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ME2251 Heat & Mass Transfer Unit - I Steady state Conduction: 1.

Determine the heat flow across a plane wall of 10 cm thickness with a constant thermal conductivity of 8.5 W/mK when the surface temperatures are steady at 100C and 30C. The wall area is 3m2. Also find the temperature gradient in the flow direction. (Q=17.85kW; dT/dx = 700C/m) 2. Determine the heat transfer by convection over a surface of 0.5 m 2 area if the surface is at 160C and fluid is at 40C. The value of convective heat transfer coefficient is 25W/m2K. Also estimate the temperature gradient at the surface given k = 1 W/mK. (Q = 1.5 kW; dT/dy = 3000C/m) 3. A surface is at 200C and has an area of 2m2. It exchanges heat with another surface B at 30C by radiation. The value of factor due to the geometric location and emissivity is 0.46. Determine the heat exchange. Also find the value of thermal resistance and equivalent convection coefficient. (Q = 2171.4 W; R = 0.07829C/W; h = 6.3865 W/m2K) Composite walls and Cylinders: 4. A furnace wall is of three layers, first layer of insulation brick of 12 cm thickness of conductivity 0.6 W/mK. The face is exposed to gases at 870C with a convection coefficient of 110 W/m2K. This layer is backed by a 10 cm layer of firebrick of conductivity 0.8 W/mK. There is a contact resistance between the layers of 2.6 104 m2 C/W. The third layer is the plate backing of 10 mm thickness of conductivity 49 W/mK. The contact resistance between the second and third layers is 1.5 10 4 m2 C/W. The plate is exposed to air at 30C with a convection coefficient of 15 W/m2K. Determine the heat flow, the surface temperatures and the overall heat transfer coefficient. (U = 2.491 W/m 2C; T1 = 850.97C; T21 = 432.40C; T22 = 431.86C; T31 = 170.26C; T32 = 169.95C; T4 = 169.52C) 5. A pipe carrying steam at 230C has an internal diameter of 12 cm and the pipe thickness is 7.5 mm. The conductivity of the pipe material is 49 W/mK the convective heat transfer coefficient on the inside is 85 W/m2K. The pipe is insulated by two layers of insulation one of 5 cm thickness of conductivity 0.15 W/mK and over it another 5 cm thickness of conductivity 0.48 W/mK. The outside is exposed to air at 35C with a convection coefficient of 18 W/m 2K. Determine the heat loss for 5 m length. Also determine the interface temperatures and the overall heat transfer coefficient based on inside and outside areas. (Q= 1234.06 W; Ui = 3.3574 W/m2K; Uo = 1.203 W/m2K; T1 = 222.3C; T2 = 222.2C; T3 = 77.04C; T4 = 48.03C) 6. A composite cylinder is made of 6 mm thick layers each of two materials of thermal conductivities of 30 W/m C and 45 W/m C. The inside is exposed to a

fluid at 500C with a convection coefficient of 40 W/m2 C and the outside is exposed to air at 35C with a convection coefficient of 25 W/m 2K. There is a contact resistance of 1 103 m2 C/W between the layers. Determine the heat loss for a length of 2 m and the surface temperatures. Inside dia = 20 mm. (Q = 1327 W; T1 = 236C; T2 = 234.35C; T21 = 227.75C; T3 = 227C) 7. Two slabs are placed in contact, but due to roughness, only 40% of area is in contact and the gap in the remaining area is 0.02 mm thick and is filled with air. The slabs are 10 cm thick each and their conductivities are 15.5 W/mK and 200 W/mK. The temperature of the face of the hot surface is at 250C and the outside surface of the other slab is at 35C. Determine the heat flow and the contact resistance. The conductivity of air is 0.0321 W/mK. (Req = 0.464 106; Q = 30926 W) 8. A composite wall is made up of 3 layers of thicknesses 25 cm, 10 cm and 15 cm with thermal conductivities of 1.7, kB and 9.5 W/mK. The outside surface is exposed to air at 20C with convection coefficient of 15 W/m2K and the inside is exposed to gases at 1200C with a convection coefficient of 28 W/m2K and the inside surface is at 1080C. Determine the unknown thermal conductivity, all surface temperatures, resistances of each layer and the overall heat transfer coefficient. Compare the temperature gradients in the three layers. (Q=3360 W; U = 2.85 W/m2K; T1 = 585.9C; T2 = 297C; T3 = 243.95C; Ist layer temp. gradient = 1976.4C/m; IInd layer temp. gradient= 2889C/m; IIIrd layer temp. gradient = 353.7C/m) 9. A composite slab is made of three layers 15 cm, 10 cm and 12 cm thickness. The first layer is of material with thermal conductivity 1.45 for 60% of the area and the rest is of material with conductivity of 2.5 W/mK. The second layer is made of material with conductivity of 12.5 W/mK for 50% area and of material with conductivity 18.5 W/mK is used for the other 50%. The third layer is of single material of thermal conductivity 0.76 W/mK. The slab is exposed on one side to warm air at 26C and to cold air at 20C on the other side. The convection coefficients are 15 and 20 W/m2K on the inside and outside respectively. Determine the heat flow and interface temperatures. (Q = 127.35 W/m 2; T1 = 17.51C; T2 = 7.3C; T3 = 6.48C; T4 = 13.63C) 10.A composite cylinder consists of 10 cm radius steel pipe of 25 mm thickness over which two layers of insulation 30 mm and 35 mm are laid. The conductivities are 25 W/mK, 0.25 W/mK and 0.65 W/mK. The inside is exposed to convection at 300C with h = 65 W/m2K. The outside is exposed to air at 30C with h = 15 W/m2K. Determine the heat loss/m. Also find the interface temperatures. (Q = 1005.42 W/m; T1 = 275.39C; T2 = 273.96C; T3 = 136.27C; T4 = 86.15C) Internal Heat Generation: (Hint: If ambient temperatures are given and if we need surface temperature, use the formula, qV=hAT)

11.Heat is generated in a slab of 120 mm thickness with a conductivity of 200 W/mK at a rate of 106 W/m3. Determine the temperature at the mid and quarter planes if the surfaces of the solid on both sides are exposed to convection at 30C with a convection coefficient of 500 W/mK. Also find the heat flow rate at these planes and the temperature gradients at these planes. The data are as shown in the below fig. (Tw = 150C; Tx=0.03 = 156.75C; To = 159C; Temperature gradient x=0.03= 150C/m; Temperature gradient x=0.06 = 300C/m) 12.In the above problem, if the temperatures at the surfaces are maintained at 130C and 150C on the left and right sides determine the location and value of the maximum temperature. Also find the heat flow on each side and the temperature at the centre plane. q = 106 W/m3, L = 0.06 m, k = 200 W/mK (xmax= 0.0333 m; Tmax= 151.778C; Q = 93333.3 W/m2; Q = 26666.7 W/m2; To= 149C) 13.A cylinder of 12 cm diameter has a heat generation rate 106 W/m 3. The conductivity of the material is 200 W/mK. The surface is exposed to air at 30C. The convection coefficient is 500 W/m2K. Determine the temperatures at the center and also at mid radius. Also determine the heat flow at the surface on unit area basis. Calculate the temperature gradients at the mid radius and surface. (To= 94.5C; Tr= 93.375C; Qr= 2827.4 W/m; QR= 11309.7 W/m; dT/drr= 75C/m; dT/drR = 150C/m) 14.A wall 40 mm thick has its surfaces maintained at 0C and 100C. The heat generation rate is 3.25 105 W/m3. If the thermal conductivity of the material is 2 W/mK, determine the temperature at the mid plane, the location and value of the maximum temperature and the heat flow at either end. (xmax= 0.01538 m; Tmax= 101.74C; dT/dx0.02 = 750C/W; dT/dx-0.02 =5750C/W) 15.A 3 mm diameter wire of thermal conductivity of 20 W/mK carries 200 Amps. The resistivity of the material is 75 cm. The heat generated is absorbed by a fluid at 120C. With convective heat transfer coefficient of 4000 W/m 2K, Determine the maximum temperature of in the wire. (Hint: Q=I2R; R= L/A; To= 249.5C) 16.The heat generation rate in a hollow cylinder of ID 0.14082 m and OD 0.018 m is 5 106 W/m3. The conductivity of the material is 30 W/mK. If the inside surface is insulated, determine the temperature at the inside surface. The outside surface is exposed to a fluid at 100C with a convection coefficient of 335.73 W/m2K. (To = 360C; Ti = Tmax = 389.52C). [Hint: q (Ro2 Ri2) L = h 2 Ro L (To T)] 17.A hollow cylinder of ID 0.12 m and OD 0.14082 m has a heat generation rate of 5 106 W/m3. The conductivity of the material is 30 W/mK. The outside surface is insulated and heat is removed by convection over the inside surface by a fluid at 130C with a convection coefficient of 226.26 W/m2K. Determine the temperature on the outside surface. (Ti = 380C; Tmax = To = 389.53C) [Hint: q (Ro2 Ri2) L = h 2 Ri L (To T)]

Critical Radius of Insulation: 18.A copper pipe carrying refrigerant at 20C is 10 mm in OD and is exposed to convection at 50 W/m2K to air at 25C. It is proposed to apply insulation of conductivity 0.5 W/mK. Determine the thickness beyond which the heat gain will be reduced. Calculate the heat gains for 2.5 mm, 5.0 mm and 7.5 mm thicknesses for 1m length. The convection coefficient remains constant. (r c=0.01 m; Q2.5= 81.3 W/m; Q5= 83.49 W/m; Q10= 82.37 W/m) 19.A steam pipe 10cm inner diameter and 11cm outer diameter is covered with an insulating substance of k=1 W/mK. The steam temperature and the ambient temperatures are 2000C and 200C respectively. If the convective heat transfer coefficient between the insulating surface and air is 8 W/m2K, find the critical radius of insulation and the heat lost per metre of pipe for the value of rc and also find the outer surface temperature. (rc =0.125m; Q/L= 621W/m; T3= 391.8K) Fins or Extended surfaces: (Hint 1: If width of fin is not given, assume width of fin = length of fin, and vice versa Hint 2: If L/d < 30, it is short fin) 20.An aluminium alloy fin of 7mm thick and 50mm long protrudes from a wall, which is maintained at 120oC. The ambient air temperature is 22oC. The heat transfer coefficient and conductivity of the fin material are 140 W/m2K and 55 W/mK, respectively. Determine the temperature at end and middle of the fin and total heat dissipated by the fin. Also calculate the fin effectiveness. [Hint: Fine effectiveness = tan h (mL)/ (hA/kP)](Tx=L = 343 K; Tx=L/2 = 354 K; Q= 44W) 21.A rectangular aluminium fin of 0.5x0.5 mm2 and 12mm long are attached on a plane plate which is maintained at 80oC and surrounding air temperature is 22oC. Calculate the number of fins required to generate 35x10 -3W of heat. Take k=165 W/mK and h=10 W/m2K. Assume no heat loss from the tip of the fin. (No. of fins = 3) 22.A circumferential rectangular fin of 140mm wide and 5mm thick are fitted on a 200mm diameter tube. The fin base temperature is 170oC and the ambient temperature is 25oC. Estimate fin efficiency and heat loss per fin. Take k=220 W/mK and h=140 W/m2K. (=28%; Q=1743W) 23.An aluminium rod of k=204 W/mK, 2cm in diameter and 20cm long protrudes from a wall which is maintained at 300oC. The end of rod is insulated and the surface of the rod is exposed to air at 30oC. The heat transfer coefficient between the rod surface and air is 10 W/m2K. Calculate the heat lost by the rod and the temperature of the rod at a distance of 10cm from the wall. (Q=30W; Tx=10=540K) Lumped Analysis:

24.An aluminum plate (k=160W/m oC, =2790 kg/m3, Cp = 0.88 kJ/kg K) of thickness 3 cm and at a uniform temperature of 225oC is suddenly immersed in a well stirred fluid maintained at a constant temperature of 25oC. Take h=320 W/m2K. Determine the time required for the center of plate to reach 50oC. (t=240s) 25.A 12cm diameter long bar initially at a uniform temperature of 40oC is placed in a medium of 650oC with a convective coefficient of 22 W/m 2K. Determine the time required for the center to reach 255oC. The material properties are k=20 W/mK, density = 580 kg/m3, specific heat = 1050 J/kg K. (t=360s) 26.Alloy steel ball of 12mm diameter heated to 800 oC is quenched in a bath at 100oC. The material properties of the ball are k=205kJ/m hr K, density = 7860kg/m3, specific heat = 0.45kJ/kg, h=150 kJ/m2 hr K. Determine the temperature of ball after 10 seconds and time for ball to cool to 400oC. (Tt=10 = 1033 K; t = 145s) 27.An aluminium cube of 6cm side is originally at a temperature of 500 oC. It is suddenly immersed in a liquid at 10oC for which h = 120 W/m2K. Estimate the time required for the cube to reach a temperature of 250 oC. For aluminium, k=204W/mK, =2700 kg/m3, Cp = 900 J/kg K. (t = 145s) 28.A mild steel sphere of 15mm diameter is planned to be cooled by an air flow at 20oC. The convective heat transfer coefficient is 110 W/m2K. Calculate the following: a) Time required for cooling the sphere from 700oC to 150oC, b) Instantaneous heat transfer rate at 150oC, c) Total energy transferred up to 150oC. Properties of mild steel: k=43 W/mK, =7850 kg/m3, Cp = 474 J/kg K, = 0.044m2/h (t=140s; q=10W; qt=-3616J) [Hint: Instantaneous heat transfer means transfer due to convection, given by hA(T-T ). Total energy transferred means internal energy, given by mcp(T - To)]