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Education philosophies- impact on curriculum development & implementation In curriculum planning educational philosophy guides all curriculum development

by setting priorities and answering value-laden questions. According to one of Americas most famous education John Dewey, a philosophy serves as a general theory of educating and Ralph Tyler who view educational theory as a screen for selecting educational objectives for programs. Education philosophies assist the curriculum leaders in: Suggesting the purpose in education Clarify objectives & learning activities in school Define the roles of person working in schools Guide the selection of learning strategies and tactics in the classroom

Major philosophies of life and education have traditionally been defined by three criteria: what is? What is true? What is real? Philosophy is the philosophical study of the purpose, nature, process and ideals of education. There are five educational philosophies that are used when developing a curriculum and they are: Perennialism Education should focus on developing rationality. Education is preparation for life and students should be taught the worlds permanencies (subjects/disciplines) through structured study. Students should be taught through highly disciplined drill and behaviour control. The student is seen as a passive recipient of information. Teachers are models of ideal behaviour. Reality is seen as a world within a persons mind. Goodness is an ideal state, something to strive to attain. The schools function is to sharpen intellectual processes. Students are passive participants, receiving and memorizing the reporting of the teacher. The job of schools is to teach students about the world. For the realist,



goodness is found in the laws of nature. Schools should be dominated by the subjects of the here and now world such as; math and science. Classrooms should be highly ordered and disciplined like nature and the students are passive recipients in the learning process. Experimentalism The experimentalists view the world as an ever changing place. Reality is what is actually experienced. Truth is what presently functions. Goodness is what is accepted by public tests. Learning should occur through a problem solving or inquiry approach. Learners are active participants in the learning process. The school should place high emphasis on social subjects and experiences. Existentialism The world is viewed in terms of personal subjectivity. Goodness, truth and reality are individually defined. Schools if they exist would be places that assist students in knowing themselves and learning their place in society.

Curriculum implementation: - stages of; challenges of implementing curriculum Curriculum is the way content is designed and delivered; this includes the structure, organization, balance and presentation of this content in the classroom. When implementing a curriculum into practice in the classroom, this will serve as a powerful professional development opportunity for teachers. Implementation according to Ornstein and Hunkins is the developmental process that occurs at different levels enhances the decision to use or not use a new program. In most cases curriculum implementation requires for a re-orientation of teachers as far as behaviours and where teaching strategies are concerned. This means that it requires change and people based support regardless of who developed the curriculum