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ETHNICITY GROUPS, MINORITIES AND RACE IN PLURAL SOCIETIES Ethnicity refers to cultural practices and outlook that distinguish a given community of people.

Plural Societies plural societies are those in which there are several large ethnic groupings, involved in the same political and economic order but otherwise largely distinct from one another

MINORITY GROUPS is widely used in sociology, and involves more than mere numbers. As understood in sociology, a minority groups has the following features: Discrimination belong together-a people apart Endogamy (marriage within the group) Racial Physical differences in skin color or other characteristics.

Racism-means falsely attributing inherited characteristics of personality or behaviour to individuals of a particular physical appearance Racist-someone believes that a biological explanation can be given for characteristics of superiority or inferiority supposedly possesed by people of a given physical stock. ETHNIC ANTAGONISM, PREJUDICE AND DISCRIMINATION Prejudice refers to opinions or attitudes held by members of one group about another. involves holding preconceived views about an individual or group, often base on hearsay rather than direct evidence, views which are resistant to change even in face of new information

Discrimination refers to actual behaviour towards them. refers to activities which serve to disqualify the members of one grouping from opportunities open to others.

Stereotypes and Scapegoats Stereotyping-is often closely linked to the psychological mechanism of displacement.

Scapegoating-frequently involves projection.

The Authoritarian Personality Theodor Adorno directed the famous piece of research diagnosed a character type the researchers termed the authoritarian personality.

Ethnicity and Childhood ethnic attitudes are assimilated by children at a very young age. They learn, for example, to think of whites as superior and black as inferior.

The Attitudes of Majority Groups whites may have feeling of unease towards blacks, or coloured people, even if in most areas of their behaviour they practice no discrimination and consider themselves without prejudice. Even the most comitted liberal may find it difficult to escape these feelings completely, given the influence of early learning.

FOUR POSSIBLE TYPES OF MAJORITY GROUPS in terms of attitude and behaviour all-weather liberals fair-weather liberals timid bigots the active bigot

SOCIOLOGICAL INTERPRETATIONS We can separate sociological interpretations of ethnic hostilities and conflicts into two types: those which apply generally, like psychological mechanisms. those which relate mainly to ethnic antagonism in the modern world.

General Factors ETHNOCENTRISM- a suspicion of outsiders. CLOSURE-means the process whereby groups maintain buonderies separating themselves from the others ALLOCATION OF RESOURCES-inequalities in the distribution of wealth and material goods. (Ethnic closure provides means of defending the privileged position of dominant group.)

A Historical Perspective ethnocentric attitudes were rife among the colonists, who believed themselves to be on a civilizing missionto the rest of the world. In particular, racist views separating whites from blacks became central to European attitudes.

Why did this happen? There were several reasons. Opposition between white and black cultural symbols. Important factor influencing racism was simply the coinage and diffusion of the concept race itself. -Count Joseph Arthur de Gobineau (father of modern racism) For the rise of modern racism lies in the exploitative relations. -Thomas Jefferson advocated the americanization of the indians. *blacks in memory are equal to white.

Ethnic relations in hstorical perspective: Black civil rights in the USA

Prepared by: Herlyne Manangan & Jessica Mallari