Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 8

CHAPTER 4: HEAT ANSWER

4. Question 3: Melaka 09

1.

Question 2:Perak 07

 

(a)(i) 70 o C (a)(ii) 0

 

(b)

(b)

(a)

More responsive to heat

(c)

(c) Q = mcθ = 0.2 x 400 x 20

Q = mcθ

= 0.2 x 400 x 20

(i)

 

=

1600 J

(a)

The fine and uniform tube

(d) 3 o C

(ii)

allows a movement of the liquid

to be observed sensitivity

Easily / higher

5.

Question 5: Johor 07

(b)

15 mm/1.5 cm

 

5(a)

The quantity of heat energy required to increase the temperature of 1 kg of the substance by 1 º or 1 K

(i)

 

(b)

θº = 150 -

15

x 100

(ii)

 

190 - 15 77.2 0 C

 

=

(b)(i)

The temperature of the soup in the metal pot > the clay pot.

 

2.

Question 3:Melaka Midyear 09

(b)(ii)

The specific heat capacity of the metal pot < the clay pot.

(a)

(i) Kelvin, K

 

(a)(ii) To obtain two fix points high and low (a)(iii) Opaque / easy to see/ does not stick

 

(b)(iii)

-An object with a lower value of specific heat capacity will increase temperature faster when heated by same amount of energy. -The pot that has a lower specific heat capacity requires less heat to increase the temperature.

(b)

(i) 20.0 cm

 

(b)(ii)

 
 
   
 

84.5 o C

4.2 SPECIFIC HEAT CAPACITY

(b)(iv)

The lower the specific heat capacity, the higher the increase in temperature.

3. Question 3: Trengganu 07

(c)(i)

The temperature of the soup in the metal pot < the temperature the clay

(a)

There is no net flow of heat

between two objects and they have same temperature

(c)(ii)

An object with a lower value of specific heat capacity cools faster due to its lower amount of heat stored.

(b)

45 0 C

 

(c)

The heat from block P transfer to the water Until the rate of heat transfer between P and water become equal

 
 

(d)

Q = mcӨ

 

=

=

0.3 x 900 x 55 14 850 J

between P and water become equal     (d) Q = mc Ө   = =
between P and water become equal     (d) Q = mc Ө   = =

FIZIKMOZAC 2010

6. Question 8: SBP 08

the heat removed is directly proportional to the mass

(a)

Energy transfer from higher

Use a gel with higher

The heat removed increases

temperature body to lower temperature // type of energy that flow

(b)(i) 80

specific heat capacity

with the specific heat capacity of the gel // the

 

2

heat removed is directly

= 40 °C per minute (ii) 100 -20

proportional to the specific heat capacity of the gel.

7

= 80

7

= 11.43 °C per minute

-

4.3 SPECIFIC LATENT HEAT

8. Question 5: Teknik 07

(c)

Iron

(a)

To find the amount of ice that

-

the rate of change of

has melted due to the heat

temperature is higher

from the surroundings.

(d) C iron

= 50 x 2 x 60 0.25 x 80

(b)

Both have the same reading. Latent heat of fusion.

 

= 300 J kg-1 °C -1 C Al = 50 x 8 x 60

(c)

(i) 20.0 g (ii) 200.0 g

 
 

0.25

80

(iii) 180.0 g

= 1200 J kg-1 °C -1

 

(iv)

Q

= m l

(e)

A

 

P

t = m l

- it has lowest specific heat

l

=

200 x 5 x 60

capacity // easily to get hot

 

0.18

 

=

3.33 x 10 5 J kg -1

7.

Question 7:Kedah 08

 

(a)(i) The energy transferred from a

hot object to a cold object // the energy transfer because of the difference in temperature (ii) The temperature of the forehead is higher than the temperature of the pad. Heat is transferred from the forehead to the pad

(b)

36 – 15 Q = 30 x 43 x (36-15) = 2709 J

(c)

Increase the mass of the gel

The heat removed increases with the mass of the gel //

9. Question 6: Johor 08

(a)

Heat from the surrounding

Heat from the metal plate

(b)

Solid to liquid

(c)

(i) Specific latent heat of fusion

(c)(ii) Heat absorbed is used to overcome the forces of attraction between the molecules of the ice

(d)

(e)

L

6.72 10

x

3

J

20 10

x

3

kg

3.36 10

x

5

J kg

1

Condensation of water vapour on cool surface

6.72 10 x 3 J 20 10 x  3 kg  3.36 10 x 5
6.72 10 x 3 J 20 10 x  3 kg  3.36 10 x 5

FIZIKMOZAC 2010

10. Question 7: Kedah 07

(a)

Quantity of heat required to change 1 kg of a substance from

solid to liquid without any change in temperature

(b)

(i) Cup B (ii) The ice is exposed to the surroundings The ice absorb heat from the surroundings

(c)

Heat released = 0.5 x 4500 x (75.5 -25)

= 113,625 J

(d)(i) (m i x 3.36 x 10 5 ) + [m i x 4200 (25 – 0) = 113,625 m i = 0.26 kg (d)(ii) No heat loss from the coffee to surroundings

11. Question 8: SBP Mid 08

(a)

the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 kg of substance by 1 o C.

(b)

Low specific heat capacity.

(i)

The temperature increased faster.

(b)

Black painted cooper

(ii)

Good heat absorber.

(b)

Low rate of corrosion.

(iii)

Not easily break.

(c)

Material R

(d)

Energy = Power x time

=

500 x 120

= 60000 J

(e)

Energy = mcθ

60000 = 1 x 4200 x θ

θ = 14.28 o C

4.4 GAS LAWS 12. Question 1: Trengganu 08

(a)

Bourdon Gauge

(b)

Pressure

(c)

Increase

(d)

Pressure Law

13. Question 5: MRSM 08

(a)

Bourdon Gauge

(b)

(i) The volume of gas in Diagram 5.1 is larger than in Diagram

5.2.

(ii) The pressure in Diagram 5.1

is smaller than in Diagram 5.2

(iii)

The temperature does not change

(c)

Graph P inversely proportional to V

(d)

Boyle’s law

(e)

The number of gas molecules per unit volume decreases as the volume decreases / gas molecules are closer to each other The gas molecules collide with the wall of the gas container more frequently.

14. Question 6: Melaka Mid 08

(a)

The reading of the Bourdon

(i)

Gauge in Diagram6.2 is higher than in Diagram 6.1

(a)

Pressure

(ii)

(b)

Temperature

(c)

Temperature is directly

(i)

proportional to pressure

(c)

Pressure Law

(ii)

(c)

Volume

(iii)

(d)

When the temperature increases, the kinetic energy of gas molecules increases,

The gas molecules will collide more frequently with the wall of the container, so the pressure will increase.

gas molecules will collide more frequently with the wall of the container, so the pressure will
gas molecules will collide more frequently with the wall of the container, so the pressure will

FIZIKMOZAC 2010

15. Question 6: Melaka 08

(a)

Heat is a form of energy

(b)

Diagram 6.2 is higher // vice

(i)

versa

 

(b)

The temperature in Diagram 6.2

(ii)

is higher

 

(b)

Volume

 

(iii)

 

(b)

When volume is higher, the

(iv)

temperature is higher // directly proportional

(c)

Charles Law

(d)

θ = absolute zero

(i)

(d)

Volume of air is zero // the air

(ii)

molecules is at rest //kinetic energy is zero

 

16. Question 7: SBP Mid 08

(a)

Decreased

 

(i)

 

(a)

Increased

 

(ii)

 

(b)

When the volume is decreased, the air pressure is increased

(c)

Mass of the air trapped.

(d)

Boyle’s Law

(e)

Use a bigger piston Use a thicker rubber piston.

(f)

P = P atm + P water

(i)

 

= 10

+

0.5

=

10.5 m water

(f)

P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2

 

(ii)

V

1

= P 2 V 2

 

P

1

= 10.5 x 0.5

 

10

 

= 0.525 cm 3

17. Question 7: SBP 07

(a)

Increase

 

(i)

 

(a)

Pressure

 

(ii)

 

(b)

Pressure Law

(c)

T 2 =

P 2 T 1

= 230 x 300

P 1

200

345 K // = 72 °C

=

(d)

Wider surface area

(i)

The pressure exerted on road

(ii)

is reduced

 

(d)

Thick tire thread

(iii)

(iv)

To give better grip to the road

 

18.

Conceptual: SBP 07

(a)

Heat is the quantity of energy that is transformed from one hot

object to a cold object

(b)

1. Figure 9.1 shows a situation where a solid changes into liquid / Figure 9.2 shows a situation where a liquid change into gas

2. Both processes have a change in the state of matter.

3. Both processes require heat.

4. The heat absorbed is not to raise the temperature, to overcome the force between the molecule particles during the physical change.

5. Concept involved is Latent Heat

the force between the molecule particles during the physical change. 5. Concept involved is Latent Heat
the force between the molecule particles during the physical change. 5. Concept involved is Latent Heat

FIZIKMOZAC 2010

19. Conceptual: Negeri 9 08

The kettle is hotter than the ice block / The ice block is colder than the kettle.

The hand feels hot when it touches the hot kettle / The hand feels cold when it touches the ice block.

Diagram 9.1 shows heat flows from the kettle towards the hand while Diagram 9.2 shows the heat flows from the hand towards the ice.

The heat will flow from a hotter object towards a colder object.

 

20.

Understanding: Johor 08

Put the thermometer in melting ice , mark the lower part of mercury thread,l 0

Place the same thermometer in the boiling water, mark the top

part of the mercury thread, l 100

Divide the length between the two marks inti 100 equal divisions

Each division is now equal to 1 o

C

 
 

21.

Understanding: SBP 08

(a)

 

Temperature is the measure of the degree of hotness of an object.

(b)

 

Thermometer is placed in the mouth of patient,

Heat is transferred from patient’s body to the thermometer.

Thermal equilibrium between the thermometer and patient’s body is reached

The thermometer and the patient’s body are at the same temperature. The

thermometer reading shows the temperature of the patient’s body.

thermometer reading shows the temperature of the patient’s body.

22. Understanding: Negeri 9 08

Sea has higher specific heat capacity than land.

The temperature of the sea increases slower than of the land.

The air above the land is warmer than the air above the sea / Density of air above the land is lower than the density of air above the sea.

The warm air above the land rises up.

Air from the sea moves towards the land.

 

23.

Understanding: SBP 07

i

1. Water evaporates from the skin when we sweat.

2. For water to evaporate it use heat from the body

ii

1. Steam condenses to form water so,

2. Large latent heat of vaporization of steam is released by steam.

 

24.

Understanding: Melaka 08

(a)

Volume = area x height

(b)

pressure of air is inversely proportional to the volume of air

the pressure inside the air bubbles is equal to the water pressure which is high at the bottom

so the volume of air bubbles is small.

as air bubble goes up to the

high at the bottom  so the volume of air bubbles is small.  as air
high at the bottom  so the volume of air bubbles is small.  as air

FIZIKMOZAC 2010

surface, the pressure decreases., so the volume of air bubbles increases.

surface, the pressure decreases., so the volume of air bubbles increases.

25. Qualitative problem: SBP 07

Suggestion

Explanation

Use insulator behind the absorber panel

To prevent the loss of heat energy

Use an absorber panel which is painted black.

A

black surface

is

a good

absorber of radiation so it will absorb heat faster

The pipe inside the plate must be made of metal

Metal is a good heat conductor, so it will transmit heat to water easily

Pipe embedded in plate must be long

Longer pipe will enlarge surface area will absorbs heat faster

A storage tank must be place at a higher level

To give higher pressure

Use glass cover on the top of the panel

To trap heat energy. (energy is radiated in, but cannot radiate out again).

26. Qualitative: Negeri 9 08

Modification

 

Explanation

Use the fluorescent lamp

Fluorescent lamp use less power and economic (consume less power) compare to filament bulb

not

a filament

bulb

Bigger cover

 

Less reflection on eyes and absorb less heat energy and good heat reflector

with white

colour

Use the

The height of the lamp can be adjusted Can be used anywhere

adjustable

stand

Or portable

Connect with the earth wire

Avoid short circuit and damage on the bulb

Use an energy saver lamp

Produce same brightness with less power consumption

27. Making Decision: Melaka 08

safety valve is needed

to releases extra steam so that the pressure is the cooker does not reach a dangerous stage

Thickness of the pot is high

to withstand high pressure

specific heat capacity of the pot is low

heats up quickly and food will be cooked faster

specific heat capacity of the handle is high

heats up slowly and can be held with bare hands

faster specific heat capacity of the handle is high heats up slowly and can be held
faster specific heat capacity of the handle is high heats up slowly and can be held

FIZIKMOZAC 2010

K is chosen because it has a safety

valve, high thickness, low specific heat capacity of the pot, high specific heat capacity of the handle

28. Making Decision: Johor 08

Characteristics

reason

Specific heat capacity is low

Faster to get hot

Melting point is high

Does not melt easily

Good conductor of heat

The heat can be lost easily

Rate of

The shape of the fin unchanged

expansion is

moderate

 

The most suitable

because specific

is

P

heat capacity is low, melting point is high, conductor heat is good, rate of expansion is moderate

(c)

Q= mcθ

= 0.5 x 450 x 10

= 2250 J

(d)

Energy lost = 10 x 2250 = 22500 J

29. Making Decision: SBP 08

Characteristics

Reason

Low specific heat capacity of ice cream box

Easy get cold // becomes cool quickly

Smaller size of ice cream box

Easier to carry // easy to become cool

Plastic PVC

Poor conductor of heat

Bright colour of outer box

Does not absorb heat from surrounding

 

quickly

R is chosen

because Low specific heat capacity of ice cream box, Smaller size of ice cream box, Plastic PVC, Bright color of outer box

30. Quantitative problem: SBP 08

(a)

Pt

L

=

m = 0.1 x 10 3 x 156

0.05

= 312000 J kg -1

(b)

t = 72 s (from graph)

c = Pt m θ

= 0.1 x 10 3 x 72 0.05 x 140 = 1028.57 J kg -1 °C

31. Quantitative problem: Melaka 08

P 1 = 75 cm Hg,

P 2 = 75 + 3 = 78 cm Hg

P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2

(75)(10) = (78) (V)

V 2 = 9.62 cm

V 1 = 10 cm

32. Melaka 09 (a) (i) Heat is a form of energy. (a)(ii) The heat energy absorbed is used to overcome the forces of attraction between the molecules without increases in the kinetic energy. Temperature directly proportional to the kinetic energy

molecules without increases in the kinetic energy. Temperature directly proportional to the kinetic energy FIZIKMOZAC 2010
molecules without increases in the kinetic energy. Temperature directly proportional to the kinetic energy FIZIKMOZAC 2010

FIZIKMOZAC 2010

(b)(i) The amount of heat required to convert a unit mass / 1 kg of

(b)(i) The amount of heat required to convert a unit mass / 1 kg of liquid into gas without change in temperature.

(b)(ii)

The specific latent heat of water vaporization is very high energy.

When the steam is condensed

the hot water droplets drops on the fish

caused the fish to cook faster

Characteristic

Explanation

High specific

the handle will not heated.

heat capacity

High melting

the handle will not melt easily.

point

Low density

the handle is lighter and easy to handle.

Shape of the handle is slim

easy to stir the food

R is the most suitable material

as it has a relatively low density, high melting point, high specific heat capacity and slim

material as it has a relatively low density, high melting point, high specific heat capacity and
material as it has a relatively low density, high melting point, high specific heat capacity and

FIZIKMOZAC 2010