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# Formulas for IPhO

I Mathematics

a/ sin = b/ sin = 2R 3. Read carefully the recommendations in prob- points on the drawn line, then the projections of 7. Inscribed angles with identical endpoints are lems text. Pay attention to problems formulation the velocities equal; b) the instantaneous center sometimes insignicant details may carry vi- of rotation can be found via two velocity vectors tal information. If you have solved for some time (either from the intersection point of perpendicunsuccessfully, then read the text again per- ulars or from similar triangles). haps you misunderstood the problem. 5. Non-inertial reference system: 4. Make long and time-consuming transforma- v2 = v0 + v1 , a2 = a0 + a1 + 2R + aCor tions then, when everything else is done. BUT 6. Ballistic problem: always write down all initial expressions, what 2 2 y v0 /(2g) gx2 /2v0 . need to be transformed. 5. If the problem seems to be hopelessly di- 7. For nding fastest pathes, Fermats and Huycult, then it usually has an extremely simple solu- genss principles can be used. tion (and a simple answer). This is valid only for 8. To nd a vector, it is enough to nd its dirOlympiad problems, because they denitely have ection and a projection to a single (possibly ina solution. clined) axes. 6. In experiments a) sketch schema of the experiment; b) think, how to increase the precision IV Dynamics of the results; c) write down (as a table) all your 1. Newtons 3rd law for translational and rotadirect measurements. tional motion:

equal. They equal half of the corresponding central angle. 1. Taylors series: (n) n Conclusions: hypotenuse of a right triangle is F (x) = F (x0 ) + F (x0 )(x x0 ) /n! the diameter of circumventer; if the sum of quadSpecial case linear approximation: rangles opposite angles is a straight angle, then F (x) F (x0 ) + F (x x0 ) its apexes lie on a circumference. Applications are simpler, if x 1: 8. Taking derivatives: sin x x, cos x 1 x2 /2, ex 1 + x (f g) = f g + f g, f [g(x)] = f [g(x)]g ln(1 + x) x, (1 + x)n 1 + nx (sin x) = cos x, (cosx) = sin x x 2. Perturbation method: next and more precise (e ) = ex , (ln x) = 1/x, (xn ) = nxn1 solution is based on the previous one. (arctan x) = 1/(1 + x2 ) 3. Solutions of the linear dierential equation (arcsin x) = (arccos x) = 1/ 1 x2 with constant coecients ay + by + cy = 0 9. Integration: the formulas are the same as for can be represented as: derivation, but in reverse order (inverse operay = A exp(1 x) + B exp(2 x), tion!), e.g. where 1,2 is the solution of the so called characxn dx = xn+1 /(n + 1). teristic equation a2 + b + c = 0 if 1 = 2 . If the solution of the characteristic equation is Special case of substitution method: complex, while a, b and c are real numbers, then f (ax + b)dx = F (ax + b)/a. 1,2 = i and 10. Numerical methods y = Cex sin(x + 0 ). Newtons formula for nding functions 4. Complex numbers f (x) = 0 zero crossing points: z = a + bi = |z|ei , z = a ib = |z|ei xn+1 = xn f (xn )/f (xn ). b Trapezoidal rule: |z|2 = z z = a2 + b2 , = arg z = arcsin b |z| ba f (x)dx [f (x0 ) + 2f (x1 ) + . . . Rez = (z + z )/2, Imz = (z z )/2 2n a |z1 z2 | = |z1 ||z2 |, arg z1 z2 = arg z1 + arg z2 +2f (xn1 ) + f (xn )] ei = cos + i sin 11. Derivatives and integrals of vectors: either 2 cos = ei + ei , 2i sin = ei ei by components or (in case of derivative) geomet5. Vector and scalar products of vectors are dis- rically according to triangle rule. tributive: a(b + c) = ab + ac. Cross product is anticommutative: a b = b a. II General recommendations a b = ab cos , |a b| = ab sin . 1. Check all formulas for veracity: a) examDenition of the mixed product: ine dimensions; b) test simple special cases (e.g. (a, b, c) (a [b c]) = ([a b] c) = (b, c, a). asymptotes); c) verify the plausibility of soluIn case of double vector product: tions qualitative properties. a [b c] = b(a c) c(a b). 2. If in the problems text is an extraordinary co6. Cosine and sine laws: incidence (e.g. two things equal), then look for c2 = a2 + b2 2ab cos the solutions key there.

III Kinematics
v= dx , x = vdt (x = dt dv d2 x a= = 2, v= dt dt vx dt jne.)

F = ma, M = I

## In case of 2D geometry M and are basically

(M = r F ).

a force. 2. Newtons 3rd law: if systems state is described by one parameter , its derivative over adt time , potential energy () and kinetic energy vx 1 1 K = 2 /2, then = d()/d. Conclut = vx dx = ax dvx , x = dvx ax If a = Const., then previous integrals can be sion: force is potential energy derivative over coordinate. found easily, e.g.

## 2. Rotary motion analogy to translational

motion; e.g. = d/dt, = d/dt; a = dv/dt + nv 2 /R

2 x = v0 t + at2 /2 = (v 2 v0 )/2a.

## 3. If system consists of mass points mi :

rc = L= Iz = mi ri / mj , P = mi ri vi , K =
2 mi (x2 + yi ) = i

mi vi
2 mi vi /2

(x2 + y 2 )dm.

vectors must be replaced by linear velocities, ac- 4. In a system, which moves relative to mass center with velocity vc (index c marks system recelerations and path lengths. lated to mass center): 4. Motion of rigid body: a) projections of velo2 cities of two points on the line, which connects L = Lc + M Rc vc , K = Kc + M vc /2 the points, are equal; if one connects two points 5. Steiners theorem (b distance of point mass with a line and projects the velocities of these from rotational axis): I = Ic + mb2 .

## 3. Curvilinear motion same as point 1, but

6. Changeover from one reference system to another: P = Pc + M vc 7. For a system as a whole: F = dP /dt, M = dL/dt 8. Inertial momentum relative to mass center and z-axis can also be calculated so: Iz0 = 2 2 i,j mi mj [(xi xj ) + (yi yj ) /2M ]. 9. Inertial momentum relative to the origin of coordinates: 2 = Ix + Iy + Iz . 10. Physical pendulum: 2 (l) = g/(l + b2 /l), b2 = I/m

(l) = ( l) = g/ = l + b2 /l l l, l 11. Coecients of inertial momentum: cylinder 1/2, solid sphere 2/5, thin spherical shell 2/3, rod 1/12 (about end 1/3), square 1/6. 12. Often applicable conservation laws: energy (elastic, no friction), momentum (sum of external forces is zero; also only in the direction of one axis), angular momentum (if sum of external torques is zero, e.g. there are no external forces or their arm of force is zero; also applicable with respect to one point). 13. Non-inertial reference systems: in them acts additional inertial force ma, centrifugal force m 2 R and Coriolis force (is zero, if body is at standstill; work is zero, because it is perpendicular to velocity). 14. Tilted coordinate system: in case of an inclined plane it is often practical to choose axes along and perpendicular to the plane; gravitational acceleration has then both x- and y- components. Axes may not be perpendicular, but then are nding the components of a vector in the direction of axes and projecting the vector to V Oscillations and waves axes very dierent procedures. 15. Collision of bodies: maintained are a) total 1. Dissipated oscillator: momentum, b) total angular momentum, c) an2 x + 2 x + 0 = 0 ( < 0 ). gular momentum of each body relative to point Solution of this equation is (look I.2.): of collision immediately before and after the col2 x = x0 et sin( 0 2 t 0 ). lision (for the last body, this equation could be

deduced from previous equations [a)c)], d) total energy (for elastic collision); kinetic energy may be maintained only along one axis (elastic collision with friction). Additional equations: e) if sliding stops, then the velocities of collision planes of both impacting bodies were equal in collision point; d) if sliding does not stop, then the momentum is delivered relative to surface normal under angle arctan . 16. Every motion of rigid body can be represented as rotation around the instantaneous center of rotation (in the sense of velocity eld). NB! Distance of the point from the instantaneous center of rotation is not its radius of curvature of trajectory. 17. Tension in a string: in case of a massive string hanging, tensions horizontal component is constant and vertical changes according to the strings mass underneath. Pressure force of a string resting on a smooth surface is determined by its radius of curvature and tension: N = T /R. Analogy: surface tension pressure p = 2/R; to derive, investigate pressure force along diameter. 18. Adiabatic invariant: if parameters of a periodically moving system change very little during one period, then the area of the shape on phase plane (in p-x coordinate system) is very precisely constant (though not absolutely constant). 19. For investigating stability use a) principle of minimum potential energy or b) principle of small virtual displacement. 20. Virial theorem for nite movement: a) F |r|, then K = ; b) F |r|2 , then 2 K = .

2. Coupled oscillators general equation of motion: xi = j aij xj . 3. N coupled oscillators have N natural oscillations i (all oscillators oscillate with same frequency i , but with dierent amplitudes: xj = xj0 sin(i t + j ). General solution is superposition of all natural oscillations and contains optional constants Xi and i :

2. Snells law:
sin 1 / sin 2 = n2 /n1 = v1 /v2 .

3. If refraction index changes continuously, then we imaginarily divide the media into layers of constant n and apply Snells law. Light ray can travel along a layer of constant n, if the requirement of total internal reection is fullled, n = n/r (where r is curvature radius). xj = Xi xj0 sin(i t + j + i ) 4. If refraction index depends only on zi coordinate, then 4. If system can be described by one parameter kx , ky = Const., |k|/n = Const. and it is known, that () = 2 /2 [where 5. The thin lens equation (pay attention to = (0)] and K = 2 /2, then 2 = /. signs): 5. If in a xed point waves frequency is and 1/a + 1/b = 1/f = D. wavelength is , then phase velocity is 6. Newtons equation (binds distances of image and original from focal plane): x1 x2 = f 2 . vf = = /k. 7. Parallax method for determination of the imGroup velocity vg = d/dt. age position: nd auxiliary bodys position where 6. For linear waves (electromagnetic waves, sound and surface waves with small amplitude) it is at standstill, if viewpoint shifts relative to imarbitrary wavelet is superpositions of single si- age. nusoidal waves. Standing wave is the sum of two 8. Geometrical constructions for nding path of identical waves traveling in opposite directions. light ray through lenses: a) ray passing through center of lens does not re7. Speed of sound in gas fract; cs = (p/)adiab = p/ = v /2. b) ray parallel to optical axis (or its elongation) 8. Speed of sound in elastic material cs = passes through focus; E/. c) parallel rays converge in focal plane; 9. Dopplers eect: if cs v , then d) Image of a plane through a lens is a plane, image of a line is a line and image of a point is a = 0 v /cs . point. Line and elongations of its image converge 10. Huygens principle: wavefront can be conin lens plane. structed step by step, placing an imaginary wave source in every point of previous wave front. Res- 9. Luminous ux [unit is lumen (lm)] charults are curves separated by distance x = acterizes the intensity of light, which is percs t, where t is time step and cs is the velo- ceived by the eye, while light passes through city in given point. Waves travel perpendicular some (imaginary) surface. Luminous intensity [unit is candela (cd)] is luminous ux radiated by to wavefront. light source into solid angle: I = /. Illuminance [unit is lux (lx)] is luminous ux incident VI Geometrical optics. Photometry. upon a surface per unit area: E = /S. 1. Fermats principle: waves path from point A 10. Gauss theorem for luminous ux: if imato point B is such, that the wave travels the least ginary surface surrounds point sources of light, time. that radiate equally in every direction, then =

4 Ei ; illuminance irradiated by point source 7. Reection from optically denser dielectric of light E = I/r2 . media: phase shift . Semi-transparent thin lm 11. If a grease stain on a paper is as bright as introduces also phase shifts. the surrounding paper, then the paper is equally 8. Fabri-Perot interferometer: two parallel illuminated from both sides. semitransparent mirrors with reection index r, 1 r 1. Width of transmission spectra is 1 (1 r). Can be derived by a) adding reVII Wave optics ections, reections of reection, etc. (geomet1. Diraction general method (is based on ric progression) or b) nding amplitudes of waves Huygens principle): if obstacles divide wavefront traveling in opposite directions from limit condiinto one or more pieces of plane wave, then the tion. pieces of wavefront can be lled by imaginary 9. Coherent electromagnetic waves: electric light sources and their interference can be inelds are added; vector diagram can be used, vestigated. angle between vectors is phase shift; NB! refrac2. Two slit interference (width of the slit is tion index n = n(). a d): angles of maximum are sin max k = I nE 2 . k/d, k Z; I cos2 (d/). 3. Single slit with width d: angles of minimum 10. Malus law: for linearly polarized light I = I cos2 , where is angle between planes of poare sin min k = k/d, k Z, k = 0. Central 0 larization. maximum is twice as wide. To derive divide the slit imaginarily into halves, quarters, eighths etc.; 11. Brewsters angle: reected and refracted rays are perpendicular; reected ray is totally polook point 1. 4. Diraction grating with step d: location larized; incident angle tan B = n. of main maximums is the same as in point 2. Diraction grating is analyzed the same way 12. Newtons biprism: if diraction picture is as single slit interference. Spectral resolution to be considered, then lenses and prisms can be (waves with wavelengths and + can be neglected and only images investigated. distinguished; N is the number of slits and k 13. Fibers: Mach-Zehnder interferometer is diraction order of main maximum): analogous to a double-slit diraction; circular = /kN. resonator to Fabri-Perot interferometer; Bragg Generally, if the spectral device has optical path lters work similarly to the X-ray case. Singledierence between the shortest and longest mode bers: n/n /d. beams L, then / /L. 5. Resolution of an ideal telescope (lens): points VIII Circuits are distinguishable, if angle between them is 1. U = IR, P = U I. = 1,22/d. In case of that angle the diraction maximum of 2. Kircho s laws: the rst point overlaps with the rst minimum of I = 0, U =0 the second point. contuor node 6. Bragg theory: if distance between ion planes 3. Methods of solution: a) method of potentials; is a, then x-ray reects, if incidence angle meets b) method of contour currents; c) equivalent circuits (3-terminals: triangle, star; 2-terminal: r the restriction: 2a sin = k. and E in series).

4. Special methods: resistivity of innite circuit, resistance between neighbour nodes in innite grid. 5. Alternating current: same as direct current;
ZR = R, ZC = 1/iC, ZL = iL; P = |U ||I| cos(arg Z) = = arg Z, Ue = |Z|Ie Ii2 Ri .

## IX Electromagnetism 1. F = kq1 q2 /r2 , = kq1 q2 /r Keplers

laws are applicable (Ch. XII).

## 2. Gauss theorem: BdS = 0,

0 EdS = Q, gdS = 4GM. Bdl = I, 0 gdl = 0.

3. Circulation theorem
Edl = 0 (= ),

6. Characteristic times:
RC = RC, LR = L/R, LC

= 1/ LC.

## 4. Magnetic eld caused by current element:

dB = 0 I er dl . 4 r2

W + Q = U q,

## 5. F = e(v B + E), F = I Bl. 6. Simple conclusions of Gauss and circulation

where q is charge, which traveled through po- theorem: tential drop U ; work of electromotive force is a) charged wire E 1/r, direct current B A = Eq. 1/r, b) planar current B = Const., charged 2 2 plane E = Const.; 8. WC = CU /2, WL = LI /2. c) inside a charged sphere and inside an innite 9. E = d/dt = LdI/dt, = BS. cylindric surface E = 0, if current ows along 10. Nonlinear elements: graphical method cylindrical surface parallel to the axes, then also nd solution in U -I coordinates as a intersecB = 0, tion point of a nonlinear curve and a line represd) if charge and current volume density is unienting Ohm/Kircho laws. In case of many soluform, the eld is r ( x) for sphere, cylinder tions investigate stability some of the soluand layer. tions are usually unstable. 7. Long solenoid: inside B = In0 , out11. Approximate solving: if observable RC side 0, elsewhere B ; = N BS and or LR . Quasiequilibrium is formed either L = /I = V n2 0 . IC 0 (wire is broken near C) or EL 0 (L is short-circuited). If , then according change of 8. Measuring magnetic eld with a small coil pulsed operating mode of galvanometer: q = charge or current is small, Q Q or I I; in U R dt = N SB/R. potential of C and ow of current in L are prac9. Potential energy of system of charges: tically constant. qi qj 1 12. If L = 0, then I(t) is continuous function. = k = (r)dq, dq = (r)dV. rij 2 i>j 13. If in a superconducting contour L = Const, then according contour current I = 10. To nd force between surface parts of uniConst (more universally: magnetic ux through formly charged sphere or cylindrical surface, incontour = Const.). vestigate equivalent pressure force. 14. Mutual inductance: magnetic ux through 11. In a point located in equal distance of all a contour 1 = L1 I1 + L12 I2 (I2 current in charges (e.g. inside a sphere or on an axis of cylsecond contour). Theorem: L12 = L21 M . inder), = kQ/r.

12. To nd the charge (or potential) induced by an electric wire divide a single charge between symmetric positions: problem becomes symmetrical. 13. Conductor shields charges and electric elds, e.g. locations of charges inside a hollow sphere can not be seen from outside (it seems as were the total charge Q located on conductors surface) 14. Capacitances: C = 0S/d (plane), 40 r(sphere), 20 l(ln R/r)1 (coaxial). 15. Dipole moment: de = qi ri = lq, d = I S. 16. Energy and torque of dipole:
W = d E (B), M = d E (B). 17. Dipole eld: = kd er /r2 ; E, B r3 . 18. Forces acting on a dipole: F = (E de ) , F = (B d ) ; interaction between two dipoles: F r4 . 19. Electric and magnetic images: grounded (superconducting for magnets) planes act as mirrors. Field of a grounded or not grounded sphere can be found as a eld of ctive charge inside one or two spheres. The eld in a waveguide of rectangular cross-section can be obtained as a superposition of plane waves. 20. Spheres (cylinders) polarization in homogeneous (electric) eld: superposition of two homogeneously charged spheres (cylinders), d E. 21. Momentum of Eddy currents: p B 2 /a, where a is characteristic geometrical measure. 22. In case of fast processes inside a conductor and always inside a superconductor B = 0 and thus I = 0 (current ows in surface layer). 23. Charge in homogeneous magnetic eld: generalized momentum is constant p = mvx + Bye, p = mvy Bxe. x y Moving along cycloid with average speed v = E/B = F/eB. 24. MHD generator (a measure along the direction of E): E = vBa, r = a/bc.

25. Hysteresis: S-shaped curve in B-H- or 18. Heat ux P = kST /l (k thermal con(for coil with core) U -I-coordinates: surface sur- ductivity factor); analogy to direct current cirrounded by it is proportional to thermal loss (en- cuits (in correspondence are P and I, T and ergy dissipated in core during one period). U ). 26. Fields in substances: D = 0 E = 19. Heat capacity: Q = c(T )dT . 0 E + P , where P is dielectric polarization vec- 20. Surface tension: tor (volume density of dipole moment); H = U = S, F = l, p = 2/R. B/0 = B/0 J, where J is magnetization vector (volume density of magnetic moment). XI Quantum mechanics 27. In an interface between two substances Et , 1. p = hk (modulus is h/), E = h = h. Dn (= Et ), Ht (= Bt /) and Bn are continu2. Interference: as in wave optics. ous. 28. Energy density: W = 1 (0 E 2 +B 2 /0 ). 3. Uncertainty: 2 px , Et . h h 29. Current density j = nev = E = E/. 4. Spectra: h = En Em ; width of line and lifetime: . h X Thermodynamics 5. Oscillators (e.g. molecule) natural frequency 1. pV = m RT 0 : En = (n + 1 )h0 . If there are many natural 2 i frequencies, then E = i hni i . 2. Internal energy of one mole U = 2 RT . 3. Volume of one mole at standard conditions is 6. Tunneling eect: barrier with width l is easily penetrable, if , where = l/ /m. h 22,4 l. 1 7. Bohrs model: En 1/n2. In a circular 4. pV = Const. (and T V = Const.). orbit there are integer number of wavelengths 5. = cp /cv = (i + 2)/i. = h/mv. 6. Boltzmans distribution: gh/RT U/kT 8. Compton eect photon is scattered from = 0 e = 0 e . electron, = C (1 cos ). 7. Maxwells distribution (how many molecules 2 9. Photoeect: A + mv2 /2 = h. I-U -graph: have speed v) emv /2kT . current begins already, if U < 0, near large U 8. If p p, then p = gh. saturates. 1 2 9. p = 3 mn , v = 2kT /m, = vnS. v 4 10. Carnots cycle: 2 adiabats, 2 isotherms. = 10. Stefan-Boltzman: P = T . (T1 T2 )/T1 . Derivation in S-T -coordinates. XII Kepler laws 11. Inverse cycle: = T1 /(T1 T2 ) 1. F = M m/r2 , = M m/r. 12. Entropy: dS = dQ/T . 2. Gravitational pull of two point masses: tra13. I law of thermodynamics: U = Q + A jectory of both of them is ellipse, which center is 14. II law of thermodynamics: S 0 (and systems mass center. real Carnot ). 3. While moving in a central force eld, radius 15. Gas work (look also p. 10) vector covers equal areas in equal times. i A = pdV, adiabatic: A = (pV ) 2 4. Two planets revolution periods squares are 16. Daltons law: p = pi . as cubes of longer semiaxis: 2 2 T1 /T2 = a3 /a3 . 17. Boiling: pressure of saturated vapour is p0 . 1 2

5. Total energy of a body moving in an elliptical orbit: E = M m/2a. 6. In case of small ellipticity = d/a 1 trajectory can be considered as a circle, but focuses are shifted. 7. Properties of ellipse: l1 + l2 = 2a, 1 = 2 , S = ab. 8. Contact point of an ellipse and a circle with common focuses can only be in the end point of the longer axis. 9. Runge-Lenz vector:
= Lv + er . M m

XIII

Theory of relativity

1. Lorentz transformations (turns of 4dimensional space-time), = 1/ 1 v 2 /c2 : x = (x vt), y = y, t = (t vx/c2 ) p = (px mv), m = (m px v/c2 ) x 2. Length of 4-dimensional vector: s2 = c2 t2 x2 y 2 z 2 m2 c2 = m2 c2 p2 p2 p2 0 x y z 3. Adding velocities: w = (u + v)/(1 + uv/c2 ). 4. Doppler eect:
= 0 (1 v/c)/(1 + v/c).

5. Space turns: tanh = v/c; sinh, cosh, tanh instead of sin, cos, tan. Property: cosh2 sinh2 = 1. 6. Shortening of length: l = l0 /. 7. Lengthening of time: t = t0 . 8. Simultaneity is relative. 9. F = d(mv)/dt, where m = m0 . 10. Ultrarelativistic approximation: v c, p mc, 1 v 2 /c2 2(1 v/c).
Corrections/suggestions kalda@ioc.ee. Composed by J. Kalda, translated by U. Visk visk@ut.ee.