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ME313L Fluid Mechanic Lab Manual (DRAFT)

Pipe Friction Experiment

Object: The friction loss in a small-bore horizontal pipe is to be determined over a wide range of Reynolds number. Both laminar and turbulent flow regimes are to be studied. Equipment: Air valve

Water manometer

Mercury U-tube

Isolating tap meter From water supply Needle valve

Test tube Figure 1 Pipe friction apparatus

A. Laminar Flow The laminar pipe friction apparatus is shown above. It consists of a water loop. The volumetric hydraulics bench serves as the water supply reservoir. Water is pumped up to a header tank through a ball valve A so that a constant head is provided for the laminar flow experiment. The constant head is maintained by means of an overflow tube in the header tank. The water then flows from the outlet pipe of the header tank to the pipe friction test bench through another ball value B. It then flows through a 3 mm

ME313L Fluid Mechanic Lab Manual (DRAFT) diameter pipe 524 mm long. Pressure taps are located at both ends of the pipe. The pressure drop is measured by a water manometer attached to each pressure tap. The water flow rate is controlled by a needle valve. The water is then collected in a calibrated beaker and timed for flow rate and the returned to the hydraulics bench. B. Turbulent Flow The equipment for turbulent flow measurements is the same as that for laminar flow measurements with two exceptions. 1) The flow from the hydraulics bench goes directly to the pipe friction test bench though a ball valve C and the header tank (and valves A and B) is bypassed . 2) The pressure drop across the test pipe is measured by a mercury Utube manometer. The turbulent flow water loop is shown below. Procedure: A. Laminar Flow 1) Ensure that the valve on the hydraulics bench is closed and the pump is turned off. 2) Open ball valves A and B and close ball valve C. The will cause the water to be sent to the header tank 3) Turn on the pump in the hydraulics bench and slowly open the valve on the bench. 4) When the water level reaches the overflow pipe in the header tank water will be visible draining back to the hydraulics bench. The hydraulics bench control valve should be adjusted so a small flow of water is visible in the overflow drain pipe. Too much water flow in the pipe may cause water to overflow the header tank. 5) Turn the isolating tap valve to connect the water manometer to the pressure taps. 6) Open the needle valve to establish maximum flow in the test pipe. Record the pressure difference in the test pipe with the water manometers. 7) Using the needle valve, adjust the flow rates to 85%, 70%, 55%, 40%, 25% and 10% of the maximum flow and record the pressure difference and flow rate data. 8) Direct the flow from the measuring pipe (on the discharge side of the needle valve) into the measuring cylinder and start the stopwatch at a convenient level and stop it at a suitable level (ensure that the time interval is greater than two minutes). During this operation care should be taken (a) to ensure that the measuring pipe exit is never below the surface of the water in the measuring cylinder and, (b) to stand the measuring cylinder below the apparatus.

ME313L Fluid Mechanic Lab Manual (DRAFT) 9) When the tests have been concluded, close the needle valve and the control valve on the hydraulics bench. After these valves are closed, turn off the pump. B. Turbulent Flow The procedure is the same as that for laminar flow except for these changes. 1) Close ball valves A and B and open ball valve C. This will cause the water to bypass the header tank. 2) Turn the isolating tap valve to connect the mercury manometer to the pressure taps. Take the pressure readings from the mercury manometers. Theory: For a horizontal, constant diameter pipe the energy equation from point 1 to point 2 is

P V1 P V 1 + + Z1 = 2 + 2 + Z2 + hf g 2g g 2g
and since V1 = V2 = 0 and Z1 = Z2 =0

hf =

DP g

where P = P1 - P2 g = weight density hf = head loss due to friction Also,

hf = f

L V2 D 2g

where f is the friction factor Results: 1) From the pressure drop data determine the pressure drop per meter (KPa/m) and plot DP/l as a function of the average velocity V in the pipe on rectangular coordinates. Plot a single best-fit line through all the data points (both laminar and turbulent). Use different symbols for laminar and turbulent points.

ME313L Fluid Mechanic Lab Manual (DRAFT) 2) Plot the theoretical curve of DP/l versus V on the graph from 1) assuming the pipe is hydraulically smooth. Determine percent error between the experimental and theoretical curves. 3) Plot D P/l (the head loss) in meters as a function of V (m/s) on log-log paper. Draw a best-fit linear line through the turbulent points. At the velocity point where the data deviates from laminar to turbulent trend lines, determine the transition Reynolds number and compare it to the accepted value. 4) Determine the equation of the straight lines for laminar and turbulent flow from the log-log graph. The equation is a power law variation of the form
DP = CV n g where C and n are constants obtained from the graph and g is the weight density of water.