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Wing layout structure

To carry the distributed and concentrated loads prescribed by the airwortheness requirement

Loads on wing members

shear carried by the wing spars, the bending moment by the wing covers (skin, spar caps and stringers) and torsion by the wing skin only The lower cover is loaded primarily in tension therefore it requires careful material in order to assure fairy high tensile strength to density ratio combined with good fracture toughness and fatigue life. life The upper cover is loaded primarily in compression therefore it should be designed in order to be stabilized or prevented from buckling. Ribs carry the shear (and bending moment ) caused by the load distributed chordwise

Rib arrangement in swept wing

Lighter structure Easy to produce

Aerodynamical accurate shape

Manufacturing problems that exist with the sweptback wing: Bending the spar caps is difficult The skin gages required are extremely thick.(needs multiple brake operation) Angle of 90in jigs, bulkheads, and spar web are important to the workman.

Wing root triangle

A triangular section A is indeterminate.

Single main beam for high swept wing

Desirable preliminary studies

1. Draw platform of wing with necessary dimensions, to scale, to satisfy aspect ratio, area & sweepback 2. Determine the mean geometric chord and check if the CG lies in plane perpendicular to CG chord at the mean aerodynamic center. 3. Locate the front spar at the constant percentage of the chord (12-17%), from root to tip. 4. Locate the rear spar similarly of the chord (60%) to accommodate a 30% aileron. Spar cap width and control system gap need about 10% of the chord 5. If flaps chord less then aileron, auxiliary spar is needed to support flaps. Sometimes 6. Ribs are located at each aileron and flap hinge. Reinforces ribs are also used for engine-mount, landing gear attachments and fuel-tank supports. Rib spacing determined from panel size considerations. 7. Spanwise stringers are located parallel to each other or at constant percentage of the wing chord. 8. Adding other detail like the wheel well for the retraction of the landing gear. Sometimes redesigning.

Wing bending
Classification of wing structure according to the disposition of the bending material: All bending material is concentrated in the spar caps. The bending material is distributed around the periphery of the profile Skin is primarily bending material

Concentrated spar cap type Advantages Simplicity of construction It can be so design that spar buckling occurs near the ultimate stress of the material (higher allowable stress) Disadvantages Skin buckling at a very low load. Skin can be in a wave state having large amplitude which disturbs the airflow over the wing.(more drag) Fatigue failure due to the local bending stress in buckled sheet.

Wing bending 2
Distributed bending material type High number of stiffeners or multiple spar Different number of stiffeners in lower and upper surface (because the negativ and positive load factors are different)

Skin is the only bending material The skin outside the wingbox cannot take part in bendig

Safety considerations by the lower surface

Federal Aviation Regulation (FAR): fail safe or safe life This structure shall be able to carry 80% of limit load times 1.15 dynamic factor after a structural failure (fail safe) There are five panels on the wing lower surface as shown in figure. Each spanwise splice between panels is a tearstopper which tends to stop the failed panel to continuously crack to the next panels. The carefully designed rivet pattern and shear strength provide the fail safe philosophy.

Considerations by compression panel

Direct compression induced by bending of the entire section (+HAA +LAA) Shear flows Maximum panel shear flows caused by wing box torsion loads. Max shear flow with corresponding local compression load to optimize the least weight structure. Local bending effects caused by surface aerodynamic pressure load. Local bending effects caused by wing tank fuel(pressure, inertia) and by wing bending crushing loads. Excentricity: stringer should end on ribs to avoid change in cover centroid

Skin-Stringer panels

Skin-Stringer panels 2
The machined (integral) skins combining with machined stringers are the most efficient structures to save weight. Advantages the skin can be tapered spanwise and chordwise, can thickened around holes can produce rib lands as shown in fig.

Skin-stringer area ratio

Optimum distribution of area between skin and stiffener for minimum weight exist: k=1,4 assuming equal buckling stress in skin and stiffeners k=1,7 in case of unflanged, integrally stiffened panels k=1,5 for Z section stiffeners (thickness ratio = 1.05) In practical design the total weight fraction of skin is higher because of fatigue

Integrally stiffened panels

A weight reduction of 10-15% can be realized compared to the assembled structure

Integrally stiffened panels 2

Advantages Reduction of sealing material for pressurized fuel tank structure. Higher allowable stiffeners compression loads by elimination of attachments flanges. Increase joint efficiencies under tension loads. Improved aerodynamics through smoother exterior surfaces Light weight structure

The lightest cover panel design can be obtain with an integrally stiffened cover structure supported by sheet metal ribs with a preference for a large spacing.

Cover panel splice design

Avoid complex extrusion forms (residual stress, crack)

Prefer double or stagger row of fasteners!

Stringer run-out



Typical spar constructions

Non-buckling type: web never buckles Buckling type: buckling criteria 1.0 1.5 g

Spar model for calculation

Spar caps

The beam (spar) cap should be design for strength/weight efficiency. The cap sections for large cantilever beams which are frequently used in wing design should be of such a shape as to permit efficient tapering or reducing of the section as the beam extends outboard. With cap additional stringer and skins are used also to provide bending resistance.

Spar web

These cap sections are almost always used with a beam web composed of flat sheet, which is stiffened by vertical stiffeners riveted to the web.

Integrally stiffened spar

The cost is far less than the cost of a builtup assembly of individual caps, web and stiffeners riveted together.

General rules of spar design

1. Machine pads or add doublers to the web around spar web cutout to reduce local stresses

General rules of spar design

2. To use double rows (or stagger rows) of fasteners between spar caps and webs, and also between spar caps and wing box skin.

General rules of spar design

3. Spar web splice doublers should be designed such it is strong enough to carry not only the vertical shear force but also the spar axial force at the spar cap where the tapered doubler along spanwise is recommended.

General rules of spar design

4. The tension fitting is required wherever appreciable concentrated loads exit, such as engine pylon, main landing gear support, aileron and flap track fitting, etc. at these locations, the local material thicknesses of spar cap, web as well as skin should be made thicker to reduce local principle stresses.

General rules of spar design

5. Do not allow any fixed leading or trailing edge panel to be directly riveted to the spar cap to avoid potential fatigue cracks.

General rules of spar design

6. In the area of the wing sweepback break, the spar cap horizontal flange and local wing skin can be easily spliced by double shear splice plates. An additional tension fitting should be provided to take care of the remaining part such as spar cap vertical flange.

General rules of spar design

7. Clips, provided for the support of wires, hydraulic tubes, control rods, ducts, etc, should be fastened to spar vertical stiffener only.

General rules of spar design

8. Fasteners spacing along vertical stiffeners should not be too close to make the local web net area shear critical. In addition, the fasteners going through the spar cap and stiffeners should be at least two fasteners with diameter of one size bigger than adjacent attachments.