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WORKSHEET

A spreadsheet is a large electronic worksheet that enables you to enter and store data in a
grid format.

A worksheet is made up of columns and rows.

Each COLUMN has a letter reference: A B C D etc.

Each ROW has a number reference: 1 2 3 4 etc.

The point where the two meet is called a CELL

In this way each cell has a unique address, e.g. A1, B2, C4 etc. This is shown at left corner
in the Name Box

Column C

A B C D E F
1
2
3
4
5 Row 3
6 Cell C3
Active
7
Cell
8
9

The Excel worksheet has a maximum of 65,536 rows and 256 columns, but only the top left-
hand corner is shown initially.

Active Cell

When the pointer is in a cell this is called the active cell. The active or selected cell has a
black border. You move from cell to cell simply by clicking on another cell with the mouse
or using the tab or arrow keys.

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Exercise 1

Open Excel

This file will be called ‘Book 1’ until it is saved with a meaningful name.

Enter Data

• Type your first and last name in cell A1 and press <Enter>
• Click in B1 and type your Postcode, press <Enter>
• (Your name may not show fully now as the column width is too narrow)
• Move to cell A5 and type STUDENT, press <Enter>
• Type in text and numbers in the cells as shown below

A B C
1 Your Name Postcode
2
3
4
5 STUDENT HOURS RATE
6 JASON CARTER 5 3.5
7 PAUL JONES 8
8 EMMA LING 5
9 SARAH NASH 2
10 TOTAL
11

Widen Column

• Point mouse arrow over the join between column heading A and B. Double click the
mouse

Your name should now be showing fully displayed

Save File (gives the file a meaningful name)

• Click on File
• Save as this is the first time you have saved the file the Save As: box will open
In the Save in: box click on the down arrow and find your home drive
In the File name: box type Exercise 1
Click on Save

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FORMATTING CELLS

You can format cells to give them a certain appearance. For example you may wish to show
things as Currency to 2 decimal places, Number to 0 decimal places or format a word to
Text. This tells the computer what the data entries are to be so that even if there is no
difference in appearance in the cell, Excel will restrict the display of entries that are
entered.

Example. If a spreadsheet were to show how many students were in a class you wouldn’t
want it to show 1.5. If the cell is not formatted then it allows these entries to be made; if
it is formatted to 0 decimal places then it will round the figure up to 2.

It is important to note that formatting makes no difference to what the cell contains only
what the cell displays. This will become clearer later.

• Click in B6 and, holding your left mouse button down, highlight to B10

• Click Format
Cells
Number Tab
Click on Number in list (Excel automatically sets this to 2 decimal places).
Change this to 0 decimal places.
OK

• Click in C6 and highlight down to C10.

• Click Format
Cells
Number Tab
Click on Currency in list
OK (Excel automatically sets this to 2 decimal places).
Text Enhancements

You can use text enhancements in Excel in much the same way as you do in Word.

• Click in A5 and drag to C5 so that all these cells are highlighted.

• Click Bold button on Toolbar

Centre Headings

• Click in A5 and drag to highlight to C5

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• Click Centre button on Toolbar. This centres the words within the cell.

Excel has a variety of functions that make certain tasks easier to do.

Example One: In cell C6 the rate is 3.50. Rather than having to type this in each
individual cell underneath we can use Copy and Paste.

Copy and Paste - Method 1

• Click in C6

• Click on Edit - Copy button

• Click mouse pointer in C7

• Click on Edit – Paste

Copy and Paste – Method 2

• Click in C7

Point mouse over bottom right hand corner of cell. (white thick cross will change to a
black thin cross).
Click left button, hold down and drag to C9. The figure is now replicated to the other
cells.

Your spreadsheet should now look like the following example.

A B C
1 Your Name Postcode
2
3
4
5 STUDENT HOURS RATE
6 JASON CARTER 5 £3.50
7 PAUL JONES 8 £3.50
8 EMMA LING 5 £3.50
9 SARAH NASH 2 £3.50
10 TOTAL
11

• Click Save button on toolbar to update your file

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Using AutoSum to Insert A Simple Formula

AutoSum is a very simple way of totalling up an amount of figures.

It automatically enters a SUM FUNCTION [of which we will use more later on] which will
calculate the answer.

It is very important to understand that in a spreadsheet we use CELL REFERENCES within


formulae and functions, not numbers. This is in case a number changes – you will not have to
edit the function, as it will recalculate with the new number.

• Click in B10

• Click mouse pointer on AutoSum button on toolbar, ∑ press <enter>


The answer 20.00 appears in the cell

Repeat this in cell C10, the answer 14.00 should appear

Change Contents of A Cell

Make the changes shown to see what happens. All students have had a 50p pay rise and
worked 2 hours extra

• Change Jason’s hours to 7


Click in B6 type in 7 press <Enter>
Change Paul’s to 10
Emma’s to 7
Sarah’s to 4

The answer appearing in B10 will now change. This is because the function =SUM is still
looking at those cells and so will change every time the content of one of the cells is altered.
It should now be 28.

Copy a number to selected cells

• Click in C6 type 4 press <Enter>

• Click in C6 again
Point mouse over bottom right hand corner of cell
(thick white cross will change to a thin black cross)
Click, hold down and drag to C9

The answer appearing in C10 should be £16.00 – again because the =SUM has recalculated
looking at the new figures.
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If your totals do not agree check with the Tutor

Insert A New Row (for a new student between Paul and Emma)

• Click in A8
Insert
Rows (An empty row will appear)

Note the new row appears above the row 8 and all rows are renumbered.

• Key in new student details as follows:


DAVID KING 9 4.00
(Totals will change again)

Save Worksheet

• Save changes by clicking save on toolbar button


It is good practice to save files at regular intervals.

Delete A Single Row (at the top of spreadsheet)

• Click on row heading 2 so that the whole row is highlighted.


Click Edit
Delete

Preparations for Printing - Insert Header

Insert your name, date and filename to identify your printouts


• Click File
Page Set-up
Header/Footer
Custom Header
Click buttons to insert date and filename these will be displayed as &[date] and &[file]

Type your Date


Filename
name

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• Click OK OK

Insert Gridlines and Row and Column Headings on a Printout

Sometimes you may wish to have the gridlines and row and column headings showing on a
printout of your spreadsheet.

• Page Setup
Sheet
Click to put a  beside Gridlines
Click to put a  beside Row and column headings

Print Preview

• Click on Print Preview

This allows you to see the spreadsheet, as it will be printed. It is good practice to
always use Print Preview before printing.

• Click on Close
• Click on File – Print - OK

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EXERCISE 2 - PERSONAL BUDGET

• Create a new file

• Save file in correct place with the name Personal Budget

• Enter the following text into the cells indicated

A1 PERSONAL BUDGET
A3 SPENDING
A4 RENT
A5 FOOD
A6 SOCIALISING
A7 CLOTHES
A8 SAVINGS
A10 TOTAL SPENT

• Widen the columns so that all data can be seen

• Enter the following figures into the cells shown

B4 45
B5 35
B6 22
B7 15
B8 10

• Format the numbers to Number with 2 decimal places

• Use AutoSum to add up the numbers in cell B10

• Widen the columns if required

• Add extra row above row A5


Insert Mortgage 17

• Check formula in B11 is correct


The formula should read =SUM(B4:B9) this means it has updated the range from B4 : B8
to B4 : B9 after you inserted the row.
• Insert header with suitable details (your name, date and filename).
• Print Preview
• Print
• Save and Close

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