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UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS

PREAMBLE

On December 10, 1948 the General Assembly of the United Nations


adopted and proclaimed the Universal Declaration of Human
Rights the full text of which appears in the following pages.
Following this historic act the Assembly called upon all Member
countries to publicize the text of the Declaration and "to cause it to
be disseminated, displayed, read and expounded principally in
schools and other educational institutions, without distinction
based on the political status of countries or territories. "

Whereas recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of
all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the
world,
Whereas disregard and contempt for human rights have resulted in barbarous acts
which have outraged the conscience of mankind, and the advent of a world in which
human beings shall enjoy freedom of speech and belief and freedom from fear and
want has been proclaimed as the highest aspiration of the common people,
Whereas it is essential, if man is not to be compelled to have recourse, as a last resort,
to rebellion against tyranny and oppression, that human rights should be protected by
the rule of law,
Whereas it is essential to promote the development of friendly relations between
nations,
Whereas the peoples of the United Nations have in the Charter reaffirmed their faith in
fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person and in the
equal rights of men and women and have determined to promote social progress and
better standards of life in larger freedom,
Whereas Member States have pledged themselves to achieve, in co-operation with the
United Nations, the promotion of universal respect for and observance of human rights
and fundamental freedoms,
Whereas a common understanding of these rights and freedoms is of the greatest
importance for the full realization of this pledge,
Now, Therefore THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY proclaims THIS UNIVERSAL
DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS as a common standard of achievement for
all peoples and all nations, to the end that every individual and every organ of society,
keeping this Declaration constantly in mind, shall strive by teaching and education to
promote respect for these rights and freedoms and by progressive measures, national
and international, to secure their universal and effective recognition and observance,
both among the peoples of Member States themselves and among the peoples of
territories under their jurisdiction.
4

Article 8
Article 1
All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are
endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a
spirit of brotherhood.
Article 2

Everyone has the right to an effective remedy by the competent national


tribunals for acts violating the fundamental rights granted him by the
constitution or by law.
Article 9
No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention or exile.

Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration,
without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion,
political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other
status. Furthermore, no distinction shall be made on the basis of the political,
jurisdictional or international status of the country or territory to which a person
belongs, whether it be independent, trust, non-self-governing or under any other
limitation of sovereignty.
Article 3
Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person.
Article 4
No one shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the slave trade shall be
prohibited in all their forms.
Article 5
No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment
or punishment.
Article 6
Everyone has the right to recognition everywhere as a person before the law.
Article 7

Article 10
Everyone is entitled in full equality to a fair and public hearing by an
independent and impartial tribunal, in the determination of his rights and
obligations and of any criminal charge against him.
Article 11
(1) Everyone charged with a penal offence has the right to be presumed innocent
until proved guilty according to law in a public trial at which he has had all the
guarantees necessary for his defence.
(2) No one shall be held guilty of any penal offence on account of any act or
omission which did not constitute a penal offence, under national or
international law, at the time when it was committed. Nor shall a heavier penalty
be imposed than the one that was applicable at the time the penal offence was
committed.
Article 12

..

No one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with his privacy, family,


home or correspondence, nor to attacks upon his honour and reputation.
Everyone has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or
attacks.
Article 13

All are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to equal
protection of the law. All are entitled to equal protection against any
discrimination in violation of this Declaration and against any incitement to such
discrimination.

(1) Everyone has the right to freedom of movement and residence within the
borders of each state.
(2) Everyone has the right to leave any country, including his own, and to return
to his country.

Article 14
(1) Everyone has the right to seek and to enjoy in other countries asylum from
persecution.
(2) This right may not be invoked in the case of prosecutions genuinely arising
from non-political crimes or from acts contrary to the purposes and principles of
the United Nations.

Article 19
Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes
freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart
information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers.
Article 20
(1) Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and association.

Article 15
(1) Everyone has the right to a nationality.
(2) No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his nationality nor denied the right to
change his nationality..
Article 16
(1) Men and women of full age, without any limitation due to race, nationality or
religion, have the right to marry and to found a family. They are entitled to equal
rights as to marriage, during marriage and at its dissolution.
(2) Marriage shall be entered into only with the free and full consent of the
intending spouses.
(3) The family is the natural and fundamental group unit of society and is
entitled to protection by society and the State.
Article 17
(1) Everyone has the right to own property alone as well as in association with
others.
(2) No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his property.
Article 18
Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right
includes freedom to change his religion or belief, and freedom, either alone or in
community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief
in teaching, practice, worship and observance.

(2) No one may be compelled to belong to an association.


Article 21
(1) Everyone has the right to take part in the government of his country, directly
or through freely chosen representatives.
(2) Everyone has the right of equal access to public service in his country.
(3) The will of the people shall be the basis of the authority of government; this
will shall be expressed in periodic and genuine elections which shall be by
universal and equal suffrage and shall be held by secret vote or by equivalent
free voting procedures.
Article 22
Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security and is entitled
to realization, through national effort and international co-operation and in
accordance with the organization and resources of each State, of the economic,
social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and the free development
of his personality.
Article 23
(1) Everyone has the right to work, to free choice of employment, to just and
favourable conditions of work and to protection against unemployment.
(2) Everyone, without any discrimination, has the right to equal pay for equal
work.
(3) Everyone who works has the right to just and favourable remuneration
ensuring for himself and his family an existence worthy of human dignity, and
supplemented, if necessary, b other means of social protection.

(4) Everyone has the right to form and to join trade unions for the protection of
his interests.
8

Article 24

Article 28

Everyone has the right to rest and leisure, including reasonable limitation of
working hours and periodic holidays with pay.

Article 25

Article 29

(1) Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and
well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing and
medical care and necessary social services, and the right to security in the event
of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or other lack of
livelihood in circumstances beyond his control.
(2) Motherhood and childhood are entitled to special care and assistance. All
children, whether born in or out of wedlock, shall enjoy the same social
protection.

(1) Everyone has duties to the community in which alone the free and full
development of his personality is possible.
(2) In the exercise of his rights and freedoms, everyone shall be subject only to
such limitations as are determined by law solely for the purpose of securing due
recognition and respect for the rights and freedoms of others and of meeting the
just requirements of morality, public order and the general welfare in a
democratic society.
(3) These rights and freedoms may in no case be exercised contrary to the
purposes and principles of the United Nations.

Article 26

Everyone is entitled to a social and international order in which the rights and
freedoms set forth in this Declaration can be fully realized.

(1) Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at least in the
elementary and fundamental stages. Elementary education shall be compulsory.
Technical and professional education shall be made generally available and
higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit.
(2) Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality
and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms.
It shall promote understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations,
racial or religious groups, and shall further the activities of the United Nations
for the maintenance of peace.

Article 30
Nothing in this Declaration may be interpreted as implying for any State, group
or person any right to engage in any activity or to perform any act aimed at the
destruction of any of the rights and freedoms set forth herein.

(3) Parents have a prior right to choose the kind of education that shall be given
to their children.
Article 27

(1) Everyone has the right freely to participate in the cultural life of the
community, to enjoy the arts and to share in scientific advancement and its
benefits.

(2) Everyone has the right to the protection of the moral and material interests
resulting from any scientific, literary or artistic production of which he is the
author.

10

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Assignment 1. Give Ukrainian equivalents of the following words and


expressions.
Inherent dignity; inalienable rights; common people; last resort; the rule of law;
standards of life; pledge; to the end; fundamental rights; marriage dissolution; genuine
elections; universal and equal suffrage; unemployment; rest and leisure; periodic
holidays with pay; general welfare; public order;
to publicize the text; to interpret; to be entitled to; to be subjected to; to seek
asylum; to found a family; to be subject to; to join trade unions; to be deprived of; to
be born in or out of wedlock; to be charged with; to enter into marriage; to be
accessible.
Assignment 2.

Translate quickly the prompts below.

' ; marriage dissolution; ; rest and leisure;


; general welfare; ; public order;
; genuine elections; ; to join trade unions.
Assignment 3.

Suggest the English for:

; ; ; ;
; ; ;
; ; ;
; ;
; ' ;
; '; ;
; ; ; ;
; ; ; ;
; ; ; .
Assignment 4.

Note the use of adjectives "common" and


following sentences. Translate into Ukrainian.

"general"

in

the

1. Whereas disregard and contempt for human rights have resulted in barbarous acts
which have outraged the conscience of mankind, and the advent of a world in which
human beings shall enjoy freedom of speech and belief and freedom from fear and
want has been proclaimed as the highest aspiration of the common people. 2. In the
exercise of his rights and freedoms, everyone shall be subject only to such limitations
as are determined by law solely for the purpose of securing due recognition and respect
for the rights and freedoms of others and of meeting the just requirements of morality,
public order and the general welfare in a democratic society.
19

20

Assignment 5.

You may find the following expressions useful Memorize them.


Give their Ukrainian equivalents.

a common phenomenon to all aspects


common core
common experience
common ground
common in the past
common people
common points between
common standard
common stock
common system
common understanding
in common form

general mathematics
general mistake
general reader
general welfare
the general law

Assignment 6.

Make sure you know what these legal terms mean. Use the
authentic translation of the Declaration as a key.
Persecution; detention; exile; penal offence; to commit a penal offence; to constitute a
penal offence; to impose a penalty; to be presumed innocent; to be proved guilty;
public trial; fair and public hearing; criminal charge against smb.; defence.
Assignment 7.

Translate into Ukrainian the sentences given below paying


attention to the words and expressions in bold type. Extend the list
of expressions containing "vote" and "voting".

1. The will of the people shall be the basis of the authority of government; this will
shall be expressed in periodic and genuine elections which shall be by universal and
equal suffrage and shall be held by secret vote or by equivalent free voting
procedures.
2. The President: I now put to the vote the draft resolution contained in document
S/2001/270.
A vote was taken by show of hands.
21

In favour:
Bangladesh, China, Colombia, Jamaica, Mali, Mauritius, Russian Federation,
Singapore, Tunisia.
Against:
United States of America.
Abstaining:
France, Ireland, Norway, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
The President: The result of the voting is as follows: 9 votes in favour, 1 against and
4 abstentious. One Council member did not participate in the voting The draft
Resolution has not been adopted, owing to the negative vote of a Permanent member
of the Security Council.
Assignment 8. Translate the following sentences into Ukrainian. Take care of the
words underlined. Consult
. .
1. Now, therefore the General Assembly proclaims this Universal Declaration of
Human Rights as a common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations, to
the end that every individual and every organ of society, keeping this Declaration
constantly in mind, shall strive by teaching and education to promote respect for these
rights and freedoms and by progressive measures, national and international, to secure
their universal and effective recognition and observance, both among the peoples of
Member States themselves and among the peoples of territories under their
jurisdiction.
2. Everyone has the right to an effective remedy by the competent national
tribunals for acts violating the fundamental rights granted him by the constitution or by
law.
Assignment 9.

Translate the following sentences into Ukrainian mindful of the


words in bold type.

1. Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration,
without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political
or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status. 2. The
implementation of this Memorandum of Understanding shall be specified in separate
Memoranda. 3. The United States assistance stipulated in this Memorandum shall
complement relevant development programs of the Government of the Republic of
Indonesia and shall jointly be implemented. 4. The High Contracting Parties shall
22

secure to everyone within their jurisdiction the rights and freedoms defined in Section
1 of this Convention.
Assignment 10. Study and memorize "here- and there- words" given below. Note
the suggested definitions.
Thereafter: after that in time or sequence, subsequently; thereat: at that place, on that
account, after that; thereby: by that means, as a result of that; therein: in that place, in
that respect; thereinafter: in the following part (of that document, speech, etc.);
thereof: of that, concerning that, from that as a cause; thereto: to that place, in
addition to that, besides; thereupon: soon or immediately after that, concerning that
subject; therewith: in addition to that, immediately thereafter;
hereafter: after this, following this, from now on, in the future; hereat: at this time, as
a result of this; hereby: by or through this, by this means; herein: in or into this place,
in this matter, wilting; hereinafter: below (in this document, speech, etc.); hereof: of
this, from this, concerning this; hereto: to this matter; hereupon: after this,
immediately following this, in consequence of this; herewith: along with this, by this
method or means.
Assignment 11. Translate the following sentences into Ukrainian paying attention
to "here- and there- words".
1. Nothing in this Declaration may be interpreted as implying for any State, group or
person any right to engage in any activity or to perform any act aimed at the
destruction of any of the rights and freedoms set forth herein. 2. Aerolineas Argentinas
is hereby authorized, subject to the provisions hereinafter set forth, the provisions of
the Federal Aviation Act of ..., and the orders, rules and regulations issued
thereunder, to engage in foreign air transportation with respect to persons, property,
and mail, as follows.... 3. Each State Party to the present Covenant undertakes: b) to
ensure that any person claiming such a remedy shall have his right thereto determined
by competent judicial, administrative or legislative authorities, or by any other
competent authority provided for by the legal system of the State, and to develop the
possibilities of judicial remedy. 4. If, subsequent to the commission of the offence,
provision is made by law for the imposition of a higher penalty, the offender shall
benefit thereby. 5. To this end, and having regard to the relevant provisions of
international instruments, States Parties shall, in particular, ensure that: b) every child
alleged as or accused of having infringed the penal law has at least the following
guarantees: if considered to have infringed the penal law, to have this decision and any
measures imposed in consequence thereof reviewed by a higher competent,
23

independent and impartial authority or judicial body according to law. 6. The Carrier
shall be deemed prima facie to have effected timely delivery of the Goods as described
in this Bill of Lading unless notice of loss, damage or delay to the Goods shall have
been given in writing to the Carrier or to his representative at the Place of Delivery
before or at the time of removal of the Goods into the custody of the Person entitled to
delivery thereof under this Bill of Lading, or, if the loss or damage is not apparent,
within three working days thereafter. 7. If the Merchant fails to do so the Carrier shall
be entitled, without notice, ... to store the Goods ashore, afloat, in the open or under
cover, at the sole risk of the Merchant. Such storage shall constitute due delivery
hereunder, and thereupon the liability of the Carrier in respect of the Goods stored as
aforesaid shall wholly cease, and the costs of such storage shall forthwith upon
demand be paid by the Merchant to the Carrier. 8. Nothing herein shall prevent the
parties to any claim or dispute under this Bill of Lading from agreeing to submit the
claim or dispute to arbitration by mutually acceptable arbitrator(s) on mutually
acceptable terms at a mutually acceptable venue. 9. In the event that anything herein
contained is inconsistent with any applicable international convention or national law,
which cannot be departed from by private contract, the provisions hereof shall to the
extent of such inconsistency but no further be null and void. 10. I hereby consent to
the use of all printed matter in connection therewith and waive all rights to inspect
and/or approve drafts, finished products, and/or editorial, promotional and printed
copy, and sound tracks that may be used in connection therewith, and waive all rights
to control any aspect of any production, alteration, use, distribution or disposition of
said products.

Assignment 12. Translate the following sentences into Ukrainian.


1.
All peoples may, for their own ends, freely dispose of their national wealth and
resources without prejudice to any obligations arising out of international economic
cooperation, based upon the principle of mutual benefit and international law. In no
case may a people be deprived of its own means of subsistence. 2. Each State Party to
the present Covenant undertakes: a) to ensure that any person whose rights or freedoms
as herein recognized are violated shall have an effective remedy, notwithstanding that
the violation has been committed by persons acting in the official capacity. 3. Nothing
in the Present Covenant may be interpreted as implying for any State, group or person
any right to engage in any activity or perform any act aimed at the destruction of any
of the rights and freedoms recognized herein or at their limitation to a greater extent
than is provided for in the present Covenant. 4. Everyone has the right to liberty and
security of person. No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest or detention. 5.
Everyone charged with a criminal offence shall have the right to be presumed innocent
until proved guilty according to law. 6. No one shall be subject to coercion which
24

would impair his freedom to have or to adopt a religion or belief of bis choice. 7.
Everyone shall have the right to freedom of association with others, including the right
to form and join trade unions for the protection of his interests. 8. The right of men and
women of marriageable age to marry and to found a family shall be recognized. 9.
States Parties to the present Covenant shall take appropriate steps to ensure equality of
rights and responsibilities of spouses as to marriage, during marriage and at its
dissolution. 10. The members of the Committee shall be elected by secret ballot from a
list of persons possessing the qualifications prescribed in article 28 and nominated for
the purpose by; the State Parties to the present Covenant. 11. States Parties recognized
that every child has the inherent right to life. 12. To this end. States Parties shall
promote the conclusion of bilateral or multilateral agreements or accession to existing
agreements. 13. States Parties recognize the right of every child to a standard of living
adequate for the child's physical, mental, spiritual, moral and social development. 14.
States Parties recognize the right of the child to rest and leisure, to engage in play and
recreational activities appropriate to the age of the child and to participate freely in
cultural life and the arts. 15. States Parties shall protect the child against all other forms
of exploitation prejudicial to any aspects of the child's welfare. 16. The arrest,
detention or imprisonment of a child shall be in conformity with the law and shall be
used only as a measure of last resort and for the shortest appropriate period of time. 17.
To this end, and having regard to the relevant provisions of international instruments,
States Parties shall in particular, ensure that: a) no child shall be alleged as, be accused
of, or recognized as having infringed the penal law by reason of acts or omissions that
were not prohibited by national or international law at the time they were committed.
18. Any amendment adopted by a majority of States Parties present and voting at the
conference shall be submitted to the General Assembly for approval. 19. These rights
and freedoms may in no case be exercised contrary to the purposes and principles of
the United Nations.

Assignment 13. Render in English. Consult the text of the Declaration of Human
Rights if necessary.
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: "fundamental freedoms" - , "essential human rights
and fundamental freedoms" - ' ,
"essential principles of human rights" - ' ,
"essential freedoms and fundamental rights" - ' ,
"fundamental essential rights" - , ' , "essential civic
freedoms" - ' , "fundamental principles of human
dignity" - , "fundamental, undisputed
freedoms" -, , "elementary and fundamental rights" , "human rights and fundamental freedoms " -
, "universal law on human rights "
, "fundamental principles of human rights"
, "basic personal rights " - ,
"basic principles of human rights" - ,
"basic human rights" - , "professional freedoms and

25

26

social rights" - , "code of European


freedoms " - .

. "basic" -
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Assignment 14. Translate into Ukrainian.
Human rights
The notion that human beings have rights because they are human beings and not
because they are citizens of state X or state Y is, in terms of the practice of
international relations, a relatively new one. Traditional thinking has it that
international law is concerned primarily with states rights - in particular rights
associated with post-Westphalian ideas about sovereignty and its corollary, non
intervention. Human rights, in so far as they were acknowledged, were subsumed
under states rights, conventional wisdom being that international law was law between
states whereas municipal law was law between individuals. Although the distinction
has never been quite as clear as this - the rights of aliens and foreign nationals have
long been a matter for concern, for example - orthodox accounts of international
politics and law have always been more or less state-centric in this way. However, the
distinction between the two has become increasingly blurred and contemporary world
politics has witnessed a dramatic upsurge in the question of human rights and their
place in the state-system. It may be said that whereas the innovation of the
seventeenth-century world politics was the creation of a society of states, the
revolution of the twentieth century is the creation of a prototype world society in
which individuals have equal standing with states and where states themselves
acknowledge that issues connected with the fundamental rights of human beings are as
legitimate a part of foreign policy concerns as the more traditional preoccupations with
peace, security and economic well-being. This process was formally heralded by the
establishment in 1946 of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights, and on 10
December 1948 (which was designated Human Rights Day) the General Assembly
passed the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. This was unopposed, although
South Africa, Saudi Arabia and the Soviet bloc abstained. The Commission worked on
two covenants designed to give substance to the general declaration: the first was on
economic, social and cultural rights and the second on civil and political rights. The
first was passed by the General Assembly in 1966 (although it did not become
operative until ten years later) but the second covenant has had a much more difficult
ride and the investigatory Committee established has constantly run up against
recalcitrant governments insisting on the overriding principle of states rights (Israel,
for example, refused to cooperate with its investigations into possible violations in
occupied territories after the Six-Day War). Thus, the international system has clearly
laid down a code of established human rights and attempted to create judicial
29

machinery, which can investigate infringements, but the problem of enforcement


remains a thorny one. States can and do ignore them. Yet as a statement of principle,
and perhaps of positive world morality, these proposals clearly have an effect on world
public opinion and the standard they set is used as a yardstick to measure, and also
beat, states which consistently fail to comply. Rhodesia and South Africa, the Soviet
Union and China have borne this brunt most often in recent times.
On a regional level, as distinct from the international, provision for human rights
implementation has been more successful. The European Convention on Human
Rights (1953) sought not only to delineate these rights but also enforce them. A
commission and a court of human rights have been established to which individuals
can bring action against their own governments. In the American continents there are
similar developments. The American Convention on Human Rights (1978) created a
commission and a court which again contained provision for individuals to present
grievances. In Africa the Banjul Charter on Human and People's Rights (1981) is
somewhat weaker than its European and American counterparts, mainly perhaps due to
the different African conceptions of human rights - a conception which stresses the
rights of collectivities and groupings ('peoples') rather than individual rights as such.
In all these incidences, whether provision for enforcement is present or not the power
of public opinion is an important sanction in the conflict between individuals and the
sometimes overbearing power of the state. Other regional innovations have not been as
successful as those in Europe or the United States. The 1975 Helsinki Accords, which
included provision for human rights, has not so far made much headway in the Soviet
bloc partly because Helsinki is not legally binding on its signatories. The Arab
Commission on Human Rights (1969), too, has made little progress mainly because in
Islam the rights of the community come before the rights of the individual; for
Muslims duty to God, from whom all human beings emanate, is logically prior to
obligations to individuals.
Of the non-governmental institutions concerned with this issue Amnesty International
(founded in Britain in 1961) stands out. This group actively specializes in seeking to
obtain freedom for prisoners of conscience and has been instrumental in campaigning
for the rights of thousands of unfortunates on a world-wide basis. Other specialist
organizations in this field are the Minority Rights Group, the Anti-Slavery Society and
the International Committee of the Red Cross - all of which are concerned with
specific aspects of individual rights.
Clearly, although the twentieth century has seen a greater movement towards
acceptance of human rights as an integral part of world politics than at any other time,
there is a great deal of debate as to where the emphasis should be placed. In the West
the rights of individuals to be free from the interference of others is paramount,
30

whereas in the East economic and social rights took precedence over civil and political
rights. Liberty in socialist states was expressed primarily in social and economic terms:
in liberal states it is largely a civil and political affair. Therein perhaps lies an
important dimension of the tension between the two systems, and because of its
emphasis on economic development rather than the legal protection of civil liberties
the Third World tends to prefer the socialist view. After all, subsistence and basic
needs are often a more immediate and pressing concern than constitutional niceties and
protective legal procedures (R. J. Vincent, 1986). Whatever ideological differences can
be delineated, though, no one doubts that the human rights issue has altered, probably
for ever, the classical conception of international relations.

Freedom from arbitrary interference with privacy, family, home or


correspondence; freedom from attacks upon honour and reputation; the right to
the protection of the law against such attacks
Freedom of movement; the right to seek asylum; the right to a nationality
The right to marry and to found a family; the right to own property
Freedom of thought, conscience and religion; freedom of opinion and expression

Assignment 15. Translate into Ukrainian.


Defining universal rights

The right to peaceful assembly and association

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights is the cornerstone of the wide-ranging


body of human rights law created over the decades.

The right to take part in government and to equal access to public service

Its Articles 1 and 2 state that "all human beings are born equal in dignity and rights"
and are entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in the Declaration "without
distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other
opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status".
Articles 3 to 21 set forth the civil and political rights to which all human beings are
entitled, including:
The right to life liberty and security
Freedom from slavery and servitude
Freedom from torture or cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment
The right to recognition as a person before the law; the right to judicial remedy;
freedom from arbitrary arrest, detention or exile; the right to a fair trial and
public hearing by an independent and impartial tribunal; the right to be
presumed innocent until proved guilty

31

Articles 22 to 27 set forth the economic, social and cultural rights to which all human
beings are entitled, including:
The right to social security
The right to work; the right to equal pay for equal work; the right to form and
join trade unions
The right to rest and leisure
The right to a standard of living adequate for health and well-being
The right to education
The right to participate in the cultural life of the community
Finally, Articles 28 to 30 recognize that everyone is entitled to a social and
international order in which the human rights set forth in the Declaration may be fully
realized; that these rights may only be limited for the sole purpose of securing
recognition and respect of the rights and freedoms of others and of meeting the
32

requirements of morality, public order and the general welfare in a democratic society;
and that each person has duties to the community in which she or he lives.
Assignment 16.

Translate into English. Consult the text of the Declaration of


Human Rights if necessary.

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subjected to retroactive laws; freedom of


movement within one's state and freedom to
leave or return to it; the right of asylum; the right
to a nationality; the right to found a family; the
right against arbitrary interference with privacy,
family, home or correspondence; the right to own
property, to social security and to work; the right
to form and join trade unions; the right to an
adequate standard of living, to education, and to
rest and leisure; and the right to participation in
the cultural life of the community;

;

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; ;
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;

WHEREAS the Universal Declaration of


Human Rights has become the most widely
accepted statement identifying human rights and
is referred to in resolutions and covenants
adopted by numerous international organizations,
in multilateral and bilateral treaties, in national
constitutions, arid in local laws and decrees; and

,


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,
,
,

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WHEREAS the Universal Declaration of


Human Rights, though it is not a treaty or a
binding international agreement, is "a common
standard of achievement for all peoples and all
nations":

,
,

,
,
:

NOW THEREFORE, be it resolved by


the House of Representatives (the Senate
concurring), that the Congress:

(
)
, :

1.

1.

Assignment 17. Do the two-way translation.


Resolution passed by the House of
Representatives (September 14, 1998)

,
(14 1998 .)

WHEREAS on December 10, 1948, the


, 10
Genera! Assembly of the United Nations 1948
proclaimed the Universal Declaration of Human
Rights, after it was adopted by the General
Assembly without a dissenting vote;
,
;
WHEREAS the Universal Declaration of
Human Rights was modeled on the Bill of Rights
of the United States Constitution and it was
developed with strong United States leadership,
and in particular the personal involvement of
Mrs. Eleanor Roosevelt, who served as chair of
the United Nations Human Rights Commission;

WHEREAS the Universal Declaration of


Human Rights sets forth fundamental human
rights including the right to life, liberty, and
security of person; freedom of religion; freedom
of opinion and expression; freedom of assembly;
self-government through free elections; freedom
from slavery and torture; the right to a fair trial
and to equality before the law; presumption of
innocence until proved guilty; the right not to be
35

,

,
,

, ,
,

;

,
, ;
;
; ;
;
;
-

Reaffirms the commitment of the United


States to the fundamental human rights
enunciated half a century ago in the
Universal Declaration of Human Rights,
which are a reflection of the fundamental
civil and human rights that are enshrined in
36


,

,

, -

the Declaration of Independence and in the


United States Constitution, and in particular
in the Bill of Rights;


,
, ;

2.

Expresses the determination to work for the 2.


implementation of and observance of
international human rights and international
human rights agreements; and

3.

Urges the government leaders of all nations,


representatives of private international
human rights organizations, business and
labor leaders, local government officials, and
all Americans to use' the Universal
Declaration of Human Rights as an
instrument
to
promote
tolerance,
understanding and greater respect for human
rights.


,

,
,




,

.

37

3.