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1.

INTRODUCTION
A touchscreen is an easy to use input device that allows users to control PC software and DVD video by touching the display screen.

A touch system consists of a touch Sensor that receives the touch input, a Controller, and a Driver. The touch screen sensor is a clear panel that is designed to fit over a PC. When a screen is touched, the sensor detects the voltage change and passes the signal to the touch screen controller. The controller that reads & translates the sensor input into a conventional bus protocol (Serial, USB) and a software driver which converts the bus information to cursor action as well as providing systems utilities

As the touch sensor resides between the user and the display while receiving frequent physical input from the user vacuum deposited transparent conductors serve as primary sensing element. Vacuum coated layers can account for a significant fraction of touch system cost. Cost & application parameters are chief criteria for determining the appropriate type determining the system selection. Primarily, the touch system integrator must determine with what implement the user will touch the sensor with & what price the application will support.

Applications requiring activation by a gloved finger or arbitrary stylus such as a plastic pen will specify either a low cost resistive based sensor or a higher cost infra-red (IR) or surface acoustic wave (SAW) system. Applications anticipating bare finger input or amenable to a tethered pen comprises of the durable & fast capacitive touch systems. A higher price tag generally leads to increased durability better optical performance & larger price.

The most commonly used systems are generally the capacitive & resistive systems. The other technologies used in this field are Infrared technology & SAW

(surface acoustic wave technology) these technologies are latest in this field but are very much expensive. How Does a Touchscreen Work?A basic touchscreen has three main components: a touch sensor, a controller, and a softwaredriver.

2.WORKING
I.TouchSensor

A touch screen sensor is a clear glass panel with a touch responsive surface. The touch sensor/panel is placed over a display screen so that the responsive area of the panel covers the viewable area of the video screen. There are several different touch sensor technologies on the market today, each using a different method to detect touch input. The sensor generally has an electrical current or signal going through it and touching the screen causes a voltage or signal change. This voltage change is used to determine the location of the touch to the screen.

2.Controller The controller is a small PC card that connects between the touch sensor and the PC. It takes information from the touch sensor and translates it into information that PC can understand. The controller is usually installed inside the monitor for integrated monitors or it is housed in a plastic case Tor external touch addons/overlays. The controller determines what type of interface/connection you will need on the PC. Integrated touch monitors will have an extra cable connection on the back for the touchscreen. Controllers are available that can connect to a Serial/COM port (PC) or to a USB port (PC or Macintosh). Specialized controllers are also available that work with DVD players and other devices.

3.SoftwareDriver The driver is a software update for the PC system that allows the touchscreen and computer to work together. It tells the computer's operating system how to interpret the touch event information that is sent from the controller. Most touch screen drivers today are a mouseemulation type driver.. This allows the touchscreen to work with existing software and allows new applications to be developed without the need for touchscreen specific programming. Some equipment such as thin client terminals, DVD players, and specialized computer systems either do not use software drivers or they have their own built-intouchscreendriver.

3. TYPES OF TOUCH SCREEN TECHNOLOGY


1.Resistive A resistive touchscreen panel is composed of several layers, the most important of which are two thin, metallic, electrically conductive layers separated by a narrow gap. When an object, such as a finger, presses down on a point on the panel's outer surface the two metallic layers become connected at that point: the panel then behaves as a pair of voltage dividers with connected outputs. This causes a change in the electrical current which is registered as a touch event and sent to the controller for processing. In another way The resistive system consists of a normal glass panel that is covered with a conductive and a resistive metallic layer. These two layers are held apart by spacers, and a scratch-resistant layer is placed on top of the whole setup. An electrical current runs through the two layers while the monitor is operational. When a user touches the screen, the two layers make contact in that exact spot. The change in the electrical field is noted and the coordinates of the point of contact are calculated by the computer. Once the coordinates are known, a special driver translates the touch into something that the operating system can understand, much as a computer mouse driver translates a mouse's movements into a click or a drag.

2.Surfaceacousticwave Surface acoustic wave (SAW) sumit technology uses ultrasonic waves that pass over the touchscreen panel. When the panel is touched, a portion of the wave is absorbed. This change in the ultrasonic waves registers the position of the touch event and sends this information to the controller for processing. Surface wave touch screen panels can be damaged by outside elements. Contaminants on the surface can also interfere with the functionality of the touchscreen,an din surface acoustic wave system, two transducers (one receiving and one sending) are placed along the x and y axes of the monitor's glass plate. Also placed on the glass are reflectors -- they reflect an electrical signal sent from one transducer to the other. The receiving transducer is able to tell if the wave has been disturbed by a touch event at any instant, and can locate it accordingly. The wave setup has no metallic layers on the screen, allowing for 100-percent light throughput and perfect image clarity. This makes the surface acoustic wave system best for displaying detailed graphics (both other systems have significant degradation in clarity).

3.Capacitive capacitive touchscreen panel consists of an insulator such as glass, coated with a transparent conductor such as indium tin oxide (ITO).[2][3]As the human body is also a conductor, touching the surface of the screen results in a distortion of the local electrostatic field, measurable as a change in capacitance. Different technologies may be used to determine the location of the touch. The location can be passed to a computer running a software application which will calculate how the user's touch relates to the computer software. And in capacitive system, a layer that stores electrical charge is placed on the glass panel of the monitor. When a user touches the monitor with his or her finger, some of the charge is transferred to the user, so the charge on the capacitive layer decreases. This decrease is measured in circuits located at each corner of the monitor. The computer calculates, from the relative differences in charge at each corner, exactly where the touch event took place and then relays that information to the touch-screen driversoftware.

4. COMPARISION
Technology Transparence Capacitive Very >92% Resolution Good good SAW Very >92% Good good Infrared Very >92% Limited due good good Resistive 75%~85%

to spacing of IR sensors Surface Contaminants /durability Resistant to moisture and other surface contaminants Adversely affected by moisture or Surface contaminants Potential for False activation or dead zones From Surface Contaminants Unaffected by Surface contaminants. Polyester top sheet is easily scratched Polyester top sheet, glasssubstrate with ITO coating

Sensor substrate
Display size Touch method

Glass with ITO coating

Glass ITO coating

with

Any substrate

8.4"-21" Human touch

10.4"-30" finger, gloved hand or soft tip

10.4"-60" Can use any pointing device

up to 19" Can use any

pointing device

5.APPLICATION

1.PublicInformationDisplays. Information kiosks, tourism displays, trade show displays, and other electronic displays are used by many people that have little or no computing experience. The user-friendly touch screen interface can be less intimidating and easier to use than other input devices, especially for novice users. A touchscreen can help make your information more easily accessible by allowing users to navigate your presentation by simply touching the display screen

2.RetailandRestaurantSystems Time is money, especially in a fast paced retail or restaurant environment. Touchscreen systems are easy to use so employees can get work done faster, and training time can be reduced for new employees. And because input is done right on the screen, valuable counter space can be saved. Touchscreens can be used in cash registers, order entry stations, seating and reservation systems, and more

3.CustomerSelf-Service In today's fast pace world, waiting in line is one of the things that has yet to speed up. Selfservice touch screen terminals can be used to improve customer service at busy stores, fast service restaurants, transportation hubs, and more. Customers can quickly place their own orders or check themselves in or out, saving them time, and decreasing wait times for other customers. Automated bank teller (ATM) and airline e-ticket terminals are examples of self-service stations that can benefit from touchscreen input.

4. Control and Automation Systems:-

The touch screen interface is useful in systems ranging from industrial process control tc home automation. By integrating the input device with the display, valuable workspace can be saved. And with a graphical interface, operators can monitor and control complex operations in realtime by simply touching the screen.

5. Assistive Technology:-

The touch screen interface can be beneficial to those that have difficulty using other input devices such as a mouse or keyboard. When used in conjunction with software such as on-screen keyboards, or other assistive technology, they can help make computing resources more available to people that have difficulty using computers.

ADVANTAGES
1.Easier to pinpoint 2.Better drag and drop 3.Extra resolusion 4.Sealing 5.Better sensitive to environment

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REFERENCES
www.seminarforyou.com www.wikipedia.com www.electronicsforyou.com

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