who is the other? A) B B) E C) F D) C 85) Who is opposite to E? A) B (B) C (C) D (D) F 86) If A is to the south of B, B is west of C, and then in what direction A is to C? A) NW B) NE C) SE D) SW 87) In a game of bridge A B, C D are partners. D is facing north. A is facing west. Who faces south? A) B (B) D C) C D) None 88) Ram was standing in front of a pole by 7 am. Shadow of the pole fall exactly to His right. Which direction he is facing? A) North B) South C) East D) West 89) Which letter is midway between G & Q? A) K B) L C) M D) N 90) Which will be the same number for K in the reverse order? A) T B) U C) S D) R 91) What is the letter for prime number 71 in the reverse order Z to A? A) U B) V C) T D) W 92) Which word cannot be framed from ARTICULAES? A) LATER B) ATRICLE C) COURT D) ELECTRIC 93) How many numbers 9 to 54 are there which are divisible by 9 but not by 3? A) 8 B) 6 C) 5 D) None 94) How many numbers are there between 11 to 50 divisible by 7 but not by 3? A) 2 B) 5 C) 6 D) 7 E) 4 th 95) Ram ranks 18 from 49 students. What is his position from the last? A) 18 B) 19 C) 31 D) 32 96) 30. - 01- 2003 is Thursday. Then what is the day for 02 03 2003? A) Tuesday B) Sunday C) Saturday D) Monday 97) 18 -02 2005 is Friday. Then 18 02 2007 is? A) Sunday B) Monday C) Saturday D) Friday

98) In what ratio must water be mixed with milk costing Rs.12 per liter to obtain a mixture worth Rs.8 per liter?

18

BANK EXAMS COACHING CENTER E Mail: tnsmani@gmail.com By T.N.Subramaniyan (Retd Bank Manager) 8893495638 A) 1:2 B) 2:1 C) 2:3 D) 3:2 99) A lent Rs.5000 to B for 2 years, Rs.3000 to C for 4 years. Got interest Rs.2200 What is the rate of Simple Interest? A) 5 B) 7 C) 7.5 D) 10 100) A borrows Rs.12500 @ 20% compound interest. At the end of each year he is paying Rs. 2000. What is due at the end of third year? A) 12000 B) 12864 C) 15600 D) None

1 C 2 1 B 4 1 D 6 1 C 8 1 A

2 A 2 2 B 4 2 B 6 2 D 8 2 B

3 B 2 3 A 4 3 A 6 3 C 8 3 C

4 D 2 4 A 4 4 B 6 4 C 8 4 C

5 A 2 5 B 4 5 A 6 5 A 8 5 D

6 C 2 6 C 4 6 B 6 6 B 8 6 D

7 A 2 7 C 4 7 C 6 7 C 8 7 C

8 B 2 8 C 4 8 D 6 8 D 8 8 D

9 D 2 9 B 4 9 B 6 9 C 8 9 B

1 0 D 3 0 B 5 0 D 7 0 B 9 0 C

1 1 C 3 1 C 5 1 D 7 1 A 9 1 A

12 C 32 B 52 A 72 B 92 C

1 3 B 3 3 C 5 3 A 7 3 C 9 3 D

1 4 D 3 4 A 5 4 B 7 4 D 9 4 E

1 5 C 3 5 C 5 5 B 7 5 A 9 5 D

1 6 C 3 6 B 5 6 C 7 6 D 9 6 D

1 7 B 3 7 A 5 7 C 7 7 A 9 7 A

1 8 B 3 8 C 5 8 B 7 8 D 9 8 A

1 9 C 3 9 C 5 9 A 7 9 C 9 9 D

20 C 40 B 60 B 80 B 100 D

19

BANK EXAMS COACHING CENTER E Mail: tnsmani@gmail.com By T.N.Subramaniyan (Retd Bank Manager) 8893495638 Test No: 4 01) The sum of three Prime numbers is 100. If one of them exceeds another by 36, Then one of the numbers is: A) 7 B) 29 C) 41 D) 67 02) The number of prime factors of (3*5) 12 * (2*7) 10 * 10 2 = A) 47 B) 60 C) 72 D) NONE 03) When a number divided by 119, leaves reminder 19. Same number divided By 17 what will be the reminder? A) 2 B) 3 C) 7 D) 10 04) The greatest number that exactly divides 105 1001 - & 2436 A) 3 B) 7 C) 11 D) 21 05) The least number added to 2497 so that divisible by 3 4 5 & 6 A) 3 B) 13 C) 23 D) 33 06) 337.62 + 8.591 + 34.4 = A) 370.611 B) 380.511 C) 380.611 D) 426.97 ___ 07) When 0. 23 is converted into fraction result is A) 1 / 5 B) 2 / 9 C) 23 / 99 D) 23 / 100 08) The value of (3.6* 0.48 * 2.50) / (0.12 * 0.09 * 0.5) = A) 80 B) 800 C) 8000 D) 80000 09) {(2.3) - 0.27} / {(2.3) + 0.69 + 0.09} = A) 0 B) 1.6 C) 2 D) 3.4 10) {(6+6+6+6) /6}/ {(4+4+4+ 4 /4} = A) 1 B) 3 / 2 C) 4 / 13 D) 45 /13 11) 5 {5 X /6) } = 2 then X = A) 2 B) 3 C) 4 D) None 12) 16/3 - 11/3 4 / 3 x + 16/5 6 /5 =7 find the value of x A) 3 /2 B) 7 / 3 C) 13 / 4 D) N0ne 13) If (a b) is six more than (c+d) and (a + b) is three less than (c -d) then (a-c) A) 0.5 B) 1 C) 1.5 D) None 14) If 4x +5y = 83, 3x / 2y = 21 / 22 then y x = A) 3 B) 4 C) 7 D) 11 ______________ 15) If {(x 1) (y + 2)} = 7, x and y positive integers. Then what is x & y? A) 8 5, B) 15 12 C) 22 19 D) None 16) The average of 36 students age is 14. When teachers age is added the average Raised by 1, what is the age of the teacher? A) 31 B) 36 C) 51 D) 45 17) The difference between a number and its three fifth is 50. What is the number? A) 75 B) 100 C) 125 D) 150 18) The sum of number is 40, difference is 4. What is their ratio? A) 11:9 B) 11:18 C) 21:19 D) 22:9 19) The sum of three consecutive numbers is 87. What is the lowest number? A) 26 B) 28 C) 29 D) 30 20) The sum of the squares of three consecutive numbers is 2030. What is the middle Number? A) 25 B) 26 C) 27 D) 28 21) The ratio of fathers age to son is 7:3 Product is 756.What is the ratio after 6 years?

20

BANK EXAMS COACHING CENTER E Mail: tnsmani@gmail.com By T.N.Subramaniyan (Retd Bank Manager) 8893495638 A) 5:2 B) 2:1 C) 11:7 D) 13:9 22) 30% voted for A, 60% of the remaining voted for B, Remaining not cast their votes. Difference between A and not casted is 1200. What are the total votes? A) 10000 B) 45000 C) 60000 D) 72000 23) A number is increased by 20% again by 20%. To reach the original level How much to be reduced? A) 19 11/31% B) 30 5 /9 % C) 40% D) 44% 24) If the cost price of 12 pens is equal to the selling price of 8 pens. The gain % is A) 25 B) 33.33 C) 50 D) 66.66 25) A bag marked at Rs.80 is sold for Rs.68. The rate of discount is A) 12 B) 15 C) 17 11/17 D) 20 26) A shopkeeper sells 25 articles at Rs.45 per article, after giving 10% discount and earns 50% profit. If the discount is not given the profit of gain is A) 60 B) 60.66 C) 66 D) 66.66 27) Raj bought an item at 20 % discounts on its original price. He sold it with 40% increase. The new sale price is how much % up to the original price? A) 8 B) 9 C) 10 D) 11 E) 12 28) A B C & D, invested @ 4:3: 2:1 ratio during the month of 10 07 04 01. Now what is their profit sharing ratio? A) 4:3:2:1 B) 4:6:6:4 C) 1:2:3:4 D) 1:6:6:4 29) Cost of 16 pockets of salt, each weighing 900 gms, is Rs.28 What will be the cost of 27 pockets of 1000 gms each? A) 52.50 B) 56 C) 58.50 D) 64.75 30) A & B can do a work in 8 days, B & C in 12 days, A, B & C in 6 days. Then how many days B & C will jointly finish the work? A) 4 B) 6 C) 8 D) 12 31) A+ B + C can do a work in 10 days. A let after 4 days. Then B & C worked together for 10 days to complete. How many days required for A alone to finish the work? A) 15 B) 16 C) 25 D) 50 32) Two men start together to cover a certain distance. One with 3kmph and another at 3.75 kmph. First arrived 30 minutes later. What is the distance? A) 6 B) 7.5 C) 8 D) 9.5 33) A train of 240 meter long passed a pole in 24 sec. How much time it required to cross - a platform of 650 meter long? A) 65 Sec B) 89 Sec C) 100 Sec D) 150 Sec 34) What should be the maximum value in 5A9 7B2 + 9C6 = 823 A) 5 B) 6 C) 7 D) 9 35) Find the value of X in 6X43 46Y9 = 1904 A) 4 B) 6 C) 5 D) 9 36) (O.64- 0.54) / (0.6 + 0.5) = A) 0.1 B) 0.11 C) 1.1 D) 11 37) (0.06 + 0.47 + 0.79) / (0.006 + 0.047 + 0.007) = A) 0.01 B) 10 C) 100 D) 1000 38) {4 + 4 * 18 - 6 8 } / { 123* 6 - 146*5} = A) 1 B) 2 C) 6.65 D) 7.75 39) 5/6 * 6 / 7 * Q 8 /9 8 / 5 + 3 /2 * 10 /3 THEN Q = A) 7 /6 B) 6 / 7 C) 1 D) None

21

BANK EXAMS COACHING CENTER E Mail: tnsmani@gmail.com By T.N.Subramaniyan (Retd Bank Manager) 8893495638 40) (P + Q) / (P Q) =? If P / Q = 7 A) 1 / 3 B) 2 / 3 C) 4 / 3 D) 7 / 8 41) 1 + 1/4*3 + 1/ 4* 3 + 1/ 4* 3 = A) 121 / 108 B) 3 /2 C) 31 /2 D) None 42) {(469 + 174) - (469 174)} / 469 * 174 = A) 2 B) 4 C) 295 D) 643 43) A+B +C = 69 A + B+ C = 13 then AB +BC + CA = ? A) -50 B) 50 C) 69 D) 75 44) (18*14* Q) = 84 then Q = A) 22 B) 24 C) 28 D) 32 45) 5 = 2.2361. 3 = 1.7321 then 1 / (5 - 3) = A) 1.98 B) 1.982 C) 1.9841 D) 2 46) The average of six numbers is X. Three numbers are Y. Remaining three Numbers are Z then, A) X = Y + Z B) 2X = Y + Z C) X = 2Y + 2Z D) None 47) Average income of P & Q is 5050, Q & R is 6250, P & R is 5200 what is P? A) 3500 B) 4000 C) 4050 D) 5000 48) Two numbers are in 4:7ratio. 4 added to each then the ratio is 3:5. What is the first number? A) 36 B) 48 C) 56 D) 64 49) Father is 24 older than son. After 2 years he is twice of his son. What is the age of the father now? A) 44 B) 46 C) 48 D) 50 50) 3 (X - Y) = 27 3 (X + Y) = 243 then the value of X = A) 0 B) 2 C) 4 D) 6 51) 5 (X+3) = 25 (3X 4) then X = A) 5 /11 B) 11 / 5 C) 11 / 3 D) 13 / 5 52) A sold a TV for 9595 after allowing 5% discount. What is marked price? A) 10000 B) 10075 C) 10100 D) 9115 53) If x% of y = z what percent of z is x? A) Y /1000 B) Y / 10000 C) 100 / Y D) 10000 / Y 54) Plot sold for Rs.18700, loss is 15%. If he has to get 15% profit, What is the sale price? A) 21000 B) 22500 C) 25300 D) 25800 55) A:B:C are in the ratio of 2:4:3,cost at Rs.50 20 30 per kg respectively. If he sells at Rs.33 per kg what is the profit percentage? A) 8 B) 9 C) 10 D) None 56) A pair of articles bought for Rs.37400, allowed a discount of 15% What is the marked price of one? A) 11 B) 22 C) 33 D) 44 57) The ratio of three numbers is 3:4:5. Sum of the square is 1250. The sum of the numbers is A) 30 B) 50 C) 60 D) 90

58) A invests one sixth of capital for two months B one third for four months. C invests the balance for 12 months. What is Bs share of profit in Rs.40000?

22

BANK EXAMS COACHING CENTER E Mail: tnsmani@gmail.com By T.N.Subramaniyan (Retd Bank Manager) 8893495638 A) 6500 B) 8000 C) 9600 D) 10000

59) There is meal for 120 men OR 200 Children. 150 children took their meals. With the balance how many men can be served? A) 20 B) 30 C) 40 D0 50 60) A & B are doing a work. If A alone means he requires 8 hours extra and B alone means 4.5 hours extra do this. If they work together, how many hours? A) 4 B) 5 C) 6 D) 7 61) A sum becomes 9800 after 5 years and 12005 after8 years. What is the rate of interest at simple interest? A) 5 B) 8 C) 12 D) 15 62) A sum of Rs.12000 deposited doubled in 5 years. Then what will be the amount - after 20 years? A) 96000 B) 120000 C) 124000 D) 192000 63) The length of a rectangle increased by 60%. To what percentage the breadth - to be reduced to maintain the same area? A) 37.5 B) 60 C) 75 D) 120 64) What is the percentage of area to circumference of a circle with radius 5 cm? A) 200 B) 225 C) 240 D) 250 65) The perimeter of a circle and rectangle are same. The sides of the rectangle is 18 & 26 cm. What is the area of the circle in cm? A) 88 B) 154 C) 166 D) 616 66) Prime factor of the following : (3*5) 12 (2*7)10 (10) 25 = A) 47 B) 60 C) 72 D) None 67) Which one is divisible by all prime numbers from 1 to 17? A) 345345 B) 440440 C) 510510 D) 515513 68) Find the number nearest to 457 divisible by 11? A) 450 B) 451 C) 460 D) 462 69) The greatest number that exactly divide 105 1001 2436 A) 3 B) 7 C) 11 D) 21 70) The least number when divided by 12 15 20 and 54 leaves reminder 8 ? A) 504 B) 536 C) 544 D) 548 71) (1 / 0.04) = A) 1 / 40 B) 2 / 5 C) 2.5 D) 25 72) (36.54 2 3.46 2) / X = 40. Find the value of x A) 3.308 B) 4 C) 33.08 D) 330.08 73) 3/ 5 of 4/ 7 of 5 / 9 of 21 / 24 of 504 = A) 63 B) 69 C) 96 D) 109 E) NONE 74) (11/4) (8/3) (13/12) = A) 39 /48 B) 5 / 4 C) 169 / 144 D) None 75) If x / y = 4 / 5 then (4/7) + {(2y x) / (2y + X)} = A) 3 / 7 B) 1 C) 8 / 7 D) 2 76) What fraction of an hour is a second? A) 1 / 60 B) 1 / 24 C) 1 / 120 D) 1 / 3600 77) (X + Y + Z) - 64 / (XY YZ ZX) = -2 , & X + Y = 3Z, What is Z A) 2 B) 3 C) 4 D) None 78) 50 * 98 =

23

BANK EXAMS COACHING CENTER E Mail: tnsmani@gmail.com By T.N.Subramaniyan (Retd Bank Manager) 8893495638 A) 63.75 B) 65.95 C) 70 D) 70.25 79) (5+ 23) / (7+ 43) = A + B3 A) - 11 & 6 B) - 11 & 6 C) 11 & -6 D) 6 & 11 80) The largest four digit number which is perfect cube is? A) 8000 B) 9261 C) 9999 D) NONE 81) If A, B, C, D & E are consecutive odd numbers, their average is A) 5(A+B) B) ABCDE /5 C) 5(A+B+C+D+E) D) A + 4 82) Sum of two numbers is 22. Five times of one number is equal to six times of the Second number. What are they? A) 12 10 B) 8 14 C) 6 16 D) 8 14 83) Sum of two numbers is 22. Sum of their square is 404. Then their product is? A) 40 B) 44 C) 80 D) 88 x 84) 49*49*49*49 = 7 then X = A) 4 B) 7 C) 8 D) 16 (X-1) (X 3) 85) (a / b) = (b / a) then X= A) 1 /2 B) 1 C) 2 D) 7 /2 X Y Z 86) 2 = 4 = 8 and (1 /2X + 1 /4Y + 1 / 6Z) = 24 / 7, then Z = A) 7 / 16 B) 7 / 32 C) 7 /48 D) 7 /64 87) 35% of number is 12 less than 50% of the number. Then what is the number? A) 40 B) 50 C) 60 D) 80 88) 8% of X = 4% of Y, then 20% of X = A) 10% of Y B) 16% of Y C) 80% of Y D) None 89) The ratio of the cost price and selling price is 4:5. Then the profit percentage is A) 10% B) 20% C) 25% D) 30% 90) A bought 6 books for Rs.100. How many he has to sell for Rs.100 to get a gain 20% A) 3 B) 4 C) 5 D) 6 91) If the ratio is 3:4 antecedent is 12. What is the consequent? A) 9 B) 16 C) 20 D) 24 92) Which is the following is greatest? A) 7:5 B) 15:23 C) 17:25 D) 21:29 93) The compounded ratio of 2:3, 6:11, and 11:2 is A) 1:2 B) 2:1 C) 11:24 D) 36:121 94) ABCs total is 50000. A > B by 4000 If Rs.35000 is the profit, how much A receive? A) 8400 B) 11900 C) 13600 D) 14700 95) A contributes one fourth of the capital for 15 Months, B received two third of the Profit. How many months Bs money used? A) 6 B) 9 C) 10 D) 12 96) A completes 5/8th work in 10 days. How many days he requires to finish the - remaining work? A) 5 B) 6 C) 7 D) 7.5 97) 2 men and 7 boys can do a work in 14 days. 3 m3n & 8 boys do the same in 11 days. Then 8 men & 6 boys can do thrice the work in how many days? A) 18 B) 21 C) 24 D) 30 98) A can finish a work in 18 days, B in 15 days. B worked for 10 days and left. How many days required for A to finish the balance work? A) 5 B) 5.5 C) 6 D) 8 99) Men, women, boys can do a work in 3 4 12 days. How many boys to assist one

24

BANK EXAMS COACHING CENTER E Mail: tnsmani@gmail.com By T.N.Subramaniyan (Retd Bank Manager) 8893495638 Man and one woman to finish one fourth of the job? A) 1 B) 4 C) 19 D)

41

100) Two pipes A & B can fill the tank in 6 Hrs & 4 Hrs, opened for alternate hours. How much time it will require to fill the tank? A) 4 B) 4.5 C) 5 D) 5.5

1 D 2 1 B 4 1 A 6 1 C 8 1 D

2 D 2 2 C 4 2 B 6 2 D 8 2 A

3 A 2 3 D 4 3 B 6 3 A 8 3 A

4 B 2 4 C 4 4 C 6 4 B 8 4 C

5 C 2 5 B 4 5 C 6 5 C 8 5 C

6 C 2 6 D 4 6 B 6 6 D 8 6 C

7 C 2 7 E 4 7 B 6 7 C 8 7 D

8 B 2 8 B 4 8 C 6 8 D 8 8 A

9 C 2 9 A 4 9 B 6 9 B 8 9 C

1 0 C 3 0 C 5 0 C 7 0 D 9 0 C

1 1 A 3 1 C 5 1 B 7 1 D 9 1 B

1 2 D 3 2 B 5 2 B 7 2 C 9 2 A

1 3 C 3 3 B 5 3 B 7 3 E 9 3 B

1 4 B 3 4 C 5 4 A 7 4 D 9 4 D

1 5 A 3 5 C 5 5 C 7 5 B 9 5 C

1 6 C 3 6 B 5 6 D 7 6 D 9 6 B

1 7 C 3 7 C 5 7 A 7 7 C 9 7 B

1 8 A 3 8 D 5 8 D 7 8 C 9 8 C

1 9 B 3 9 B 5 9 B 7 9 C 9 9 D

20 B 40 C 60 B 80 B 100 C

25

BANK EXAMS COACHING CENTER E Mail: tnsmani@gmail.com By T.N.Subramaniyan (Retd Bank Manager) 8893495638

TEST NO: 5 01) A rectangular plot is half as long against is breadth. Area = 2/3 hectares What is the length? A) 100M B) 33.33M C) 66.66 M D) None 02) The diagonal of a rectangle is 41 cm Area is 20 sq.cm Then the perimeter is A) 9 CM B) 18 CM C) 20 CM D) 41 CM 03) A towel when bleached lost 20% of length and 10% of breadth. The percentage of area lost is? A) 10 B) 10.08 C) 20 D) 28 04) The area of the square increased by 69%. Then the side increased by? A) 13% B) 30% C) 39% D) 69% 05) The three sides of a triangle are 5 12 13 cm. Then the area is? A) 103 B) 10 6 C) 20 D) 30 (in cm) 06) The side of an equilateral triangle decreased by 20%. Then the area is decreased by A) 36% B) 40% C) 60% D) 6% 07) The area of a circle of radius 5, is numerically what percent of its circumference? A) 200 B) 225 C) 240 D) 250 08) The perimeter of a circle is equal to perimeter of a square. Then the areas ratio is A) 4:1 B) 11:7 C) 14:11 D) 22:7 09) The radius of circle increased by 6%. Then the area is increased by A) 6 B) 12 C) 12.36 D) 16.64 10) In a 100 meter race A can give 10 points to B and to C 28 points. How much B to C? A) 18 B) 20 C) 27 D) 9 11) What is the day of 15 08 1947? A) MONDAY B) SUNDAY C) SATURDAY D) FRIDAY 12) How many times in a day the hands at right angle? A) 20 B) 22 C) 44 D) 48 13) How many times the hands coincide in a day? A) 22 B) 21 C) 22 D) 24 14) How many times hands of clock in straight line in a day? A) 22 B) 24 C) 44 D) 48 15) A is tall 1.6 m, is 203 away from a tower. The angle from his eyes is 30 degree What is the height of the tower? A) 21.6 B) 23.2 C) 24.72 D) None 16) [4 625 + 4 256] = A) 3 B) 9 C) 27 D) 81 17) [3 343 + 3 216] = A) 189 B) 179 18) 3 8000 + 3 125 = A) 25 B) 20 C) C) 169 15 D) D) 511 D) 144 35 D) DAI 601

19) ABE + CHE + A = A) 301 B) 401 C) 20) Y W V + B D F = A) D I A B) W R A C) WAR

26

BANK EXAMS COACHING CENTER E Mail: tnsmani@gmail.com By T.N.Subramaniyan (Retd Bank Manager) 8893495638

21) A man covers three fifth by rail, 17 /20 by bus, the remaining by foot with 6.5 kmph What is the distance he covered? A) 65 B) 100 C) 120 D) 130 22) A train of 108 meter long moving with speed of 50 kmph, crosses a train 112 meter - long coming in opposite direction in 6 seconds. What is the speed of second train? A) 48 B) 54 C) 66 D) 82 23) A merchant has 1000 kg sugar. Part he sold at 8% profit rest at 18% profit. Final gain 14%. How much he sold at 18% profit? A) 400 B) 560 C) 600 D) 640 24) Total investment Rs.100000 in two shares. First yield 9% and 2nd yield 11% Total gain = 9.75 %. What is his investment on each? A) 52500 47500 B) 62500 37500 C) 72500 27500 D) None 25) A room is 15 feet and 12 feet long and breadth, a mat has to be placed leaving 1.5 feet from the wall @Rs.3.50 per sq.ft. What is the cost of mat? A) 378 B) 472.5 C) 496 D) 630 26) The sum of the age of father and son is 60. Six years age father is 5 times of son. After 6 years what is the age of the son? A) 12 B) 14 C) 18 D) 20 X1 X3 27) (A/B) = (B / A) then X = A) 1 /2 B) 1 C) 2 D) 7 /2 2n 1 (n 3) 28) 2 = 1/8 then n = A) 3 B) 2 C) 0 D) -2 29) 8% of X = 4% of Y, 20% then of X = A) 10% OF Y, B) 16% of Y c) 80% of Y D) None 30) A bought a TV for Rs.4700, spends Rs.800 for repair. Sold it for Rs.5800 What is the percentage of gain? A) 32 /7 % B) 60 / 11 % C) 10 % D) 12% 31) A sold two items for Rs.100. one with 5% gain and other with 5% loss. What is the position? A) .25% LOSS b) .25 % GAIN C) No loss / gain D) 2.5% loss 32) Rs. 782 is divided into 1 /2, 2 / 3 & 3 /4. Then what is the first one got? A) 182 B) 1090 C) 196 D) 204 33) Rs.1210 divided for A B & C so that A: B = 5:4, B: C = 9:10. How much C got? A) 340 B) 400 C) 450 D) 475 34) A: B =4:3, B got Rs.4800. What is the total amount? A) 6400 B) 19200 C) 11200 D) 15200 35) 18 Binders bind 900 books in 10 days. How many binders required to bind 660 books in 12 days? A) 22 B) 14 C) 13 D) 11 36) 30 Men employed to do a work in 38 days. After 25 days 5 more men added and finished the work one day earlier. How many days he would have been behind if he had not employed the extra? A) 1 B) 5 /4 C) 7 /4 D) 3 /2 37) A B & C can do a work in 36 54 72 days respectively. They started together, but A left before 8 days and b left 12 days before. How many days require by C to finish

27

BANK EXAMS COACHING CENTER E Mail: tnsmani@gmail.com By T.N.Subramaniyan (Retd Bank Manager) 8893495638 the balance work? A) 4 B) 8 C) 12 D) 24 38) A man travels first 16o at 64 kmph, next 160 km @ 80 kmph. What is his average? A) 35.55 B) 36 C) 71.11 D) 72 39) Length of a rectangle reduced by 50% and the breadth increased by three times. What is the percentage of change in the area? A) 25 B) 50 C) - 50 D) -75 40) What will be the area of a semi circle whose perimeter is 36 cm? A) 154 B) 168 C) 76 D) None A B C D 41) 18 20 24 30 X 38 32 36 None 42) 43) 2 6 10 50 56 3 7 11 15 - X 63 21 100 20 392 19 None 22

44) (1 + 2 +3+ 4 + + 10) = 385, then the value of (2 + 3 + 4 + + 20) ? A) 770 B) 1155 C) 1540 D) 385 45) Which number is divisible by 99? A) 114345 B) 135792 C) 913464 D) 3572404 46) The largest natural number which exactly divides the product of any four Consecutive natural numbers is A) 6 B) 24 C) 48 D) 120 47) The difference between squares of two consecutive odd integer is always divisible by A) 3 B) 6 C) 7 D) 8 48) Find the number nearest to 457 and exactly divisible by 11? A) 450 B) 451 C) 460 D) 462 61 62 63 64 49) 4 + 4 + 4 + 4 is divisible by A) 3 B) 10 C) 11 D) 13 50) If X is a whole number then X (X - 1) is divisible by A) 12 B) 24 C) 12 X D) MULTIPLE BY 12 51) If X & Y are two digit of 653XY but divisible by 80 then X + Y = A) 2 B) 3 C) 4 D) 6 52) What is the least value of Y in 63576y2 divisible by 8? A) 7 B) 4 C) 3 D) 0 53) Six bells commencing tolling together and there after toll at intervals of 2 4 8 10 12 seconds respectively. When they will toll together? A) 30 B) 80 C) 100 D) 120 54) {8( 3 75) +1 } / (7.5 - 6.5) = A) 9 /5 B) 2.75 C) 4.75 D) 8.5 5 55) 2 X 9 is arrived as 2592 by Raj. What is the difference? A) 2X9 B) 2 X 9 C) 0 D) 2X 9 4

56) Average of ten innings is 38.9. The average of first six innings is 42. What is the average of the remaining four?

28

BANK EXAMS COACHING CENTER E Mail: tnsmani@gmail.com By T.N.Subramaniyan (Retd Bank Manager) 8893495638 A) 33.25 B) 33.5 C) 34.25 D) 35

57) If 20% of A = b, & 40% of B = C then 60% of A + B = A) 30% of C B) 60% of C C) 75% of C D) None 58) If total 60% had vegetarian and 30% are non vegetarian and 15% had both. If 96 people were present how many did not eat either type? A) 20 B) 24 C) 26 D) 28 59) 72% took coffee, 44% took tea. If each of them took tea or coffee and 40% like both How many people are there? A) 200 B) 240 C) 250 D) 320 60) Due to increase of 30% in price, 3 eggs less are available for Rs.7.80. How much a dozen cost? A) 8.64 B) 8.88 C) 9.36 D) 10.40 61) Cost price = 1200. He offered a discount of 20% on marked price, but gains 25% What is the marked price? A) 1675 B) 1875 C) 1900 D) 2025 62) 60 kg of A mixed with 100 kg of B. In A lea: Tin is 3:2 & in b Tin: Copper is 1:4. Then how much tin in the new alloy? A) 36 B) 44 C) 53 D) 80 63) A & B invested in 3:5 ratios. C invested equal to B after 6 months. What is the new ratio? A) 3:5:2 B) 3:5:5 C) 3:5:10 D) None 64) 6 machines can produce 270 bottles in a minute. At the same rate, 10 machine in four Minutes can produce how much? A) 648 B) 1800 C) 2700 D) 10800 65) The cost of carpeting a room 18 m long with a carpet of 75 cm wide at Rs.4.50 per meter is Rs.810. What is the breadth of the room? A) 7M B) 7.5 M C) 8 M D) 8.5 M 66) The cost of the paint is Rs.36.50 per kg. If one kg of paint can cover 16 sq.feet, How much it will cost to paint outside of a cable having 8 feet each side? A) 692 B) 768 C) 876 D) 972 67) The sum of four even consecutive numbers are 1284. What is the greatest? A) 318 B) 320 C) 322 D 324 68) The product of two fractions is 14 /15 and their quotient is 35 / 24 What is the greatest fraction? A) 4 / 5 B) 7 / 6 C) 7/4 D) 7 / 3 3 4 69) The largest of 2 3 4 is A) 2 B) 3 C) 4 4 D) All are equal 70) Price of rice increased by 20%, A reduces his consumption by 20%. How many his expenses in percentage of term? A) - 2% B) +2% C) +4% D) 4% 71) A bought some items at the rate of 16 for Rs.24 and sold them at the rate of 8 for Rs.18. What is the profit percentage A) 25 B) 40 C) 50 D) None 72) A invested Rs.21000, B invested Rs.36000. But divided the profit equally.

29

BANK EXAMS COACHING CENTER E Mail: tnsmani@gmail.com By T.N.Subramaniyan (Retd Bank Manager) 8893495638 Then how many months after A joins? A) 3 B) 4 C) 5 D) 7 73) 20 Men can do one third of a work in 20 days. In how many days 25 men can do the same? A) None B) 12 C) 15 D) 20 74) A, B, C can do a work in 11, 20, 55 days respectively working alone. How many Days require if A is assisted by B & C alternate days? A) 7 B) 8 C) 9 D) 10 75) The least number of years at compound interest a sum will become double A) 5 B) 4 C) 6 D) 7 76) The areas of two concentric circles forming a ring are 154 sq.cm & 616 sq.cm What is the breadth of the ring in cm? A) 7 B) 14 C) 21 D) 28 77) A radius of a circle increased by 75%. Then the circumference increased by A) 25% B) 50% C) 75% D) 100% 78) Four cows are tethered at four corners of a square plot of side 63 meters, so that - they cannot reach other. The area left un-grassed is how much in sq.meter? A) 675.5 B) 780.6 C) 785.8 D) 850.5 79) A hemisphere and a cone have equal bases. If their heights are also equal then - the area of their curved surface will be A) 1:2 B) 2:1 C) 1: 2 D) 2:1 80) If both hands join, how many times it will be in two days? A) 48 B) 44 C) 24 D) 22 81) A bag contains 4 white, 5 red and 6 blue balls. Three balls are taken at random from - the bag. The probability that all of them are red is? A) 1 /22 B) 3 /22 C) 2 /91 D) 2 / 77 82) LOG 5 3 * LOG 3 625 = A) 1 B) 2 C) 3 D) D) 4 Monday

83) What is the day for 15 08 1947? A) Friday B) Saturday C) Sunday

84) How many 90 degrees between the hands in a clock for one day? A) 24 B) 22 C) 48 D) 44

85) If the radius of a circle increased by 100% how much time the area of big circle Than the small circle? A) 2 B) 3 C) 4 D) 8 86) If 3 m3n and 4 boys can do a work in 10 days. How many days required for Six men and eight boys to finish the same? A) 5 B) 20 C) 15 D) 16 87) A bus crossed a bridge of 440 meter in 22 seconds. What is the speed of the bus? A) 44 KMPH B) 48 KMPH C) 64 KMPH D) 72 KMPH 88) Three solid cubes of side 1 6 8 cm are melted to form a new cube. What is the side of the surface area?

30

BANK EXAMS COACHING CENTER E Mail: tnsmani@gmail.com By T.N.Subramaniyan (Retd Bank Manager) 8893495638 A) 486 B) 684 C) 729 D) 846 89) 5 = 2.236 then (5 2) 10 / 5 + 125 = A) 5.59 B) 7.826 C) 8.944 D0 10.062 90) a = 0.1039 then ( 4a 4a + 1 + 3a ) = A) 0.1039 B) 0.2078 C) 1.1039 D) 2.1039 91) Average of 35 students is 16. Average of 21 students is 14. What is the Average of remaining students? A) 15 B) 17 C) 18 D) 19 92) Three fourth of X is 60 more than one third of X. What is the value of X? A) 84 B) 108 C) 144 D) 100 93) Sum of A & B = 45 B & C = 55 THE sum of C and thrice A is 90. What is the value of C? A) 20 B) 25 C) 30 D) None 94) Raj multiplied a number by 3 /5 instead of 5/3. What is the percentage of error? A) 34 B) 44 C) 54 D) 64 95) A sold an item costing Rs.400 to b with 20% profit, B sold it with 10% profit to C What is the cost to C? A) 472 B) 476 C) 528 D) 532

1 A 2 1 D 4 1 A 6 1 B 8 1 C

2 B 2 2 D 4 2 C 6 2 B 8 2 D

3 D 2 3 C 4 3 C 6 3 D 8 3 A

4 B 2 4 B 4 4 C 6 4 B 8 4 D

5 D 2 5 A 4 5 A 6 5 B 8 5 C

6 A 2 6 D 4 6 B 6 6 C 8 6 A

7 D 2 7 C 4 7 D 6 7 D 8 7 D

8 C 2 8 B 4 8 D 6 8 B 8 8 C

9 C 2 9 A 4 9 B 6 9 C 8 9 B

1 0 B 3 0 B 5 0 A 7 0 D 9 0 C

1 1 D 3 1 A 5 1 A 7 1 C 9 1 D

1 2 C 3 2 D 5 2 C 7 2 C 9 2 C

1 3 C 3 3 B 5 3 D 7 3 A 9 3 C

1 4 C 3 4 C 5 4 D 7 4 B 9 4 D

1 5 A 3 5 D 5 5 C 7 5 A 9 5 C

1 6 D 3 6 A 5 6 C 7 6 A 9 6 *

1 7 C 3 7 D 5 7 D 7 7 C 9 7 *

1 8 A 3 8 C 5 8 B 7 8 D 9 8 *

1 9 C 3 9 B 5 9 C 7 9 D 9 9 *

20 A 40 A 60 C 80 B 100 *

31

BANK EXAMS COACHING CENTER E Mail: tnsmani@gmail.com By T.N.Subramaniyan (Retd Bank Manager) 8893495638

TEST NO: 6 01) The smallest number of five digit exactly divisible by 476 A) 10472 B) 10000 C) 10476 D) 10478 02) Number nearest to 99547 divisible by 687 A) 99479 B) 99928 C) 99615 D) 99999 03) Find the number which nearest to 457 divisible by 11 A) 450 B) 451 C) 460 D) 462 04) Which of the following number is exactly divisible by all prime numbers from 2 to 17? A) 345345 B) 440440 C) 510510 D) 515513 05) The difference between two numbers is 1365. When the larger number is divisible by the smallest, quotient is 6 & reminder is 15. What is the smaller number? A) 240 B) 270 C) 295 D) 360 06) The HCF of two numbers is 8. Which one of the fallowing can never be the LCM? A) 24 B) 48 C) 56 D) 60 07) Which one is the smallest? A) 13 / 16 B) 15 / 19 C) 17 /21 D 7 / 8 08) Which one of the following lie between 4 / 5 and 7 / 13? A) 1 /2 B) 2/3 C) 3 / 4 D) 5 / 7 09) 138.009 + 341.981 146.305 = 123.6 + x. FIND THE VALUE OF X A) 120.085 B) 120.85 C0 220.085 D) 210.085 10) {(0.05 / 0.25) + (0.25 / 0.05)} = A) 139.4 B) 140 C) 140.608 D0 143.9 11) 0.009 / X = 0.01 find the value of X A) 0.0009 B) 0.09 C) 0.9 D) 9 12) 0.00625 of (23 /5) = A) 23/ 80 B0 23 / 800 C) 23 / 8000 D) 125 / 23 13) (144 / 0.144) = 14.4 / X then find the value of X A) 0.0144 B) 1.44 C) 14.4 D) 144 14) 1 +2 + 3+ . + 9 = 2025 Then the value of (.11)+ (.22)+ (.33)++ (.99) Close to: A) 0.2695 B) 0.3695 C) 2.695 D) 3.695 15) 1.5 X = 0.04Y then (Y X) / (Y + X) = A) 730 /77 B) 73 /77 C) 7.3 /77 D) None 16) [8 * (3.75) + 1] / {(7.5) - (6.5)} = A) 9/5 B) 2.75 C) 4.75 D) 8.5 17) 3640 14 * 16 + 340 = A) 0.7 B) 3525 C) 4480 D0 9600 E) None 18) 45 [28 {37 (15 x)}] = 58. What is x? A) - 29 B) -19 C) 19 D) 29 19) {(6+6+6+6) / 6} / {(4+4+4+4) / 4} = A) 1 B) 3 / 2 C) 4 / 13 D) 36 / 13 20) {4 + 4 * 18 6 8} / {123*6 146*5} = A) 1 B) 2 C) 6.65 D) 7.75 21) 3 /5 of 4 / 7 of 5 / 9 of 21 / 24 of 504 = A) 63 B) 69 C) 96 D) 109 E) 84

32

BANK EXAMS COACHING CENTER E Mail: tnsmani@gmail.com By T.N.Subramaniyan (Retd Bank Manager) 8893495638

22) (16 /3) (11 / 3) 4 /3 x + 16 /5 6 /5 = 7. Find the value of x A) 3 /2 B) 7 /3 C) 13 /4 D) NONE 23) (P+Q) / (P Q) = X BUT P / Q = 7. What is the value of X? A) 1/3 B) 2 / 3 C) 4/3 D) 7/8 24) (a / b) = 4 / 5, (b/ c) = 15 / 16 then (C A) / (C + A) =? A) 1/7 B) 7 / 25 C) 3/4 D) None 25) 3x + 7 = x+ p = 7x + 5 then the value of P is A) 1 / 2 B) 33 / 4 C) 17 / 2 D) None 26) How many pieces of 85 cm length can cut from 42.5 meter cloth? A) 30 B) 40 C) 60 D) None 27) What fraction of an hour is 10 seconds? A) 1 / 24 B) 1 / 60 C) 1 /240 D) 1 /360 28) One fifth of the girls and one eighth of the boys participated in game. Then how Many participated? A) 13 / 40 B) 2 / 13 C) DATA INADEQUATE D) None 29) {(856 + 167) + (856 167) } / {856*856 + 167*167} = A) 1 B) 2 C) 689 D) 1023 30) {X + Y + Z - 64} / (XY YZ ZX) = -2, X+Y = 3Z then the value of Z A) 2 B) 3 C) 4 D) None 31) { (X Y) + ( Y Z) + ( Z X) } / { 9 ( X Y ) ( Y Z) ( Z X)} = A) 0 B) 1/9 C) 1 / 3 D) 1 ________ 32) (53824) = A) 202 B) 232 C) 242 D) 332 _______ 33) Y = 5 hen 10y (y - y) = A) 50 2 B) 100 C) 2005 D) 500 ________ 34) (64009) = A) 253 B) 347 C) 363 D) 803 _____ 35) (3n) = 729 then n = A) 6 B) 8 C) 10 D) 12 ________ 36) (411/4) = A) 10.25 B) 10.5 C) 11.5 D) 19.5 E) None _________ 37) 3 (175616) = A) 66 B) 68 C) 56 D) 58 E) None ________ _______ 3 38) (262144) / 3 (4096) = A) 64 B) 8 C) 16 D) 32 E) None _________ _______ 39) 3 (421875) / 2 ((5625) = A) 1 B) 75 C) 55 D) 25 _______ _____

33

BANK EXAMS COACHING CENTER E Mail: tnsmani@gmail.com By T.N.Subramaniyan (Retd Bank Manager) 8893495638 40) 3 110592 + 2704 = A) 48 B) 52 C) 100 D) 200 ________ _______ _____ _____ 41) {3 (103823 + 815409} / {3 (8000) + 3 (625)} = A) 100 B) 1000 C) 10 D0 125 42) Which one is exact cube? A) 166375 B) 118139 C) 125000 D) 132650 43) Which one is not a square? A) 2126 B) 2123 C) 2035 D) 1946 44) {3 4913 + 32197} A) 30 B) 31 C) 32 D) 33 45) { 121 + 1369} / 36 = A) 9 B) 8 C) 10 D) 12 46) Average of 50 numbers is 30. Two numbers 35 & 40 removed. Then the average is A) 28.32 B) 28.38 C) 29.28 D) 29.68 47) Average of 10 numbers is 7. Each one is multiplied by 12. Then the new average is A) 12 B) 19 C) 82 D) 84 48) A number is doubled, and then 9 added, then trebled. The result is 75. What is the number? A) 4 B) 5 C) 8 D) 9 7 18 49) 1000 10 = A) 10 B) 100 C) 1000 D) 10000 N 50) (49*49* 49* 49) = 7 then N = A) 4 B) 7 C) 8 D) 16 (X 1) (X -3) 51) (a/b) = (b/a) then X = A) 1/2 B) 1 C) 2 D) 7 / 2 ____ 52) (2 n) = 64, then N = A) 2 B) 4 C) 6 D) 12 53) (9 N *3 5 * 27 3) / (3* (81)4 = 27 A) 0 B) 2 C) 3 D) 4 X 3 54) 2 = 32 then X = A) 5 B) 3 C) 3/5 D) 5 /3 X Y Z 55) 2 = 4 = 8 & (1/2X + 1 /4Y +1/6Z) = 24 / 7. Then what is Z? A) 7 / 16 B) 7 / 32 C) 7 / 48 D) 7 / 64 56) X = 5 + 2 6, then (X 1) / X = A) 2 B) 2 2 C) 3 D) 2 3 57) 63% OF 25 /7 are equal to A) 2.25 B) 2.40 C) 2.50 D) 2.75 58) Out of 270, 252 passed. What is the percentage of pass? A) 80 B) 83.33 C) 90.33 D) 93.33 59) TWO THIRD of one third of three seventh of a number is 10. What is the number? A) 72 B) 84 C) 136 D) 105 60) The number which exceeds 16% of is by 42 is A) 50 B) 52 C) 58 D) 60 61) The sum of two numbers is 28 /25 of the first number. The second number is

34

BANK EXAMS COACHING CENTER E Mail: tnsmani@gmail.com By T.N.Subramaniyan (Retd Bank Manager) 8893495638 What percentage of the first? A) 12% B) 14%

C)

16%

D)

18%

62) A batsman scored 110 included three fours, eight sixes. What percentage he Scored by runs between wickets? A) 45% B) 45 5/11 C) 54 6/11 D) NONE 63) A got 84% of the votes won by a margin of 476 votes. What is the total vote polled? A) 672 B) 700 C) 749 D) 848 64) 1100 boys and 700 girls wrote the exam. 42 of boys & 30 % of girls passed. What is the percentage of failure? A) 58 B) 62 C) 64 D) 78 65) 20% of A = B. Then b% of 20 is the same as A) 4% of A, B) 5% 0f A, C) 20% OF A 66) P% OF P is 36. Then P = A) 15 B) 60 C) 600 66.66 D) D) D) None 3600 80

67) X=80% of Y then what percent of 2X are Y? A) 40% B) 62.5% C)

68) What percent decrease is salary would exactly cancel out 20% increase in cost? A) 16.66 B) 18 C) 20 D) 33.33 69) Entry ticket of Rs 1/ reduced by 25%, increased the sale by 20% What is the increase of visitors to have the increased income? A) 54 B) 57 C) 60 D) 66 70) As salary is 50% of B How much Bs less than A in percent? A) 33 B) 33.25 C) 33.33 D) 33.5 71) P is six times large a Q. How much Q is less than P? A) 16.66 B) 60 C) 83.33 D) 90

72) A earned 40% more of B, B earned 20% less of C. How much A earned more than C A) 10 B) 12 C) 20 D) 25 73) From a container of milk, 20% replaced by water. Three times they did the same is - process. What is the percentage of milk now? A) 40 B) 50 C) 51.2 D) 58.8 74) In a solution of 3 liter, 40% sugar. One liter of water added to it. Then what is the - percentage of sugar? A) 13.33 B) 15 C) 30 D) 33 75) By selling @ 100 he got a gain of Rs.15. What is the gain percentage? A) 15 B) 38 /3 C) 300/17 D) 69 /4

35

BANK EXAMS COACHING CENTER E Mail: tnsmani@gmail.com By T.N.Subramaniyan (Retd Bank Manager) 8893495638

76) If the loss is 1 / 3 of selling price the loss percentage is A) 16.66 B) 20 C) 25 D) 33.33 77) Two third sold with 5%, profit, remaining with a loss of 2 %. The total profit is Rs.400. Then what is the total value of two items in the container? A) 10000 B) 12000 C) 15000 D) 20000 78) A bag marked at Rs.80/ was sold for Rs.68. The rate of discount is A 12 B) 15 C) 300 /17 D) NONE 79) A marks his goods 30% above cost price and allows a discount of 6.25%. What is the gain? A) 21 7/8 B) 22 C) 23 D) None 80) The fourth proportion of 5 8 15 A) 18 B) 24 C) 19 D) 20

81) The ratio is 3:4, antecedent is 12 then consequent is? A) 9 B) 16 C) 20 D) 24 82) The compound ratio of 2:3, 6:11, and 11:2 is A) 1:2 B) 2:1 C) 11:24 D) 36:121 83) What is the ratio, whose terms differ by 40 and the measure of which is by 2 / 7 A) 16:56 B) 14:56 C) 15:56 D) 16:72 84) 36 MEN complete a work in 18 days, then in how many days 27 men can do it? A) 12 B) 18 C) 22 D) 24 E) N0ne 85) A B C can do a work in 20 30 60 days respectively. In how many days A can Complete if he is assisted by B & C on every alternative day? A) 12 B) 15 C) 16 D) 18 86) 10 WOMEN COMPLETE A WORK IN 7 DAYS, 10 CHILDREN IN 14 DAYS. How many days require for 5 women & 10 children to finish the same work? A) 3 B) 5 C) 7 D) 9 E) 10 87) What will be the ratio of interest earned on simple interest for 6 and 9 years? A) 1:3 B) 1:4 C) 2:3 D) 1:2 88) Simple interest on Rs 10 for four months at 3% is A) 1.20 B) 1.60 C) 2.40 D) 3 89) A sum becomes 815 in 3 years and 854 in 4 years in simple interest. What is the sum? A) 650 B) 690 C) 698 D) None 90) At what compound rate of interest a sum 12000 will become 13483.20nin 2 years? A) 6 B) 6.5 C) 7 D) 7.5 91) The least number of complete years in which a sum of money at SI 20% will double? A) 3 B) 4 C) 5 D) 6

36

BANK EXAMS COACHING CENTER E Mail: tnsmani@gmail.com By T.N.Subramaniyan (Retd Bank Manager) 8893495638

A 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 216 8000 729 1369 1331 1331 362 100 2500

ANSWERS FOR TEST NO: 6 1 A 2 1 E 4 1 C 6 1 A 8 1 B 2 C 2 2 D 4 2 C 6 2 B 8 2 B 3 D 2 3 C 4 3 B 6 3 B 8 3 A 4 C 2 4 B 4 4 A 6 4 B 8 4 D 5 B 2 5 B 4 5 B 6 5 A 8 5 B 6 D 2 6 D 4 6 D 6 6 B 8 6 C 7 B 2 7 D 4 7 D 6 7 B 8 7 C 8 A 2 8 C 4 8 C 6 8 A 8 8 A 9 D 2 9 B 4 9 C 6 9 C 8 9 C 1 0 C 3 0 C 5 0 C 7 0 C 9 0 A 1 1 C 3 1 C 5 1 C 7 1 C 9 1 C 1 2 B 3 2 B 5 2 D 7 2 B 9 2 D 1 3 A 3 3 D 5 3 C 7 3 C 9 3 D 1 4 C 3 4 A 5 4 D 7 4 C 9 4 D 1 5 B 3 5 D 5 5 C 7 5 C 9 5 A 1 6 D 3 6 B 5 6 B 7 6 C 9 6 C 1 7 E 3 7 C 5 7 A 7 7 C 9 7 C 1 8 C 3 8 E 5 8 D 7 8 B 9 8 D 1 9 C 3 9 A 5 9 D 7 9 A 9 9 A 20 D 40 C 60 A 80 B 100 B

37

BANK EXAMS COACHING CENTER E Mail: tnsmani@gmail.com By T.N.Subramaniyan (Retd Bank Manager) 8893495638

TEST No: 7 OK 01) [(1/ 4) + {1 / (4 *5)} + {1 / (4*5*6)} = A) 0.3075 B) 0.3082 C) 0.3083 D) 0.3085 02) Sum of 20 terms 1/ 5*6 + 1 / 6*7 + 1 / 7*8 is A) 0.16 B) 1.6 C) 16 D) None 03) (3.6* 0.48 * 2.5) / (0.12 * 0.09 * 0.5) = A) 80 B) 800 C) 8000 D) 80000 04) (0.0203* 2.92) / (0.0073 * 14.5 * 0.7) = A) 0.8 B) 1.45 C) 2.4 D) 3.25 05) (3.157* 4126* 3.198) / (63.972 * 2835.121) = A) 0.002 B) 0.02 C) 0.2 D) 2 06) (241.6*0.3814 * 6.842) / (0.4618 * 38.25* 73.65) = A) 0.2 B) 0.48 C) 0.6 D) 1 07) {(96.54 89.63) / (96.54 + 89.63)} {(965.4 896.3) / (9.654 + 8.963)} A) 10 -2 B) 10 -1 C) 10 D) None 08) 168*32 = 5376 then 5376 / 168 = A) 32 B) 3.2 C) 320 D) 0.32 09) 213*16 = 3408 then 1.6 * 21.3 = A) 0.3408 B) 3.408 C) 34.08 D) None __ _ 10) 0.09 * 7.3 _ ___ __ A) .6 B) .657 C) .67 D) .657 __ 11) 0.47 = A) 46 /90 B) 46 / 99 C) 47 / 90 D) 47 /99 __ 12) 0.36 = A) 4 /11 B) 4 / 13 C) 35 / 90 D) 35 /99 13) The least among this is _ A) 0.2 B) 1 / 0.2 C) 0.2 D) (0.2) 2 __ 14) 6.46 in fraction is A) 646 /99 B) 64600 /1000 C) 640 /100 D) 640 / 99 ___ 15) Let F = 0.84181 Find the fraction equal to the lowest terms the denominator is Exceeding numerator by A) 13 B) 14 C) 29 D) 87 16) 144 / 0.144 = 14.4 / X then X = A) 0.0144 B) 1.44 C) 14.4 D) 144 17) 0.009 / X = 0.01 then X = A) 0.009 B) 0.09 C) 0.9 D) 9 18) 0.232323 converted into fraction then the result is A) 1 / 5 B) 2 / 9 C) 23 /99 D) 23 /100 19) 1 / 0.04 = A) 1/ 40 B) 2/5 C) 2.5 D) 25 20) O.213 / 0.00213 A) 1 B) 10 C) 100 D) None

38

BANK EXAMS COACHING CENTER E Mail: tnsmani@gmail.com By T.N.Subramaniyan (Retd Bank Manager) 8893495638

21) 11/4 = 77/ x then x = A) 28 B) 77 / 28 C) 44 D) 308 E) None 22) 3640 14 * 16 + 340 = A) 0.70 B) 3525 C) 4480 D) 9600 E) 4500 23) 2 [2 {2 2 (2 + 2)}] = A) - 4 B) 4 C) - 6 D) 8 E) N0ne 24) The value of 1001 11 of 13 is = A) 7 B) 91 C) 143 D) 169 E) None 25) (8 88) * 8888088 = A) 808008 B) 808080 C) 808088 D) 8008008, E) None 26) 7500 (1250 50) = A) 175 B) 300 C) 6575 D) 7525 E) NONE 27) (128 16*X 7 * 2) / (7 - 8 * 6 Y) = 1 then Y = A) 3 B) 14 C) 16 D) 17 E) 18 ____ 28) 18 [5 {6 2 (7 + 8 5)}] A) 13 B) 15 C) 27 D) 32 E) None 29) [8 {5 (-3 +2)}] / {(5 3) (5 8) 3}* 2 = A) 2 B) 3 C) 4 D) 5 E) 6 30) 1 /3 + 1 /2 + 1 / X = 4 then X = A) 5 / 18 B) 6 /19 C) 18 /5 D) 24 / 11 E) NONE 31) {(41/8) * (16/3)} + {(53 / 3) * (9/2)} = A) 337 /3 B) 350 /3 C) 240 D) 663 E) None 32) (17/3) {5 + (x / 6)} = 2 then x = A) 2 B) 3 C) 4 D) 5 E) None 33) Difference between 19 /3 and its reciprocal is A) 9 /8 B) 4 /3 C0 15 / 16 D) 1 E) None 34) How many 1 /8 s are there in 75 /2 A) 300 B) 400 C) 500 D) None 35) (13/3) * (9 /2) - (25/3) (17/ 3) = A) 7 /17 B) 67 /34 C) 8 D) 18 1/34 E) None 36) 9 11/9 of (36/11) 36 /7 of 7 / 9 A) 5 /4 B) 8 C) 8 32/34 D) 9 E) None 37) (4335 / 4P24) * (15/8) = 289 / 528 then P = A) 1 B) 2 C) 8 D) 10 E) NONE 38) (16/3) (11/ 3) + (4/3) P + (16/ 5) + (6/5) = 7 then P= A) 3 /2 B) 7 / 3 C) 13 / 4 D) None 39) X = a / (a 1), Y = 1 / (a 1) then A) X = Y B) X-Y if A <1, C) X > Y D) NONE 40) X = 1 Q Y = 2Q + 1, if X = Y then Q = A) -1 B) 0 C) 1 /2 D) 2 41) A / b = 4 / 3 then (6a + 4b) / 6a 5b) = A) -1 B) 3 C) 4 D) 5 42) (X / 5) (x /6) = 4 then x = A) -120 B) - 100 C) 100 D) 120

39

BANK EXAMS COACHING CENTER E Mail: tnsmani@gmail.com By T.N.Subramaniyan (Retd Bank Manager) 8893495638

43) 1 + (1 /4*3) + 1 / (4* 3 2) + 1 / (4 * 3 ) = A) 121/108 B) 3/2 C) 31/2 D) none 44) {(469+174) (469 174) } / 469 * 174 = A) 2 B) 4 C) 295 D) 643 45) (A- B) = 3, A + B = 29 then ab = A) 10 B) 12 C) 15 D) 18 46) A sum of Rs.312 divided among 100 boys and girls. Boy got 3.60 Girls 2.40 Ps How many girls are there? A) 35 B) 40 C) 60 D) 65 47) Total coin 324 consists of 20ps, 25 ps. Total amounts is Rs.71. How much 25 ps coins are there? A) 120 B) 124 C) 144 D) 200 48) Two tables and three chairs cost 3500. Three tables and two chairs costs 4000 How much a table cost? A) 500 B) 750 C) 1000 D) 1500 ______________ 49) {176 + (2401)} = A) 14 B) 15 C) 18 D) 24 _________ _________ _______ 50) [ (225 /729) - (25 / 144)] (16/81) = A) 1 / 48 B) 5 / 48 C) 5 / 16 D) None 51) (X / 15) *(X/ 135) = 1 A) 15 B) 25 C) 35 D) 45 52) X / 128 = (162) x then x = A) 12 B) 14 C) 144 D) 196 ________ 53) (P /169) = 54 /39 then P = A) 108 B) 324 C) 2916 D) 4800 ___________________________ 54) (0.081 * 0.484) / (0.0064 * 6.25) A) 0.9 B) 0.99 C) 9 D) 99 _________________________ 55) (9.5 * 0.085) / (0.0017 * 0.19) A) 0.05 B) 5 C) 50 D) 500 56) (2 + 1 /2) = A) 5 /2 B) 7 / 2 C) 9 /2 D) 11 / 2 57) Which one is rational square root? A) 0.4 B) 0.09 C) 0.9 D) 0.025 ____ 58) The value of o.4 A) 0.02 B) 0.2 C) 0.51 D) 0.63 59) 5 = 2.2361 3 = 1.7321 then 1 / ( 5 - 3) A) 1.98 B) 1.984 C) 1.9841 60) (7 + 5) / (7 - 5) = A) 1 B) 2 C) 6 - 35 D)

D)

6 + 35

40

BANK EXAMS COACHING CENTER E Mail: tnsmani@gmail.com By T.N.Subramaniyan (Retd Bank Manager) 8893495638 61) 2 = 1.414 then (2 1) / (2 + 1) A) 0.172 B) 0.414 C) 0.586 D) 1.414 62) X = (5 + 1) / (5 1), Y = (5 1) / (5 + 1) Then (X + XY + Y) / (X - XY + Y ) = A) 3/ 4 B) 4/3 C) 3 / 5 D) 5 / 3 _________ 63) 3 (512/125) = A) 7 / 5 B) 8/5 C) 9/5 D) 12/ 5 64) What is the smallest number by which 3600 be divided to make it a perfect square A) 9 B) 450 C) 300 D) 50 65) The product of two numbers is 17. Then the sum of the reciprocal of their square is A) 1 / 289 B) 289 /290 C) 290 / 289 D) 289 66) Three numbers are in 3:4:6 ratios. Product is 1944. What is the largest number? A) 6 B) 12 C) 18 D) None 67) Three numbers are in 4:5:6 ratios Average is 25. What is the largest number? A) 30 B) 32 C) 36 D) 42 68) The sum of three numbers is 264. First number is twice of second and thrice of third. What is the second number? A) 48 B) 54 C) 72 D) 84 69) The sum of two numbers is 25, difference is 13. What is the product? A) 104 B) 114 C) 315 D) 325 70) The sum of two numbers is 40, difference is 4. What is their ratio? A) 11:9 B) 11:18 C) 21: 19 D) 22:9 71) The sum of three consecutive numbers is 87. What is the greatest? A) 26 B) 28 C) 29 D) 30 72) The sum of three consecutive odd numbers is 21. What is the middle number? A) 7 B) 9 C) 11 D) Data inadequate 73) The sum of three consecutive multiples of three is 72. What is the largest? A) 21 B) 24 C) 27 D) 36 E) NONE 74) A two digit number becomes five sixth of itself when its digits are reversed. The two digits differ by one. The number is A) 45 B) 54 C) 56 D0 65 st nd 75) Of three numbers sum of 1 & 2 is 45, 2nd & 3rd is 55, 3rd plus three times of First are 90. What is the third number? A) 20 B) 25 C) 30 D) 3 ______ _____ 76) 3 97336 + 1936 = A) 80 B) 90 C) 100 D) 1 /10 _____ ____ 77) {3 8000 + 900} 2 = A) 2700 B) 8900 C) 2500 D0 7200 ____ ____ ____ 78) ( 324 + 729) / 3 729 = A) 5 B) 9 C) 17 D) 19 ______________ 79) { (7225 + 225)}

41

BANK EXAMS COACHING CENTER E Mail: tnsmani@gmail.com By T.N.Subramaniyan (Retd Bank Manager) 8893495638 A) 100 B) 1000 C) 10 D) 15

80) Which one is a square? A) 2411 B) 2304 C) 2219 D) 2126 81) Which one is not perfect square? A) 1156 B) 1088 C) 1024 D) 961 3.5 X 8 82) 17 * 17 = 17 then X = A) 2.29 B) 2.75 C) 4.5 D) 5 ___ 83) 2 N = 64 then N = A) 2 B) 4 C) 6 D) 12 N 5 3 4 84) {9 * 3 * 27 } / (3 * 81 ) = 27 then N = A) 0 B) 2 C) 3 D) 4 - (4/5) 85) (32 / 243) A) 4 / 9 B) 9 / 4 C) 16 / 81 D) 81 /16 A (A 3) 86) 5 = 3125 then 5 = A) 25 B) 125 C) 625 D) 1625 X (1/5) (1/ 5) 87) 2 * 8 = 2 then X = A) 1/5 B) - 1 / 5 C) 2 / 5 D) - 2 / 5 88) Which one is largest? 3 A) 2 B) 3 C) 4 4 D) All are equal 89) 784 + X = 78% of 500 then X = A) 342 B) 352 C) 362 D) 372 90) The number which exceeds 16% of it by 42 is A) 50 B) 52 C) 58 D) 60 91) If 8% of X = 4% of Y then 20% of X is A) 10% of Y B) 16% of Y C) 80% of Y D) None 92) I got a gain of 70 paisa on Rs. 70. What is the percentage of gain? A) 0.1 B) 1 C) 7 D) 10 93) A cycle was bought for Rs.1400. Loss of 15%. What is the selling price? A) 1090 B) 1160 C) 1190 D) 1202 94) 10% loss on selling price is what percent to cost price? A) 100 /11 B) 101 / 11 C) 10 D) 11 95) The length of a rectangle increased by 60%. To have the same area How much the breadth to be reduced? A) 37.5 % B) 60% C) 75% D) 120% 96) Area of a square plot is 2550.25sq.meters. What is the side? A) 50.25 CM B) 50.5 CM C) 50.65 CM D) NONE 97) What happen to the area of a square when the side is halved? A) Same B) - 50% C) one fourth D) one sixteenth 98) If radius of a circle doubled, then what is the change in the area? A) Same B) Four times C) Two times D) 22 /7 times

42

BANK EXAMS COACHING CENTER E Mail: tnsmani@gmail.com By T.N.Subramaniyan (Retd Bank Manager) 8893495638 99) All sides of a triangle are equal then it is known as A) Equilateral B) Isosceles C) Pythagoras D) None 100) Tan 60 A) 0 = B) 3 C) (3 2 D) 1 / 2

ANSWERS FOR TEST NO: 7 1 C 2 1 A 4 1 C 6 1 B 8 1 B 2 A 2 2 E 4 2 D 6 2 B 8 2 C 3 B 2 3 C 4 3 A 6 3 B 8 3 D 4 A 2 4 A 4 4 B 6 4 B 8 4 C 5 C 2 5 A 4 5 A 6 5 C 8 5 D 6 B 2 6 B 4 6 B 6 6 C 8 6 A 7 A 2 7 A 4 7 B 6 7 A 8 7 D 8 A 2 8 C 4 8 C 6 8 C 8 8 C 9 C 2 9 D 4 9 B 6 9 B 8 9 C 1 0 A 3 0 B 5 0 C 7 0 A 9 0 A 1 1 D 3 1 E 5 1 D 7 1 D 9 1 A 1 2 A 3 2 A 5 2 A 7 2 A 9 2 B 1 3 D 3 3 E 5 3 B 7 3 C 9 3 C 1 4 D 3 4 A 5 4 B 7 4 B 9 4 A 1 5 D 3 5 D 5 5 C 7 5 C 9 5 A 1 6 A 3 6 B 5 6 C 7 6 B 9 6 B 1 7 C 3 7 B 5 7 B 7 7 C 9 7 C 1 8 C 3 8 D 5 8 D 7 8 A 9 8 B 1 9 D 3 9 C 5 9 C 7 9 C 9 9 A 20 C 40 B 60 D 80 B 100 B

43

BANK EXAMS COACHING CENTER E Mail: tnsmani@gmail.com By T.N.Subramaniyan (Retd Bank Manager) 8893495638

MARKETING MARKETING. Marketing is understood as selling of products or services. Some considered advertising or promoting a product is marketing; the idea of marketing is much broder. It is related to customer. The barter system can be looked upon as a reflection of the realization that exchange adds value to both the parties to the transactions. It is exchange of two goods, one for another without any price consideration. With the change in time, people dealing in this type of exchange not received all benefits as per their expectation. The wants and needs of different commodities and matching requirements not fulfilled. Then start the token system in lieu of goods and with such tokens they thought of buying their expected articles. This stage moved to the introduction of coins, currencies etc. as inter exchange for the products which they started using to their purchases. Market is a common place where goods can be bought and sold. In a market we can see buyer and seller commodities, interact with each other. Market depends upon different geographical area, product, and nature of transactions and of volume of transactions. Types of Market: Local Regional National Global Types of Product: Shares Bullion Capital Real Estate. Types of natural Transactions: Cash Spot Future Option. Types of Volume: Retail and Wholesale What is marketing? Consumption is the sole end. It had to reach the customer that is the end user to meet his requirement. The wants and needs of the customer to be satisfied to the price he paid for that. To achieve this, demands and supply to match. So many radical changes occurred and witnessed Darwinian Situation.

Marketing Basics, Principles and History In this section we offer numerous resources, articles and tutorials to help both those new to marketing and the seasoned professional understand marketing principles and other basic marketing concepts. Additionally, we offer resources devoted to marketing and advertising history as well as information on several other specialized marketing topics Area Coverage:

find resources for learning about the basics of marketing including terminology and basic concepts learn

44

BANK EXAMS COACHING CENTER E Mail: tnsmani@gmail.com By T.N.Subramaniyan (Retd Bank Manager) 8893495638

about the history of marketing and advertising including sites that offer examples of past practices and events find information for specific industries, not-for-profits and other marketing areas Marketing Stories for Topic Area

The Evolution of Barbie Marketplace Foreclosed Houses Haunt Home Builders Coca-Cola Deleting Classic From Coke Label Marketing When Consumers Aren't Buying Direct-To-Consumer Advertising Works Ten Outrageous Marketing Stunts Graphics Made Simple How Financial Services Marketers Should Deal With Crisis of Confidence. Basics of Marketing, Articles

In this area find resources to help understand the basics of marketing including how-to articles, tutorials and much more. Whether you're a marketing novice or seasoned professional you'll find great information.
Our coverage includes our own Principles of Marketing tutorial that offers an extremely detailed look at the basics of marketing.

Principles of Marketing 1. The Basics What is marketing? -

Managing Customers

2. Research Marketing Research , Planning for Market Research 3. Customers and Markets Consumer Buying Behavior & Targeting Markets 4. Product Product Decisions & Managing Products 5. Distribution Distribution Decisions, Retailing Wholesaling & Product Movement

45

BANK EXAMS COACHING CENTER E Mail: tnsmani@gmail.com By T.N.Subramaniyan (Retd Bank Manager) 8893495638 6. Promotion Promotion Decisions , Advertising , Advertising Campaign Sales Promotion , Public Relations , Personal Selling & The Selling Process 7. Price Pricing Decisions & Setting Price 8. Marketing Management Managing External Forces , Planning and Strategy Writing a Marketing Plan , Preparing a Market Study Definition of Marketing Our starting point for learning about marketing is to begin with the basics and that starts with defining marketing. Since marketing has been an important part of business for a long time we could consult one of the many hundreds of books written on the subject to locate a definition. Or, as is more the custom today, we could search the Internet to see how marketing is defined. Whether we search print or electronic form we will find that marketing is defined in many different ways. Some definitions focus on marketing in terms of what it means to an organization, such as being the key functional area for generating revenue, while other definitions lean more toward defining marketing in terms of its most visible tasks, such as advertising and creating new products. There probably is no one best way to define marketing, however, whatever definition is used should have an orientation that focuses on the key to marketing success customers. What Marketers Do? In order to reach the goal of creating a relationship that holds value for customers and for the organization, marketers use a diverse toolkit that includes (but is not limited to) making decisions regarding: 1. Target Markets markets consist of customers identified as possessing needs the marketer believes can be addressed by its marketing efforts 2. Products consists of tangible (e.g., goods) or intangible (e.g., services) solution to the markets needs 3. Promotion a means for communicating information about the marketing organizations products to the market 4. Distribution the methods used by the marketer that enable the market to obtain products 5. Pricing ways for the marketer to set and adjust the cost paid by the market to obtain products 6. Supporting Services additional options that enhance a products value

46

BANK EXAMS COACHING CENTER E Mail: tnsmani@gmail.com By T.N.Subramaniyan (Retd Bank Manager) 8893495638 History of Marketing It is hard for many to believe, but when compared to economics, production and operations, accounting and other business areas, marketing is a relatively young discipline having emerged in the early 1900s. Prior to this time most issues that are now commonly associated with marketing were either assumed to fall within basic concepts of economics (e.g., price setting was viewed as a simple supply/demand issue), advertising (well developed by 1900), or in most cases, simply not yet explored (e.g., customer purchase behavior, importance of distribution partners). Led by marketing scholars from several major universities, the development of marketing was in large part motivated by the need to dissect in greater detail relationships and behaviors that existed between sellers and buyers. In particular, the study of marketing led sellers to recognize that adopting certain strategies and tactics could significantly benefit the seller/buyer relationship. In the old days of marketing (before the 1950s) this often meant identifying strategies and tactics for simply selling more products and services with little regard for what customers really wanted. Often this meant companies embraced a sell-as-much-as-we-can philosophy with little concern for building relationships for the long term. But starting in the 1950s, companies began to see that old ways of selling were wearing thin with customers. As competition grew stiffer across most industries, organizations looked to the buyer side of the transaction for ways to improve. What they found was an emerging philosophy suggesting that the key factor in successful marketing is understanding the needs of customers. This now famous Marketing Concept suggests marketing decisions should flow from FIRST knowing the customer and what they want. Only then should an organization initiate the process of developing and marketing products and services. The marketing concept continues to be at the root of most marketing efforts, though the concept does have its own problems (e.g., doesnt help much with marketing new technologies) a discussion of which is beyond the scope of this tutorial. But overall, marketers have learned they can no longer limit their marketing effort to just getting customers to purchase more. They must have an in-depth understanding of who their customers are and what they want. The Role of Marketing As weve seen the key objective of an organizations marketing efforts is to develop satisfying relationships with customers that benefit both the customer and the organization. These efforts lead marketing to serve an important role within most organizations and within society. At the organizational level, marketing is a vital business function that is necessary in nearly all industries whether the organization operates as a for-profit or as a not-forprofit. For the for-profit organization, marketing is responsible for most tasks that bring revenue and, hopefully, profits to an organization. For the not-for-profit organization, marketing is responsible for attracting customers needed to support the not-for-profits

47

BANK EXAMS COACHING CENTER E Mail: tnsmani@gmail.com By T.N.Subramaniyan (Retd Bank Manager) 8893495638 mission, such as raising donations or supporting a cause. For both types of organizations, it is unlikely they can survive without a strong marketing effort. Marketing is also the organizational business area that interacts most frequently with the public and, consequently, what the public knows about an organization is determined by their interactions with marketers. For example, customers may believe a company is dynamic and creative based on its advertising message. At a broader level marketing offers significant benefits to society. These benefits include:

Developing products that satisfy needs, including products that enhance societys quality of life Creating a competitive environment that helps lower product prices Developing product distribution systems that offer access to products to a large number of customers and many geographic regions Building demand for products that require organizations to expand their labor force Offering techniques that have the ability to convey messages that change societal behavior in a positive way (e.g., anti-smoking advertising) Marketers Embellish Product Claims Marketers are often criticized for exaggerating the benefits offered by their products. This is especially the case with the part of marketing that engages in customer communication, such as advertising and salespeople. The most serious problems arise when product claims are seen as misleading customers into believing a product can offer a certain level of value that, in fact, it cannot. But sometimes there is a fine line between what a rational person should accept as a reasonable exaggeration and what is considered downright misleading. Fortunately, many countries offer customers some level of protection from misleading claims since such business practices may subject the marketer to legal action. Again, using such tactics is likely to lead to marketing failure as customers will not be satisfied and will likely not return. Marketing Discriminates in Customer Selection We will see later that a key to marketing success is to engage in a deliberate process that identifies customers who offer marketers the best chance for satisfying organizational objectives. This method, called target marketing, often drives most marketing decisions, including product development and price setting. But some argue that target marketing leads marketers to focus their efforts primarily on customers who have the financial means to make more expensive purchases. They contend that doing so intentionally discriminates against others, especially lower income customers who cannot afford to purchase higher priced products. This group ends ups being targeted with lower quality (and in some cases less safe) products or for some groups, no product options.

48

BANK EXAMS COACHING CENTER E Mail: tnsmani@gmail.com By T.N.Subramaniyan (Retd Bank Manager) 8893495638 While this criticism is often valid, it is worth noting that while many lower quality products are inferior to current high-end products, comparison of their quality to similar products from just a few years ago shows there has been significant improvement. For instance, low cost electronic equipment, such as digital cameras, offer more features compared to low cost cameras of just a few years ago. Thus, while certain customer groups may not be the target market for certain new product offerings they may eventually benefit from higher-end products. Ethics in Marketing In addition to problems cited above, some critics also argue that the money-making motive of some marketers has encouraged many to cross the line in terms of ethical business behavior. Ethics is concerned with what is right and what is wrong. Many people assume that only actions that violate laws are considered unethical. While it is true that illegal activity is also unethical, a business activity can be unethical even though no laws are violated. For instance, some consider it unethical for marketing companies to aggressively promote unhealthy foods to children though such promotional practices are generally not viewed as illegal. Sometimes the line between what is considered ethical and unethical is difficult to distinguish since what is right and wrong differs depending on such factors as nationality, culture, and even industry. For example, many websites offer users access at no monetary charge to their content (e.g., articles, videos, audio clips, etc.) but do so only if users register and provide contact information including email addresses. Some of these sites then automatically add registrants to promotional email mailing lists. Some view the practice of automatic opt-in to a mailing list as being unethical since customers do not request it and are forced to take additional action to be removed from the list (opt-out). However, many marketers see no ethical issue with this practice and simply view adding registered users to an email list as part of the cost to customers for accessing material. Marketing Code of Ethics The call for marketers to become more responsible for their actions has led to the development of a code of ethics by many companies and professional organizations. A company code of ethics includes extensive coverage of how business is conducted by members of an organization. For instance, Yahoo! lays out an extensive list of what is expected of their employees in their document. Along the issues covered are:

Business Relationships (must never take unfair advantage of others through manipulation, concealment, abuse of privileged information, misrepresentation of material facts or any other unfair dealing practice) Offering Gifts to Clients (may not furnish or offer to furnish any gift that is of more than token value or that goes beyond the common courtesies) Receiving Gifts From Clients (must never request or ask for gifts, entertainment or any other business courtesies)

49

BANK EXAMS COACHING CENTER E Mail: tnsmani@gmail.com By T.N.Subramaniyan (Retd Bank Manager) 8893495638

Business Communication (should take care to avoid exaggeration, colorful language, guesswork, legal conclusions and derogatory remarks or characterizations of people and other companies) Marketers often join professional organizations for the purpose of associating with others who share similar interests. These organizations include industry associations, whose membership is mostly limited to those who work within a particular industry, and professional services associations, whose membership consists of those who share similar job responsibilities. Marketers joining these organizations often find that a code of ethics has been developed that is intended to be followed by all organization members. For example, the Canadian Marketing Association lays out rules for its membership, which includes marketers from many for-profits and not-for-profit organizations, in its Code of Ethics and Standards and Practices. The Code discusses such issues as:

Accuracy of Representation of Products (must accurately and fairly describe the product or service offered) Support of Claims Made About Products (must be able to substantiate the basis for any performance claim or comparison) Acceptability for Using the Word Free (Products or services offered without cost or obligation) Guidelines for Advertising Which Compares One Product to Another ("must be factual, verifiable and not misleading) Social Responsibility in Marketing Most marketing organizations do not intentionally work in isolation from the rest of society. Instead they find that greater opportunity exists if the organization is visibly accessible and involved with the public. As weve seen, because marketing often operates as the public face of an organization, when issues arise between the public and the organization marketing is often at the center. In recent years the number and variety of issues raised by the public has increased. One reason for the increase is the growing perception that marketing organizations are not just sellers of product but also have an inherent responsibility to be more socially responsible, including being more responsible for its actions and more responsive in addressing social concerns. Being socially responsible means an organization shows concern for the people and environment in which it transacts business. It also means that these values are communicated and enforced by everyone in the organization and, in some cases, with business partners, such as those who sell products to the company (e.g., supplier of raw material for product production) and those who help the company distribute and sell to other customers (e.g., retail stores).

50

BANK EXAMS COACHING CENTER E Mail: tnsmani@gmail.com By T.N.Subramaniyan (Retd Bank Manager) 8893495638

51

BANK EXAMS COACHING CENTER E Mail: tnsmani@gmail.com By T.N.Subramaniyan (Retd Bank Manager) 8893495638 What is a Customer? In general terms, a customer is a person or organization that a marketer believes will benefit from the goods and services offered by the marketers organization. As this definition suggests, a customer is not necessarily someone who is currently purchasing from the marketer. In fact, customers may fall into one of three customer groups:

Existing Customers Consists of customers who have purchased or otherwise used an organizations goods or services, typically within a designated period of time. For some organizations the timeframe may be short, for instance, a coffee shop may only consider someone to be an Existing Customer if they have purchased within the last three months. Other organizations may view someone as an Existing Customer even though they have not purchased in the last few years (e.g., television manufacturer). Existing Customers are by far the most important of the three customer groups since they have a current relationship with a company and, consequently, they give a company a reason to remain in contact with them. Additionally, Existing Customers also represent the best market for future sales, especially if they are satisfied with the relationship they presently have with the marketer. Getting these Existing Customers to purchase more is significantly less expensive and time consuming than finding new customers mainly because they know and hopefully trust the marketer and, if managed correctly, are easy to reach with promotional appeals (i.e., emailing a special discount for new product).

Former Customers This group consists of those who have formerly had relations with the marketing organization typically through a previous purchase. However, the marketer no longer feels the customer is an Existing Customer either because they have not purchased from the marketer within a certain timeframe or through other indications (e.g., a Former Customer just purchased a similar product from the marketers competitor). The value of this group to a marketer will depend on whether the customers previous relationship was considered satisfactory to the customer or the marketer. For instance, a Former Customer who felt they were not treated well by the marketer will be more difficult to persuade to buy again compared to a Former Customer who liked the marketer but decided to buy from someone else who had a similar product that was priced lower.

Potential Customers The third category of customers includes those who have yet to purchase but possess what the marketer believes are the requirements to eventually become Existing Customers. As we will see in the Targeting Markets Tutorial, the requirements to become a customer include such issues as having a need for a product, possessing the financial means to buy, and having the authority to make a buying decision. Locating Potential Customers is an ongoing process for two reasons. First, Existing Customers may become Former Customers (e.g., decide to buy from a competitor) and, thus, must be replaced by new customers.

Second, while we noted above that Existing Customers are the best source for future sales, it is new customers that are needed in order for a business to significantly expand. For example, a company that sells only in its own country may

52

BANK EXAMS COACHING CENTER E Mail: tnsmani@gmail.com By T.N.Subramaniyan (Retd Bank Manager) 8893495638 see less room for sales growth if a high percentage of people in the country are already Existing Customers. In order to realize stronger growth the company may seek to sell their products in other countries where Potential Customers may be quite high. Customers and the Organization For most organizations understanding customers is the key to success while not understanding them is a recipe for failure. It is so important that the constant drive to satisfy customers is not only a concern for those responsible for carrying out marketing tasks; satisfying customers is a concern of everyone in the entire organization. Whether someones job involves direct contact with customers (e.g., salespeople, delivery drivers, telephone customer service representatives) or indirect contact (e.g., production, accounting), all members of an organization must appreciate the role customers play in helping the organization meets its goals. To ensure everyone understands the customers role, many organizations continually preach a customer is most important message in department meetings, organizational communication (e.g., internal emails, website postings), and corporate training programs. To drive home the importance of customers, the message often contains examples of how customers impact the company. These examples include:

Source of Information and Ideas - Satisfying the needs of customers requires organizations maintain close contact with them. Marketers can get close to customers by conducting marketing research (e.g., surveys) and other feedback methods (e.g., website comments forms) that encourage customers to share their thoughts and feelings. With this information marketers are able to learn what people think of their present marketing efforts and receive suggestions for making improvements. For instance, research and feedback methods can offer marketers insight into new products and services sought by their customers. Affects Activities Throughout Organization - For most organizations customers not only affect decisions made by the marketing team but they are the key driver for decisions made throughout the organization. For example, customers reaction to the design of a product may affect the type of raw materials used in the product manufacturing process. With customers impacting such a significant portion of a company, creating an environment geared to locating, understanding and satisfying customers is imperative. Needed to Sustain the Organization - Finally, customers are the reason an organization is in business. Without customers or the potential to attract customers, a company is not viable. Consequently, customers are not only key to revenue and profits they are also key to creating and maintaining jobs within the organization. The Importance of Good Customers For marketers simply finding customers who are willing to purchase their goods or services is not enough to build a successful marketing strategy. Instead, as we note in our definition of marketing in the" what is Marketing? "Tutorial, marketers should look to manage customers in a way that will identify, create and maintain satisfying

53

BANK EXAMS COACHING CENTER E Mail: tnsmani@gmail.com By T.N.Subramaniyan (Retd Bank Manager) 8893495638 relationships with customers. By using marketing efforts that are designed to maintain satisfying relationships rather than simply pursuing a quick sale, the likelihood increases that customers will be more trusting of the marketer and exhibit a higher level of satisfaction with the organization. In turn satisfied customers are more likely to become good customers. For our purposes we define a good customer as one who holds the potential to undertake activities that offer long-term value to an organization. The activities performed by customers not only include purchasing products, these also include such things as:

offering feedback on company performance making prompt payment offering suggestions for new products voluntarily promoting the companys products to other These activities along with many others (including profit from product sales) represent the value (i.e., benefits for costs spent) an organization receives from its customers. In the case of good customers their potential for providing value should be a signal for marketers to direct additional marketing efforts in building, strengthening and sustaining a relationship with these customers. The fact that we place the descriptive term good in front of customers should not be taken lightly. Not all customers who currently have relationships with an organization (i.e., Existing Customers) should be treated on an equal level. Some consistently spend large sums to purchase products from an organization; others do not spend large sums but hold the potential to do so; and still others use up a large amount of an organizations resources but contribute little revenue. Clearly there are lines of demarcation between those in the Existing Customer category. As we will see later, identifying this line is critical for marketing success.

Customer Contact Points Another problem is that customers may interact with organizations at different contact points. A contact point is the method a customer uses to communicate with a company. For instance, consider the different ways customers may interact with an organization:

In-Person Customers seek in-person assistance for their needs by visiting retail stores and other outlets, and also through discussion with company salespeople who visit customers at their place of business or in their home. Telephone Customers seeking to make purchases or have a problem solved may find it more convenient to do so through phone contact. In many companies a dedicated department called a call center handles all incoming customer inquiries.

54

BANK EXAMS COACHING CENTER E Mail: tnsmani@gmail.com By T.N.Subramaniyan (Retd Bank Manager) 8893495638

Internet The fastest growing contact point is through the Internet. The use of the Internet for purchasing (called electronic commerce) has exploded and is now the leading method for purchasing certain types of products including music. The Internet is also a key area where customers look for help with their purchases. Kiosks A kiosk is a standalone, interactive computer, often equipped with a touch-screen, that offers customers several service options including product information, ability to make a purchase, and review of a customers account. Kiosks are now widely used for airline check-in, retail job applications, and banking. In-Person Product Support Some in-person assistance is not principally intended to assist with selling but is designed to offer support once a purchase is made. Such services are handled by delivery people and service/repair technicians. Financial Assistance Customer contact may also occur through company personnel who assist customers with financial issues. For instance, credit personnel help customers arrange the necessary funds to make a purchase while personnel in accounts receivable work with customers who are experiencing payment problems. In such cases customers are likely to become frustrated and question the companys ability to service its customers. Customer Service and Marketing Customers satisfaction is not limited to direct product benefits. Instead the customers buying experience covers the entire purchasing experience and is a mix of product and non-product benefits. When it comes to managing customers, an important non-product benefit that affects customers feelings about a company is customer service, which is defined as activities used by the marketer to support the purchasers experience with a product. Customer service includes several activities including:

Training - services needed to assist the customer in learning how to use a product Repair services needed to handle damaged or malfunctioning products Financial Assistance services needed to help customers with the financial commitment in purchases or using the product Complaint Resolution - services needed to address other problems that have arisen with customers use of a product In many industries customers experience with a companys customer service can significantly affect their overall opinion of the product. Companies producing superior products may negatively impact their products if they back these up with shoddy service. On the other hand, many companies compete not because their products are superior to their competitors but because they offer a higher level of customer service. In fact, many believe that customer service will eventually become the most significant benefit offered by a company because global competition (i.e., increase in similar products) makes it more difficult for a companys product to offer unique advantages.

55

BANK EXAMS COACHING CENTER E Mail: tnsmani@gmail.com By T.N.Subramaniyan (Retd Bank Manager) 8893495638 Customer service manifests itself in several ways, with the most common being a dedicated department to handle customer issues. Whether a company establishes a separate department or spreads the function among many departments, being responsive and offering reliable service is critical and in the future will be demanded by customers. Revenue Generators Companies that maintain a customer service staff have found that these people not only can help solve customer problems but they may also be in a position to convince customers to purchase more. Many companies are now requiring sales training for their customer service personnel. At a basic level customer service representatives may be trained to ask if customers are interested in hearing about other products or services. If a customer shows interest then the representative will transfer the customer to a sales associate. At a more advanced level the representative will shift to a selling role and attempt to get the customer to commit to additional product purchases. Out-Sourcing One of the most controversial developments impacting customer service is the move by many companies around the world to establish customer service functions outside of either their home country or the country in which their customers reside. Called outsourcing, companies pursue this strategy to both reduce cost and also increase service coverage. For instance, having multiple customer service outlets around the world allows customers to talk via phone with a service person no matter what time of day. The ability to move service to another country is only viable in large part due to technological developments (see Internet Telephone below). But such moves have raised concerns on two fronts. First, many see this trend as leading to a reduction of customer service jobs within a home country. Second, customer service personnel located offshore may lack sufficient training and often lack an understanding of the conditions within the customers local market both of which can affect service levels. At the extreme a poorly managed move to out-source customer service can lead to a decrease in customer satisfaction which in the long-run could affect sales. Customer Service Technologies These methods include:

Online Chat Companies are finding value in using Internet chat as a way to address customer questions. Typically the chat feature is presented via a pop-up browser window that appears when a customer clicks on a website link, though newer technology using computer programming dubbed AJAX allows for chat to take place right on a webpage and not through pop-up windows. Whether presented as a separate window or contained within a regular webpage, online chat sessions are undertaken in real-time with customers and company service people exchanging text messages. More

56

BANK EXAMS COACHING CENTER E Mail: tnsmani@gmail.com By T.N.Subramaniyan (Retd Bank Manager) 8893495638 advanced chat technology called collaborative browsing or co-browsing allows customer service representatives to manipulate a customers browser by sending web-pages that contain relevant information. For instance, retailer Lands End pushes web-pages to customers browsers in response to requests for clothing. In this way the service person can offer suggestions and guidance by controlling what the customer is seeing on their screen.

Website and Phone Accessible Knowledge Base As part of customers desire to be more involved in solving their own problems, companies have moved to offering technological solutions in ways that appeal to customers desire for self service. The predominant method for doing this is by maintaining a collection of answers to commonly asked questions. The collection may be part of a Knowledge Base that is accessible either online, through such methods as frequently asked questions (FAQ), or through a call system where an automated helper or virtual attendants guide customers to an answer.

57

BANK EXAMS COACHING CENTER E Mail: tnsmani@gmail.com By T.N.Subramaniyan (Retd Bank Manager) 8893495638 universities have set up instant alert security systems where students can receive a text message in the case of on-campus emergency or weather-related problem.

Internet Telephone Despite the growth in the Internet as an outlet for addressing customer questions, many customers still prefer to discuss their situation with a live person through a telephone conversation. For large companies that receive thousands of calls a day a dedicated department or call center may be in place to handle customer inquiries. No matter the organizations size, the cost of maintaining telephone support services can be expensive. One major expense lies with the cost of using traditional telecommunication lines. Commonly referred to as Plain Old Telephone Service or POTS, this system is more expensive because telephone lines are generally dedicated to individual users, that is, a single line can only handle one phone call, fax transmission, or computer data connection at a time. While a discussion of technical issues behind this are beyond the scope of this tutorial, suffice to say that POTS system is inefficient since a single telephone line has the capacity to handle a far larger volume of phone and data transmission. For this reason companies have moved to a technology called Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP). With VoIP, telephone calls are delivered over the Internet with multiple phones sharing the same connection. With more people using the same line the cost per call is reduced. While the audio quality of the call may not be as reliable as POTS technology, improvements over the last few years have narrowed the quality gap to the point where most customers cannot distinguish the difference. Intelligent Call Routing Another innovation associated with telephone support deals with technologies that identify and filter incoming customer calls. One method is the use of software that attempts to identify the caller (usually based on the incoming phone number) and then automatically directs the call for proper servicing. Marketing Research

Importance of Marketing Research Examples of Research in Marketing Doing Research Right Research Validity and Reliability Risk in Marketing Research Trends: Information Advantage, Internet Technologies Trends: Other Technologies, Affordable Research Trends: Merging Data Sources, Privacy Concerns Trends: Respondent Cooperation, Research as Promotion

58

BANK EXAMS COACHING CENTER E Mail: tnsmani@gmail.com By T.N.Subramaniyan (Retd Bank Manager) 8893495638 Many organizations find the markets they serve are dynamic with customers, competitors and market conditions continually changing. And marketing efforts that work today cannot be relied upon to be successful in the future. Meeting changing conditions requires marketers have sufficient market knowledge in order to make the right adjustments to their marketing strategy. For marketers gaining knowledge is accomplished through marketing research. Importance of Marketing Research Research, as a general concept, is the process of gathering information to learn about something that is not fully known. Nearly everyone engages in some form of research. From the highly trained geologist investigating newly discovered earthquake faults, to the author of best selling spy novels gaining insight into new surveillance techniques, to the model train hobbyist spending hours hunting down the manufacturer of an old electric engine, each is driven by the quest for information. For marketers, research is not only used for the purpose of learning, it is also a critical component needed to make good decisions. Market research does this by giving marketers a picture of what is occurring (or likely to occur) and, when done well, offers alternative choices that can be made. For instance, good research may suggest multiple options for introducing new products or entering new markets. In most cases marketing decisions prove less risky (though they are never risk free) when the marketer can select from more than one option. Using an analogy of a house foundation, marketing research can be viewed as the foundation of marketing. Just as a well-built house requires a strong foundation to remain sturdy, marketing decisions need the support of research in order to be viewed favorably by customers and to stand up to competition and other external pressures. Consequently, all areas of marketing and all marketing decisions should be supported with some level of research. While research is key to marketing decision making, it does not always need to be elaborate to be effective. Sometimes small efforts, such as doing a quick search on the Internet, will provide the needed information. However, for most marketers there are times when more elaborate research work is needed and understanding the right way to conduct research, whether performing the work themselves or hiring someone else to handle it, can increase the effectiveness of these projects. Marketing Decision Types of Research Target Markets sales, market size; demand for product, customer characteristics, purchase behavior, customer satisfaction, web-site traffic Product product development; package protection, packaging awareness; brand name selection; brand recognition, brand preference, product positioning Distribution distributor interest; assessing shipping options; online shopping, retail store site selection

59

BANK EXAMS COACHING CENTER E Mail: tnsmani@gmail.com By T.N.Subramaniyan (Retd Bank Manager) 8893495638 Promotion advertising recall; advertising copy testing, sales promotion response rates, sales force compensation, traffic studies (outdoor advertising), public relations media placement Pricing price elasticity analysis, optimal price setting, discount options External Factors competitive analysis, legal environment; social and cultural trends Doing Research Right Marketing research is a process that investigates both organizations and people. Of course, organizations are made up of people so when it comes down to it, marketing research is a branch of the social sciences. Social science studies people and their relationships and includes such areas as economics, sociology and psychology. To gain understanding into their fields, researchers in the social sciences use scientific methods that have been tested and refined over hundreds of years. Many of these methods require the institution of tight controls on research projects. For instance, many companies survey (i.e., ask questions) a small percentage of their customers (called a sample) to see how satisfied they are with the companys efforts. For the information obtained from a small group of customers to be useful when evaluating how all customers feel, certain controls must be in place including controls on who should be included in the sample. Thus, doing research right means the necessary controls are in place to insure it is done correctly and increase the chance the results are relevant. As one might expect, the tradeoff for doing research right is the increase in cost and time needed to conduct the research. So a big decision for marketers, when it comes to doing research, is to determine the balance between the need for obtaining relevant information and the costs involved in carrying out the research. Research Validity This problem with data gathering represents several concepts that to the non-researcher may be quite complex. But basically validity boils down to whether the research is really measuring what it claims to be measuring. For instance, if a marketer is purchasing a research report from a company claiming to measure how people prefer the marketers products over competitors products, the marketer should understand how the data was gathered to help determine if the research really captures the information the way the research company says it does. Research Reliability This problem relates to whether research results can be applied to a wider group than those who took part in a study. In other words, would similar results be obtained if another group containing different respondents or a different set of data points were used? For example, if 40 salespeople out of 2,000-person corporate sales force participate in a research study focusing on company policy, is the information obtained from these 40 people sufficient to conclude how the entire sales forces feels about company policies? What if the same study was done again with 40 different salespeople, would the responses be similar?

60

BANK EXAMS COACHING CENTER E Mail: tnsmani@gmail.com By T.N.Subramaniyan (Retd Bank Manager) 8893495638 Risk in Marketing Research The discussion above regarding doing research right shows that good marketing research, especially when it involves formal research projects, requires strict controls in order to produce relevant information. Being relevant means the probability is high that the research results reflect what is happening now or might happen in the future. But following the right procedures to produce a relevant study does not insure the results of research will be 100% correct as there is always the potential that results are wrong. Because of the risks associated with research, marketers are cautioned not to use the results of marketing research as the only input in making marketing decisions. Rather, smart marketing decisions require considering many factors, including managements own judgment of what is best. But being cautious with how research is used should not diminish the need to conduct research. While making decisions without research input may work sometimes, long-term success is not likely to happen without regular efforts to collect information. Additionally, risk in research extends to research produced by others. As we discuss in the Planning for Marketing Research Tutorial, the research process often includes using information initially gathered by other sources, such as market research firms. However, in many instances the methods for collecting this information is not be fully disclosed, thus questions exist regarding research validity and reliability. Marketers using research collected by third-party sources should do so with a reasonable level of skepticism. In fact, it is wise for marketers to always make an effort to locate multiple information sources that address the same issue (e.g., two or more sales forecasts reports). A good rule-of-thumb for all marketers is never to rely on one source for making definitive statements about a market. Trends in Marketing Research In recent years the evolution of marketing research has been dramatic with marketers getting access to a wide variety of tools and techniques to improve their hunt for information. Below we discuss a few important trends shaping the marketing research field: Gaining an Information Advantage In its role as the foundation of marketing, marketing research is arguably marketings most important task. Today marketers not only view research as a key ingredient in making marketing decisions they also consider information to be a critical factor in gaining advantage over competitors. Because organizations recognize the power information has in helping create and maintain products that offer value, there is an insatiable appetite to gain even more insight into customers and markets. Marketers in nearly all industries are expected to direct more resources to gathering and analyzing information especially in highly competitive markets. Many of the trends discussed below are directly related to marketers quest to acquire large amounts of customer, competitive and market information.

61

BANK EXAMS COACHING CENTER E Mail: tnsmani@gmail.com By T.N.Subramaniyan (Retd Bank Manager) 8893495638 Internet Technologies To address the need for more information, marketing companies are developing new methods for collecting data. This has led to the introduction of several new technologies to assist in the information gathering process. Many of these developments are Internetbased technologies that include:

Enhanced Tracking - The Internet offers an unparalleled ability to track and monitor customers. Each time a visitor accesses a website they provide marketers with extensive information including how they arrived at the website (e.g., via a search engine) and what they did when on the website (e.g., what products were investigated).

In many ways the vast data available through Internet tracking has yet to be used by the majority of marketers. However, as tracking software becomes more sophisticated the use of tracking data will be a routinely used research tool. Improved Communication Not only is the Internet enabling marketers to monitor customers website activity, it also offers significant improvement in customer-to-company communication which is vital for marketing research. For instance, the ability to encourage customers to offer feedback on the companys products and service is easy using website popup notices and email reminders. Also, as we discuss in the Planning for Market Research Tutorial, the use of the Internet for conducting online focus group research is expanding. Research Tools A large number of Internet services have added options for conducting research. These include the ubiquitous search engines, tools for conducting online surveys, and access to large databases containing previous research studies (i.e., secondary research). Other Technologies In addition to the Internet, marketing research has benefited from other technological improvements including:

Virtual Reality and Simulations - Marketers can use computer developed virtual worlds to simulate real world customer activity such as store shopping. While this type of research is mostly performed in a controlled laboratory setting, there are emerging virtual worlds on the Internet where marketers can test concepts and communicate with customers. Global Positioning Systems GPS enables marketers to track inventory and even track mobile sales and service personnel. Soon GPS will be a common feature of customers communication devices, such as cell-phones, offering marketers the potential to locate and track customers. Data Analysis Software As we will see in the Planning for Market Research Tutorial, research includes gathering information and it also involves analyzing what is collected. A number of software and statistical programs have been refined to give marketers greater insight into what the data really means.

62

BANK EXAMS COACHING CENTER E Mail: tnsmani@gmail.com By T.N.Subramaniyan (Retd Bank Manager) 8893495638

Research as a Promotional Tool While most people do not equate marketing research with promotion, the fact is many companies are discovering research can also function as a major promotional tool. The practice of distributing company-produced research reports to potential customers and the news media has been used for a number of years in scientific and technology industries. In recent years the practice has expanded into many other fields, particularly among firms involved in consulting, healthcare and financial industries. Such reports often provide readers with information related to product features and benefits, comparisons with competitors offerings and target market perceptions. These reports are produced using high quality graphs and charts backed up by carefully created narratives that proudly emphasize the companys strengths. Unfortunately, many research reports produced for promotional reasons are not scientific and thus may not carry much value. While many companies claim the research supports their products, many of these claims may in fact be more fluff than substance since they are not grounded in good research methods.

63

BANK EXAMS COACHING CENTER E Mail: tnsmani@gmail.com By T.N.Subramaniyan (Retd Bank Manager) 8893495638

Planning for Market Research As we note in the Marketing Research Tutorial, marketers engage in a wide range of research from simple methods done spur of the moment to extensive, highly developed research projects that take months or even years to complete. While lower-level research rarely requires a formal plan, research projects that are intended to offer critical information to support marketing decisions generally involve a formal plan outlining how research will be conducted. This research plan consists of multiple steps which under most conditions are developed before research takes place. For instance, a researcher hired to perform work for a client presents the client with a written description of what is to be done prior to undertaking the work. This serves the purpose of making sure the client agrees with what is being done and also understands the commitment needed (e.g., costs, time, personal involvement) to complete the project. In this part of the Principles of Marketing Tutorials we examine the process researchers follow to acquire information. Understanding this process is not only important for anyone carrying out marketing research but is also of value for marketers purchasing research from third-party sources. As we discussed in the Marketing Research Tutorial, relevant research must meet tests for research validity and reliability. For those purchasing research the material presented in the tutorial will help in that assessment. The planning for marketing research consists of several steps that should be carried out in order. These include: 1. Determine the Research Purpose 2. Identify what are to be Learned 3. Research Design - Basics 4. Research Design - Data Collection 5. Evaluate Data 6. Analyze Data 7. Communicate Results

64

BANK EXAMS COACHING CENTER E Mail: tnsmani@gmail.com By T.N.Subramaniyan (Retd Bank Manager) 8893495638 Types of Consumer Purchase Decisions Consumers are faced with purchase decisions nearly every day. But not all decisions are treated the same. Some decisions are more complex than others and thus require more effort by the consumer. Other decisions are fairly routine and require little effort. In general, consumers face four types of purchase decisions:

Minor New Purchase these purchases represent something new to a consumer but in the customers mind is not a very important purchase in terms of need, money or other reason (e.g., status within a group). Minor Re-Purchase these are the most routine of all purchases and often the consumer returns to purchase the same product without giving much thought to other product options (i.e., consumer is brand loyalty). Major New Purchase these purchases are the most difficult of all purchases because the product being purchased is important to the consumer but the consumer has little or no previous experience making these decisions. The consumers lack of confidence in making this type of decision often (but not always) requires the consumer to engage in an extensive decision-making process... Major Re-Purchase - these purchase decisions are also important to the consumer but the consumer feels confident in making these decisions since they have previous experience purchasing the product. What Influences Purchasing As we discussed the decision-making process for consumers is anything but straight forward. There are many factors that can affect this process as a person works through the purchase decision. The number of potential influences on consumer behavior is limitless. However, marketers are well served to understand the KEY influences. By doing so they may be in a position to tailor their marketing efforts to take advantage of these influences in a way that will satisfy the consumer and the marketer (remember this is a key part of the definition of marketing INTERNAL INFLUENCES We start our examination of the influences on consumer purchase decisions by first looking inside ourselves to see which are the most important internal factors that affect how we make choices. Perception has several steps.

Exposure sensing a stimuli (e.g. seeing an ad) Attention an effort to recognize the nature of a stimuli (e.g. recognizing it is an ad) Awareness assigning meaning to a stimuli (e.g., humorous ad for particular product) Retention adding the meaning to ones internal makeup (i.e., product has fun ads)

65

66

BANK EXAMS COACHING CENTER E Mail: tnsmani@gmail.com By T.N.Subramaniyan (Retd Bank Manager) 8893495638 Marketing Implications: Motivation is also closely tied to the concept of Involvement, which relates to how much effort the consumer will exert in making a decision. Highly motivated consumers will want to get mentally and physically involved in the purchase process. Not all products have a high percentage of highly involved customers (e.g., milk) but marketers who market products and services that may lead to high level of consumer involvement should prepare options that will be attractive to this group. For instance, marketers should make it easy for consumers to learn about their product (e.g., information on website, free video preview) and, for some products, allow customers to experience the product (e.g., free trial) before committing to the purchase. Culture Culture represents the behavior, beliefs and, in many cases, the way we act learned by interacting or observing other members of society. In this way much of what we do is shared behavior, passed along from one member of society to another. Yet culture is a broad concept that, while of interest to marketers, is not nearly as important as understanding what occurs within smaller groups or Sub-Cultures to which we may also belong. Sub-cultures also have shared values but this occurs within smaller groups. For instance, sub-cultures exist where groups share similar values in terms of ethnicity, religious beliefs, geographic location, special interests and many others. Purchase Situation
A purchase decision can be strongly affected by the situation in which people find themselves. In general, a situation is the circumstances a person faces when making a purchase decision, such as the nature of their physical environment, their emotional state, or time constraints. Not all situations are controllable, in which case a consumer may not follow their normal process for making a purchase decision. For instance, if a person needs a product quickly and a store does not carry the brand they normally purchase, the customer may choose a competitors product.

How Consumers Buy So now that we have discussed the factors influencing a consumers decision to purchase, lets examine the process itself. This process is presented in a sequence of 5 steps as shown below. 1. Need/Consumer Buying Behavior 2. Search for Information 3. Evaluate Option 5. After-Purchase Evaluation 4. Purchase

67

BANK EXAMS COACHING CENTER E Mail: tnsmani@gmail.com By T.N.Subramaniyan (Retd Bank Manager) 8893495638

BUSINESS BUYING BEHAVIOR Who Makes Up the Business Market Supply Chain Members Business User Markets How Business Markets Compare to Consumer Markets How Decisions Are Made In the marketing literature those associated with the purchase decision are known to be part of a Buying Center, which consists of individuals within an organization that perform one or more of the following roles:

Buyer responsible for dealing with suppliers and placing orders (e.g., purchasing agent) Decider has the power to make the final purchase decision (e.g., CEO) Influencer has the ability to affect what is ordered such as setting order specifications (e.g., engineers, researchers, product managers) User those who will actually use the product when it is received (e.g., office staff) Initiator any Buying Center member who is the first to determine that a need exists Gatekeeper anyone who controls access to other Buying Center members (e.g., administrative assistant) Experienced Purchasers Larger Purchases Decision Making Time Number of Buyers Promotional Focus

Types of Business Purchase Decisions Straight Re-Purchase - Modified Re-Purchase New Task Purchase Business purchasing follows the same five-step buying process faced by consumers: Need Recognition Purchase Search Evaluate Options After-Purchase Evaluation.

68

BANK EXAMS COACHING CENTER E Mail: tnsmani@gmail.com By T.N.Subramaniyan (Retd Bank Manager) 8893495638

Targeting Markets Selecting Target Markets Creating Promotions Setting Price Developing Products/Services Arranging Distribution Adding Support Services

step 1 - Identify Market Segments Step 2 - Choosing Market Segments Step 3 - Develop Marketing Strategy to Appeal to Target Market(s)
Product Positioning & Product Decisions

What is a Product? In marketing, the term product is often used as a catch-all word to identify solutions a marketer provides to its target market. We will follow this approach and permit the term product to cover offerings that fall into one of the following categories:

Goods

Services

Ideas

Categories of Consumer Products Convenience Products Shopping Products Specialty Products Emergency Products Unsought Products Components of a Product Core Benefits Actual Product Augmented Product Guarantee Warranty Customer Service Complementary Products Accessibility Key Product Decisions Consumable Product Features Packaging

Branding Labeling

Distribution Decisions

69

BANK EXAMS COACHING CENTER E Mail: tnsmani@gmail.com By T.N.Subramaniyan (Retd Bank Manager) 8893495638 What are Channels of Distribution? In the Business Buying Behavior Tutorial, we describe a supply chain as consisting of all parties and their supplied activities that help a marketer create and deliver products to the final customer. For marketers, the distribution decision is primarily concerned with the supply chains front-end or channels of distribution that are designed to move the product (goods or services) from the hands of the company to the hands of the customer. Obviously when we talk about intangible services the use of the word hands is a figurative way to describe the exchange that takes place. But the idea is the same as with tangible goods. All activities and organizations helping with the exchange are part of the marketers channels of distribution. Activities involved in the channel are wide and varied though the basic activities revolve around these general tasks: Ordering Display Handling and shipping Promotion Selling Storage Information feedback

Type of Channel Members Channel activities may be carried out by the marketer or the marketer may seek specialist organizations to assist with certain functions. We can classify specialist organizations into two broad categories: resellers and specialty service firms. Resellers These organizations, also known within some industries as intermediaries, distributors or dealers, generally purchase or take ownership of products from the marketing company with the intention of selling to others. If a marketer utilizes multiple resellers within its distribution channel strategy the collection of resellers is termed a Reseller Network. These organizations can be classified into several sub-categories including: Retailers Organizations that sell products directly to final consumers. Wholesalers Organizations that purchase products from suppliers, such as manufacturers or other wholesalers, and in turn sell these to other resellers, such as retailers or other wholesalers. Industrial Distributors Firms that work mainly in the business-to-business market selling products obtained from industrial suppliers. Specialty Service Firms These are organizations that provide additional services to help with the exchange of products but generally do not purchase the product (i.e., do not take ownership of the product):

70

BANK EXAMS COACHING CENTER E Mail: tnsmani@gmail.com By T.N.Subramaniyan (Retd Bank Manager) 8893495638

Agents and Brokers Organizations that mainly work to bring suppliers and buyers together in exchange for a fee. Distribution Service Firms Offer services aiding in the movement of products such as assistance with transportation, storage, and order processing. Others This category includes firms that provide additional services to aid in the distribution process such as insurance companies and firms offering transportation routing assistance. Importance of Distribution Channels As noted, distribution channels often require the assistance of others in order for the marketer to reach its target market. But why exactly does a company need others to help with the distribution of their product? Wouldnt a company that handles its own distribution functions be in a better position to exercise control over product sales and potentially earn higher profits? Also, doesnt the Internet make it much easier to distribute products thus lessening the need for others to be involved in selling a companys product? While on the surface it may seem to make sense for a company to operate its own distribution channel (i.e., handling all aspects of distribution) there are many factors preventing companies from doing so. While companies can do without the assistance of certain channel members, for many marketers some level of channel partnership is needed. For example, marketers who are successful without utilizing resellers to sell their product (e.g., Dell Computers sells mostly through the Internet and not in retail stores) may still need assistance with certain parts of the distribution process (e.g., Dell uses parcel post shippers such as FedEx and UPS). In Dells case creating their own transportation system makes little sense given how large such a system would need to be in order to service Dells customer base. Thus, by using shipping companies Dell is taking advantage of the benefits these services offer to Dell and to Dells customers. When choosing a distribution strategy a marketer must determine what value a channel member adds to the firms products. Remember, as we discussed in the Product Decisions Tutorial, customers assess a products value by looking at many factors including those that surround the product (i.e., augmented product). Several surrounding features can be directly influenced by channel members, such as customer service, delivery, and availability. Consequently, for the marketer selecting a channel partner involves a value analysis in the same way customers make purchase decisions. That is, the marketer must assess the benefits received from utilizing a channel partner versus the cost incurred for using the services.

Benefits Offered by Channel Members

Cost Savings in Specialization Members of the distribution channel are specialists in what they do and can often perform tasks better and at lower cost than companies who do not have distribution experience. Marketers attempting to handle too many aspects of distribution may end up exhausting company resources as they

71

BANK EXAMS COACHING CENTER E Mail: tnsmani@gmail.com By T.N.Subramaniyan (Retd Bank Manager) 8893495638 learn how to distribute, resulting in the company being a jack of all trades but master of none. Reduce Exchange Time Not only are channel members able to reduce distribution costs by being experienced at what they do, they often perform their job more rapidly resulting in faster product delivery. For instance, consider what would happen if a grocery store received direct shipment from EVERY manufacturer that sells products in the store. This delivery system would be chaotic as hundreds of trucks line up each day to make deliveries, many of which would consist of only a few boxes. On a busy day a truck may sit for hours waiting for space so they can unload their products. Instead, a better distribution scheme may have the grocery store purchasing its supplies from a grocery wholesaler that has its own warehouse for handling simultaneous shipments from a large number of suppliers. The wholesaler will distributes to the store in the quantities the store needs, on a schedule that works for the store, and often in a single truck, all of which speeds up the time it takes to get the product on the stores shelves. Customers Want to Conveniently Shop for Variety Marketers have to understand what customers want in their shopping experience. Referring back to our grocery store example, consider a world without grocery stores and instead each marketer of grocery products sells through their own stores. As it is now, shopping is time consuming, but consider what would happen if customers had to visit multiple retailers each week to satisfy their grocery needs. Hence, resellers within the channel of distribution serve two very important needs: 1) they give customers the products they want by purchasing from many suppliers (termed accumulating and assortment services), and 2) they make it convenient to purchase by making products available in single location. Resellers Sell Smaller Quantities Not only do resellers allow customers to purchase products from a variety of suppliers, they also allow customers to purchase in quantities that work for them. Suppliers though like to ship products they produce in large quantities since this is more cost effective than shipping smaller amounts. For instance, consider what it costs to drive a truck a long distance. In terms of operational expenses for the truck (e.g., fuel, truck drivers cost) lets assume it costs (US) \$1,000 to go from point A to point B. Yet in most cases, with the exception of a little decrease in fuel efficiency, it does not cost that much more to drive the truck whether it is filled with 1000 boxes containing the product or whether it only has 100 boxes. But when transportation costs are considered on a per product basis (\$1 per box vs. \$10 per box) the cost is much less for a full truck. The ability of intermediaries to purchase large quantities but to resell them in smaller quantities (referred to as bulk breaking) not only makes these products available to those

wanting smaller quantities but the reseller is able to pass along to their customers a significant portion of the cost savings gained by purchasing in large volume. Create Sales Resellers are at the front line when it comes to creating demand for the marketers product. In some cases resellers perform an active selling role using persuasive techniques to encourage customers to purchase a marketers product. In other cases they encourage sales of the product through their own advertising efforts and using other promotional means such as special product displays.

72

BANK EXAMS COACHING CENTER E Mail: tnsmani@gmail.com By T.N.Subramaniyan (Retd Bank Manager) 8893495638

Offer Financial Support Resellers often provide programs that enable customers to more easily purchase products by offering financial programs that ease payment requirements. These programs include allowing customers to: purchase on credit; purchase using a payment plan; delay the start of payments; and allowing trade-in or exchange options Provide Information Companies utilizing resellers for selling their products depend on distributors to provide information that can help improve the product. High-level intermediaries may offer their suppliers real-time access to sales data including information showing how products are selling by such characteristics as geographic location, type of customer, and product location (e.g., where located within a store, where found on a website). If high-level information is not available, marketers can often count on resellers to provide feedback as to how customers are responding to products. This feedback can occur either through surveys or interviews with resellers employees or by requesting the reseller allow the marketer to survey customers.

Costs of Utilising Channel Members

Loss of Revenue Resellers are not likely to offer services to a marketer unless they see financial gain in doing so. They obtain payment for their services as either direct payment (e.g., marketer pays for shipping costs) or, in the case of resellers, by charging their customers more than what they paid the marketer for acquiring the product (termed markup). For the latter, marketers have a good idea of what the final customer will pay for their product which means the marketer must charge less when selling the product to resellers. In these situations marketers are not reaping the full sale price by using resellers, which they may be able to do if they sold directly to the customer.

Loss of Communication Control Marketers not only give up revenue when using resellers, they may also give up control of the message being conveyed to customers. If the reseller engages in communication activities, such as personal selling in order to get customers to purchase the product, the marketer is no longer controlling what is being said about the product. This can lead to miscommunication problems with customers, especially if the reseller embellishes the benefits the product provides to the customer. While marketers can influence what is being said by training resellers salespeople, they lack ultimate control of the message.

Loss of Product Importance Once a product is out of the marketers hands the importance of that product is left up to channel members. If there are pressing issues in the channel, such as transportation problems, or if a competitor is using promotional incentives in an effort to push their product through resellers, the marketers product may not get the attention the marketer feels it should receive. Channel Arrangements The distribution channel consists of many parties each seeking to meet their own business objectives. Clearly for the channel to work well, relationships between channel members

73

BANK EXAMS COACHING CENTER E Mail: tnsmani@gmail.com By T.N.Subramaniyan (Retd Bank Manager) 8893495638 must be strong with each member understanding and trusting others on whom they depend for product distribution to flow smoothly. For instance, a small sporting goods retailer that purchases products from a wholesaler trusts the wholesaler to deliver required items on-time in order to meet customer demand, while the wholesaler counts on the retailer to place regular orders and to make on-time payments. Relationships in a channel are in large part a function of the arrangement that occurs between the members. These arrangements can be divided in two main categories: independent and dependent. Independent Channel Arrangement Under this arrangement a channel member negotiates deals with others that do not result in binding relationships. In other words, a channel member is free to make whatever arrangements they feel is in their best interest. This so-called conventional distribution arrangement often leads to significant conflict as individual members decide what is best for them and not necessarily for the entire channel. On the other hand, an independent channel arrangement is less restrictive than dependent arrangements and makes it easier for a channel members to move away from relationships they feel are not working to their benefit. Dependent Channel Arrangement Under this arrangement a channel member feels tied to one or more members of the distribution channel. Sometimes referred to as vertical marketing systems this approach makes it more difficult for an individual member to make changes to how products are distributed. However, the dependent approach provides much more stability and consistency since members are united in their goals. The dependent channel arrangement can be broken down into three types:

Corporate Under this arrangement a supplier operates its own distribution system in a manor that produces an integrated channel. This occurs most frequently in the retail industry where a supplier operates a chain of retail stores. Starbucks is a company that does this. They import and process coffee and then sell it under their own brand name in their own stores. It should be mentioned that Starbucks also distributes their products in other ways, such as through grocery stores and mail order. As we will see in more detail later, Starbucks is using a multi-channel structure to market their products. Contractual Under this arrangement a legal document obligates members to agree on how a product is distributed. Often times the agreement specifically spells out which activities each member is permitted to perform or not perform. This type of arrangement can occur in several formats including: Wholesaler-sponsored where a wholesaler brings together and manages many independent retailers including having the retailers use the same name Retailersponsored this format also brings together retailers but the retailers are responsible for managing the relationship . Franchised where a central organization controls nearly all activities of other members

74

BANK EXAMS COACHING CENTER E Mail: tnsmani@gmail.com By T.N.Subramaniyan (Retd Bank Manager) 8893495638

Administrative In certain channel arrangements a single member may dominate the decisions that occur within the channel. These situations occur when one channel member has achieved a significant power position. This most likely occurs if a manufacturer has significant power due to brands in strong demand by target markets (e.g., Procter &Gamble) or if a retailer has significant power due to size and market coverage (e.g., Wal-Mart). In most cases the arrangement is understood to occur and is not bound by legal or financial arrangements. (More discussion on channel power can be found below.) Factors in Creating Distribution Channels Like most marketing decisions, a great deal of research and thought must go into determining how to carry out distribution activities in a way that meets a marketers objectives. The marketer must consider many factors when establishing a distribution system. Some factors are directly related to marketing decisions while others are affected by relationships that exist with members of the channel. Marketing Decision Issues Product Issues
The nature of the product often dictates the distribution options available especially if the product requires special handling. For instance, companies selling delicate or fragile products, such as flowers, look for shipping arrangements that are different than those sought for companies selling extremely tough or durable products, such as steel beams.

Promotion Issues Besides issues related to physical handling of products, distribution decisions are affected by the type of promotional activities needed to sell the product to customers. For products needing extensive salesperson-to-customer contact (e.g., automobile purchases) the distribution options are different than for products where customers typically require no sales assistance (i.e., bread purchases).

Pricing Issues The desired price at which a marketer seeks to sell their product can impact how they choose to distribute. As previously mentioned, the inclusion of resellers in a marketers distribution strategy may affect a products pricing since each member of the channel seeks to make a profit for their contribution to the sale of the product. If too many channel members are involved the eventual selling price may be too high to meet sales targets in which case the marketer may explore other distribution options.

75

BANK EXAMS COACHING CENTER E Mail: tnsmani@gmail.com By T.N.Subramaniyan (Retd Bank Manager) 8893495638 Target Market Issues A distribution system is only effective if customers can obtain the product. Consequently, a key decision in setting up a channel arrangement is for the marketer to choose the approach that reaches customers in the most effective way possible. The most important decision with regard to reaching the target market is to determine the level of distribution coverage needed to effectively meet customers needs. Distribution coverage is measured in terms of the intensity by which the product is made available. For the most part, distribution coverage decisions are of most concern to consumer products companies, though there are many industrial products that also must decide how much coverage to give their products. As we will see the marketer must take into consideration many factors when choosing the right level of distribution coverage. However, all marketers should understand that distribution creates costs to the organization. Some of these expenses can be passed along to customers (e.g., shipping costs) but others cannot (e.g., need for additional salespeople to handle more distributors). Thus, the process for determining the right level of distribution coverage often comes down to an analysis of the benefits (e.g., more sales) versus the cost associated with gain the benefits. There are three main levels of distribution coverage - mass coverage, selective and exclusive.

Mass Coverage - The mass coverage (also known as intensive distribution) strategy attempts to distribute products widely in nearly all locations in which that type of product is sold. This level of distribution is only feasible for relatively low priced products that appeal to very large target markets (e.g., see consumer convenience products). A product such as Coca-Cola is a classic example since it is available in a wide variety of locations including grocery stores, convenience stores, vending machines, hotels and many, many more. With such a large number of locations selling the product the cost of distribution is extremely high and must be offset with very high sales volume. Selective Coverage - Under selective coverage the marketer deliberately seeks to limit the locations in which this type of product is sold. To the non-marketer it may seem strange for a marketer to not want to distribute their product in every possible location. However, the logic of this strategy is tied to the size and nature of the products target market. Products with selective coverage appeal to smaller, more focused target markets (e.g., see consumer shopping products) compared to the size of target markets for mass marketed products. Consequently, because the market size is smaller, the number of locations needed to support the distribution of the product is fewer.

Exclusive Coverage - Some high-end products target very narrow markets that have a relatively small number of customers. These customers are often characterized as discriminating in their taste for products and seek to satisfy some of their needs with high-quality, though expensive products. Additionally, many buyers of high-end products require a high level of customer service from the

76

BANK EXAMS COACHING CENTER E Mail: tnsmani@gmail.com By T.N.Subramaniyan (Retd Bank Manager) 8893495638 channel member from whom they purchase. These characteristics of the target market may lead the marketer to sell their products through a very select or exclusive group of resellers. Another type of exclusive distribution may not involve high-end products but rather products only available in selected locations such as companyowned stores. While these products may or may not be higher priced compared to competitive products, the fact these are only available in company outlets give exclusivity to the distribution. We conclude this section by noting that while the three distribution coverage options just discussed serve as a useful guide for envisioning how distribution intensity works, the advent of the Internet has brought into question the effectiveness of these schemes. For all intents and purposes all products available for purchase over the Internet are distributed in the same way - mass coverage. So a better way to look at the three levels is to consider these as options for distribution coverage of products that are physically purchased by a customer (i.e., walk-in to purchase). Channel Relationship Issues A good distribution strategy takes into account not only marketing decisions, but also considers how relationships within the channel of distribution can impact the marketers product. In this section we examine three such issues: Channel Power A channel can be made up of many parties each adding value to the product purchased by customers. However, some parties within the channel may carry greater weight than others. In marketing terms this is called channel power, which refers to the influence one party within a channel has over other channel members. When power is exerted by a channel member they are often in the position to make demands of others. For instance, they may demand better financial terms (e.g., will only buy if prices are lowered, will only sell if price is higher) or demand other members perform certain tasks (e.g., do more marketing to customers, perform more product services). Channel power can be seen in several ways:

Backend or Product Power Occurs when a product manufacturer or service provider markets a brand that has a high level of customer demand. The marketer of the brand is often in a power position since other channel members have little choice but to carry the brand or risk losing customers. Middle or Wholesale Power Occurs when an intermediary, such as a wholesaler, services a large number of smaller retailers with products obtained from a large number of manufacturers. In this situation the wholesaler can exert power since the small retailers are often not in the position to purchase products cost-effectively and in as much variety as what is offered by the wholesaler. Front or Retailer Power As the name suggests, the power in this situation rests with the retailer who can command major concessions from their suppliers. This type of power is most prevalent when the retailer commands a significant percentage of sales in the market they serve and others in the channel are dependent on the sales generated by the retailer.

77

BANK EXAMS COACHING CENTER E Mail: tnsmani@gmail.com By T.N.Subramaniyan (Retd Bank Manager) 8893495638 Channel Conflict In an effort to increase product sales, marketers are often attracted by the notion that sales can grow if the marketer expands distribution by adding additional resellers. Such decisions must be handled carefully, however, so that existing dealers do not feel threatened by the new distributors who they may feel are encroaching on their customers and siphoning potential business. For marketers, channel strategy designed to expand product distribution may in fact do the opposite if existing members feel there is a conflict in the decisions made by the marketer. If existing members sense a conflict and feel the marketer is not sensitive to their needs they may choose to stop handling the marketers products. Need for Long-Term Commitments Channel decisions have long-term consequences for marketers since efforts to establish new relationships can take an extensive period of time while ending existing relationships can prove difficult. For instance, Company A, a marketer of kitchen cabinets that wants to change distribution strategy, may decide to stop selling their product line through industrial supply companies that distribute cabinets to building contractors and instead sell through large retail home centers. If in the future Company A decides to once again enter the industrial supply market they may run into resistance since supply companies may have replaced Company As product line with other products and, given what happened to the previous relationship, may be reluctant to deal with Company A. As another example of problems with long-term commitments, building contractors may be comfortable purchasing kitchen cabinets from industrial suppliers. If Company A decides to change their reseller network they may find it difficult to regain the building contractor customer base, who may continue to purchase from the industrial suppliers but are now purchasing products from Company As competitors. In this case, Company A may have to give serious thought to whether breaking their long-term relationship with industrial suppliers is in the companys best interest.

Overall Distribution Design Mindful of the factors affecting distribution decisions (i.e., marketing decision issues and relationship issues), the marketer has several options to choose from when settling on a design for their distribution network. We stress the word may since while in theory an option would appear to be available, marketing decision factors (e.g., product, promotion, pricing, target markets) or the nature of distribution channel relationships may not permit the marketer to pursue a particular option. For example, selling through a desired retailer may not be feasible if the retailer refuses to handle a product. For marketers the choice of distribution design comes down to selecting between direct or indirect methods, or in some case choosing both.

78

BANK EXAMS COACHING CENTER E Mail: tnsmani@gmail.com By T.N.Subramaniyan (Retd Bank Manager) 8893495638 Direct Distribution System With a direct distribution system the marketer reaches the intended final user of their product by distributing the product directly to the customer. That is, there are no other parties involved in the distribution process that take ownership of the product. The direct system can be further divided by the method of communication that takes place when a sale occurs. These methods are:

Direct Marketing Systems With this system the customer places the order either through information gained from non-personal contact with the marketer, such as by visiting the marketers website or ordering from the marketers catalog, or through personal communication with a customer representative who is not a salesperson, such as through toll-free telephone ordering. Direct Retail Systems This type of system exists when a product marketer also operates their own retail outlets. As previously discussed, Starbucks would fall into this category. Personal Selling Systems The key to this direct distribution system is that a person whose main responsibility involves creating and managing sales (e.g., salesperson) is involved in the distribution process, generally by persuading the buyer to place an order. While the order itself may not be handled by the salesperson (e.g., buyer physically places the order online or by phone) the salesperson plays a role in generating the sales. Assisted Marketing Systems Under the assisted marketing system, the marketer relies on others to help communicate the marketers products but handles distribution directly to the customer. The classic example of assisted marketing systems is eBay which helps bring buyers and sellers together for a fee. Other agents and brokers would also fall into this category. Indirect Distribution System With an indirect distribution system the marketer reaches the intended final user with the help of others. These resellers generally take ownership of the product, though in some cases they may sell products on a consignment basis (i.e., only pay the supplying company if the product is sold). Under this system intermediaries may be expected to assume many responsibilities to help sell the product. Indirect methods include:

Single-Party Selling System - Under this system the marketer engages another party who then sells and distributes directly to the final customer. This is most likely to occur when the product is sold through large store-based retail chains or through online retailers, in which case it is often referred to as a trade selling system.

Multiple-Party Selling System This indirect distribution system has the product passing through two or more distributors before reaching the final customer. The most likely scenario is when a wholesaler purchases from the manufacturer and sells the product to retailers.

79

BANK EXAMS COACHING CENTER E Mail: tnsmani@gmail.com By T.N.Subramaniyan (Retd Bank Manager) 8893495638 Multi-channel or Hybrid System In cases where a marketer utilizes more than one distribution design the marketer is following a multi-channel or hybrid distribution system. As we discussed, Starbucks follows this approach as their distribution design includes using a direct retail system by selling in company-owned stores, a direct marketing system by selling via direct mail, and a single-party selling system by selling through grocery stores (they also use other distribution systems). The multi-channel approach expands distribution and allows the marketer to reach a wider market, however, as we discussed under Channel Relationships, the marketer must be careful with this approach due to the potential for channel conflict. Establishing Channel Relationships Since channel members must be convinced to handle a marketers product it makes sense to consider channel partners needs in the same way the marketer considers the final users needs. However, the needs of channel members are much different than those of the final customer. As we noted in the Business Buying Behavior Tutorial, resellers seek products of interest to the resellers customers but are also concerned with many other issues such as:

Delivery Resellers want the product delivered on-time and in good condition in order to meet customer demand and avoid inventory out-of-stocks.

Profit Margin Resellers are in business to make money so a key factor in their decision to handle a product is how much money they will make on each product sold. They expect that the difference (i.e., margin) between their cost for acquiring the product from a supplier and the price they charge to sell the product to their customers will be sufficient to meet their profit objectives.

Other Incentives Besides profit margin, resellers may want other incentives to entice them especially if they are required to give extra effort selling the product. These incentives may be in the form of additional free products or even bonuses (e.g., bonus, free trips) for achieving sales goals.

Packaging Resellers want to handle products as easily as possible and want their suppliers to ship and sell products in packages that fit within their system. For example, products may need to be a certain size or design in order to fit on a stores shelf, or the shipping package must fit within the resellers warehouse or receiving dock space. Also, many resellers are now requiring marketers to consider adding identification tags to products (e.g., RFID tags) to allow for easier inventory tracking when the product is received and also when it is sold.

Training Some products require the reseller to have strong knowledge of the product including demonstrating the product to customers. Marketers must consider

80

BANK EXAMS COACHING CENTER E Mail: tnsmani@gmail.com By T.N.Subramaniyan (Retd Bank Manager) 8893495638 offering training resellers to insure the reseller has the knowledge to present the product accurately. Promotional Help Resellers often seek additional help from the product supplier to promote the product to customers. Such help may come in the form of funding for advertisements, point-of-purchase product materials, or in-store demonstrations. Retailing

What is retailing? Retailing is a distribution channel function where one organization buys products from supplying firms or manufactures the product themselves, and then sells these directly to consumers. A retailer is a reseller (i.e., obtains product from one party in order to sell to another) from which a consumer purchases products. In the US alone there are over 1,100,000 retailers according to the 2002 US Census of Retail Trade. In the majority of retail situations, the organization from which a consumer makes purchases is a reseller of products obtained from others and not the product manufacturer. But as we discussed in the Distribution Decisions Tutorial, some manufacturers also operate their own retail outlets in a corporate channel arrangement. While consumers are the retailers buyers, a consumer does not always buy from retailers. For instance, when a consumer purchases from another consumer (e.g., eBay) the consumer purchase would not be classified as a retail purchase. This distinction can get confusing but in the US and other countries the dividing line is whether the one selling to consumers is classified as a business (e.g., legal and tax purposes) or is selling as a hobby without a legal business standing. As a reseller, retailers offer many benefits to suppliers and customers as we discussed in the Distribution Decisions Tutorial. For consumers the most important benefits relate to the ability to purchase small quantities of a wide assortment of products at prices that are considered reasonably affordable. For suppliers the most important benefits relate to offering opportunities to reach their target market, build product demand through retail promotions, and provide consumer feedback to the product marketer. Concerns of Retailers Retailers are faced with many issues as they attempt to be successful. The key issues include:

Customer Satisfaction Retailers know that satisfied customers are loyal customers. Consequently, retailers must develop strategies intended to build relationships that result in customers returning to make more purchases.

Ability to Acquire the Right Products : A customer will only be satisfied if they can purchase the right products to satisfy their needs. Since a large percentage

81

BANK EXAMS COACHING CENTER E Mail: tnsmani@gmail.com By T.N.Subramaniyan (Retd Bank Manager) 8893495638 of retailers do not manufacture their own products, they must seek suppliers who will supply products demanded by customers. Thus, an important objective for retailers is to identify the products customers will demand and negotiate with suppliers to obtain these products.

Product Presentation Once obtained products must be presented or merchandised to customers in a way that generates interest. Retail merchandising often requires hiring creative people who understand and can relate to the market.

Traffic Building Like any marketer, retailers must use promotional methods to build customer interest. For retailers a key measure of interest is the number of people visiting a retail location or website. Building traffic is accomplished with a variety of promotional techniques such as advertising, including local newspapers or Internet, and specialized promotional activities, such as coupons.

Layout For store-based retailers a stores physical layout is an important component in creating a retail experience that will attract customers. The physical layout is more than just deciding in what part of the store to locate products. For many retailers designing the right shopping atmosphere (e.g., objects, light, and sound) can add to the appeal of a store. Layout is also important in the online world where site navigation and usability may be deciding factors in whether of a retail website is successful.

Location Where to physically locate a retail store may help or hinder store traffic. Well placed stores with high visibility and easy access, while possibly commanding higher land usage fees, may hold significantly more value than lower cost sites that yield less traffic. Understanding the trade-off between costs and benefits of locations is an important retail decision.

Keeping Pace With Technology Technology has invaded all areas of retailing including customer knowledge (e.g., customer relationship management software), product movement (e.g., use of RFID tags for tracking), point-of-purchase (e.g., scanners, kiosks, self-serve checkout), web technologies (e.g., online shopping carts, purchase recommendations) and many more.

Ways to Categorize Retailers There are many ways retailers can be categorized depending on the characteristics being evaluated. For our purposes we will separate retailers based on six factors directly related to major marketing decisions: target markets served promotional emphasis product offerings distribution method pricing structure service level

82

BANK EXAMS COACHING CENTER E Mail: tnsmani@gmail.com By T.N.Subramaniyan (Retd Bank Manager) 8893495638
And one operational factor: ownership

However, these groups are not meant to be mutually exclusive. In fact, as we will see in some way all retailers can placed into each category. Target Markets Served The first classification looks at the type of markets a retailer intends to target. These categories are identical to the classification scheme we saw in the Distribution Decisions Tutorial when we discussed the levels of distribution coverage.

Mass Market Mass market retailers appeal to the largest market possible by selling products of interest to nearly all consumers. With such a large market from which to draw customers, the competition among these retailers is often fierce.

Specialty Market Retailers categorized as servicing the specialty market are likely to target buyers looking for products having certain features that go beyond mass marketed products, such as customers who require more advanced product options or higher level of customer service. While not as large as the mass market, the target market serviced by specialty retailers can be sizable.

Exclusive Market Appealing to this market means appealing to discriminating customers who are often willing to pay a premium for features found in very few products and for highly personalized services. Since this target market is small, the number of retailers addressing this market within a given geographic area may also be small. Products Carried Under this classification retailers are divided based on the width (i.e., number of different product lines) and depth (i.e., number of different products within a product line) of the products they carry.

General Merchandisers These retailers carry a wide range of product categories (i.e., broad width) though the number of different items within a particular product line is generally limited (i.e., shallow depth). Multiple Lines Specialty Merchandisers - Retailers classified in this category stock a limited number of product lines (i.e., narrow width) but within the categories they handle they often offer a greater selection (i.e., extended depth) than are offered by general merchandisers. For example, a consumer electronics retailer would fall into this category. Single Line Specialty Merchandisers Some retailers limit their offerings to just one product line (i.e., very narrow width), and sometimes only one product (i.e., very shallow depth). This can be seen online where a relatively small website may sell a single product such as computer gaming software. Another example may be a small jewelry store that only handles watches.

83

BANK EXAMS COACHING CENTER E Mail: tnsmani@gmail.com By T.N.Subramaniyan (Retd Bank Manager) 8893495638 Target Markets Served The first classification looks at the type of markets a retailer intends to target. These categories are identical to the classification scheme we saw in the Distribution Decisions Tutorial when we discussed the levels of distribution coverage.

Mass Market Mass market retailers appeal to the largest market possible by selling products of interest to nearly all consumers. With such a large market from which to draw customers, the competition among these retailers is often fierce.

Specialty Market Retailers categorized as servicing the specialty market are likely to target buyers looking for products having certain features that go beyond mass marketed products, such as customers who require more advanced product options or higher level of customer service. While not as large as the mass market, the target market serviced by specialty retailers can be sizable.

Exclusive Market Appealing to this market means appealing to discriminating customers who are often willing to pay a premium for features found in very few products and for highly personalized services. Since this target market is small, the number of retailers addressing this market within a given geographic area may also be small. Distribution Method Retailers sell in many different formats with some requiring consumers visit a physical location while others sell to customers in a virtual space. It should be noted that many retailers are not tied to a single distribution method but operate using multiple methods.

Store-Based Sellers By far the predominant method consumers use to obtain products is to acquire these by physically visiting retail outlets (a.k.a. brick-andmortar). Store outlets can be further divided into several categories. One key characteristic that distinguishes categories is whether retail outlets are physically connected to one or more others stores: o Stand-Alone These are retail outlets that do not have other retail outlets connected. o Strip-Shopping Center A retail arrangement with two or more outlets physically connected or that share physical resources (e.g., share parking lot). o Shopping Area A local center of retail operations containing many retail outlets that may or may not be physically connected but are in close proximity to each other such as a city shopping district. o Regional Shopping Mall Consists of a large self-contained shopping area with many connected outlets. Non-Store Sellers A fast growing method used by retailers to sell products is through methods that do not have customers physically visiting a retail outlet. In fact, in many cases customers make their purchase from within their own homes.

84

BANK EXAMS COACHING CENTER E Mail: tnsmani@gmail.com By T.N.Subramaniyan (Retd Bank Manager) 8893495638
o

Online Sellers The fastest growing retail distribution method allows consumer to purchase products via the Internet. In most cases delivery is then handled by a third-party shipping service. o Direct Marketers Retailers that are principally selling via direct methods may have a primary location that receives orders but does not host shopping visits. Rather, orders are received via mail or phone. o Vending While purchasing through vending machines does require the consumer to physically visit a location, this type of retailing is considered as non-store retailing as the vending operations are not located at the vending companys place of business. Service Level Retailers attract customers not only with desirable products and affordable prices, but also by offering services that enhance the purchase experience. There are at least three levels of retail service:

Self-Service This service level allows consumers to perform most or all of the services associated with retail purchasing. For some consumers self-service is considered a benefit while others may view it as an inconvenience. Self-service can be seen with: 1) self-selection services, such as online purchasing and vending machine purchases, and 2) self-checkout services where the consumer may get help selecting the product but they use self-checkout stations to process the purchase including scanning and payment. Assorted-Service The majority of retailers offer some level of service to consumers. Service includes handling the point-of-purchase transaction; product selection assistance; arrange payment plans; offer delivery; and many more. Full-Service The full-service retailer attempts to handle nearly all aspects of the purchase to the point where all the consumer does is select the item they wish to purchase. Retailers that follow a full-price strategy often follow the full-service approach as a way of adding value to a customers purchase. Ownership Structure Finally, we can categorize retailers based on the ownership structure of the business.

Individually Owned and Operated Under this ownership structure an individual or corporate entity owns and operates one or a very small number of outlets. Single ownership of retail outlets most frequently occurs with small retail stores, though there are some cases, for instance in the automotive or furniture industries, where single ownership involves very large outlets. Corporate Chain A retail chain consists of multiple retail outlets owned and operated by a single entity all performing similar retail activities. While the number of retail outlets required to be classified as a chain has never been specified, we will assume that anyone owning more than five retail locations would be considered a chain.

85

BANK EXAMS COACHING CENTER E Mail: tnsmani@gmail.com By T.N.Subramaniyan (Retd Bank Manager) 8893495638

Corporate Structure This classification covers large retailers predominantly operating in the non-store retail arena such as online, catalog and vending. Contractually Licensed and Individually Operated The contractual channel arrangement discussed in the Distribution Decisions Tutorial has lead to a retail ownership structure in which operators of the retail outlet are not the out-right owners of the business. Instead, the arrangement often involves a legal agreement in which the owner of the retail concept allows the operator to run the owners business concept in exchange for financial considerations such as a percentage of revenue. This structure is most often seen in retail franchising.

86