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How to survive Sri Lankan power & energy sector through biomass

Tharindu Amalka Amarasinghe Dharmapala Vidyalaya Pannipitiya.


04/08/2010

Why we need energy.?


Domestic activities.
Lighting. Human comfort. Cooking. Ironing. Washing. Automobiles . & lot more

Industrial activities.
Manufacturing Process. Agriculture. Lighting. Transportation. ACs. & lot more

Which means we need power & energy to fulfill most of the humans needs & wants.

The sources of energy.


Nonrenewable energy. Fossil Fuels.
Petroleum. Coal. Natural gas.

Nuclear Power.
Fission. Fusion.

Renewable energy.
Hydroelectric. Solar. Biomass. Wind. Geothermal.
Etc

The reality today


Day by day total energy usage is getting higher & exceeding its limits.

Energy use (1971-2007)

Total fossil fuel energy consumption is getting higher too

Fossil fuel energy consumption (1971-2007)

With such increase in demand, the total energy production is also increasing.

Energy production (1971-2007)

What is happing to the energy reserves


Worldwide coal reserves.

Worldwide oil reserves.

Oh no we are loosing them!

Max utilization of large scale hydro power.


Presently, Sri Lanka has fully utilized the available large scale hydro power sources and the balance is very few. Balance large scale hydro's to come,
Moragolla - 27 MW Broadland - 35MW Umaoya - 120MW

Our strategy in past.


Our attitude towards renewable energy use in the past .

Combustible renewable & waste (1971-2007)

What we can do.?


we can reduce the dependence on fossil fuel and go for renewable energy sources. New inventions to produce power & energy. Power & energy management. Preventing power & energy losses.

What drives Sri Lanka for renewable energy investment? Economic Stability.
Reduced price volatility. Green job creation.

Environmental Sustainability.
Carbon reduction needs. Impacts of fossil combustion on human health.

Energy Security.
Fossil fuel supply disruptions. Political risks. Fuel diversity provides a hedge against risk.

Worlds attitude for future,


It seems that the world attitude is to utilize the renewable energy in maximum capacity in future.

Our attitude, Sri Lankas plan for future.

Renewable energy sources that we have.


Solar power.

Biomass power.

Wind power.

Hydroelectric power.

The irregular system of dumping garbage & problems of municipal solid waste (MSW) in Sri Lanka.

The garbage mountain at Bloemendhal.

Introduction to Biomass.

The total mass of living matter within a given unit of environmental area. Plant material, vegetation or agricultural waste used as a fuel or energy source.

Types of Biomass or natural resources that can use to produce energy.

The products made by the biomass

Fuels.
Ethanol. Biodiesel.

Power.
Electricity. Heat. Gas.

Process of producing power & energy Biomass energy value chain.


Sorting the garbage.

Collecting the biomass.

Handling & Transporting.

Biomass comes to usage.


Biomass. Electricity.

Biomass.

Biogas.

Biomass.

Fuels.

The benefits using biomass in energy generation.


Solves two problems at once by reducing waste stream and creating electricity. Sustainability: a clean and renewable energy source. Can be a least cost option. Availability: bio energy development can increase access to energy in rural areas. Carbon neutral or negative fuel (depending on feedstock).

Cont.. Mitigation of climate change bio energy can significantly reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions compared to fossil fuels . Flexibility: bio energy can deliver power, heat and transport. Feedstock can be burned as solid or gas using conventional technologies.

Cont..

Chemicals.
Plastics. Solvents. Chemical Intermediates. Adhesives. Fatty Acids. Acetic Acid. Paints. Dyes, Pigments, and Ink. Detergents.

Cont..

Food and Feed.

Discussion..
Using timber/wood as a biomass energy source in Sri Lanka is still not practical for larger scales. Difficulty of finding suitable wood. Increased erosion due to foresting. Wood management. People in Sri Lanka are not yet encouraged to grow wood for burning. Degradation of soil quality after continual use.

Cont..

We can use municipal solid waste we can solve two problems. Energy production. Municipal solid waste problem. In the present time livings waste using to produce biogas. So it seems that the most suitable next alternative renewable energy source that we can use is garbage.

The challenges using biomass in energy generation.


Handling challenges. Managing competition for land and water. Lower BTU content than coal. Controlling pollution of air, water and soils. Protecting biodiversity. Lower density/higher moisture content. Competing uses. Short-term vendor contracts.

Cont.. Supply costs can vary greatly depending on feedstock source Specialized handling and firing equipments. Modifications to air quality control systems. Multiple suppliers to deal with. Fugitive dust and odor issues. Fuel flexibility and fluctuating supplies. Ensuring sustainability environmental, social and economic. Safeguarding food security ensuring that increased demand for biofuels does not adversely affect the hungry.

How the other countries have solved these problems.


Under the "Biomass task force Loans for plant holder & for upcoming plants. Lands for industry. Domestic & industrial garbage sorting system. Technical support. environmental monitoring. Biomass transportation units. Low cost machineries. Standards for operating & maintaining the plant. Types and quantities of biomass allowed. How waste is to be handled and disposed of. Strict limits on emissions into the environment.

How can we used MSW for energy generation.


Through forming a Biomass task force in Sri Lanka. Educating people about biomass power & energy. School aid projects. Domestic & industrial garbage sorting system. Lands for industry. Low cost machineries. environmental monitoring. Technical support. Standards for operating & maintaining the plant. Biomass transportation units. How waste is to be handled and disposed of. Strict limits on emissions into the environment.

Handling the waste after use.


Can use ash as fertilizer. weathering pigment. Etc..........

Proposals; future of biomass energy.


Renewable forms of energy generation will be required to serve the global energy requirements. Growing woods for biomass. Rural energy programs. Use 100% of biomass to produce power & energy. Expand the time frame of resources. Market for biomass power & energy. Preventing power & energy losses in biomass sector.

Conclusion.
Today we have looked at the varies different aspects of Biomass including:
The energy sources. The history of energy sector in Sri Lanka. The conversion process of biomass in to useable energy sources. Practical side of using biomass an energy source. The uses of Biomass. The benefits & challengers. The future of Biomass & proposals.

Its the duty of all of us here, to find a practical approach towards using the waste & garbage to overcome energy crisis.

Thank you!!!
Tharindu Amalka Amarasinghe Dharmapala Vidyalaya Pannipitiya. 04/08/2010