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What is Nanotechnology? Nanotechnology (sometimes shortened to "nanotech") is the study of manipulating matter on an atomic and molecular scale. Generally, nanotechnology deals with structures sized between 1 to 100 nanometre in at least one dimension, and involves developing materials or devices possessing at least one dimension within that size. (Wikipedia)
Section
Atomic to cellular Atomic to cellular Atomic to cellular

Range
10-15 10-12 10-9

Unit
fm (femto) pm (pico) nm (nano)

Example
Proton, neutron wavelength of gamma rays and X-rays, hydrogen atom DNA helix, virus, proteins, wavelength of optical spectrum

Human scale
Human scale

10-6
10-3

m (micro)
mm (milli)

Bacterium, human cell, human hair


Insects, plant leaves, small animals

Nanotechnology Applications: -> Medicine (Diagnostics, Drug delivery, Tissue engineering) -> Environment (Biosensors) -> Consumer goods (food, textiles, household, optics, cosmetics, agrigulture) -> Energy (new materials for energy reduction/increase of efficiency) -> Information and communication (new memory storage, display) -> Heavy Industry (new materials using nanoparticles)

Nanotechnology Applications:

Nanomedicine: Biosensors for diagnostics (blood glucose, blood alcohol,) Drug delivery systems (Cancer therapy, vaccines)

Nanotechnology Applications:

Nanomedicine: Tissue Engineering (skin, bones, liver, Pancreas, bladder, Cornea )

Nanotechnology Applications:

Nanomedicine: Tissue Engineering (skin, bones, liver, Pancreas, bladder, Cornea )

Nanotechnology Applications:

Environment:

Biosensors for detection of toxins (pollution)


1. Enzyme based biosensors 2. Whole cell biosensors

What is Gene Technology?


Gene technology is the term given to a range of activities concerned with understanding the expression of genes, taking advantage of natural genetic variation, modifying genes and transferring genes to new hosts Gene technology is a tool that offers enormous benefits for human health, disease prevention, food security and sustainability

-> using and manipulating DNA to make proteins or motify organism (bacteria, fungi, plants or animals)
AFM image of DNA

What is a cell? -> All living organisms are made out of cells -> Cells are the smallest living unit

Yeast - Fungi
Bacteria Human red blood cells Plant cells

Single cell organisms - multi cell organisms


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Size of the cells

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Prokaryotic cells:
Bacteria

Eukaryotic cells:
Fungi (Yeast, mushrooms) Animals Plants

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DNA DeoxyriboNucleic Acids

DNA: Deoxyribonucleic Acid -> codes for all proteins in the cell -> inherited

RNA: Ribonucleic Acid -> Intermediate in the production of proteins

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DNA and RNA nucleic acids Minimal building block

RNA

DNA

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DNA

RNA

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DNA and RNA are Polymers

DNA:
RNA:

5-ATG-3
5-UGC-3

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DNA -> double stranded (ds) RNA -> single stranded (ss)

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3D structure of DNA

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DNA carries the information of all proteins !!!


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Cell growth -> cell division

DNA Replication
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The Central Dogma in Life


All proteins in the cell are encoded in the DNA of the cell !!!

DNA

-----------------> Transcription

mRNA

-------------------> Translation

Protein

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Translation from mRNA to Protein:


1 Triplett (codon) -> codes for 1 AA

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What is a gene ?

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When is a gene expressed (-> protein produced) ?

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Methods and applications of gene technology

1. Recombinant protein production -> Enzymes produced for medical applications, biotechnology, food, (-> Biosensor) 2. Modified Organisms -> plants with altered properties, transgenic fish,. (-> whole cell biosensor) 3. Study diseases

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How do clone a gene?


DNA cut -> many different fragments (whole genome of organism) -> colonies with no insert + Colonies with different inserts -> library !!! Within one colony all cells have the same insert -> clones !!!

Clones -> Cells or organisms with identical DNA

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Gene Library

DNA fragments are part of the genome -> Library of one organism

-> Used to screen for gene of interest

Clones -> genetically identical

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Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)


1993 Kary B Mullis received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry

Specific amplification of DNA Can be used to detect disease or infectious agents, modify genes (mutations,), screening of libraries, forensic technology, cloning of genes,.. Key technology of gene technology today !!! Golden standard in Diagnosis:

Prenatal diagnosis of genetic diseases -> results within 48 hours

Automatic Tuberculosis diagnosis test

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Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)

1st Cycle Result after 30 cycles -> just DNA between the primers amplified
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Genetic Engineering -> Mutagenesis

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Protein Engineering -> Mutagenesis

GFP variants
Engineering of a molecular spring (light blue, right). Under tension (lower part of the figure) the spring leads to a change in the regulatory subunit which causes the catalytic subunit (purple, left) to separate, activating the enzyme. (Giovanni Zocchi et al, UCLA)
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Gene Expression systems -> Recombinant production of Protein


Prokaryotic Expression vector: -> Escherichia coli

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Gene Expression systems

Escherichia coli

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Transgenic Animals
Production of pharmaceutical proteins -> drugs

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Transgenic versus Cloning


Transgenic -> creation of transgenic animal or plant (introduction of foreign gene into organism)
-> transgenic organisms produced by introduction of foreign gene into germ line (-> transgenic offspring!!!) -> introduction of gene into somatic cells -> gene therapy

Cloning -> obtaining an organism that is genetically identical to the original organism
-> such as Dolly the sheep

-> asexual propagation of plants (taking cuttings) -> natural clones -> twins

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Gene Therapy gene transfer into somatic stem cells


Gene delivery systems:

Viral gene transfer into somatic stem cells -> gene therapy

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DNA Nanostructures

DNA nanoparticles done by scientists at CalTech

Zhang C. et al., Nature 451(7182):1130-4

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DNA Nanostructures

Dietz and coworkers, TU Munich

A rotaxane: The first DNA nano-device with a freely movable ring. Source: Famulok/University of Bonn

Thorsten L. Schmidt and Alexander Heckel, Nano Lett., 2011, 11 (4), pp 17391742 Box with a lock by D. Benetsen, iNano (Aarhus Univeristy) 37

DNA Nanostructures

AFM image by L. Gurevich (Aalborg University)

Quatruplex DNA -> Molecular Electronics

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Nanostructures -> Molecular motors

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