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Differentiation Techniques

Rules of differentiation
1. Linear combination a. a. [ ( ) ( )] ( ) [ ( ) ( )] ( ) [ ( )] 2. Product rule [ ( ) ( )] ( ) i. Keep left differentiate right, plus, keep right differentiate left 3. Quotient rule a. [
( ) ] ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) [ ( )] ( )

i. Keep bottom differentiate top, minus, keep top differentiate bottom, divided by bottom square. 4. Chain rule a. i. can be replaced by any other letter

Derivatives of common functions

No 1 2 3 Type Algebraic Exponential Logarithmic Composite function [ ( )] ( ) [ ( )] ( )
( ) ( )

[ ( )] [ ( )]

Trigonometry

Inverse trigonometry

[ ( )] [ ( )] [ ( )] [ ( )] [ ( )] [ ( )] [ ( )] [ ( )]

( (

[ ( )] [ ( )] ( ) [ ( )][ ] ( ) ( ) ( ) [ ( )][ ] [ ( )] [ ( )] [ ( )] [ ( )] [ ( )] [ ( )] [ ( )] [ ( )]) [ ( )] [ ( )] [ ( )]) [ ( )] [ ( )] [ ( )] ( )

( )

[ ( )]

[ ( )]

[ ( )] ( ) [ ( )] ( ) [ ( )]

Done by Nickolas Teo Jia Ming, CG 12/11

Interpretation of

( )
with respect to

( ) is the rate of change of When o When o When o o o

( ) , the graph is increasing, as increase, increases as well The graph is strictly increasing if this is applicable for the whole graph ( ) , the graph is decreasing, as increase, decreases The graph is strictly decreasing if this is applicable for the whole graph ( ) , there is a stationary point on the graph Local minimum point Local maximum point Stationary point of inflexion

Interpretation of

( )
( ) with respect to

( ) is the rate of change of

When ( ) , the graph is concave upwards, as increase, ( ) increases as well o The graph lies above the tangent When ( ) , the graph is concave downwards, as increase, ( ) decreases o The graph lies below the tangent When ( ) , there is a point of inflexion and a change in concavity

Nature of stationary points

To determine the nature of the stationary points, we have three methods 1. First derivative test a. Check the sign of Sign of ( ) Graphical interpretation

( ) on either side of the stationary point

2. Second derivative test ( ) at the stationary point a. Check the sign of ( ) i. If , it is a minimum point ii. If ( ) , it is a maximum point iii. If ( ) , it is inconclusive for point of inflection, and the first derivative test should be used ( ) is also It is inconclusive, as in , 3. Using a GC a. Graph the curve and sketch it

Graph of

( )

Done by Nickolas Teo Jia Ming, CG 12/11

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Vertical asymptotes remain unchanged Horizontal asymptotes become Oblique asymptotes ( ) become Stationary points at ( ) becomes an -intercept at Stationary points of inflexion at ( ) becomes a maximum or minimum point at ( For each portion of the original graph, consider ( ) a. i. Curve above x-axis ( ) b. i. Curve below x-axis ( ) c. i. Gradient increases ( ) d. i. Gradient decreases

Implicit differentiation
Differentiate with respect to ( o ) Product rule