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INTRODUCTION TO MEDIA

Media in Indiainitiated since the late 1700s with print media started in 1780, radio broadcasting initiated in 1927, and the screening of Auguste and Louis Lumire moving pictures in Bombay initiated during the July of 1895 is among the oldest and largest media of the world. Indian mediaprivate media in particularhas been free and independent throughout most of its history. The period of emergency (19751977), declared by Prime

Minister Indira Gandhi, was the brief period when India's media was faced with potential government retribution. In general, "media" refers to various means of communication. For example, television, radio, and the newspaper are different types of media. The term can also be used for the press or news reporting agencies. The Media And

Entertainment industry is one of the most booming sectors in India. The Indian Media And Entertainment industry, with the prominent segments being films, television, and music has earned high revenues in the recent past. The Indian Media And Entertainment industry has risen to the threshold of a large global market. The year 2005 saw the entry of new players across all the segments of the industry including Reliance. The Indian Entertainment & Media industry can be categorised as follows:

Filmed Entertainment Television Music Radio Print (Primarily Newspapers & Magazines)

ETHICS IN MEDIA
Media ethics is a branch of philosophy concerned with actions that are morally permissible and those that are not. Media ethics assist media workers in determining what is right and choosing the best from several alternatives. Ethics should set guidelines, rules, norms, codes and principles to lead journalists and other media workers to make moral decisions.

There are teleological ethics and deontological ethics. Teleological ethics is the acceptability of an action is measured in terms of its consequences - only after consequences have been noted is the rightness or wrongness determined. While deontological ethics is when the rightness or wrongness of an action is dependent on the action itself and not on the results or consequences it produces.

The media ethics are so broad but this site will mainly focus on normative media ethics. Normative ethics is concerned with what people and institutions ought to do and how they should conduct themselves. Media workers are part of society and therefore, function within the parameters set by the expectations prevalent in a society at a particular time. Apart from society, the government of the country also informs expectations of what the media ought to do. Consequently, a nations media, more than any other kind of institution is shaped by the prevailing political power.

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2008-04-05 21:25

MEDIA

FILM INDUSTRY

JOURNALISM

ADVERTISING

WHAT IS MEANT BY FILM?


A film, also called a movie or motion picture, is a story conveyed with moving images. It is produced by recording photographic images with cameras, or by creating images using animation techniques or visual effects. The process of filmmaking has developed into an art form and industry. Films are cultural artifacts created by specific cultures, which reflect those cultures, and, in turn, affect them. Film is considered to be an important art form, a source of popular entertainment and a powerful method for educating or indoctrinating citizens. The visual elements of cinema give motion pictures a universal power of communication. Some films have become popular worldwide attractions by using dubbing or subtitles that translate the dialogue. Films are made up of a series of individual images called frames. When these images are shown rapidly in succession, a viewer has the illusion that motion is occurring. The viewer cannot see the flickering between frames due to an effect known as persistence of vision, whereby the eye retains a visual image for a fraction of a second after the source has been removed. Viewers perceive motion due to a psychological effect called beta movement. The origin of the name "film" comes from the fact that photographic film (also called film stock) has historically been the primary medium for recording and displaying motion pictures. Many other terms exist for an individual motion picture, including picture, picture show, moving picture, photo-play and flick. A common name for film in the United States is movie, while in Europe the term cinema is preferred. Additional terms for the field in general include the big screen, the silver screen, the cinema and the movies.

ETHICS IN FILM
Ethics in Film is an electronic journal dedicated to bringing the power of film to the teaching of all areas of ethical inquiry. The journal publishes articles that use any form of motion picture excerpt as the teaching method and address any ethical genre. Ethics in Film strives to make these teaching methods easily accessible while maintaining the highest quality provided by double-blind peer review. Recognizing that ethical issues span all areas of human activity, Ethics in Film welcomes submissions of film treatments of all dimensions of ethics without special preference for any particular approach or sub-discipline of ethical inquiry. Thus, the journal's scope embraces: meta-ethics, ethical theory, normative ethics, professional ethics, practical ethics, and environmental ethics. Ethics in Film is published by the Center for Values and Social Policy in the Department of Philosophy at the University of Colorado at Boulder. Funding has been provided by: George and Judy Writer, the Institute for Ethical and Civic Engagement (IECE) at the University of Colorado at Boulder, and the Arthur W. Page Center, a research center at the Penn State College of Communications dedicated to the study and advancement of ethics and responsibility in corporate communication and other forms of public communication.

ADVERTISING
Advertising is a form of communication that typically attempts to persuade potential customers to purchase or to consume more of a particular brand of product or service. It is only quite recently that advertising has been more than a marginal influence on patterns of sales and production. The formation of modern advertising was intimately bound up with the emergence of new forms of monopoly capitalism around the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th century as one element in corporate strategies to create, organize and where possible control markets, especially for mass produced consumer goods. Its no secret that advertisements are supposed to persuade you to buy a product. Thats their job. Advertising may attempt to educate you or entertain you, but beneath it all, the ultimate goal is always to sell you. So, its only natural that advertisers would resort to all kinds of slippery tactics as a way of getting you motivated to buy. The question is this: are these strategies ethical?

ETHICS IN ADVERTISING
Ethics is a branch of philosophy which seeks to address questions about morality, such as how moral values should be determined (normative ethics), how a moral outcome can be achieved in specific situations (applied ethics), how moral capacity or moral agency develops and what its nature is (moral psychology), and what moral values people actually abide by (descriptive ethics). The significance of ethical formulations, today, as in all times, is in their power for shaping attitudes and constraining behaviors. Ethics provide for a basic social need by defining the behaviors we expect and will accept from one another. In the ideal, our ethics allow us to live together, productively and in harmony. While following ethics an advertiser should take into consideration the concept of Ethical Concerns.

Ethical Concerns
Advertising typically plays upon emotions. It uses desire to lure people into the purchase. Creating that desire is a task that requires a certain amount of illusion. Advertisers must create a scenario that heightens the consumers emotional state. No matter what strategy they use, they are always building a fantasy one in which the consumers life is better because of the product.

INTRODUCTION TO JOURNALISM Journalism is concerned with collection and dissemination of news through the print media as well as the electronic media. This involves various areas of works like reporting, writing, editing, photographing, broadcasting or cable casting news items. Journalism is classified into two on the basis of media- (i) Print Journalism and (ii) Electronic (Audio/Visual) Journalism. Print Journalism includes newspapers, magazines and journals. In print journalism one can work as editors, reporters, columnists, correspondents etc. Electronic journalism includes working for Radio, Television and the Web. In the web, skilled people are required to maintain sites by web newspapers (which cater only to the web and do not have print editions) and popular newspapers and magazines who have their own web editions. In electronic journalism one can be a reporter, writer, editor, researcher, correspondent and anchor. The elements of journalism According to The Elements of Journalism, a book by Bill Kovach and Tom Rosenstiel, there are nine elements of journalism.[2] In order for a journalist to fulfill their duty of providing the people with the information, they need to be free and self-governing. They must follow these guidelines: i. Journalism's first obligation is to the truth. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. viii. ix. x. Its first loyalty is to the citizens. Its essence is discipline of verification. Its practitioners must maintain an independence from those they cover. It must serve as an independent monitor of power. It must provide a forum for public criticism and compromise. It must strive to make the news significant, interesting, and relevant. It must keep the news comprehensive and proportional. Its practitioners must be allowed to exercise their personal conscience. In the April 2007 edition of the book,[3] they added the last element, the rights and responsibilities of citizens to make it a total of ten elements of journalism.

Ethics and self-regulation in journalism Having regard to the requisite conditions and basic principles enumerated above, the media must undertake to submit to firm ethical principles guaranteeing freedom of expression and the fundamental right of citizens to receive truthful information and honest opinions. In order to supervise the implementation of these principles, self-regulatory bodies or mechanisms must be set up comprising publishers, journalists, media users' associations, experts from the academic world and judges; they will be responsible for issuing resolutions on respect for ethical precepts in journalism, with prior commitment on the part of the media to publish the relevant resolutions. This will help the citizen, who has the right to information, to pass either positive or negative judgment on the journalist's work and credibility. The self-regulatory bodies or mechanisms, the media users' associations and the relevant university departments could publish each year the research done a posteriori on the truthfulness of the information broadcast by the media, comparing the news with the actual facts. This would serve as a barometer of credibility which citizens could use as a guide to the ethical standard achieved by each medium or each section of the media, or even each individual journalist. The relevant corrective mechanisms might simultaneously help improve the manner in which the profession of media journalism is pursued.

Professional and ethical standards In the UK, all newspapers are bound by the Code of Practice of the Press Complaints Commission.[4] This includes points like respecting people's privacy and ensuring accuracy. However, the Media Standards Trust has criticised the PCC, claiming it needs to be radically changed to secure public trust of newspapers.[5] This is in stark contrast to the media climate prior to the 20th Century, where the media market was dominated by smaller newspapers and pamphleteers who usually had an overt and often radical agenda, with no presumption of balance or objectivity

NORMS OF JOURNALISTIC CONDUCT The fundamental objective of journalism is to serve the people with news, views, comments and information on matters of public interest in a fair, accurate, unbiased, sober and decent manner. To this end, the Press is expected to conduct itself in keeping with certain norms of professionalism, universally recognised. The norms enunciated below and other specific guidelines appended thereafter, when applied with due discernment and adaptation to the varying circumstance of each case, will help the journalist to self-regulate his or her conduct. anything, which could, be construed as remotely casting cloud on the artists personal credibility. 1.Right to Privacy i) The Press shall not intrude or invade the privacy of an individual, unless outweighed by genuine overriding public interest, not being a prurient or morbid curiosity. So, however, that once a matter becomes a matter of public record, the right to privacy no longer subsists and it becomes a legitimate subject for comment by the Press and the media, among others. Explanation: Things concerning a person's home, family, religion, health, sexuality, personal life and private affairs are covered by the concept of PRIVACY excepting where any of these impinges upon the public or public interest. ii) Caution against Identification: While reporting crime involving rape, abduction or kidnap of women/females or sexual assault on children, or raising doubts and questions touching the chastity, personal character and privacy of women, the names, photographs of the victims or other particulars leading to their identity shall not be published. iii) Minor children and infants who are the offspring of sexual abuse or 'forcible marriage' or illicit sexual union shall not be identified or photographed. 14. Right of Reply i) The newspaper should promptly and with due prominence, publish either in full or with due editing, free of cost, at the instance of the person affected or feeling aggrieved/or concerned by the impugned publication, a contradiction/reply/ clarification or rejoinder sent to the editor in the form of a letter or note. If the editor doubts the truth or factual accuracy of the contradiction/reply/clarification or rejoinder, he shall be at liberty to add separately at the end, a brief editorial comment doubting its veracity, but only when this doubt is reasonably founded on unimpeachable documentary or other evidential material in his/her possession. This is a concession which has to be availed of sparingly with due discretion and caution in appropriate cases. ii)However, where the reply/contradiction or rejoinder is being published in compliance with the directions of the Press Council, it is permissible to append a brief editorial note to that effect.

iii) Right of rejoinder cannot be claimed through the medium of Press Conference, as publication/coverage of a news of a conference is within the discretionary powers of an editor. iv) Freedom of the Press involves the readers' right to know all sides of an issue of public interest. An editor, therefore, shall not refuse to publish the reply or rejoinder merely on the ground that in his opinion the story published in the newspaper was true. That is an issue to be left to the judgement of the readers. It also does not behove an editor to show contempt towards a reader. 2 Recording interviews and phone conversation i) The Press shall not tape-record anyone's conversation without that person's knowledge or consent, except where the recording is necessary to protect the journalist in a legal action, or for other compelling good reason. ii) The Press shall, prior to publication, delete offensive epithets used by a person whose statements are being reported. iii) Intrusion through photography into moments of personal grief shall be avoided. However, photography of victims of accidents or natural calamity may be in larger public interest. 10. Newspapers to eschew suggestive guilt i) Newspapers should eschew suggestive guilt by association. They should not name or identify the family or relatives or associates of a person convicted or accused of a crime, when they are totally innocent and a reference to them is not relevant to the matter being reported. ii ) It is contrary to the norms of journalism for a paper to identify itself with and project or promote the case of any one party in the case of any controversy/dispute. 21. Headings not to be sensational/provocative and must justify the matter printed under them i) In general and particularly in the context of communal disputes or clashes a. Provocative and sensational headlines are to be avoided; b. Headings must reflect and justify the matter printed under them; c. Headings containing allegations made in statements should either identify the body or the source making it or at least carry quotation marks. 26. Investigative journalism, its norms and parameters Investigative reporting has three basic elements. a. It has to be the work of the reporter, not of others he is reporting; b. The subject should be of public importance for the reader to know; c. An attempt is being made to hide the truth from the people. The first norm follows as a necessary corollary from (a) That the investigative reporter should, as a rule, base his story on facts investigated, detected and verified by himself and not on hearsay or on

derivative evidence collected by a third party, not checked up from direct, authentic sources by the reporter himself. (b) There being a conflict between the factors which require openness and those which necessitate secrecy, the investigative journalist should strike and maintain in his report a proper balance between openness on the one hand and secrecy on the other, placing the public good above everything. (c) The investigative journalist should resist the temptation of quickies or quick gains conjured up from half-baked incomplete, doubtful facts, not fully checked up and verified from authentic sources by the reporter himself. (d) Imaginary facts, or ferreting out or conjecturing the non-existent should be scrupulously avoided. Facts facts and yet more facts are vital and they should be checked and cross-checked whenever possible until the moment the paper goes to Press. (e) The newspaper must adopt strict standards of fairness and accuracy of facts. Findings should be presented in an objective manner, without exaggerating or distorting, that would stand up in a court of law, if necessary. (f) The reporter must not approach the matter or the issue under investigation, in a manner as though he were the prosecutor or counsel for the prosecution. The reporter's approach should be fair, accurate and balanced. All facts properly checked up, both for and against the core issues, should be distinctly and separately stated, free from any one-sided inferences or unfair comments. The tone and tenor of the report and its language should be sober, decent and dignified, and not needlessly offensive, barbed, derisive or castigatory, particularly while commenting on the version of the person whose alleged activity or misconduct is being investigated. Nor should the investigative reporter conduct the proceedings and pronounce his verdict of guilt or innocence against the person whose alleged criminal acts and conduct were investigated, in a manner as if he were a court trying the accused. (g) In all proceedings including the investigation, presentation and publication of the report, the investigative journalist newspaper should be guided by the paramount principle of criminal jurisprudence, that a person is innocent unless the offence alleged against him is proved beyond doubt by independent, reliable evidence. (h) The private life, even of a public figure, is his own. Exposition or invasion of his personal privacy or private life is not permissible unless there is clear evidence that the wrong doings in question have a reasonable nexus with the misuse of his public position or power and has an adverse impact on public interest. (i) Though the legal provisions of Criminal Procedure do not in terms, apply to investigating proceedings by a journalist, the fundamental principles underlying them can be adopted as a guide on grounds of equity, ethics and good conscience. 32. Plagiarism

i) Using or passing off the writings or ideas of another as ones own, without crediting the source, is an offence against ethics of journalism. ii) Violation of copyright also constitutes violation of journalistic norms. 33.Unauthorised lifting of news i) The practice of lifting news from other newspapers publishing them subsequently as their own, ill-comports the high standards of journalism. To remove its unethicality the 'lifting' newspaper must duly acknowledge the source of the report. ii) The position of features articles is different from 'news': Feature articles shall not be lifted without permission/ proper acknowledgement. 36.Advertisements i) Commercial advertisements are information as much as social, economic or political information. What is more, advertisements shape attitude and ways of life at least as much, as other kinds of information and comment. Journalistic propriety demands that advertisements must be clearly distinguishable from news content carried in the newspaper. ii) Newspaper should not publish Liquor & Tobacco Advertisements No advertisement shall be published, which promotes directly or indirectly production, sale or consumption of cigarettes, tobacco products, wine, alcohol, liquor and other intoxicants. iii) Newspaper shall not publish advertisements, which have a tendency to malign or hurt the religious sentiments of any community or section of society. iv) Advertisements which offend the provisions of the Drugs and Magical Remedies (Objectionable Advertisement) Act, 1954, or any other statute should be rejected. v) Newspapers should not publish an advertisement containing anything which is unlawful or illegal, or is contrary to public decency, good taste or to journalistic ethics or propriety. vi) Journalistic propriety demands that advertisements must be clearly distinguishable from editorial matter carried in the newspaper. Newspapers while publishing advertisements should specify the amount received by them. The rationale behind this is that advertisements should be charged at rates usually chargeable by a newspaper since payment of more than the normal rates would amount to a subsidy to the paper. vii) Publication of dummy or lifted advertisements that have neither been paid for, nor authorised by the advertisers, constitute breach of journalistic ethics specially when the paper raises a bill in respect of such advertisements. viii) Deliberate failure to publish an advertisement in all the copies of a newspaper offends against the standards of journalistic ethics and constitutes gross professional misconduct. ix) There should be total co-ordination and communication between the advertisement department and the editorial department of a newspaper in the

matter of considering the legality propriety or otherwise of an advertisement received for publication. x) The editors should insist on their right to have the final say in the acceptance or rejection of advertisements, specially those which border on or cross the line between decency and obscenity. 9. Violence not to be glorified i) Photo Coverage on Terrorist Attack, Communal Clashes and Accidents While reporting news with regard to terrorist attacks or communal riots, the media should refrain from publishing/telecasting pictures of mangled corpses or any other photographic coverage which may create terror, or revulsion or ignite communal passion among people. ii) Newspapers/journalists shall avoid presenting acts of violence, armed robberies and terrorist activities in a manner that glorifies the perpetrators on their acts, declarations or death in the eyes of the public. Publication of interviews of anti-social elements by the newspapers glorifying the criminals and their activities with the resultant effects are to be avoided. 37.Management-Editor Relationship i) There is a well-recognised distinction between the editor and the journalists on the one hand and the Manager, the Executive or the Administrator on the other, whatever the nomenclature that they may carry in a particular newspaper establishment. The duties and responsibilities of the editor and the management differ and whatever the co-ordination may be required to efficiently manage the establishment to bring out the journal, the functions of the two are separate and have to kept as such. Once the owner lays down the policy of the newspaper for general guidance, neither he nor anybody on his behalf can interfere with the day to day functioning of the editor and the journalistic staff working under him. It is well established that the freedom of the press is essentially the freedom of the people to be informed accurately and adequately on all issues, problems, events and developments. In discharge of the editorial functions the editor is supreme and superior even to the owner. The independence of the newspaper, is essentially the independence of the editor from all internal and external restrictions. Unless the editor enjoys this freedom he will be unable to discharge his primary duty which is to the people and without such freedom, he can be held responsible in law for all that appears in the newspaper. In the running of the newspaper, the managerial, administrative or business side of the newspaper has to be kept independent of its editorial side and should not be allowed to encroach upon or interfere with the editorial section. This precaution is to be taken even when the owner and the editor is the same. The proprietor must

not allow his business interests and considerations to either dominate or interfere with the newspapers obligation to the people. That is why there is also an obligation on the management to select a person as the editor who is competent and bears integrity of character and independence of mind. The successful working of any arrangement in the ultimate analysis would depend on mutual understanding, cooperation and goodwill between the management, the editor, editorial journalist staff and all those who are faithfully working in the production of a paper. If the co-ordination between the different departments including the editorial is effected by the Brand Management without in any way interfering with the freedom of the editor to include or exclude news or views, the length or details as well as their language and the place where they are to be published, and the prominence with which they should appear, there may not be much grievance that such co-ordination is in violation of the freedom of the editor. However, if the choice of the editor with regard to selection of material in any manner is sought to be interfered with, it is undoubtedly an unwarranted encroachment on the said freedom. (ii) The editor under no circumstances can be asked by the proprietor to serve his private interests. To require an editor to cater to the personal interests of the proprietor is not only to demean the office of the editor but also to encroach upon his status as a trustee of the society in respect of the contents of the newspaper. In any country which swears by the freedom and the independence of the press, an attempt by any proprietor of a newspaper to use his editor as his personal agent to promote his private interests and to compel him to act and to write, to serve them is both offensive and reprehensive. Any editor or for that matter any journalist who accepts or condescends to do such jobs not only degrades himself but also the profession of journalism and does not deserve the calling. He betrays the trust the society keeps in him for furnishing fair, objective and comprehensive news and views.

The right to information as a fundamental human right - Publishers, proprietors and journalists The media's work is one of "mediation", providing an information service, and the rights which they own in connection with freedom of information depends on its addressees, that is the citizens. Information is a fundamental right which has been highlighted by the case-law of the European Commission and Court of Human Rights relating to Article 10 of the European Convention on Human Rights and recognised under Article 9 of the European Convention on Transfrontier Television, as well as in all democratic constitutions. The owner of the right is the citizen, who also has the related right to

demand that the information supplied by journalists be conveyed truthfully, in the case of news, and honestly, in the case of opinions, without outside interference by either the public authorities or the private sector. The public authorities must not consider that they own information. The representativeness of such authorities provides the legal basis for efforts to guarantee and extend pluralism in the media and to ensure that the necessary conditions are created for exercising freedom of expression and the right to information and precluding censorship. Moreover, the Committee of Ministers is aware of this fact, as demonstrated by its Declaration on the Freedom of Expression and Information adopted on 29 April 1982. When dealing with journalism it must be borne in mind that it relies on the media, which are part of a corporate structure within which a distinction must be made between publishers, proprietors and journalists. To that end, in addition to safeguarding the freedom of the media, freedom within the media must also be protected and internal pressures guarded against. News organisations must consider themselves as special socio-economic agencies whose entrepreneurial objectives have to be limited by the conditions for providing access to a fundamental right. News organisations must show transparency in matters of media ownership and management, enabling citizens to ascertain clearly the identity of proprietors and the extent of their economic interest in the media. Inside the news organisation, publishers and journalists must co-exist, bearing in mind that the legitimate respect for publishers' and owners' ideological orientations is limited by the absolute requirements on truthful news reporting and ethical opinions. This is essential if we are to respect the citizens' fundamental right to information. These requirements are such that we must reinforce the safeguards of the journalist's freedom of expression, for they must in the last instance operate as the ultimate sources of information. In this connection we must legally expand and clarify the nature of the conscience clause and professional secrecy vis--vis confidential sources, harmonising national provisions on this matter so that they can be implemented in the wider context of democratic Europe. Neither publishers and proprietors nor journalists should consider that they own the news. News organisations must treat information not as a commodity but as a fundamental right of the citizen. To that end, the media should exploit neither the quality nor the substance of the news or opinions for purposes of boosting readership or audience figures in order to increase advertising revenue. If we are to ensure that information is treated ethically, its target audience must be considered as individuals and not as a mass

Guidelines Issued by the Press Council for Observance by the State Governments and the Media in Relation to Communal Disturbances i. The State Government should take upon themselves the responsibility of keeping a close watch on the communal writings that might spark off tension, destruction and death, and bring them to the notice of the Council; ii. The Government may have occasion to take action against erring papers or editors. But it must do so within the bounds of law. If newsmen are arrested, or search and seizure operations become necessary, it would be healthy convention if such developments could be reported to the Press Council within 24 to 48 hours followed by a detailed note within a week; iii. Under no circumstances must the authorities resort to vindictive measures like cut in advertisements, cancellation of accreditation, cut in newsprint quota and other facilities; iv. Provocative and sensational headlines should be avoided by the Press; v. Headings must reflect and justify the master primed under them; vi. Figures of casualties given in headlines should preferably be on the lower side in case or doubt about their exactness and where the numbers reported by various sources differ widely; vii. Headings containing allegations made in statements should either identify the person/body making the allegation or, at least, should carry quotation marks; viii. News reports should be devoid of comments and value judgement; ix. Presentation of news should not be motivated or guided by partisan feelings, nor should it appear to be so; x. Language employed in writing the news should be temperate and such as may foster feelings or amity among communities and groups; xi. Corrections should be promptly published with due prominence and regrets expressed in serious cases; and xii. It will help a great deal if in-service training is given to journalists for inculcation of all these principles.

The function of journalism and its ethical activity Information and communication as conveyed by journalism through the media, with powerful support from the new technologies, has decisive importance for the development of the individual and society. It is indispensable for democratic life, since if democracy is to develop fully it must guarantee citizens participation in public affairs. Suffice it to say that such participation would be impossible if the citizens were not in receipt of the information on public affairs which they need and which must be provided by the media. The importance of information, especially radio and television news, for culture and education was highlighted in Assembly Recommendation 1067. Its effects on public opinion are obvious.

It would be wrong to infer from the importance of this role that the media actually represent public opinion or that they should replace the specific functions of the public authorities or institutions of an educational or cultural character such as schools. This would amount to transforming the media and journalism into authorities or counter-authorities ("mediocracy"), even though they would not be representative of the citizens or subject to the same democratic controls as the public authorities, and would not possess the specialist knowledge of the corresponding cultural or educational institutions. Therefore journalism should not alter truthful, impartial information or honest opinions, or exploit them for media purposes, in an attempt to create or shape public opinion, since its legitimacy rests on effective respect for the citizen's fundamental right to information as part of respect for democratic values. To that end, legitimate investigative journalism is limited by the veracity and honesty of information and opinions and is incompatible with journalistic campaigns conducted on the basis of previously adopted positions and special interests. In journalism, information and opinions must respect the presumption of innocence, in particular in cases which are still sub judice, and must refrain from making judgments. The right of individuals to privacy must be respected. Persons holding office in public life are entitled to protection for their privacy except in those cases where their private life may have an effect on their public life. The fact that a person holds a public post does not deprive him of the right to respect for his privacy. The attempt to strike a balance between the right to respect for private life, enshrined in Article 8 of the European Convention on Human Rights, and the freedom of expression set forth in Article 10, is well documented in the recent case-law of the European Commission and Court of Human Rights. In the journalist's profession the end does not justify the means; therefore information must be obtained by legal and ethical means. At the request of the persons concerned, the news media must correct, automatically and speedily, and with all relevant information provided, any news item or opinion conveyed by them which is false or erroneous. National legislation should provide for appropriate sanctions and, where applicable, compensation. In order to harmonise the application and exercise of this right in the member states of the Council of Europe, we must implement Resolution (74) 26 on the right of reply _ Position of the individual in relation to the press, adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 2 July 1974, and also the relevant provisions of the European Convention on Transfrontier Television. In order to ensure high-quality work and independence on the part of journalists, they must be guaranteed decent pay and proper working conditions and facilities. In the relations which the journalist must maintain in the course of his duties with the public authorities or the various economic sectors, care should be taken to avoid

any kind of connivance liable to affect the independence and impartiality of journalism. In journalism, controversial or sensational items must not be confused with subjects on which it is important to provide information. The journalist must not exploit his duties for the principal purpose of acquiring prestige or personal influence. In view of the complexity of the process of providing information, which is increasingly based on the use of new technologies, speed and conciseness, journalists must be required to have appropriate professional training. Rules governing editorial staff Within the newspaper business, publishers, proprietors and journalists must live side by side. To that end, rules must be drawn up for editorial staff in order to regulate professional relations between the journalists and the publishers and proprietors within the media, separately from the normal requirements of labour relations. Such rules might provide for the setting up of editorial boards. Situations of conflict and cases of special protection In society, situations of tension and conflict sometimes arise under the pressure of factors such as terrorism, discrimination against minorities, xenophobia or war. In such circumstances the media have a moral obligation to defend democratic values: respect for human dignity, solving problems by peaceful, tolerant means, and consequently to oppose violence and the language of hatred and confrontation and to reject all discrimination based on culture, sex or religion. No-one should remain neutral vis--vis the defence of democratic values. To that end the media must play a major role in preventing tension and must encourage mutual understanding, tolerance and trust between the various communities in regions where conflict prevails, as the Secretary General of the Council of Europe has set out to do with her confidence-building measures in the former Yugoslavia. Having regard to the very specific influence of the media, notably television, on the attitudes of children and young people, care must be taken not to broadcast programmes, messages or images glorifying violence, exploiting sex and consumerism or using deliberately unsuitable language.

PHONE HACKING The News International phone-hacking scandal is an ongoing controversy involving mainly the News of the World but also other British tabloid newspapers published by News International, a subsidiary of News Corporation. Employees of the newspaper were accused of engaging in phone hacking, police bribery, and exercising improper influence in the pursuit of publishing stories. Investigations conducted from 2005 2007 concluded that the paper's phone hacking activities were limited to celebrities, politicians and members of the British Royal Family. However, in July 2011, it was revealed that the phones of murdered schoolgirl MillyDowler, relatives of deceased British soldiers, and victims of the 7/7 London bombings were also accessed, resulting in a public outcry against News Corporation and owner Rupert Murdoch. Advertiser boycotts contributed to the closure of the News of the World on 10 July, ending 168 years of publication.[1] British prime minister David Cameron announced on 6 July that a public inquiry would look into the affair after police investigations had ended. On 13 July, Cameron named Lord Justice Leveson as chairman of the inquiry, with a remit to look into phone hacking and police bribery by the News of the World, while a separate inquiry would consider the culture and ethics of the wider British media. [2] He also said the Press Complaints Commission would be replaced "entirely".[1] The inquiries led to several high-profile resignations, including Dow Jones chief executive Les Hinton; News International legal manager Tom Crone; and chief executive Rebekah Brooks. The commissioner of London's Metropolitan Police Service, Sir Paul Stephenson, also resigned his post. Former News of the World managing editor Andy Coulson, former executive editor Neil Wallis, and Brooks were all arrested. Murdoch and his son, James, were summonsed to give evidence before a parliamentary media committee. The negative attention garnered by the scandal eventually reached the United States, where News Corporation is headquartered and operates multiple media outlets. The Federal Bureau of Investigation launched a probe on 14 July to determine whether News Corporation accessed voicemails of victims of the 9/11 attacks. On 15 July, U.S. Attorney General Eric Holder announced an additional investigation by the Department of Justice, looking into whether the company had violated the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. Background

In January 2003, Andy Coulson took over as editor of the News of the World following the move of editor Rebekah Brooks (then known as Rebekah Wade) to sister paper The Sun. Brooks had been News of the World editor since May 2000, during which time allegations would later surface that the tabloid accessed the voicemail of murdered schoolgirl MillyDowler. Later in 2003, Brooks and Coulson appeared before a parliamentary committee, where Brooks admitted to paying police for information.[1] In August 2006, Clive Goodman, royal editor at the News of the World, and his associates Glenn Mulcaire, a private investigator, and Davy Craig, editor of the Weekly News, were arrested over allegations of phone hacking made by the British Royal Family in 2005. Goodman and Mulcaire were subsequently charged; they pleaded guilty and were imprisoned on 26 January 2007, for four and six months, respectively. The paper's editor Andy Coulson resigned while insisting that he had no knowledge of any illegal activities.[3] In March of that year, a senior aide to Rupert Murdoch told a parliamentary committee that a "rigorous internal investigation" found no evidence of widespread hacking at the News of the World; two months later the Press Complaints Commission exonerated the paper in a report on phone hacking.[1] In 2009, and 2010, further revelations emerged regarding the extent of the phone hacking and the number of News of the World employees who may have been aware of the practices. By March 2010, the paper had spent over 2 million settling court cases with victims of phone hacking. In July 2009,[4]The Guardian made a series[5][not in citation given] of allegations of wider phone hacking activities at the News of the World newspaper, that were aimed at other individuals, including television presenter Chris Tarrant. This led to several prominent figures who were covertly snooped upon bringing legal action against the News of the World's owner and Mulcaire. Amongst those who began legal action were Tarrant, football agent Sky Andrew, actors Sienna Miller and Steve Coogan, and sports presenter Andy Gray. Royal phone hacking scandal On 13 November 2005, News of the World published an article written by royal editor Clive Goodman, claiming that Prince William was in the process of borrowing a portable editing suite from ITV royal correspondent Tom Bradby. Following the publication, the Prince and Bradby met to try to figure out how the details of their arrangement had been leaked, as only two other people were aware of it. Prince William noted that another equally improbable leak had recently taken place regarding an appointment he had made with a knee surgeon.[7] After some discussion, the Prince and Bradby concluded it was likely that their voicemails were being accessed.[8] The Metropolitan Police set up an investigation under Deputy Assistant Commissioner Peter Clarke, who managed the Counter Terrorism Command.[9] Clarke reported to Assistant Commissioner Andy Hayman, commander of the Specialist Operations directorate.[10] The reason the investigation

was passed to Hayman and Clarke, was that Hayman's command included the Protection Command, under whom SO14 provide all Royalty Protection. Clarke's investigation team searched the London office of the News of the World, eventually concluding that the compromised voice mail accounts belonged to Prince William's aides, including Jamie Lowther-Pinkerton,[11] and not the Prince himself.[12] In August 2006, the News of the World's royal editor, Clive Goodman and a private investigator, Glenn Mulcaire, were arrested by the Metropolitan Police, and later charged with hacking the telephones of members of the royal family by accessing voicemail messages, an offence under section 79 of the Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act 2000.[13]News of the World had paid Mulcaire 104,988 for his services, on top of which Goodman had additionally paid Mulcaire 12,300 in cash between 9 November 2005, and 7 August 2006, hiding Mulcaire's identity by using the code name Alexander on his expenses sheet.[14] The court heard that Mulcaire had also hacked into the messages of: supermodel Elle Macpherson; publicist Max Clifford; MP Simon Hughes; football agent Skylet Andrew; and the Professional Footballers' Association's Gordon Taylor.[11] On 26 January 2007, both Goodman and Mulcaire pleaded guilty to the charges and were sentenced to four and six months imprisonment respectively.[15] On the same day, it was announced that Andy Coulson had resigned as editor of the News of the World. Phone hacking: all in this together Clive Goodman's explosive letter poses fundamental questions for the whole phonehacking controversy Editorial guardian.co.uk, Tuesday 16 August 2011 20.55 BST Article history On 26 January 2007, Clive Goodman, the News of the World's royal editor, pleaded guilty to illegal phone hacking and was jailed for four months. On the same day, private investigator Glenn Mulcaire also pleaded guilty and was jailed for six months. A few days later, on 5 February 2007, News International's executive chairman Les Hinton a man of whom Rupert Murdoch told MPs last month "I would trust him with my life" sacked Mr Goodman in a "Dear Clive" letter. On 2 March, Mr Goodman replied to NI's human resources director, copying his letter to Mr Hinton, to set out his grounds for appeal against the sacking. No editorial comment on Mr Goodman's letter, published on Tuesday by the culture, media and sport select committee, can risk interfering with ongoing investigations and possible legal proceedings. Suffice it to say that the letter from Mr Goodman pulls few punches. His sacking, Mr Goodman wrote, was perverse because the phone hacking which he had conducted on three employees of the royal family was "carried out with the full knowledge and support" of individuals whose names have been redacted from the published text but who must have been NI editorial executives.

Mr Goodman's next claim is every bit as striking. His sacking was inconsistent, he argues, because named but redacted individuals "and other members of staff" were themselves carrying out "the same illegal procedures", some of them also with MrMulcaire. And then this bombshell: "This practice was widely discussed at the daily editorial conference, until explicit reference to it was banned by the Editor." That editor was Andy Coulson, who was later taken on as David Cameron's communications chief, until he resigned in January 2011. Almost as an afterthought, Mr Goodman then observes that his defence team meetings had almost always been attended by News International's legal manager too, that he continued to be given responsible tasks by NI while suspended, that he was employed by NI throughout most of his sentence, and that he had been promised his NoW job back "if I did not implicate the paper or any of its staff" in his mitigation plea. Mr Goodman's explosive letter poses very fundamental questions for the whole phone-hacking story of the past four and a half years. In the first place, it claims that the practice of phone hacking at the News of the World was not the rogue operation that NI has always insisted, but was known about, supported and paid for by named NI executives. Second, it claims that other reporters at the News of the World were doing the very same thing, and that NoW executives not only knew about this too, but discussed it openly among themselves in editorial conferences until they got scared. Third, it claims that NI was actively involved in preparing the defence and in supporting Mr Goodman in the face of phone-hacking charges. In short, Mr Goodman's letter provides a version of events wholly at odds with the one that NI executives, from Rupert and James Murdoch downwards, have repeatedly offered but from which they have been compelled to make successive retreats. NI continues to insist that one bad apple was responsible for the phonehacking scandals. Later revelations have increasingly suggested a reckless culture, self-confidently untouchable. Another angry document, this time from NI's solicitors, gave this process another sharp twist, making James Murdoch's recall before MPs unavoidable. The new revelations pose a big threat. Four days after Mr Goodman's letter, on 6 March 2007, the normally hands-on Mr Hinton told MPs: "I believe absolutely that Andy did not have knowledge of what was going on." That claim is not compatible with Mr Goodman's. They can't both be right. Past and present News International grandees, from the Murdochs down, can only be getting more nervous. And the same now goes for Mr Cameron too. PHONE HACKING The News International phone-hacking scandal is an ongoing controversy involving mainly the News of the World but also other British tabloid newspapers published by News International, a subsidiary of News Corporation. Employees of the newspaper were accused of engaging in phone hacking, police bribery, and exercising improper influence in the pursuit of publishing stories. Investigations conducted from 2005 2007 concluded that the paper's phone hacking activities were limited to celebrities,

politicians and members of the British Royal Family. However, in July 2011, it was revealed that the phones of murdered schoolgirl MillyDowler, relatives of deceased British soldiers, and victims of the 7/7 London bombings were also accessed, resulting in a public outcry against News Corporation and owner Rupert Murdoch. Advertiser boycotts contributed to the closure of the News of the World on 10 July, ending 168 years of publication.[1] British prime minister David Cameron announced on 6 July that a public inquiry would look into the affair after police investigations had ended. On 13 July, Cameron named Lord Justice Leveson as chairman of the inquiry, with a remit to look into phone hacking and police bribery by the News of the World, while a separate inquiry would consider the culture and ethics of the wider British media.[2] He also said the Press Complaints Commission would be replaced "entirely".[1] The inquiries led to several high-profile resignations, including Dow Jones chief executive Les Hinton; News International legal manager Tom Crone; and chief executive Rebekah Brooks. The commissioner of London's Metropolitan Police Service, Sir Paul Stephenson, also resigned his post. Former News of the World managing editor Andy Coulson, former executive editor Neil Wallis, and Brooks were all arrested. Murdoch and his son, James, were summonsed to give evidence before a parliamentary media committee. The negative attention garnered by the scandal eventually reached the United States, where News Corporation is headquartered and operates multiple media outlets. The Federal Bureau of Investigation launched a probe on 14 July to determine whether News Corporation accessed voicemails of victims of the 9/11 attacks. On 15 July, U.S. Attorney General Eric Holder announced an additional investigation by the Department of Justice, looking into whether the company had violated the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. Background In January 2003, Andy Coulson took over as editor of the News of the World following the move of editor Rebekah Brooks (then known as Rebekah Wade) to sister paper The Sun. Brooks had been News of the World editor since May 2000, during which time allegations would later surface that the tabloid accessed the voicemail of murdered schoolgirl MillyDowler. Later in 2003, Brooks and Coulson appeared before a parliamentary committee, where Brooks admitted to paying police for information.[1] In August 2006, Clive Goodman, royal editor at the News of the World, and his associates Glenn Mulcaire, a private investigator, and Davy Craig, editor of the Weekly News, were arrested over allegations of phone hacking made by the British Royal Family in 2005. Goodman and Mulcaire were subsequently charged; they pleaded guilty and were imprisoned on 26 January 2007, for four and six months, respectively. The paper's editor Andy Coulson resigned while insisting that he had no knowledge of any illegal activities.[3] In March of that year, a senior aide to Rupert Murdoch told a parliamentary committee that a "rigorous internal investigation"

found no evidence of widespread hacking at the News of the World; two months later the Press Complaints Commission exonerated the paper in a report on phone hacking.[1] In 2009, and 2010, further revelations emerged regarding the extent of the phone hacking and the number of News of the World employees who may have been aware of the practices. By March 2010, the paper had spent over 2 million settling court cases with victims of phone hacking. In July 2009,[4]The Guardian made a series[5][not in citation given] of allegations of wider phone hacking activities at the News of the World newspaper, that were aimed at other individuals, including television presenter Chris Tarrant. This led to several prominent figures who were covertly snooped upon bringing legal action against the News of the World's owner and Mulcaire. Amongst those who began legal action were Tarrant, football agent Sky Andrew, actors Sienna Miller and Steve Coogan, and sports presenter Andy Gray.[6] [edit] 20052006: Royal phone hacking scandal Main article: News of the World royal phone hacking scandal On 13 November 2005, News of the World published an article written by royal editor Clive Goodman, claiming that Prince William was in the process of borrowing a portable editing suite from ITV royal correspondent Tom Bradby. Following the publication, the Prince and Bradby met to try to figure out how the details of their arrangement had been leaked, as only two other people were aware of it. Prince William noted that another equally improbable leak had recently taken place regarding an appointment he had made with a knee surgeon.[7] After some discussion, the Prince and Bradby concluded it was likely that their voicemails were being accessed.[8] The Metropolitan Police set up an investigation under Deputy Assistant Commissioner Peter Clarke, who managed the Counter Terrorism Command.[9] Clarke reported to Assistant Commissioner Andy Hayman, commander of the Specialist Operations directorate.[10] The reason the investigation was passed to Hayman and Clarke, was that Hayman's command included the Protection Command, under whom SO14 provide all Royalty Protection. Clarke's investigation team searched the London office of the News of the World, eventually concluding that the compromised voice mail accounts belonged to Prince William's aides, including Jamie Lowther-Pinkerton,[11] and not the Prince himself.[12] In August 2006, the News of the World's royal editor, Clive Goodman and a private investigator, Glenn Mulcaire, were arrested by the Metropolitan Police, and later charged with hacking the telephones of members of the royal family by accessing voicemail messages, an offence under section 79 of the Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act 2000.[13]News of the World had paid Mulcaire 104,988 for his services, on top of which Goodman had additionally paid Mulcaire 12,300 in cash between 9 November 2005, and 7 August 2006, hiding Mulcaire's identity by using the code name Alexander on his expenses sheet.[14] The court heard that Mulcaire had also hacked into the messages of: supermodel Elle Macpherson; publicist Max Clifford; MP Simon Hughes; football agent Skylet Andrew; and the Professional Footballers'

Association's Gordon Taylor.[11] On 26 January 2007, both Goodman and Mulcaire pleaded guilty to the charges and were sentenced to four and six months imprisonment respectively.[15] On the same day, it was announced that Andy Coulson had resigned as editor of the News of the World. [edit] 20092011: Renewed investigations Main article: News of the World phone hacking scandal investigations

It was reported that the News of the World may have hacked the phones of relatives of 7/7 attack victims (survivors pictured aboard one of the bombed Underground trains) Investigations into phone hacking at the News of the World followed the revelations in 2005, of voicemail interception by employees at the tabloid. Despite wider evidence of wrongdoing, the royal phone hacking affair appeared resolved with the 2007 conviction of the News of the World royal editor Clive Goodman and the private investigator Glenn Mulcaire, and the resignation of editor Andy Coulson. However, a series of civil legal cases and investigations by newspapers, parliament and the police ultimately saw evidence of "industrial-scale" phone hacking, leading to the closure of the News of the World. The controversy did not end there, developing into a wider ethics scandal involving much of News Corporation as wrongdoing beyond the News of the World (including outlets in the United States) and beyond phone hacking (including bribing police for information) came to light. [edit] Operation Weeting begins Main article: Operation Weeting The Metropolitan Police announced on 26 January 2011, that it would begin a new and fresh investigation into the phone hacking affair, following the receipt of "significant new information" regarding the conduct of News of the World employees.[19] Operation Weeting would take place alongside the previously announced review of phone hacking evidence by the Crown Prosecution Service.[20] The first arrests as part of the new investigation were made on 5 April 2011. Edmondson and the News of the World's chief reporter Neville Thurlbeck were arrested on suspicion of unlawfully intercepting voicemail messages.[21][22] Both men had denied participating in illegal activities. A third journalist at the newspaper, James Weatherup, was arrested on 14 April 2011.[23] The Guardian, referring to the Information Commissioner's report of 2006, queried why the Metropolitan Police chose to exclude a large quantity of material relating to

Jonathan Rees from the scope of its Operation Weeting inquiry.[24] The News of the World was said to have made extensive use of Rees' investigative services, including phone hacking, paying him up to 150,000 a year.[25] On the basis of evidence obtained during one of several police inquiries into the murder of Daniel Morgan, Rees' partner in Southern Investigations Ltd, Rees was found guilty in December 2000, of conspiring to plant cocaine on an innocent woman to discredit her in a child custody dispute. He received a seven year prison sentence for attempting to pervert the course of justice.[26] After he was released from prison the News of the World, under the editorship of Andy Coulson, began commissioning Rees' services again.[25] The Guardian journalist Nick Davies described commissions from the News of the World as the "golden source" of income for Rees' "empire of corruption" which involved a network of contacts with corrupt police officers and a pattern of illegal behaviour extending far beyond phone hacking.[27] Despite detailed evidence, the Metropolitan Police failed to pursue effective in-depth investigations into Rees' corrupt relationship with the News of the World over more than a decade.[25] On 12 July 2011, Metropolitan Police deputy assistant commissioner Sue Akers told MPs and the Home Affairs committee chairman Keith Vaz that police had contacted 170 of the 3,870 people named in Glenn Mulcaire's files to date.[28] There were 11,000 pages of the evidence[28] with 5,000 landline phone numbers and 4,000 mobile phone numbers[29] on them.[28] [edit] AprilJuly 2011: Admission of liability and new allegations [edit] Apology and compensation News International announced on 8 April 2011, that it would admit liability in some of the breach of privacy cases being brought in relation to phone hacking by the News of the World. The company offered an unreserved apology and compensation to eight claimants, but will continue to contest allegations made by other litigants.[30][31] The eight claimants were identified in media reports as:[21][31][32][33] Sienna Miller, actress Kelly Hoppen, interior designer and Miller's stepmother Tessa Jowell, Member of Parliament and former cabinet minister David Mills, lawyer and Jowell's former husband Andy Gray, sports pundit and former footballer Joan Hammell, aide to the former Deputy Prime MinisterJohn Prescott Sky Andrew, sports talent agent Nicola Phillips, assistant to the publicist Max Clifford At the time of News International's announcement, 24 individuals were in the process of taking legal action against the News of the World on breach of privacy grounds.[30] Comic actor Steve Coogan was reported to be one of the suspected victims of phone hacking.[21][32][33] Hoppen lodged a further claim against the News of the World and one of its reporters, Dan Evans, for "accessing or attempting to access her voicemail messages between June 2009, and March 2010".[34] News International has not admitted liability in relation to the claim.[31][35]

On 10 April, Tessa Jowell and her former husband David Mills, Andy Gray, Sky Andrew, Nicola Phillips, Joan Hammell, and Kelly Hoppen all received the official apology and compensation, but actor Leslie Ash and John Prescott, who both had also claimed breach of privacy, did not.[35][36] Politician George Galloway said the apology was a cynical attempt to protect Rebekah Brooks, while Scottish politician Danny Alexander predicted further arrests would be made. The shadow Welsh secretaryPeter Hain called on the legal authorities to conduct a "full and proper public investigation" and then claimed the police investigation had been "tardy".[36] The first individual to accept the News of the World's apology and compensation was actress Sienna Miller, who received 100,000 plus legal costs.[37] Sports pundit Andy Gray followed in June, accepting a payout of 20,000 plus legal costs.[38] Prior to the settlements, both individuals' litigation claims had been identified as phone hacking "test cases" to be heard in January 2012. In April, The Observer reported claims from a former minister that Rupert Murdoch tried to persuade Prime Minister Gordon Brown early in 2010, to help in resisting attempts by LabourMPs and peers to investigate the affair, and to go easy on News of the World in the run up to the UK's general election of May 2010.[39] News International described the report as "total rubbish"; a spokesperson for Brown declined to comment. [edit] Arrest of James Weatherup A News of the World reporter and the paper's assistant news editor, James Weatherup, was taken into custody for questioning by the Metropolitan Police on 14 April 2011.[40][41][42][43][44][45] He had also dealt with some major fiscal issues, "managing huge budgets" and "crisis management" at the newspaper.[40][46][47]Weatherup was a colleague of chief reporter Neville Thurlbeck and the former assistant news editor Ian Edmondson, both of whom were also later arrested.[40][46] The BBC reported on 20 May 2011, that a seniorNews of the World executive was implicated, according to actor Jude Law's barrister in the High Court. This report also said that the number of people whose phones may have been hacked may be much larger than previously thought. The High Court was said to have been told that "notebooks belonging to a private investigator hired by News Group Newspapers contained thousands of mobile phone numbers" and "police also found 149 individual personal identification numbers and almost 400 unique voicemail numbers which can be used to access voice mail".[48] [edit] MillyDowler's voicemail It was first reported by The Guardian on 4 July 2011, that police had found evidence suggesting that the private investigator Glenn Mulcaire collected personal information about the family of the missing schoolgirl MillyDowler, following her disappearance in March 2002, and the subsequent discovery of her murdered body six months later.[49] According to the paper, journalists working for the News of the World had hired private investigators to hack into Dowler's voicemail inbox. It was alleged that they had deleted some messages, giving false hope to police and to

Dowler's family who thought that she might have deleted the messages herself and therefore might still be alive, and potentially destroying valuable evidence about her abduction and murder by serial killer Levi Bellfield, who was convicted and jailed for life in June 2011. The Guardian commented that the News of the World did not conceal from its readers in an article on 14 April 2002, that it had intercepted telephone messages and also informed Surrey police of this fact on 27 March 2002, six days after Milly went missing.[49] As of July 2011, the Dowler family was preparing a claim for damages against the News of the World.[50] News Group Newspapers described the allegation as "a development of great concern".[49] Reacting to the revelation, Prime Minister David Cameron said that the alleged hacking, if true, was "truly dreadful". He added that police ought to pursue a "vigorous" investigation to ascertain what had taken place.[51][52] Leader of the opposition Ed Miliband called on Rebekah Brooks, the News of the World's editor in 2002, and then the chief executive of News International, to "consider her conscience and consider her position".[52] Brooks denied knowledge of phone hacking during her editorship.[53][54] It was in the wake of the Dowler allegations that a significant number of people, including former deputy prime minister John Prescott and other politicians, began to seriously question whether the takeover of British Sky Broadcasting by News Corporation ought to be blocked.[55] The Media Standards Trust formed the pressure group Hacked Off, to campaign for a public inquiry. Soon after launch, the campaign gained the support of suspected hacking victim, the actor Hugh Grant, who became a public spokesperson, appearing on Question Time and Newsnight.[56] [edit] British soldiers' relatives On 6 July 2011, The Daily Telegraph reported that the phones of some relatives of British soldiers killed in action in Iraq and Afghanistan may have been accessed by the News of the World. It said that personal details and phone numbers belonging to relations of dead service personnel were found in the files of private investigator Glenn Mulcaire.[57] In response to the allegations, The Royal British Legion announced that it would suspend all ties with the News of the World, dropping the newspaper as its campaigning partner.[58][59] [edit] 7/7 London attack victims On the day before the sixth anniversary of the 7 July 2005 London bombings, it was reported that relatives of some victims may have had their telephones accessed by the News of the World in the aftermath of the attacks. The fathers of two victims told the BBC that police officers investigating the alleged hacking had warned them that their contact details were found on a target list, while a former firefighter who helped rescue injured passengers also said he had been contacted by police who were looking into the hacking allegations.[60] A number of survivors from the bombings also revealed that police had warned them their phones may have been accessed and their messages intercepted, and in some cases were advised to change security codes and PINs.[61][62][63] [edit] Sara Payne

On 28 July, The Guardian reported that the News of the World hacked into the voicemail of media campaigner Sara Payne, whose eight-year-old daughter, Sarah Payne, was murdered by a paedophile in 2000. This news was arguably met with even more public outrage than the Dowler revelations, given the prominent role that Rebekah Brooks and the News of the World played in spearheading the passage of Sarah's Law, which strengthened sex offender laws in the UK after the child's murder. Brooks developed a long-standing friendship with Sara Payne in the years since her daughter's death; Payne wrote a column praising the News of the World's support for Sarah's Law in its final issue, writing that the paper's staff "supported me through some of the darkest, most difficult times of my life and became my trusted friends."[64] Brooks used the Sarah's Law campaign to defend the News of the World when she was questioned by the Culture, Media and Sport Committee. Scotland Yard had reportedly found materials pertaining to Payne in Glenn Mulcaire's notes. They also discovered that Payne's voicemail was on a mobile phone given to her by Brooks, ostensibly to help her keep in touch with supporters. Brooks issued a statement denying that the News of the World was aware of Mulcaire's targeting of Payne, saying that such an idea was "unthinkable". Payne was said to be "absolutely devastated and deeply disappointed" at the disclosure, while a colleague close to her said that she was "in bits" over the affair. [edit] Other victims Some email messages were discovered suggesting Jonathan Rees[65] made requests for sums of around 1,000 for contact details of senior members of the Royal Family and friends.[66] Former deputy prime minister John Prescott claimed he knew of "direct evidence" indicating The Sunday Times was involved in illegal news gathering activities.[67] Former prime minister Gordon Brown alleged his bank account was accessed by The Sunday Times in 2000, and that The Sun gained private medical records about his son, Fraser.[67]Rebekah Brooks telephoned Brown to tell him that The Sun was going to reveal that his son had been diagnosed with cystic fibrosis and tried to persuade him not to spoil the newspaper's exclusive by announcing it himself first.[68]The Guardian later ran a front page story accusing The Sun of improperly obtaining the medical records of Brown's son, but was later forced to issue an apology upon discovering that the information came from a member of the public.[69] Other victims of hacking included former Metropolitan Police assistant commissioner John Yates, who revealed on 12 January 2011, that his phone was hacked between 2004 and 2005.[70] The phone of chat show host Paul O'Grady was also hacked by the News of the World after he suffered a heart attack in 2006.[71][72] Mary Ellen Field, the former business manager of model Elle Macpherson, lost her job after Field was accused of leaking confidential information to the News of the World, which had published a story about Macpherson's split with Arpad Busson. Field realised their voicemails could have been intercepted after Glenn Mulcaire admitted in court to accessing Macpherson's phones.[73]

A cousin of Jean Charles de Menezes, a Brazilian man shot dead by police who mistook him for a fugitive suspected of involvement in the 21 July 2005 attempted bombings in London, may also have had his phone hacked by the News of the World after Menezes's death.[74][75][76][77] A spokesperson from the Justice4Jean campaign group said: "The Menezes family are deeply pained to find their phones may have been hacked at a time at which they were at their most vulnerable and bereaved."[74][75] [edit] Fallout from scandal [edit] Coulson's second resignation Having resigned in 2007, as editor of the News of the World in the aftermath of the royal hacking affair, Andy Coulson quit his position as David Cameron's communications director on 21 January 2011, citing "continued coverage of events connected to my old job at the News of the World".[78] [edit] Closure of the News of the World The closure of the News of the World after 168 years in print was the first significant effect of the scandal.

The final edition of News of the World, published on 10 July 2011. In the days leading up to 7 July 2011, Virgin Holidays, the Co-operative Group, Ford Motor Company and General Motors (owner of Vauxhall Motors) had all pulled their advertisements from the News of the World in response to the unfolding controversy.[79][80] Other major advertisers who considered doing likewise included mobile phone operators Vodafone, O2, Everything Everywhere (T-Mobile and Orange), Deutsche Telekom, France Telecom, EasyJet, Lloyds Banking Group, German utility company RWE (owner of Npower), electricals retailer Dixons, and Tesco.[79][80]Kesa Electricals, owner of the Cometelectricals chain, and Renault said they had no advertising plans scheduled in the foreseeable future and were also considering whether they should join any future boycott.[79] James Murdoch announced on 7 July 2011, that, after 168 years in print,[81] the News of the World would publish its last-ever edition on 10 July, with the loss of 200

jobs.[82][83] News Corporation said that all profits from the final edition would go to good causes. Downing Street said it had no role in the decision.[84] James Murdoch conceded the paper was "sullied by behaviour that was wrong", saying "if recent allegations are true, it was inhuman and has no place in our company."[85] Other executives of the company said the phone hacking was more widespread than previously believed and that they are cooperating with investigations into the allegations.[86][87][88] Editor Rebekah Brooks told staff at a meeting that she recognised following an internal investigation that "other shoes would drop", a phrase indicating that further revelations of wrongdoing would follow.[89] There was immediate speculation that News International will launch a Sunday edition of The Sun to replace its sister paper News of the World.[90] [edit] BSkyB takeover bid withdrawn Main article: News Corporation takeover bid for BSkyB Rupert Murdoch announced on 13 July that News Corporation was withdrawing its proposal to take full control of the subscription television broadcaster BSkyB, due to concerns over the ongoing furore.[91][92][93] The announcement was made a few hours before the House of Commons was due to debate a motion, supported by all major parties, calling on News Corporation to withdraw its proposal.[92] In a symbolic gesture the House later passed the motion unanimously by acclamation.[94][95] [edit] Resignations A number of senior employees and executives resigned from News International and its parent company after the emergence of the new allegations, along with highranking officers of the Metropolitan Police Service. News International's legal manager Tom Crone left the company on 13 July.[96] As part of his role at the publisher, Crone had served as the News of the World's chief lawyer and gave evidence before parliamentary committees stating that he had uncovered no evidence of phone hacking beyond the criminal offences committed by the royal editor Clive Goodman. He maintains that he did not see an internal report suggesting that phone hacking at the paper reached more widely than Goodman.[97] Two key resignations were announced on 15 July. Rebekah Brooks, the chief executive of News International, quit following widespread criticism of her role in the controversy.[98] In a statement, Brooks said that "my desire to remain on the bridge has made me a focal point of the debate", and stated that she would "concentrate on correcting the distortions and rebutting the allegations about my record".[99] Her exit was welcomed by political leaders. Prime Minister David Cameron's office said that her departure was "the right decision", while Leader of the Opposition Ed Miliband agreed but suggested that she should have departed ten days earlier.[98]Tom Mockridge, the long-time chief executive of the Italian satellite broadcaster Sky Italia, was announced as Brooks' replacement at the head of News International.[98] Later on the same day, Les Hinton resigned as the chief executive of the News Corporation subsidiary Dow Jones & Company.[100][101] Hinton had served as chief executive of News International between 1997, and 2005. He had previously told

parliamentary committees that there was "never any evidence" of phone hacking beyond the case of Clive Goodman. In his resignation announcement, Hinton said that he was not told of "evidence that wrongdoing went further", but indicated that he nevertheless felt it "proper" to resign from his position.[101] On 17 July, the Commissioner of the Metropolitan Police and Britain's most senior police officer, Sir Paul Stephenson, announced his resignation with immediate effect. He had faced criticism for hiring former News of the World executive editor Neil Wallis as an advisor and for having received free hospitality at a luxury health spa owned by a company for which Wallis also worked.[102] Stephenson's resignation was followed by that of assistant commissionerJohn Yates on 18 July. Yates had been criticised for failing to re-open the original 2006 investigation into phone hacking at News International despite new evidence coming to light in 2009. [edit] Dismissals Matt Nixson was escorted by security from the Wapping headquarters of The Sun newspaper the evening of 20 July 2011. His computer was seized by News International officials and the police were said to have been informed. Nixson was a features editor at The Sun. It was reported that Nixson's dismissal is related to the time he spent at the News of the World from 2006, when it was edited by Coulson. At the News of the World he reported to assistant editor Ian Edmondson. [103] [edit] Leaves/Suspensions Pending the result of an Independent Police Complaints Commission (IPCC see below) enquiry into his dealings with Neil Wallis (see below), a former assistant editor of the News of the World, Dick Fedorcio,[104] director of public affairs and internal communication for the Metropolitan Police, was put on extended leave 10 August 2011. [105] [edit] Apologies

A full-page apology ad published in British newspapers by News International. The letter, signed by Rupert Murdoch, begins: "The News of the World was in the business of holding others to account. It failed when it came to itself."[106] From 15 July, onwards, News Corp began to change its position through a series of public apologies. On 15 July, Rupert Murdoch in interview with the News Corp owned The Wall Street Journalapologised for the News of the World letting slip the group's standards of journalism.[citation needed] Murdoch also alleged that the group's legal advisers, Harbottle& Lewis, had made "a major mistake" in its part in the internal investigation into phone-hacking in 2007.[107] On 18 July, Harbottle& Lewis issued an open letter outlining its position, and appointed Luther Pendragon to handle PR issues relating to the affair.[108] On 16 and 17 July, News International published two full-page apologies in many of Britain's national newspapers. The first apology took the form of a letter, signed by Rupert Murdoch, in which he said sorry for the "serious wrongdoing" that occurred. The second was titled "Putting right what's gone wrong", and gave more detail about the steps News International was taking to address the public's concerns. On the afternoon before the ads were published, Rupert Murdoch also attended a private meeting in London with the family of MillyDowler, where he apologised for the hacking of their murdered daughter's voicemail. The Dowler family's solicitor later said Murdoch appeared shaken and upset during the talks. He added that the Dowlers were surprised Murdoch's son James did not attend and called on the News International chairman to "take some responsibility" in the affair.[109] http://www.ndsu.edu/pubweb/~rcollins/431ethics/comm431powerpoint/421powerp oint.html Mass Media ethics PowerPoint presentaitons. www.ndsu.edu

Is phone-hacking a breach of media ethics? CHRYS TRYHORN of MediaGuardian believes investigative journalism has nothing to fear when it comes to revealing public malpractice. Many would, indeed, support this view if exposing sensitive information serving the aim of public good such as massive human rights violations, breach of ethics of business or international treaties. Were numerous cases of phone-hacking by the journalists of the News of the World (NoW) on several celebrities or high-ranking personalities in Great Britain justified? The judge Mr Justice Gross denounced the evesdropping on voicemail messages by the journalists of the NoW Glen Malcaire, Clive Goodman stating that it is not about press freedom; it was a grave, inexcusable and illegal invasion of privacy.

Making information of personal arrangements of members of the British Royal family public is hard to subsume under serving the public interest. Gathered materials of further individuals also seem not to have fallen under this category. Moreover, the whole may as well have political reasons behind it, maintains a Labour MP Mr Bryant, perhaps even murky and nefarious The story ended with jail sentences in 2007 for both of the named above journalists associated with the NoW. However, books have not yet been closed on this case. In fact, former news editor Ian Edmondson and current chief reporter Neville Thurlbeck turned themselves voluntarily to the London police on April 5 of this year. The alleged wrongdoings breach at least two legal regulations: Section 1(1) Criminal Law Act 1977 suspicion of conspiring to intercept communications and Section 1 Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act 2000 unlawful interception of voicemail messages. Hereby, is phone-hacking a breach of media ethics? The Code of Ethics of the Society of Professional Journalists seek truth and report it Section has a clear answer to the question, namely Avoid undercover or other surreptitious methods of gathering information except when traditional open methods will not yield information vital to the public. Use of such methods should be explained as part of the story. The matter remains in responsibility of journalists who in portraying any story should account to their targets and the public.