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SOY MILK YOGHURT

Z.R.Denkova, I.D.Murgov University of Food Technologies, Plovdiv, Bulgaria

ABSTRACT
The influence of the initial dry substance of reconstituted soymilk and two types of starter cultures (single-strain and symbiotic) of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus on the fermentation process duration and the fermented milk quality was investigated. Witht 10% initial dry substance of the soymilk and 1% of the starter cultures for Bulgarian yoghurt the fermentation continued for2.5 h. The soy milk yoghurt had a titratable acidity of 65-75T and the cell titre reached 1010 cfu/cm3. The soy milk yoghurt retained its organoleptic qualities when stored for up to 3 days at temperatures of 25-30C and for 15 days at 4-6.

Introduction
Soy and soy products occupy a traditional position in the diet of Far East nations. They are very well received in the rest of the world as well. Soymilk yoghurt has been studied extensively (6, 8). Fermented soy milk products may be beneficial from an economic and nutritional point of view since they can be prepared with higher protein levels at a comparable or lower cost than regular fermented milk products (2). Soy proteins have a favourable amino acid balance meeting the essential amino acid requirements except for methionine (7). The research of a number of authors (1, 3, 4) has indicated a lot of advantages of soy milk products for the nutrition of children and adults suffering from allergies, diabetes, cancer, heart and renal diseases. Soymilk products and soymilk yoghurt can successfully replace the fermented milk products from cows milk (3, 4, 9). The present study has aimed at investigating the possibilities of obtaining soymilk yoghurt (sour soymilk) and determining some characteristic properties of the final product.

purposes of this study. Their composition included selected strains of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. The fresh soymilk was prepared by dissolving dried soymilk in water. After sterilization, it was poured into jars and inoculated with 1% of the indicated starter cultures for sour milk. It was thermostated at a temperature of 42C until coagulation of the soymilk. The titre of the viable cells was determined by inoculation of the cultures in a medium of LAPTg10 (g/dm3): peptone 15, tripton 10, yeast extract 10, glucose 10, Tween 80 1, distilled water up to 1 dm3, agar-agar 15, pH 6.6. The titratable acidity was determined titrimetrically by a 0.1 n NaOH with phenolphthalein as an indicator and it represented the used up millilitres of a 0.1 n NaOH for neutralization of the acid in 100 cm3 of the product expressed in Toerners degree (T).

Results and Discussion


It is necessary that the organoleptic indices of sour soymilk be close to those of Bulgarian yoghurt. Therefore the relationship between the dried soymilk and the water used for the preparation of the fresh soymilk, which was inoculated with the
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Materials and Methods


Two types of starter cultures for Bulgarian yoghurt (Y-I and Y-A) were used for the

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TABLE 1 Characteristics of soymilk yoghurt depending on the dry substance of reconstituted soymilk Starter culture for sour milk Dry substance, % 9 10 Y-I 11 9 Y-A 10 11 Taste of fermented milk with slightly expressed soy off-taste of fermented milk with slightly expressed soy off-taste of fermented milk with clearly expressed soy off-taste of fermented milk with slightly expressed soy off-taste of fermented milk with slightly expressed soy off-taste of fermented milk with clearly expressed soy off-taste Flavour Consistency

of sour milk loose of sour milk thick coagulum of sour milk of sour milk very thick coagulum of sour milk loose of sour milk thick coagulum of sour milk of sour milk very thick coagulum

TABLE 2 Physicochemical indices of soymilk yoghurt Yoghurt Y-1 Y-A Titre of viable cells, cfu/g 1.2.1010 2.5.1010 Titratable acidity, T 65 66 Coagulation time, h 2.5 2.5

symbiotic lactic acid bacterial cultures, was investigated. The taste, flavour and consistency of the final soymilk yoghurt were determined. The results of the experimental studies are given in Table 1. The data in the table show that the soymilk yoghurt obtained was similar to Bulgarian yoghurt when soymilk with 10% of dry substance was used, with both types of starter cultures. The yoghurt resembled Bulgarian yoghurt in taste and flavour and at the same time possessed the dietetic properties of soy products. Sour soymilks were prepared from fresh soymilk with the starter cultures Y-I and YA for Bulgarian yoghurt as shown in Table 1. The coagulation time of the milk, the titre of viable cells and the titratable acidity of the final soymilk yoghurt were determined. The soymilk prepared with both types of starter cultures had a high content of living cells (1010 cfu/g) and the fermentation process did not differ from the one during
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yoghurt preparation from cows milk (Table 2). The soymilk coagulation time and the titratable acidity at the end of the process were similar to those observed during Bulgarian yoghurt preparation (2.5 hours and titratable acidity of about 65-79 T). The yoghurt durability during storage was determined at room temperature (2530 C) and in refrigeration conditions (46 C) (Table 3). The soymilk yoghurt prepared with the Y-I starter culture could be stored for 3 days at 25 30 C and for 15 days in refrigeration conditions (4 6 C), whereas the product prepared with the Y-A starter culture rapidly increased its acidity at 2530 C and retained its organoleptic indices for 15 days at 4 6 C. On the bases of the experimental work done, the following conclusions can be drawn: It was established that soymilk yoghurt with good physicochemical and organoleptic

TABLE 3 Change in the titratable acidity of soymilk yoghurt during its storage Yoghurt Y-1 Y-A Storage at temperatures of 25 30 C Titratable acidity, T 1 day 2 days 3 days 6 days 7 days 65 100 113 145 145 66 110 137 165 170 Storage at temperatures of 4 6 C Titratable acidity, T 7 days 15 days 75 75 80 80

qualities was obtained from reconstituted soymilk with 10% dry substance. Soymilk yoghurt is prepared with a high content of viable cells (1010 cfu/g) and it can be stored for 3 days at 25 30 C and for more than 2 weeks in refrigeration conditions. REFERENCES
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