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ula people or Fulani or Fulbe (Fula: Ful?

e; French: Peul; Hausa: Fulan; Portugue se: Fula; Wolof: Pl; Bambara: Fulaw) are an ethnic group of people spread over ma ny countries, predominantly in West Africa, but found also in Central Africa and Sudanese North Africa. The countries in Africa where they are present include M auritania, Senegal, Guinea, The Gambia, Mali, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Benin, Burk ina Faso, Guinea Bissau, Cameroon, Cte d'Ivoire, Niger, Chad, Togo, the Central A frican Republic, Liberia, and as far as Sudan in the east. Fula people form a mi nority in every country they inhabit, but in Guinea they represent a plurality o f the population (40%).[1]Contents [hide] 1 Terminology 2 Related groups 3 Traditional livelihood 4 History 4.1 Origins and spread 4.2 Rise to political dominance 5 Culture and language 5.1 Clothing 5.2 Herding 5.3 Music 5.4 Food 5.5 Houses 6 Notable Fulani people by country 6.1 Nigeria 6.2 Senegal 6.3 Guinea 6.4 Mali 6.5 Sierra Leone 6.6 Burkina Faso 6.7 Cameroon 6.8 The Gambia 7 See also 8 References 8.1 Notes 8.2 General references 9 Further reading 10 External links [edit] Terminology Men from the Wodaabe subgroup performing Yaake dance There are also many names (and spellings of the names) used in other languages t o refer to the Ful?e. Fulani in English is borrowed from the Hausa term, and it is also used by the Manding peoples, being the diminutive form of the word "Fula " in their language, essentially meaning "little Fula". Fula, from Manding langu ages is also used in English, and sometimes spelled Fulah or Foulah. Fula and Fu lani are commonly used in English, including within Africa. The French borrowed the Wolof term Pl, which is variously spelled: Peul, Peulh, and even Peuhl. More recently the Fulfulde / Pulaar term Ful?e, which is a plural noun (singular, Pul lo) has been Anglicised as Fulbe,[2] which some people use. In Portuguese it's F ula or Futafula. [edit] Related groups A closely related group is the Tukolor (Toucouleur) in the central Senegal River valley. These people are often referred to together with Ful?e of the region as Halpulaar (Fula: Haalpulaar'en, literally "Pulaar-speakers"). Fula society in s ome parts of West Africa features the "caste" divisions typical of the region. I n Mali, for instance, those who are not ethnically Fula have been referred to as

yim?e pulaaku (people of the Fula culture).[citation needed] The Wodaabe (Fula: Wo?aa?e), are a subgroup of the Fula people. [edit] Traditional livelihood The Fulani are traditionally a nomadic, pastoralist, trading people, herding cat tle, goats and sheep across the vast dry hinterlands of their domain, keeping so mewhat separate from the local agricultural populations. [edit] History [edit] Origins and spread Young Fulani cattle herders circa 1967 Fula woman from Mali The people who are known to the English speakers as Fulani refer to themselves a s Ful?e (Pullo, singular). The British have adopted the Hausa name for them beca use they first came into contact with them in Hausaland (Northern Nigeria). The French on the other hand, borrowed the Wolof name. While their origins is a subject to many theses, the Pullo Historian Dr. Aboubac ry Moussa Lam Ph.D, of the University Cheikh Anta Diop in Dakar, one of the lead ing Egyptologist in Africa, favored the Nile theses. In his well documented book De L`Origine Egyptienne des Peuls, Professor Lam developed a theory supporting a migration from East to West (Egypt, Ethiopia, along the Sahara), and then a se cond migration to the opposite direction (Eastward).[3] In a book entitled The desert shore: literatures of the Sahel Volume 3, Dr. Char les Kingsley Meek is quoted as stating that "...The physical resemblance between the pure Fulani and representations of the Proto-Egyptians is remarkable ... Th e Fulani, according to tradition, are heirs of the Egyptian pharaohs, evident in their artistic way of braiding their hair as well as their traditional costume that distinguishes them ... Chartre and Broca, for physical reasons, connect the Fulani of the Fellah to the Nile Valley."[4] [edit] Rise to political dominance Main article: Fula jihads Beginning as early as the 17th and 18th centuries, but mainly in the 19th centur y, Fulas and others took control of various states in West Africa. These included the Fulani Empire, also known as the Sokoto Caliphate, founded by Usman dan Fodio (which itself included smaller states), Fouta Djallon, Massina and others. [edit] Culture and language The language of Fulas is called Pulaar or Fulfulde depending on the region, or v ariants thereof. It is also the language of the Tukulor. All Senegalese who spea k the language natively are known as the Halpulaar or Haalpulaar'en, which stand s for "speakers of Pulaar" ("hal" is the root of the Pulaar verb haalugol, meani ng "to speak"). In some areas, e.g. in northern Cameroon, Fulfulde is a local li ngua franca. With the exception of Guinea (where the Fula make up a ~40% plurality of the pop ulation), Fulas are minorities in every country they live in (most countries of West And East Africa). So some also speak other languages.

[edit] Clothing Fulani women with traditional facial tattoos Fulani Herder from Mali The traditional dress of the Fula consists of long colourful flowing robes, mode stly embroidered or otherwise decorated. Also characteristic Fula tradition is t hat of women using henna around the mouth, resulting in a blackening around the lips. Fula ethics are strictly governed by the notion of pulaaku. Men wear long robes to the lower calves with trousers of cotton. Herdsmen wear the distinctive conical straw hat and a turban. Women wear long robes and turbans. They decorat e themselves with necklaces, earrings, nose rings and anklets.[5] [edit] Herding Fula are primarily known to be pastoralists, but are also traders in some areas. Most Fula in the countryside spend long times alone on foot, moving their herds ; they were the only major migrating people of West Africa, though most Fula now live in towns or villages. Wealth is counted by how large the herd of cattle is and how many cattle.Long ago fulani tribes used to fight over cattle. [edit] Music The Fula have a rich musical culture and play a variety of traditional instrumen ts including drums, hoddu (a plucked skin-covered lute similar to a banjo) and r iti or riiti (a one-string bowed instrument similar to a violin), in addition to vocal music. The well known Senegalese Fula popular musician Baaba Maal sings i n Pulaar on his recordings. "Zaghareet" or ululation is a popular form of vocal music formed by rapidly moving the tongue sideways and making a sharp, high soun d. [edit] Food The Fulani traditionally eat millet, milk and meat such as staples. Millet is ea ten in the morning, noon and night as a porridge with a sauce or stew which usua lly contains tomatoes, peppers, bone, meat, onion and water and other vegetables . On special occasions meat such as goat and beef is usually eaten. A thick beve rage similar to the tuareg beverage eghajira is made by pounding goat cheese, mi lk, dates and millet. [edit] Houses Traditionally, Fula live in domed houses during the dry season. The domed house is supported by compact millet stalk pillars. During the wet season the house is covered by reed mats. However many Fula now live in mud or concrete block house s. [edit] Notable Fulani people by country [edit] Nigeria Usman dan Fodio, founder, Sokoto Caliphate Nana Asma u, scholar, author, and pioneer of women's education, Sokoto Caliphate Umaru Yar'Adua, former President of Nigeria Shehu Shagari, former President of Nigeria Muhammadu Buhari, former Nigerian Head of State Ahmadu Bello, first Premier of Northern Nigeria Atiku Abubakar, former Vice President of Nigeria Shehu Musa Yar'Adua, Nigerian politician and the brother of former Nigerian pres

ident Umaru Yar'Adua Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa, Nigerian father and first prime minister Vice-Admiral Murtala Nyako, current Governor of Adamawa State,former Chief of Na val Staff Ibrahim Gambari, Under Secretary-General/Special Adviser - Africa in the UN; for mer Minister of Foreign Affairs. Professor Jibril Aminu, pioneer cardiac surgeon, former minister of education an d petroleum. Mallam Sanusi Lamido Sanusi ,central bank Governor of Nigeria Aliko Dangote,Richest person of African descent. Mohammed Shata, Former Internal Affairs Minister [edit] Senegal Cheikh Umar Tall, General Khalif (1850 1865) of the Tijaniyya suufi way (tarikh) f or West Africa Maba Diakhou Ba Almamy of Rip Malick Sy marabout Mariama B Senegalese author and feminist Habib Thiam, former Prime minister of president Abdou Diouf Daouda Sow, former head of the parliament Djibo Lety Ka, former secretary of state Baaba Maal, composer, singer, head of the band Daande Leol Omar Ibn Said, Scholar and former slave in America Oumou Sy, fashion designer Ibrahim Ba, French-Senegalese former football player Mamadou Niang, football player Issa Ba, football player Cheikh Tidjane Gadjo, former secratary of state Macky Sall,former Prime minister of president Abdoulaye Wade [edit] Guinea Tierno Aliyyu ?uu?a Ndiyan (1855 1927). Author, theologian, Tijaniyya suufi. Saifoulaye Diallo (1923 1981), former Guinean politician, first president of the n ational assembly (1958 1963) held various cabinet positions under the regime of Se kou Toure Diallo Telli (or Boubacar Telli Diallo [1]), Lawyer, former Diplomat, First Sec. Gen. of the Organization of African Unity, died of starvation at Camp Boiro in 1977. Cellou Dalein Diallo, Prime Minister of Guinea from 2004 2007 Abdulrahman Ibrahim Ibn Sori, Prince Among Slaves Bobo Balde, football star Katoucha, former haute couture model and anti-female circumcision activist Abdoul Salam Sow, former footballer Abdallah Bah, football star Ibrahima Diallo, football star Alpha Yaya Diallo, musician Almamy Schuman Bah, football star Amadou Diallo, young resident in the Bronx killed by police in 1999 Almamy Bocar Biro Barry Leader of Fouta Djallon and Resistance Fighter against F rench occupation. [2] Saidu Diallo Former Guinean ambassabor to Nigeria El Hadj Habib Diallo Late Mano River Union Secretary General and Former Guinean Ambassador to Canada and Liberia, Former Minister of International Cooperation, Energy & Hydraulics, Member of the CNT (National Transitional Council). Alpha Yaya Diallo Leader of the State of Labe in the late 1800s Fouta Djallon. Bailo Bah Flutte Master, Musician. Karamoko Alfa First Almamy of Fouta Djallon and Father of the Alphaya Ruling fam ily. Cousin of Ibrahima Sory Mowdho. Ibrahima Sory Mowdho Second Almamy of of Fouta Djallon and Father of the Sorya r uling family. Cousin of Karamoko Alfa.

Elhadj Umar Tall Almamy of Dinguiraye, Guinee. Fought against French Occupation. Helped expand Islam in West Africa. Hadja Rabiatou Serah Diallo She is the Leader of the National Union in Guinea. E lle est une syndicaliste guinenne ne en 1950. Elle est la premire femme africaine a ccder la direction d un syndicat national et organis la grve gnrale en Guine de 200 [edit] Mali Amadou Hampt B, researcher and author Seku Ahmadu, Founding King of Fula Kingdom of Macina, Mopti Adame Ba Konar, historian and spouse of the former president Alpha Oumar Konar Amadou Toumani Tour, Malian President Mountaga Tall, lawyer and political figure founding president of CNID party and ex-V.P. of National Assembly Ousmane Sy, politician [edit] Sierra Leone Main article: Fula people of Sierra Leone Amadu Wurie, early Sierra Leonean educationist and politician Amadu Jalloh, Sierra Leonean politician Alimamy Rassin, Sierra Leonean chief during colonial period Minkailu Bah, Sierra Leone's minister of Education, Youth and Sports Sulaiman Tejan-Jalloh, Sierra Leone ambassador to the United Kingdom Abubakarr Jalloh, Sierra Leone Minister of Mineral Resources Alimamy Jalloh, Sierra Leonean football star Mahmadu Alphajor Bah, Sierra Leonean football star Umu Hawa Tejan Jalloh,First female Chief Justice of Sierra Leone Neneh Cherry, Swedish singer-songwriter and rapper of mixed Black African-Europe an descent Abass Bundu,former politician and diplomat [edit] Burkina Faso Thomas Sankara, Former President of Burkina Faso Youssouf Sambo B, Burkinab politician Bnwend Stanislas Sankara, Burkinab politician [edit] Cameroon Modibo Adama, Fulani scholar and holy warrior Ahmadou Ahidjo, first President of Cameroon Issa Hayatou, current President African Football Confederation (CAF) Bello Bouba Maigari, political leader ,Minister of Transport Sadou Hayatou, former prime minister and former General Manager of BEAC(Central African Reserve Bank)Cameroon Garga Haman Adji, former minister and political leader Issa Tchiroma Bakary, current minister of comminucation and political leader Marafa Hamidou Yaya, current minister of Territorial administration and decentra lization and potential future candidate of the ruling party Lamido yahya Dairou, power religious and traditional leader in 1960 - 70 in Far North , maroua Iya Mohamed, President of FECAFOOT(Cameroon Football Federation), General Manage r of SoDeCoton [edit] The Gambia Hamat Bah, Politician, opposition Leader Halifa Sallah, politician, writer [edit] See also Wodaabe Hausa people Mand people Songhai peo