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Dr.

Abdul Qadeer Polytechnic Institute Ellahabad


(Electric Current And Ohms Law)


(Electron Theory)
(Matter)









106

(ii)

(i)


(Proton)




(Nuclecus)

(Neutron)

(Shell)






(Electrons)


1/1840


1.602
10 C


19




(Electrically Neutral)


(Elactrically Neutral)

CH#1

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Dr. Abdul Qadeer Polytechnic Institute Ellahabad

(Elecrton Shells)

N M L K (Shells)

(Orbits)



M L
K





n

2 = 2 1

8=2 2 2

18=2 3

2n 2

2n 2

2n 2

(1)

18
(2)

32 (3)

(Energy Levels)


(Allowed Energy Level)

(Valence Electrons)

(Free Electrons)









CH#1

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Dr. Abdul Qadeer Polytechnic Institute Ellahabad

(Energy Bands)

(Band)
(Overlap)

(Solid)

(Filled Band)
(i)




(Full filled)

(Conduction Band) (ii)


(Escape)

(Valance Band)
(iii)

(Energies)



(Completely)



(Partially)

(Forbidden)

(Forbidden) (Forbidden)


(External)

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Dr. Abdul Qadeer Polytechnic Institute Ellahabad

(Insulator,Conductor,Semiconductror)

(Insulator)






(Conductor)





(Semiconductor)

(Electric Charge)


(Excess)

(Deficiency)

(Negatively Charged)


(Positively Charged)




"C" (Coulomb)

"Q"

"


"

Q It
(Electric Current)

" II "



(Rate) (Flow)

"A"

(Point)

1
I

Q
t

2
I

CH#1

V
R
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Dr. Abdul Qadeer Polytechnic Institute Ellahabad

(Elecrton Current)

(Conventional

Current)

(Potential and Potential

Difference)


Q1 Q
Q1 Q

(Ability) Q1 Q

(Work Done)


"V"

(Work)

1
Volt=Joule/coulomb

V=IR

(E.M.F)


E.M.F

(Resistance)


"R"


1
R

V
I



2
CH#1

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Dr. Abdul Qadeer Polytechnic Institute Ellahabad

(Ohm's Law)

(Law's of Resistance)


" " i


(Cross-Sectional Area)
ii

1
A

iii


(Temperature) iv

R ,R

R
R
A
A
A

(Resistivity)


(Rho) " "

(Resistivity)


(Ohm-m)

(Ohm-cm)


CH#1

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Dr. Abdul Qadeer Polytechnic Institute Ellahabad

Example: The resistance of 500 meter of a certain wire is 125 ohm. What length of the
same wire will have a resistance of 90 ohm.
Data :

l1 500m

R1 125
R2 90

l2 ?

Solution :

l1
l
and R2 2
a
a
R1 l1

R2 l2
R l 90 500
l2 2 1
360 m
R1
125
R1

(Effects of Temperature on Resistance)






(Ranges)


(Alloys) ii




iii


(Negative)

iv



CH#1

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Dr. Abdul Qadeer Polytechnic Institute Ellahabad


(Temperature Co-efficient)

Rt

t C R 0C




Change in Resistance, R Rt - R0

(i)

R R R t

OR

Rt R0 R0t

(ii)

Rt R0 (1 t )

(iii)

Calculations about Temprature Co-efficient of Resistance


Example 1:The field winding of a generator has a resistance of 40 at 0& .What its
Resistance at 50C? Resistance-Temperature coefficient of copper is 0.0043/C at 0C.

Data :

Solution :

R0 40

t 50

0.0043 / C at 0C
Rt R0 (1 t )
40(1 0.0043 50)
40 1.215 48.6

Example 2: A column of mercury has a resistance of 10 at 15C. What will its resistance at
30C?The Resistance-Temperature coefficient of mercury is 0.0072/C at 0C.

Data :

R1 10

t1 15 C
R2 ?

t2 30 C

Solution :

CH#1

0.0072 / C at 0 C
R2 1 t 2

R1 1 t1
R2 1 0.0072 30

10 1 0.0072 15
1.216
R2 10
1.108
R2 10.97

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Dr. Abdul Qadeer Polytechnic Institute Ellahabad

Example 3: A coil has a resistance of 10 at 20C. What is its resistance at 60C?


Resistance-Temperature coefficient at 20C= 0.0039/C .

Data :

R1 10

t1 20C
R2 ?

t2 60C

0.0039 / C
Solution :

at 20C

R2 R1 1 (t2 t1

R2 10 1 0.0039(60 20)
R2 10(1 0.0039 40)
R2 11.56

Example 4:The shunt winding of DC generator has a resistance of 55 at 20C.After a run at


full load the resistance rise to 65. Find the average temperature of winding , ResistanceTemperature coefficient of copper is 0.004/C at 0C.

Data :

R1 55

t1 20C
R2 65

t2 ?

Solution :

CH#1

0.004 / C at 0C
R2 1 t2

R1 1 t1
65 1 0.004 t 2

55 1 0.004 20
1 0.004 t2
1.181
1.08
1.1818 1.08 1 0.004 t2
1.2756 1 0.004 t2
0.2756
t2
0.004
t2 69C
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Dr. Abdul Qadeer Polytechnic Institute Ellahabad

Example 5:The Resistance of a coil wire increases from 40 at 10C to 48.25 at 60C.Find
temperature coefficient at 0C of conductor material.

Data :

R1 40

t1 10C

R2 48.25

t2 60C

Solution :

?
R R
2 1
R1t2 R2t1
48.25 40

40 60 48.25 10
8.25
8.25

2400 482.5 1917.5


0.0043 / C at 0C

Exercise 1
Q1: The resistanc of the shunt winding of a certain dynamo was 38 at a tempratur of 16C.
After a run of several hours the temprature increased to 45C. Determine the resistance of the
winding at this temprature. = 0.004
(42.143)
Q2: During a cirtain test upon a shunt wound motor ,it was found that the resistance of the
field coil 57.7. if the resistance before comencing the test was 52.5 at the temprature of
15C. Determine final temprature of the coils?
(41.25C)
Q3: A shunt winding of a motor has a resistance of 80 at 15C. find its resistance at 50C?
Resistance-Temperature coefficient of copper 0.004/C at 0C.
(90.57)
Q4: The R of a coil of wire increases from 40 at 10C to 48.25 at 60 C. Find the
temprature co-efficent of the condultor material.
(0.004125)
Q5: At 15C the resistance of the coil of copper of a dynamo is 250. After working 6 hours
on full load, the rasistance of the coil increase to 305. What is rise temprature of the coil ?
if the temprature cofficient is 0.004/C at 0C.
(73.3C)

(Series Circuit of Resistance)

CH#1

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Dr. Abdul Qadeer Polytechnic Institute Ellahabad

(Characteristics)

I I1 I 2 I 3





ii

RT R1 R2 R3


iii


iv

V1 IR1 , V2 IR2 , V3 IR3

Vt V1 V2 V3

vi

PT P1 P2 P3

(Off)


vii

(Parallel Circuit of Resistance)


CH#1

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Dr. Abdul Qadeer Polytechnic Institute Ellahabad

(Characteristics)

I1

V
V
V
, I2
, I3
R1
R2
R3





ii

I T I1 I 2 I 3


iii
1
1
1
1

RT
R1 R2 R3


iv

V V1 V2 V3

PT P1 P2 P3


vi

vii

(Division of voltage in series

circuit)


(Voltage Divider Rule)

R1
V
V1 =IR 1 T R1 VT

RT
R1 +R 2
V2 =IR 2
CH#1

R2
VT
R 2 VT

RT
R 1 +R 2

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Dr. Abdul Qadeer Polytechnic Institute Ellahabad

(Division of voltage in parallel circuit)

(Current Divider Rule)

I1

I2

Vt
I R
t t
R1
R1
Vt
I R
t t
R2
R2

R1R 2
It

R2
R1 R 2 I

T
R1
R1 R 2

R1R 2
It

R1 R 2

R1

IT

R2
R1 R 2

(Resistors)
(Resis tance)






(Fixed Resistors) (i)


(corbon Composition Resistors) (a)
(Wire-wound Resistors)


(b)

(Thin Film Resistors)

(c)

(Thick Film Resistors)

(d)

(Variable Resistors)

(ii)


(Screw)
(Knob)
(Dial)


CH#1

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Dr. Abdul Qadeer Polytechnic Institute Ellahabad

(Potentiom eters)
(a)
(Rheostates) (b)
(Trimmers)
(c)

(Colour Coding Of Resistors)


(Bands)

(Left)

(Toleranc e)
(Numerical value)


5
4 (Right)

(Toleranc e) 4

CH#1

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Dr. Abdul Qadeer Polytechnic Institute Ellahabad

Gold Green violet Red



27105 5% = 27000005%
=2.7M5%
Calculation about series-parallel circuits
Example: Three resistances of 2, 3 and 6 are connected in series across 4 volt
supply. Find:
(a) Total Resistance (b) Current (c) Voltage drop across each resistor.
R1 2

Data :

R2 3
R3 6
V 4V

RT ?
I ?

V1 , V2 , V3 ?
Solution :

RT R1 R2 R3

RT 2 3 6 11
I

V
4
0.363 A
R
11
V1 IR1 0.363 2 0.727V

V2 IR2 0.363 3 1.089V

V3 IR3 0.363 6 2.178V

Exercise 2

Q1:A series circuit consisting of three resistors, 2,8 and 20,connected to a battery has a
current of 2A. What voltage exists across each resistor and also calculate the total voltage of
the battery .
(4V.16V,40V,60V)
Q2: what value of resistor , connected in series with a 1.8K resistor, will result in a total
CH#1

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Dr. Abdul Qadeer Polytechnic Institute Ellahabad

resistance of 2K.

(0.2K or 200)

Q3: Three resistors are connected in series. The value of the two resistors are 10K and
20K. The supply voltage are 200Volts. If the current following through the third resistor is
5mA, Find the value of the resistor.
(10K)
Q4: Three resistors of 5K, 10K and 15K are connected in series across 24Voltage
source. Using voltage division Rule, Determine voltage drop across each resistance.
(4V, 8V, 12V)
Q5:Three resistors of 4ohms,6ohms and 8ohms respectively are connected in parallel. Find
equivalent resistance.
(1.846)
Q6: Four resistance, each equal to 3.2ohms, are connected in parallel. Find the equivalent
resistance.
(0.8ohms)
Q7: Two Resistance of 3.1ohms and 7.2ohms respectly are connected in parallel. Find the
equivalent resistance.
(2.16ohms)
Q8:Find the total resistance of circuit shown. If the Total current taken by this circuit is 5A
what is the supply voltage.
(3ohms,15volt)

Q9:A serch light taks 100A current at 80 Volts, it is to be oprated from 220V supply, Find the
value of the resistor to be connected in series.
(1.4ohms)
Q10: Three Resistors are connected in parallel have an equivalent resistance 1.2 ohms, The
value of two of the resistors are 6 ohms and 12 ohms, Find the value of third. (1.71ohms)
Q11:A Resistor of 3.6ohm is connected in series with an other resistor of 4.56ohms, What
resistance must be placed across the one of 3.6 ohms so that the total reistance of the circuit
shell be 6 ohms.
(2.4ohms)
Q12: A resistor of 3 ohms is connected in parallel with one of 2 ohms and in series with this
is a resistor of 4 ohms. What is the total resistance of circuit.
(5.2ohms)
Q13:Find the totla resistance of circuit shown:

Q14:A factory is supplied by a substation through a pair of leads of total resistance of


0.08ohms. The total load is 250A at 200V. What voltage must be maintained at the
substation.
CH#1

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Dr. Abdul Qadeer Polytechnic Institute Ellahabad

Q15:Three resistors of 4 , 12 and 6 ohms are joined in parallel. If the total current taken is
12A, find the current through each.
(6A,2A,4A)
Q16: Find the resistance of circuit shown:

Q17: For the network shown in the fig, The potential difference between A and C is 10V.
Calculate the current in each resistor.
(0.7A,2.1A,0.8A,2.0A)

Q18:Two Resistors of 4 ohm and 8 ohm are connected in parallel across a 6 volt battery.
Using Current division Rule determines the amount of current flowing through each resistor.
(1.5A, 0.75A)
Q19: In the circuit shown the current flowing in the 8 ohm resistor is 2.5 amperes.Find:
(a)Current in other resistors (b)The resistor X (c) The equivalent Resistance
(0.5A,0.8A,0.2A,100,5)

Q20: In the Circuit shown the current flow in X resistor is 1A. Find: (a) the current in each
resistors (b) The value of X
(6A,8A,48)

Q21: In the series parallel circuit shown, find:


(a)Voltage across 4 ohm resistor (b) the supply voltage.

CH#1

(45V,140V)

Page 17

Dr. Abdul Qadeer Polytechnic Institute Ellahabad

Q22: A resistance of 10 is connected in series with two resistance each of 15 arranged in


parallel.What resistance must be shunted across this parallel combination so that the total
current taken shall be 1.5A with 20V supply.
(R=6)

Q23: Determine the value of R1,R2 and R3 in circuit shown. If R2=2R1 and R3=2R2 and total
resistance is 16K.

Q24: Given the information provided in circuit shown:


(a) Determine R3 (b) Calculate E. (s) Find Is (d) Find I2

CH#1

(10,40V,10A,2A)

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