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Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics

MAM1000W
Tutorial 7 1. The function f is dened by f (x) = x3 for x < 0 x2 for x 0 April 2011

Sketch the graph of f . For each of the following statements, say whether it is true or false: (a) f is continuous at x = 0. (b) f is dierentiable at x = 0. (c) f is continuous at x = 0. (d) f is dierentiable at x = 0. Now give reasons for your answers. 2. Find the derivatives of the following functions. You may assume, if you have not d d seen it yet, that [sin x] = cos x and [cos x] = sin x. dx dx (a) f (x) = 2x5 5e2x+1 . (If you have not done the chain rule yet, write e2x+1 as a product.) (b) g(x) = (x3 4x2 + 2) cos x. ex1 . 2 + x2 sin x (d) k(x) = . 2 + cos x (c) h(x) = Also nd the second derivatives of g and k. [Hint: If possible, simplify the rst derivative before you dierentiate again.] 3. The normal line to a graph at a point on the graph is the line which is perpendicular to the tangent line to the graph at the point. Find the equations of the tangent line and the normal line to the graph of the function h in Question 2(c) at the point where x = 1. Also nd an approximate value for h(1.1) using a linear approximation. 4. Let f (x) = 4 x2 . x+3

(a) Find the vertical asymptote(s) of the graph of f . If x = a is an asymptote, nd lim f (x) and lim+ f (x).
xa xa

(b) Find f (x) and f (x) for all x for which these derivatives exist. (c) Find the intervals on which f is decreasing, and the intervals on which it is increasing. 1

(d) Find the points at which the tangent to the graph of f is horizontal. (e) Find the intervals on which the graph f is concave up, and the intervals on which it is concave down. (f) Find a linear function g such that lim (f (x) g(x)) = 0.
x

(g) Sketch the graph of f 5. If you look at the graph of the function f (x) = x, it seems as if this function is continuous on [0, ). In this question you will prove that this is the case, using the sandwich theorem. (a) Show that for a > 0, a + h > 0, | a + h a| = a+h+ a [Hint: Multiply by .] a+h+ a |h| |h| < . a a+h+ a

(b) Use the sandwich theorem to deduce that lim a + h = a for all a > 0. h0 (c) To show that lim+ h = 0, we use a proof by contradiction. If we assume that h0 lim+ h = c > 0, then we can deduce that lim+ h > 0. Why? This is clearly
h0 h0

a contradiction. (d) Explain why it follows from (b) and (c) that f is continuous on [0, ). x . [Hint: Rationalise the denominator.] (e) Find lim x0 3x + 1 1 (f) (For those of you who want a bit more a challenge.) How can the proof of 3 above be modied to prove that f (x) = x is continuous on R? 6. In this course well not expect you to memorize any proofs (this is the good news), but we do expect you to understand proofs (you may regard this as the bad news!). Reading a proof and guring out exactly how it ts together, and why a particular step follows from the ones before it, is an important skill that only comes with lots of practice. In this question we give you a statement of a theorem and a proof for it for you to read, and then ask some questions about the proof. Well always test your understanding of proofs in this way. The theorem you are about to read gives us a dierent way of thinking about dierentiability. You have seen in lectures a denition to say what it means for a function to be dierentiable at a point. The theorem below says that we could have given another denition, and that these two denitions are equivalent. This means that if a function satises the usual denition (at some point x = a), then it will also satisfy the new denition, and conversely, if it satises the new denition, then it will also satisfy the usual denition. This is what the proof of the theorem has to show. Turn over to start reading. 2

Theorem. The function f is dierentiable at x = a if and only if there is a constant m and a function E of x such that f (x) = f (a) + m(x a) + E(x)(x a) and lim E(x) = 0, and in this case m = f (a).
xa

Proof. If f is dierentiable at x = a, then f (a) = lim For x = a, put E(x) = lim E(x) = lim f (x) f (a) f (a). Then xa

f (x) f (a) exists. xa xa

xa

xa

f (x) f (a) f (a) = f (a) f (a) = 0, xa (2)

(1)

and E(x)(x a) = f (x) f (a) f (a)(x a). If we put m = f (a), we have f (x) = f (a) + m(x a) + E(x)(x a). This proves the rst half of the theorem. (3)

For the second half, suppose there is a constant m and a function E of x such that f (x) = f (a) + m(x a) + E(x)(x a) and lim E(x) = 0. Then
xa

f (x) f (a) = lim [m + E(x)] = m. xa xa xa lim Hence f is dierentiable at x = a. (5)

(4)

(a) You may be used to the denition which says f is dierentiable at x = a when f (a + h) f (a) f (x) f (a) lim exists. Is this the same as saying lim exists? xa h0 h xa f (x) f (a) (b) Explain what we use in line (1) to say that lim f (a) = f (a) xa xa f (a). (c) The function E has been dened for x = a. If we want to dene E for x = a as well, in such a way that E is continuous at x = a, what should E(a) be? (d) How is the equation in line (2) obtained? (e) What is the rst half of the theorem mentioned in line (3)? Why can we say it has been proved by the time we get to line (3)? f (x) f (a) (f) Why can we say in line (4) that lim = lim [m + E(x)]? xa xa xa (g) How does it follow, also in line (4), that lim [m + E(x)] = m?
xa

(h) Why can we say in line (5) that f is dierentiable at x = a? (i) We could say that this theorem says that a function f is dierentiable at a if and only if it can be approximated by a linear function near a. Why can we say this?