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Permaculture is an approach to designing human settlements and agricultural systems that is modeled on the relationships found in nature. It is based on the ecology of how things interrelate rather than on the strictly biological concerns that form the foundation of traditional agriculture. Permaculture aims to create stable, productive systems that provide for human needs; it's a system of design where each element supports and feeds other elements, ultimately aiming at systems that are virtually self-sustaining and into which humans fit as an integral part. Permaculture as a systematic method was developed by Australians Bill Mollison and David Holmgren during the 1970s. The word "permaculture" originally referred to "permanent agriculture", but was expanded to also stand for "permanent culture" as it was seen that social aspects were integral to a truly sustainable system. Mollison has described permaculture as "a philosophy of working with, rather than against nature; of protracted and thoughtful observation rather than protracted and thoughtless labor; and of looking at plants and animals in all their functions, rather than treating any area as a single project system."[1] Permaculture draws from several other disciplines including organic farming, agroforestry,sustainable development, and applied ecology. "The primary agenda of the movement has been to assist people to become more self reliant through the design and development of productive and sustainable gardens and farms. The design principles which are the conceptual foundation of permaculture were derived from the science of systems ecology and study of pre-industrial examples of sustainable land use." [2]

Early influences
Franklin Hiram King coined the term permanent agriculture in his classic book from 1911, Farmers of Forty Centuries: Or Permanent Agriculture in China, Korea and Japan. In this context, permanent agriculture is understood as agriculture that can be sustained indefinitely. In 1929, Joseph Russell Smith took up the term as the subtitle for Tree Permaculture on an organic farm on the Swabian Crops: A Permanent Agriculture, a book in which he summed up his Mountains in Germany long experience experimenting with fruits and nuts as crops for human food and animal feed.[3] Smith saw the world as an inter-related whole and suggested mixed systems of trees and crops underneath. The definition of permanent agriculture as that which can be sustained indefinitely was supported by Australian P. A. Yeomans in the 1973 book "Water for Every Farm" who introduced an observation-based approach to land use in Australia in the 1940s, based partially on his understanding of geomorphology. Yeoman introduced keyline design as a way of managing the supply and distribution of water of a site. Stewart Brand's works was an early influence noted by Holmgren[4] . Brand is an advocate of systems thinking and was a major figure in the counterculture movement of the Sixties and Seventies. Systems thinking proposes to view systems in a holistic manner. Other early influences include Ruth Stout and Esther Deans, who pioneered "no-dig gardening methods", and Masanobu Fukuoka[5] who, in the late 1930s in Japan, began advocating no-till orchards, gardens and natural philosophy.


Mollison and Holmgren

In the mid 1970s, Bill Mollison and David Holmgren started to develop ideas about stable agricultural systems in Tasmania, Australia. This was a result of their perception of a rapidly growing usage of destructive industrial-agricultural methods. In their view these methods were poisoning the land and water, reducing biodiversity, and removing billions of tons of topsoil from previously fertile landscapes. A design approach called "permaculture" was their response and was first made public with the publication of Permaculture One in 1978. After Permaculture One, Mollison further refined and developed the ideas by designing hundreds of permaculture sites and organizing this information into more detailed books. Mollison lectured in over 80 countries and taught his two-week Permaculture Design Course (PDC) to many hundreds of students. By the early 1980s, the concept had broadened from agricultural systems design towards complete, sustainable human habitats. By the mid 1980s, many of the students had become successful practitioners and had themselves begun teaching the techniques they had learned. In a short period of time permaculture groups, projects, associations, and institutes were established in over one hundred countries. In 1991 a four-part Television documentary by ABC productions called "The Global Gardener" showed permaculture applied to a range of worldwide situations, bringing the concept to a much broader public.

Core values
At the heart of permaculture design and practice is a fundamental set of core values or ethics which remain constant whatever a person's situation. These ethics are often summarized as; Earthcare: recognising Earth as the source of all life and recognising that mankind is part of Earth, not apart from it. Peoplecare: supporting and helping each other live in ways that harm neither ourselves nor the planet and develop healthy societies. Fairshare (or placing limits on consumption): using Earth's limited natural resources in ways that are equitable and wise.

Sustainable designs
Permaculture design emphasizes patterns of landscape, function, and species assemblies. It asks the question, Where does this (element) go? How can it be placed for the maximum benefit of the system? Permaculture draws on the practical application of ecological theory to analyze the characteristics of a farm, garden or home site. Each element of a design is carefully analyzed in terms of its needs, outputs, and properties. Design elements are then assembled in relation to one another so that the products of one element feed the needs of adjacent elements. Synergy (two or more things functioning together to produce a result not independently obtainable) between design elements is achieved while minimizing waste and the demand for human labor or the input of energy. Exemplary permaculture designs evolve over time, and can become extremely complex mosaics of conventional and inventive cultural systems that produce a high density of food and materials with minimal input.

An aquaponic system that involves tilapia or perch (up to 10,000 fish in the 5 ft deep tank), watercress and tomatoes. The water is drawn up through one pump and gravity fed through the potted plants (which remove the nitrogen from the fish waste) and back into the tank where it re-oxygenizes the tank water.

The key to the permaculture design model is that useful connections are made between components in the final design. The focus is not on these elements themselves, but rather on the relationships created among them by the

Permaculture way they are placed together; the whole becoming greater than the sum of its parts. Permaculture is also about careful and contemplative observation of nature and natural systems, and of recognizing universal patterns and principles, then learning to apply these ecological truisms to ones own circumstances. Permaculture is a form of polyculture agriculture. Polyculture is agriculture using multiple crops in the same space, in imitation of the diversity of natural ecosystems, and avoiding large stands of single crops, or monoculture. Perennial plants are often used in permaculture design. As they do not need to be planted every year they require less maintenance and fertilizers. They are especially important in the outer zones and in layered systems.

Design tools
Modern permaculture is a system design tool. It is a way of: looking at a whole system or problem; observing how the parts relate; planning to mend inefficient systems by applying ideas learned from long-term sustainable working systems; seeing connections between key parts.

Holmgren's 12 design principles

The core of permaculture has always been in supplying a design toolkit for human habitation. This toolkit helps the designer to model a final design based on an observation of how ecosystems interact. One of the innovations of permaculture design was to appreciate the efficiency and productivity of natural ecosystems, to use natural energies (wind, gravity, solar, fire, wave and more) and seek to apply this to the way human needs for food and shelter are met. 1. Observe and interact: By taking time to engage with nature we can design solutions that suit our particular situation. 2. Catch and store energy: By developing systems that collect resources at peak abundance, we can use them in times of need. 3. Obtain a yield: Ensure that you are getting truly useful rewards as part of the work that you are doing. 4. Apply self-regulation and accept feedback: We need to discourage inappropriate activity to ensure that systems can continue to function well. 5. Use and value renewable resources and services: Make the best use of nature's abundance to reduce our consumptive behaviour and dependence on non-renewable resources. 6. Produce no waste: By valuing and making use of all the resources that are available to us, nothing goes to waste. 7. Design from patterns to details: By stepping back, we can observe patterns in nature and society. These can form the backbone of our designs, with the details filled in as we go.
Mature species on a keyline irrigation channel, 'Orana' Farm Temperate Victoria, Australia

8. Integrate rather than segregate: By putting the right things in the right place, relationships develop between those things and they work together to support each other. 9. Use small and slow solutions: Small and slow systems are easier to maintain than big ones, making better use of local resources and producing more sustainable outcomes. 10. Use and value diversity: Diversity reduces vulnerability to a variety of threats and takes advantage of the unique nature of the environment in which it resides.

Permaculture 11. Use edges and value the marginal: The interface between things is where the most interesting events take place. These are often the most valuable, diverse and productive elements in the system. 12. Creatively use and respond to change: We can have a positive impact on inevitable change by carefully observing, and then intervening at the right time.[6]

The use of patterns both in nature and reusable patterns from other sites is often key to permaculture design. All things, even the wind, the waves and the earth on its axis, moving around the Sun, form patterns. In pattern application, permaculture designers are encouraged to develop an awareness of the patterns that exist in nature (and how these function) and how patterns can be utilized on sites in order to satisfy the specific design needs of a specific site. "The application of pattern on a design site involves the designer recognizing the shape and potential to fit these patterns or combinations of patterns comfortably onto the landscape".[7] .

Edge effect
The edge effect in ecology is the effect of the juxtaposition or placing side by side of contrasting environments on an ecosystem. Permaculturists maintain that, where vastly differing systems meet, there is an intense area of productivity and useful connections. The greatest example of this is the coast. Where the land and the sea meet there is a particularly rich area that meets a disproportionate percentage of human and animal needs. This is evidenced by the fact that the overwhelming majority of humankind lives within 100 kilometres (62mi) of the sea. So this idea is played out in permacultural designs by using spirals in the herb garden or creating ponds that have wavy undulating shorelines rather than a simple circle or oval (thereby increasing the amount of edge for a given area). Edges between woodland and open areas have been claimed to be the most productive.[8]

A guild is any group of species that exploit the same resources, often in related ways.[9] [10] [11] Guilds are groups of plants, animals, insects (bees), etc. that work well together. Some plants may be grown for food production, some to attract beneficial insects (such as borage), and others to repel harmful insects. When grouped together these plants form a guild. The end goal is to have a garden that requires little or no ongoing human maintenance or resource inputs. Everything that is added into the system either improves the system or degrades the system. Finding those plants or animals that complement each other, is the first step in designing a useful system. The Three Sisters of maize, squash and beans is a well known example. Guilds can be thought of as an extension of companion planting.

Zones are a way of organizing design elements in a human environment on the basis of the frequency of human use and plant or animal needs. Frequently manipulated or harvested elements of the design are located close to the house in zones one and two. Less frequently used or manipulated elements, and elements that benefit from isolation (such as wild species) are farther away. Zones is about positioning things appropriately. Zones are numbered from 0 to 5. Zone 0 The house, or home center. Here permaculture principles would be applied in terms of aiming to reduce energy and water needs, harnessing natural resources such as sunlight, and generally creating a harmonious, sustainable environment in which to live and work. Zone 1

Permaculture The zone nearest to the house, the location for those elements in the system that require frequent attention, or that need to be visited often, such as salad crops, herb plants, soft fruit like strawberries or raspberries, greenhouse and cold frames, propagation area, worm compost bin for kitchen waste, and so on. Zone 2 This area is used for siting perennial plants that require less frequent maintenance, such as occasional weed control or pruning, including currant bushes and orchards. This would also be a good place for beehives, larger scale home composting bins, and so on. Zone 3 The area where maincrops are grown, both for domestic use and for trade purposes. After establishment, care and maintenance required are fairly minimal (provided mulches and similar things are used), such as watering or weed control maybe once a week. Zone 4 A semi-wild area. This zone is mainly used for forage and collecting wild food as well as timber production. Zone 5 A wild area. There is no human intervention in zone 5 apart from the observation of natural ecosystems and cycles.

Generally seven layers are identified. A mature ecosystem has a huge number of relationships between its component parts: trees, understory, ground cover, soil, fungi, insects and other animals. Plants grow at different heights. This allows a diverse community of life to grow in a relatively small space. 1. The canopy: the tallest trees in the system. Large trees dominate but do not saturate the area, i.e. there exist patches barren of trees. 2. Low tree layer: dwarf fruit trees and other short trees 3. Shrubs: a divers layer that includes most berry bushes
The seven layers of the forest garden

4. Herbaceous: may be annuals, biennials or perennials; most annuals will fit into this layer 5. Rhizosphere: root crops including potatoes and other editable tubers 6. Soil surface: cover crops to retain soil and lessen erosion, along with green manures to add nutrients and organic matter to the soil, especially nitrogen 7. Vertical layer: climbers or vines, such as runner beans and lima beans (vine verities)


Animals are often incorporated into the site design. Chickens can be used as a method of weed control and also as a producer of eggs, meat and fertilizer. Some types of agroforestry systems combine trees with grazing animals such as cattle and sheep. Some projects avoid the use of animals. However not all permaculture sites keep animals for meat, eggs or milk. Sometimes animals function as pets or are treated as co-habitats and co-workers of the site, eating foods normally unpalatable to people such as slugs and termites, being an integral part of the pest management by eating some pests, supplying fertilizer through their droppings and controlling some weed species.

Chickens are likely the most common type of animal incorporated into permaculture sites. A chicken tractor (a movable, floorless chicken coop) is a popular means of incorporating chickens into the design. Goats on the other hand are browsing animals and they prefer to browse on shrubbery and weeds, rather than grasses. Goats can decimate shrubs and other perennial plants, making them a poor choice for small sites.

Chicken tractors allow a kind of free ranging along with shelter, allowing chickens fresh forage such as grass, weeds and bugs, which widens their diet and lowers their feed needs.

Applying these values means using fewer non-renewable sources of energy, particularly petroleum based forms of energy. Burning fossil fuels contributes to greenhouse gases and global warming; however, using less energy is more than just combating global warming. Using current agricultural systems the food production system is not fully renewable. Industrial agriculture uses large amounts of petroleum and natural gas, both to run the equipment, and to supply pesticides and fertilizers. Permaculture is in part an attempt to create a renewable system of food production that relies upon minimal amounts of energy.

Passive solar heating illustration

For example permaculture focuses on maximizing the use of trees (agroforestry) and perennial food crops because they make a more efficient and long term use of energy than traditional seasonal crops. A farmer does not have to exert energy every year replanting them, and this frees up that energy to be used somewhere else. Traditional pre-industrial agriculture was labor intensive, industrial agriculture is fossil fuel intensive, and permaculture is design and information intensive and petrofree. Partially permaculture is an attempt to work smarter, not harder; and when possible renewable energy designs such as passive solar should be used. A good example of this kind of efficient design is the chicken greenhouse. By attaching a chicken coop to a greenhouse one can reduce the need to heat the greenhouse by fossil fuels, as the chickens' body heat warms the area. The chickens scratching and pecking can be put to good use to clear new land for crops. Their manure can be used in composting to fertilize the soil. Feathers could be used in compost or as a mulch. In a conventional factory situation all these chicken outputs are seen as a waste problem. In large factory farms (cooled by large air conditioning systems), chicken heat is a waste byproduct, along with their manure. All energy is focused on egg production. Thus it is a further principle of permaculture that "pollution is energy in the wrong place".


Design for ecology-economic ethics

A basic principle is thus to "add value" to existing crops. A permaculture design therefore seeks to provide a wide range of solutions by including its main ethics (see above) as an integral part of the final value-added design. Crucially, it seeks to address problems that include the economic question of how to either make money from growing crops or exchange crops for labor such as in the Local Exchange Trading Systems (LETS) scheme. Each final design therefore should include economic considerations as well as give equal weight to maintaining ecological balance, making sure that the needs of people working on the project are met and that no one is exploited. Community economics requires a balance between the three aspects that comprise a community: justice, environment and economics, also called the triple bottom line, or "ecological-economics-ethics" (EEE) or "triple E". A cooperative farmer's market could be an example of this structure. The farmers are the workers and owners.

Trademark and copyright claims

There has been contention over who if anyone controls the legal rights to the word "Permaculture", meaning is it trademarked or copyrighted, and if so, who holds the legal rights to the use of the word. For a long time Bill Mollison claimed to have copyrighted the word permaculture, and his books reflected that on the copyright page, saying "The contents of this book and the word PERMACULTURE are copyright." These statements were largely accepted at face-value within the permaculture community. However, copyright law does not protect names, ideas, concepts, systems, or methods of doing something; it only protects the expression or the description of an idea, not the idea itself. Eventually Mollison acknowledged that he was mistaken and that no copyright protection existed for the word "permaculture"[12] . Mollison explained that the word "permaculture" was copyrighted to protect the quality of teaching, particularly with relation to the Permaculture Design Course (PDC), a 72 hour course usually taught over a period of 14 days. The PDC is a formal means of training an individual the ideas and techniques associated with permaculture. Mollison's argument was if the word was copyrighted, then only those who had been trained and shown to have a reasonable level of proficiency would be allowed to teach the PDC. However, some of those who taught the PDC wanted to adjust the curriculum to better reflect the local conditions of where it was being taught. For example, should a course taught in an urban setting such as New York City be unchanged from what is taught in rural Australia? Mollison was adamant that the curriculum should be taught as he had designed it, without being altered. In 2000 Mollison's US based Permaculture Institute sought a service mark (a form of trademark) for the word permaculture when used in educational services such as conducting classes, seminars, or workshops[13] . The service mark would have allowed Mollison and his two Permaculture Institutes (one in the US and one in Australia) to set enforceable guidelines as to how permaculture could be taught and who could teach it, particularly with relation to the PDC. The service mark failed and was abandoned in 2001. Also in 2001 Mollison applied for trademarks in Australia for the terms "Permaculture Design Course"[14] and "Permaculture Design"[15] . These applications where both withdrawn in 2003. In 2009 he sought a trademark for " Permaculture a Designers' Manual"[16] and "Introduction to Permaculture"[17] , the names of two of his books. These applications where withdrawn in 2011. There has never been a trademark for the word Permaculture in Australia[18] .

John Robin has been one the strongest critics of permaculture, criticizing it for its potential to spread environmental weeds, reflecting a divide between native plant advocates and permaculture.[19] Another criticism of permaculture is to be found in a book review of Hemenway's Gaia's Garden, published in the Whole Earth Review.[20] In it, Williams critiques the view that woods are more highly productive than farmland on the basis of the theory of ecological succession which states that net productivity declines as ecosystems mature[21] . He also criticized the lack of scientifically tested data and questions whether permaculture is applicable to more than a small number of

Permaculture dedicated people. Hemenway's response in the same magazine disputes Williams's claim on productivity as focusing on climax rather than on maturing forests, citing data from ecologist Robert Whittaker's book Communities and Ecosystems. Hemenway is also critical of Williams's characterisation of permaculture as simply forest gardening.[22]

[1] "Healthy Environments and You" (http:/ / www. shirleymaclaine. com/ articles/ environment/ article-292). ShirleyMacLaine.com, Inc. and MacLaine Enterprises, Inc.. . Retrieved 10 September 2011. [2] Oliver Holmgren (1997). "Weeds or Wild Nature" (http:/ / www. holmgren. com. au/ frameset. html?http:/ / www. holmgren. com. au/ html/ Writings/ weeds. html). Permaculture International Journal. . Retrieved 10 September 2011. [3] Smith, Joseph Russell; Smith, John (1987). Tree Crops. Island Press. [4] David Holmgren (2006). "The Essence of Permaculture" (http:/ / www. holmgren. com. au/ frameset. html?http:/ / www. holmgren. com. au/ html/ Writings/ weeds. html). Holmgren Design Services. . Retrieved 10 September 2011. [5] Mollison, Bill (1978 September 1521). "The One-Straw Revolution by Masanobu Fukuoka". Nation Review: p.18. [6] Permaculture - Peak Oil - The Source of Permaculture Vision and Innovation (http:/ / www. holmgren. com. au) [7] Sampson-Kelly [8] Plants for a Future - The woodland edge (http:/ / www. pfaf. org/ leaflets/ woodlandedge. php) [9] Simberloff, D; Dayan, T (1991). "The Guild Concept and the Structure of Ecological Communities". Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 22: 115. doi:10.1146/annurev.es.22.110191.000555. [10] Encyclopaedia Britannica article on guilds (http:/ / www. britannica. com/ eb/ article-70591/ community-ecology) [11] Williams, SE; Hero, JM (1998). "Rainforest frogs of the Australian Wet Tropics: guild classification and the ecological similarity of declining species". Proceedings. Biological sciences / the Royal Society 265 (1396): 597602. doi:10.1098/rspb.1998.0336. PMC1689015. PMID9881468. [12] Russ Grayson (2011). "The Permaculture Papers 5: time of change and challenge 2000-2004" (http:/ / pacific-edge. info/ the-permaculture-papers-5-time-of-change-and-challenge--2000-2004/ ). www.pacific-edge.info. . Retrieved 08 September 2011. "In a letter to me, the Institute explained that they were seeking the trademarks because they had been mistaken in their belief that the terms were protected by copyright. This belief had endured for years, Bill occasionally making public statements about copyright protecting Permaculture and how it could be used. Copyright protects only the expression of an idea, not the idea itself, the Institute confirmed. Copyright protected Bills books as an expression of Permaculture, but the idea of Permaculture itself and the elements that make it up remained unprotected" [13] United States Patent and Trademark Office (2011). "Trademark Electronic Search System (TESS)" (http:/ / tess2. uspto. gov/ bin/ showfield?f=doc& state=4005:o81il1. 2. 1). US Department of Commerce. . Retrieved 08 September 2011. "Word Mark PERMACULTURE -Goods and Services (ABANDONED) IC 041. US 100 101 107. G & S: Educational services, namely, conducting classes, seminars, and workshops on environmental, sustainable design for homeowners, farmers, ranchers, and other land based enterprises. This design system is known as Permaculture. Providing educational materials for above trainings. - Filing Date September 7, 2000 - (APPLICANT) Permaculture Institute Inc. CORPORATION NEW MEXICO P. O. Box 3702 Pojoaque NEW MEXICO 87501 - Type of Mark SERVICE MARK Live/Dead Indicator: DEAD - Abandonment Date August 28, 2001 - Serial Number 78024882" [14] IP Australia. "Enter as a Guest; Basic Search; You can also search by trade mark number: 877106" (http:/ / pericles. ipaustralia. gov. au/ atmoss/ Falcon. Result). Commonwealth of Australia. . Retrieved 08 September 2011. "Word: PERMACULTURE DESIGN COURSE, New Trade Mark Application 28-MAY-2001, Withdrawal Advertised: 09-JAN-2003, Status: Withdrawn, XAF Pty Ltd ACN: 009521260 31 Rulla Road SISTERS CREEK TAS 7325 AUSTRALIA - Bill Mollison 31 Rulla Road SISTERS CREEK TAS 7325 AUSTRALIA - Lisa Mollison 31 Rulla Road SISTERS CREEK TAS 7325 AUSTRALIA, Class: 41 Education and training in the field of sustainable land use and landscape design, Trade Mark : 877106" [15] IP Australia. "Enter as a Guest; Basic Search; You can also search by trade mark number: 877449" (http:/ / pericles. ipaustralia. gov. au/ atmoss/ Falcon. Result). Commonwealth of Australia. . Retrieved 08 September 2011. "Word: PERMACULTURE DESIGN, New Trade Mark Application (multi-class) 30-MAY-2001, Withdrawal Advertised: 09-JAN-2003, Status: Withdrawn, XAF Pty Ltd ACN: 009521260 31 Rulla Road SISTERS CREEK TAS 7325 AUSTRALIA - Bill Mollison 31 Rulla Road SISTERS CREEK TAS 7325 AUSTRALIA - Lisa Mollison 31 Rulla Road SISTERS CREEK TAS 7325 AUSTRALIA, Class: 16 Books, pamphlets, printed material all in the field of sustainable land use, landscape design and food security Class: 41 Education and training in the field of sustainable land use and landscape design, Class: 42 Consulting for others in the fields of sustainable land use and landscape design, Trade Mark : 877449" [16] IP Australia. "Enter as a Guest; Basic Search; You can also search by trade mark number: 1319992" (http:/ / pericles. ipaustralia. gov. au/ atmoss/ Falcon. Result). Commonwealth of Australia. . Retrieved 08 September 2011. "Word: Permaculture a Designers' Manual, Filing Elec Appl'n for TM - Pick List 3 Classes 10-SEP-2009, Applications Lapsed and Withdrawn (Lapsed): 24-MAR-2011, Status: Lapsed/Not Protected, Owner/s: XAF Pty Ltd ITF The Permaculutre Institute ACN: 009521260 31 Rulla Road SISTERS CREEK TAS 7325 AUSTRALIA - Bill Mollison 31 Rulla Road SISTERS CREEK TAS 7325 AUSTRALIA - Lisa Mollison 31 Rulla Road SISTERS CREEK TAS 7325 AUSTRALIA, Class: 9 Computer hardware publications in electronic form; electronic publications (downloadable), Class: 16 Printed publications, Class: 41 Providing online electronic publications (not downloadable), Trade Mark : 1319992" [17] IP Australia. "Enter as a Guest; Basic Search; You can also search by trade mark number: 1321705" (http:/ / pericles. ipaustralia. gov. au/ atmoss/ Falcon. Result). Commonwealth of Australia. . Retrieved 08 September 2011. "Word: Introduction to Permaculture, Filing Elec

Appl'n for TM - Pick List 3 Classes 21-SEP-2009, Applications Lapsed and Withdrawn (Lapsed): 31-MAR-2011, Status: Lapsed/Not Protected, Owner/s: XAF Pty as trustee for The Permaculutre Institute ACN: 009521260 31 Rulla Road SISTERS CREEK TAS 7325 AUSTRALIA - Bill Mollison 31 Rulla Road SISTERS CREEK TAS 7325 AUSTRALIA - Lisa Mollison 31 Rulla Road SISTERS CREEK TAS 7325 AUSTRALIA, Class: 9 Electronic publications (downloadable); electronic publications including those sold and distributed online, Class: 16 Printed publications, Class: 41 Providing online electronic publications (not downloadable), Trade Mark : 1321705" [18] IP Australia. "Enter as a Guest; Basic Search; You can also search by trade mark number: 345002" (http:/ / pericles. ipaustralia. gov. au/ atmoss/ Falcon. Result). Commonwealth of Australia. . Retrieved 08 September 2011. [19] Permaculture: Weeds or Wild Nature (http:/ / www. holmgren. com. au/ html/ Writings/ weeds. html) [20] Williams, Greg (2001). "Gaia's Garden: A Guide to Home-Scale Permaculture" (http:/ / webcache. googleusercontent. com/ search?q=cache:xIuXvGwog_IJ:findarticles. com/ p/ articles/ mi_m0GER/ is_2001_Winter/ ai_81790195/ + http:/ / findarticles. com/ p/ articles/ mi_m0GER/ is_2001_Winter/ ai_81790195/ & cd=1& hl=en& ct=clnk& gl=au& source=www. google. com. au). Whole Earth. . [21] Williams, Greg (2001). "Gaia's Garden: A Guide to Home-Scale Permaculture" (http:/ / webcache. googleusercontent. com/ search?q=cache:xIuXvGwog_IJ:findarticles. com/ p/ articles/ mi_m0GER/ is_2001_Winter/ ai_81790195/ + http:/ / findarticles. com/ p/ articles/ mi_m0GER/ is_2001_Winter/ ai_81790195/ & cd=1& hl=en& ct=clnk& gl=au& source=www. google. com. au). Whole Earth. . [22] A toolbox, not a tool (http:/ / www. findarticles. com/ p/ articles/ mi_m0GER/ is_2001_Winter/ ai_81790196)

Bell, Graham. The Permaculture Way. 1st edition, Thorsons, (1992), ISBN 0-7225-2568-0, 2nd edition Permanent Publications (UK) (2004), ISBN 1-85623-028-7. Bell, Graham. The Permaculture Garden. Permanent Publications (UK) (2004), ISBN 1-85623-027-9. Burnett, Graham. Permaculture: A Beginner's Guide. Spiralseed (http://www.spiralseed.co.uk) (UK). Fern, Ken. Plants For A Future. [Permanent Publications] (UK) (1997). ISBN 1-85623-011-2. Google Books link (http://books.google.com/books?id=uXDXevCgtV0C&dq="plants+for+a+future"&printsec=frontcover& source=bl&ots=fo2Ig8wevb&sig=U5hYlhk0ddjQaYyL9jcaThJSJx4&hl=en& ei=6YYBS6rNAZOxlAeUxoWLCw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=8& ved=0CDEQ6AEwBw#v=onepage&q=&f=false) Fukuoka, Masanobu. The One Straw Revolution. Rodale Books (US). Holistic Agriculture Library (http://www. soilandhealth.org/01aglibrary/01aglibwelcome.html) Holmgren, David. Permaculture: Principles and Pathways Beyond Sustainability. Holmgren Design Services (http://www.holmgren.com.au/) (Australia). Holmgren, David. "Update 49: Retrofitting the suburbs for sustainability". CSIRO Sustainability Network (http:// www.bml.csiro.au/SNnewsletters.htm#CSIRO Sustainability Network) Hart, Robert. Forest Gardening. Green Books (UK) ISBN 1-900322-02-1. Hemenway, Toby. Gaia's Garden. Chelsea Green Books (http://www.chelseagreen.com) (US) (2001). ISBN 1-890132-52-7. Jacke, Dave with Eric Toensmeier. Edible Forest Gardens. Volume I: Ecological Vision and Theory for Temperate-Climate Permaculture, Volume II: Ecological Design and Practice for Temperate-Climate Permaculture. Edible Forest Gardens (http://www.edibleforestgardens.com) (US) 2005 King, FH (Franklin Hiram) Farmers of Forty Centuries: Or Permanent Agriculture in China, Korea and Japan (1911). Law, Ben. The Woodland House. [Permanent Publications] (UK) (2005), ISBN 1-85623-031-7. Law, Ben. The Woodland Way. [Permanent Publications] (UK), ISBN 1-85623-009-0. Loofs, Mona. Permaculture, Ecology and Agriculture: An investigation into Permaculture theory and practice using two case studies in northern New South Wales Honours thesis, Human Ecology Program, Department of Geography, Australian National University 1993 Mollison, Bill & David Holmgren Permaculture One. Transworld Publishers (Australia) (1978), ISBN 0-552-98060-9. Mollison, Bill. Permaculture: A Designer's Manual. Tagari Press (Australia). Mollison, Bill Permaculture Two. Tagari Press (http://www.tagari.com) (Australia) (1979), ISBN 0-908228-00-7.

Permaculture Odum, H.T., Jorgensen, S.E. and Brown, M.T. 'Energy hierarchy and transformity in the universe', in Ecological Modelling, 178, pp.1728 (2004). Paull, J. "Permanent Agriculture: Precursor to Organic Farming", Journal of Bio-Dynamics Tasmania, no.83, pp.1921, 2006. Organic eprints (http://orgprints.org/10237/). Rosemary Morrow, Earth User's Guide to Permaculture ISBN 0-86417-514-0 Whitefield, Patrick. Permaculture In A Nutshell. Permanent Publications (UK) (1993), ISBN 1-85623-003-1. Whitefield, Patrick. The Earth Care Manual. Permanent Publications (UK) (2004), ISBN 1-85623-021-X. Woodrow, Linda. The Permaculture Home Garden. Penguin Books (Australia). Yeomans, P.A. Water for Every Farm: A practical irrigation plan for every Australian property, K.G. Murray Publishing Company, Pty, Ltd, Sydney, N.S.W., Australia (1973). Various, The Same Planet a different World.. free eBook (http://permaculturefrance.com/resources.htm) (France).


External links
The 15 pamphlets based on the 1981 Permaculture Design Course given by Bill Mollison (http://www. bettertimesinfo.org/pdc_all.pdf) all in 1 pdf-file. What is permaculture? (http://www.commoncircle.com/permaculture). Introduction to permaculture (http://attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/perma.html). Permaculture a Beginners Guide (http://www.spiralseed.co.uk/permaculture) - a 'pictorial walkthrough'. An Extensive List of Online Permaculture Videos and Resources (http://www.luminaia.com/Permaculture).

Article Sources and Contributors


Article Sources and Contributors

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