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Production Technology

Well Intervention
Intervention may occur on a producing or an injecting well and the operation is normally referred to as a workover Workover could be divided to planned and unplanned A workover rig is required Workover is generally planned by production engineering in most oil companies
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Well Intervention
Professor Bahman Tohidi Institute of Petroleum Engineering Heriot-Watt University Edinburgh EH14 4AS Scotland Tel: +44 (0)131 451 3672 Fax: +44 (0)131 451 3127 Email: B.Tohidi@hw.ac.uk
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Well Intervention
Reasons for well intervention: Mechanical malfunction or redesign Changes in reservoir performance or flow characteristics Interventions are complex due to: Complex and inter-dependent components Hostile service environment:
High pressure and high temperature conditions Corrosive Fluids Hydraulic and mechanical stresses

Well Intervention
Problems on wells can be associated with one of three areas:
The reservoir The completion string The wellbore

In cases we are dealing with a "live well"


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Normally a problem is evident by surface information on flowrate, pressure, composition etc Sometimes it is necessary to run wireline or through tubing logging equipment
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Planning and Conducting a Workover

Types of Intervention
Problems associated with the completion string can be classified as follows:
Problems which arise in the tubing bore Problems which necessitate the retrieval of the completion string from the well

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Well Intervention B Tohidi, Heriot-Watt Institute of Petroleum Engineering

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Well Intervention B Tohidi, Heriot-Watt Institute of Petroleum Engineering

Internal Tubing Problems


Problems within the bore of the completion string can be related to:
The failure and necessary retrieval/replacement of wireline components and coiled tubing Equipment installation, retrieval or operation within the tubing bore The installation of equipment across the perforated interval or in the sump of the well to exclude water, gas or other production problems

Tubing Retrieval Problems


There are a large number of problems which necessitate tubing retrieval. Such as: Mechanical failure of the tubing string Inability to conduct wireline equipment replacement Alternative design, e.g., artificial lift. The replacement of the tubing string to optimise reservoir performance, e.g., change to a smaller size

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Well Intervention B Tohidi, Heriot-Watt Institute of Petroleum Engineering

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Well Intervention B Tohidi, Heriot-Watt Institute of Petroleum Engineering

Coiled Tubing
The major benefit of the technique is that it allows concentric operations to be conducted in the tubing. These operations can include:
Mechanical operations whereby devices within the tubing, can be operated (hydraulically or mechanically), retrieved or inserted. Circulation operations such as the placement of acid or other treatment chemicals, or cement to squeeze out at perforated intervals. In addition CT can be used as a velocity string to extend the life of a production well where it is dominated by slippage.
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Coiled Tubing
It consists of:
A reel of continuous tubing A tubing straightener or gooseneck An injector head which will drive the tubing into the well even if it is under pressure The work tools

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Coiled Tubing
Coiled tubing can assist in conducting the following range of operations:
Circulation of fluid placement within the wellbore Retrieval and installation of wireline or through tubing equipment Drilling or milling operations Application in horizontal and inclined wells

Coiled Tubing Facility

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Coiled Tubing
Principal advantage over wireline arises from:
Ability to generate much higher tensile stresses Capability to circulate within the tubing

Workover Benefits
The benefits of a successful workover can be significant. These could be purely technical or they may have safety or economic implications. The benefits could include:
Enhancement or restoration of safety Reduction in operating costs Accelerate the production revenue Increase the ultimate recovery

Installing equipment through the tubing string, e.g., into the area beneath the tail pipe. A fundamental technique in the servicing and operation of horizontal wells, and placement of fluids and hydraulic offloading

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Absolute Measure of Profitability


Pay back-period by this approach the period is determined when the project revenue would repay the costs. It is a simple measure, but not realistic in terms of considering alternative investment strategies.
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Time Value of Cash Flow


Discounted Cash Flow Future cash flows are discounted back to a standard reference time by use of a specified standard interest rate. Net Present Value Considers the current value of the revenue of the workover compared to the actual cost of the workover in present day terms. The benefit is that it can be used to incorporate risk factors to take into account uncertainty in the evaluation.
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Time Value of Cash Flow


Internal Rate of Return This is the definition of the interest rate on revenue which would generate a net present value of zero therefore provides the maximum discount rate of the project
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Time Value of Cash Flow


Production Rate Evaluation In this technique there is no consideration of economics, but purely the comparison between pre and post workover production rates This can be expressed in terms of the benefit fraction or an incremental gain or the ratio of the production rate increase to the pre workover rate.
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Time Value of Cash Flow


Cost Benefit Analysis By this approach we look at the cost associated with the project in terms of:
Direct workover costs Deferred oil production Impact on production capacity
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Summary
Intervention can be conducted through tubing or require tubing retrieval A range of solutions exist in most cases. We are dealing with a live well and hence safety and protecting the productivity / injectivity index are important considerations. Data is essential to the diagnosis of problems, as well as the collation and evaluation of options both technically and economically.
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