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Tools f or Child Rights Based Progr amme Managem ent

Content :

I. Introduction
Child Rights Pr ogr amming

II. Child Rights Progr amme M anagement and Child Rights

Programm ing Tools
What ar e Tools and their us efulness?
Who are the tools for ?

IV. Steps in Child Rights Programm e Cycle M anagement

Organis ation Framew ork for Pr ogr amme Dev elopment

IV.A. Child Rights Based Situation Analysis

I. Introduction
Save the Children s upports pr ogramme w ith childr en’s or ganisations, NGOs,
gov ernment agencies and civ il s oc iety or ganisation to fulfil, promote and
protect childr en’s r ig hts and to enable childr en to claim their CRC entitlement.
At the same time Sav e the Children is increas in gly w ork from a non-
discr imination approaching aiming to reach all childr en by w orking w ith key
play ers, thereby strengthening a constituency of actors concer ned on child
right. A more str uctured approach to fulfil this objective has been intr oduc ed
that is called child rights progr amming. The overall goal of Child Rights
Programming is to impr ove the position of c hildren s o that all gir ls and boy
can fully enjoy their r ights , and to build s oc ieties that ac know ledge and
respect childr en’s rights . Chil d Rights progr amming aims to enable users to
incor por ate c hild r ights into pr ogramme management at projects and policy

This set of material is developed w ith the objective to offer programme s taff,
and managers an easy to use guide to apply child rights pr inciples in the w ork
they ar e doing – be it new situation analysis, programme or pr ojec t des ign,
strategic planning, pr ogramme development, management, monitoring, and

Programm e and Project Cycle M anagement

The Progr amme Cyc le: The pr ocess in w hic h programme including pr ojects
are gener ally planned and implemented follow s series of steps s tar ting w ithin
the framew ork of organisational programme str ategy, leading on to
identif ication of key iss ues through a s it uation analys is to formulation of
project idea, strategis in g, implementation, and monit or in g and evaluation for
assess ing impact and pr oviding valuable learning for futur e w ork.

A pr ogr amme is a planned interv ention guided by a str ategic dir ection to
achieve a set of objec tiv es. It is a less specified and commonly more
compr ehensive long ter m and/or div erse intervention. A programme is often
compr is ed of sev eral projects. Pr ogrammes may be thematic/sector s pecific
or multi sec tor al in natur e.

A project is a set of activities guided by an over all goal limited in time and
spac e. A planned intervention for ac hieving one or mor e objectives
enc ompass ing a set of interrelated activities, w hich ar e undertaken during a
limited per io d of time using s pec ified human, financial and phys ical
resourc es.1

Dale (2003), Org anisation Dev elop ment, SA GE

Programme Cyc le Management has been us ed as a tool by many
dev elo pment agencies for over a dec ade now . The objec tive of the PCM is to
impr ov e the management of progr ammes and pr ojects by focussing on key
aspects thr oughout the life of a pr oject or pr ogramme. It pr ovides a broader
framew ork for management of multif ac eted pr ojec ts along r ights bas ed
thematic , strategic, and cross cutting iss ues of an organis ation’s policy s uch
as child labour, quality educ ation, child rights, gender, violenc e against
children, sustainability, accountability, etc . Follow ing a c omprehens ive PCM
appr oac h helps addr ess these iss ues at r elevant stages of the
project/programme life. The PCM approach has been sinc e its start w idened
to focus on specific sec tor progr ammes and combined w ith other approaches.
One such attempt has been made in Sav e the Children to combine the
achievement of children’s rights w ith its progr amme. This new appr oach is
being termed as child rights pr ogr amming. Child Rights Programming ( CRP)
helps streamline the achievement of child r ights in a mor e str uctur ed manner
in its progr amme and policy w ork.

“Child Ri ghts Pr ogrammi ng means using the princi ples of child ri ghts to plan,
manage, implem ent and monitor programmes with the overall goal of
strengthening the rights of the c hild as defined in inter national l aw.”

On a functional level Child Rights bas ed PCM enables to progr amme s taff to
make impr ovements for proper des ign/feasibility studies, prior it is ing, goal
setting, monitoring and evaluation and make informed dec isions at key stages
in the pr epar ation and implementation of projects and pr ogrammes. It entails
active participation of primary stakeholders (and other target gr oups,
beneficiar ies, loc al institutions and dec ision makers) thr oughout the pr ojec t or
programme cycles .

The key Child Rights Programme Cycle Management inc lude a situation
analysis from r ig hts pers pec tiv e; SWOC analys is, s etting str ategic directions,
dev elo ping goals, str ategies and objectives that address child rights;
programme planning and activities, implementation and monitoring from a
rights perspective and finally ev aluation. These stages are discussed in detail
further in this doc ument.

Why choose a Right-Ba sed Approa ch?

The last decade has seen a grow ing inter est in ens ur ing that the w ork of
gov ernments, the UN, donors, companies and NGOs enc ourage the
realisation of human rights – including of cours e the human rights of chil dr en
– in their pr ogr ammes and action.

A number of impor tant donor countries and UN agencies have begun to

debate how best to foc us their aid and dev elopment ass istanc e in order to
achieve the gr eatest impac t on the fulfilment of human r ights . Organis ations
adopt rights-based approac hes to pr ogramming for tw o good reas ons : firstly
Child Rights Programming: Ho w to Apply Rights-Bas ed App roaches in Programming: A Handbook
fo r Int ernational Save the Children Alliance Memb ers . Save the Children.
European Co mmission – Europ e Aid Manu al Project Cycle Manag ement, March 2001 .

they believ e that it is mor ally right and secondly , because they think it br ings a
number of benefits to tr aditional appr oaches to w ork. These benefits inc lude:
• Providing a long- ter m goal to w hic h all w ork is dir ected and a set of
standar ds to measur e pr ogr ess tow ards this goal.

• A goal and standar ds ar e clearly set out in an inter national legal

framew ork that is shared by gov ernments, donors and c ivil soc ie ty.

• Identif ying the r espons ibilities of gover nments , donors, pr ivate s ector,
communities and individuals to bind them to ac tion – as w ell as w ays in
which they can be held acc ountable.

• Incorpor ating w hat is w idely regar ded as “good dev elopment practic e” (i.e.
a focus on par tic ipation, equity, sustainability, non-discrimination, pov erty
eradication and mutli-sec tor al w orking) into one over all holistic approach.

Child Rights Progr amm ing

Using r ig hts framew ork for claiming one’s entitlements is not a new
phenomenon in human history. Many ex amples c an be found in the his tory
where people hav e challenged pow er centers to claim their rights. How ever in
recent times the human rights framew ork of UN has provided people of this
world w ith a legitimate and systematic appr oac h to claim their rights . More
recently many development agencies hav e been adopting a rights bas ed
appr oac h to their pr ogramming- merging human r ights principles w ith good
dev elo pment practic es. Save the Children is among these – but w ith a str ong
focus on c hildr en’s r ights. In the past few years a good pr ogr ess has been
made to pr omote us e of CRC prov isions in all programmes. Some of the key
strategies adopted include c apac ity development on Child Rights
Programming ( CRP), and tools development on CRP.

Child Rights Progr amm ing: t he Principles
The goal of Child Rights Progr amming is to impr ove the position of c hildr en so
that all boys and gir ls c an fully enjoy their r ights, and to build soc ieties that
acknow ledge and r espect childr en’s r ights . The meaning of child rights
programming c an be dr aw n from the definitions adopted for thr ee w ords:

Child – ev ery boy and girl under the age of eighteen y ears of age (unless by
law major ity is obtained at an earlier age).
Rights – defined as inter national human r ig hts law applic able to childr en, s et
out primar ily in the Conv ention on the Rights of the Child.
Programming – planning, implementatio n, monitor ing and management of a
set of ac tiv ities tow ards a defined goal.

Child Rights Programming Handbook, International Save the Children Alliance, 200??????

Child Rights Progr amming means using the Pri nciples of Child Ri ghts to Plan,
Manage, Impl ement and Monitor pr ogrammes with the Overall goal of
strengthening the rights of the Child as defined i n Inter national Law.”

Child Rights Pr ogr amming is a framew ork and appr oac h for analys is,
planning, implementation, monitor ing and evaluation. CRP brings together a
range of ideas , concepts and ex per iences related to both to child rights and to
child development w ithin one unifying framew ork. It is based both on the
princ ip les and international legal standar ds of child r ig hts (the CRC) , and also
of chil dhood s tudies. CRP v iew s the child in a holis tic w ay and c ons iders all of
her /his dev elopmental needs. This means dev eloping a c lear understanding
about the cultur al contexts in w hich boys and gir ls are gr ow ing up s o that
appr opr iate str ategies and methods on how to implement a rights pers pective
can be dev eloped. In or der to pr omote change, w e have to understand w hy
people think and act in a s pec ific w ay. Central to Child Rights Programming
appr oac h is that the r ights of the c hild ar e integral to all as pects of

In Sum mary the key CRP Principles are:

• The follow ing principles underpin all w ork on Child Rights Programming:
• The principle of the indiv isibility of r ights
• The principle of the univ ers ality of r ights

The four general princ iples of the Convention on the Rights of the Child:
• The right not be discriminated against
• The bes t inter ests of the child
• The right to surviv al and development
• The right to be heard

• The principle of chil dr en as holders of rights

• The principle of duty- bearers

Child Rights Progr amm ing Principles Elaborated:

Universalit y: Rights are not applied differently for people of dif ferent c ult ures
or tr aditions. They ar e held equally by all people w herever they live in the
world, and w hatev er their circumstances . Non-discr imination is at the heart of
the c onc ept of human rights.

Accountabilit y: When States r atify human rights instr uments, they become
accountable to all citiz ens, inc luding children, and to the in ternational
community. Chil dr en ar e rec ognized as holders of r ig hts. States ar e pr imary
duty-bearers. This means that they hav e to ensure that the CRC is
implemented for all children living w ithin their c ountry. The State should:
Res pect the rights of the child by putting adequate legislation in place; Protect
the rights of the child from being v iolated by a third party; and Fulfill the rights
of the c hild by takin g appropr iate and effective meas ures (this c ould include
measur es s uch as aw areness r ais ing) .

Indivisibility: Human rights ar e indiv isible, interdependent and interr ela ted.
No one group of rights is mor e important than another . It’s vital to take a
holistic approach to all the interrelated rights of children. The appr oach s hould
therefor e be multi-dimensional and cross-sec tor al. A lt hough all rights are
equally impor tant, resources are limited so pr iorities alw ays have to be made.

Participation: Human rights establish the r ight of the individual to par ticipate
in politic al and cultur al life. Everybody is entitled to par tic ipate, contr ibute and
enjoy development. Children’s participation is a goal in itself. Boys and girls
hav e the right to par tic ipate and to be inv olv ed in dec isions that have an
impact on their lives. Children and families ther efor e need to be informed
about their rights and to be pr ovided w ith opportunities to express their view s.
Children are recogniz ed as soc ial actors both in their ow n lives and in society.

The Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC)

All human rights conventions apply to children, but it w as recognized that
children need a separate c onv ention, sinc e they need additional attention and
protection. The CRC emphasiz es that childr en are holders of rights. It c overs
all aspects of children’s lives. It is legally binding and has been ratified by 191
countr ies.

States that hav e r atified the CRC are c ommitted to taking the necess ary legal,
adminis trative and other meas ures in order to implement the CRC. This could
mean c hanging legislation, tr aining civ il serv ants, setting up monitor ing
mechanisms, or the elabor ation new policies and pr actices.

The CRC inc orporates the w hole spectrum of human rights – civil, political,
economic, soc ial and cultur al – and sets out the specific w ays that these
should be made available to boys and gir ls. It applies to all children and young
people under age of 18.

The pr eamble of the CRC states: “Taking due acc ount of the importance of
the traditions and cultur al v alues of each people for pr otection and
har monious development of the child ...”

The Conv ention on the Rights of the Child builds on four gener al princ iples,
which for m the umbr ella pr ov isions of the CRC and are important for the
over all framew ork of the CRC:

Non- discriminat ion (Article 2) All rights apply to all childr en (gir ls and boys:
age, class, caste, HIV/A IDs status, r eligion, region, childr en w ith disabilities,
sexual prefer ence, etc.) w ithout exc eption. It is the State’s obligation to protect
children from any for m of discrimination and to take pos it ive action to pr omote
their rights. Discr imination c an be pr acticed by gov ernments thems elves, by
adults against childr en, by one community against another, by one group of
children against another. It can res ult from ac tive dir ect and deliberate
actions, or it can happen unconsciously through insens itivity, ignorance or
indifferenc e. Discr imination can take place thr ough legislation, institutio nalis ed
attitudes , media and gover nments action or inac tion.

This ar ticle addr esses the discr imination of all childr en, but it als o r ecognises
that many childr en face further discr imination as a result of their par tic ular
circums tances or status , and it plac es obligations on gover nments to take
active measur es to pr event such discrimination. As a principle of the
Convention, non-discriminatio n is r elev ant to all Articles, inc luding those
relating to health, educ ation, s tandar d of living or protection of v ulnerable
groups of children. Gov er nments are obliged to take meas ures to address
discr imination.

The gender perspective: Gender refers to s oc ial and cultural interpretations

of biologic al sex, of w hat is cons ider ed to be “female” and “ male” in a giv en
cultural setting; and of the r oles and relations betw een these s exes . Gender
for ms a c entral par t of pers onal identity. View s and values about gender in
any giv en soc ie ty ar e inter nalised and these, in turn, shape perceptions,
attitudes , behaviours and dec isions later in life. Although other s oc ial and
political fac tors such as status, c lass, ethnic identity, religion and dis ability,
also affect childr en’s oppor tunities and life conditions , gender c uts acr oss all
these factors and must be inc luded in any analysis or planning for childr en’s
futur es. A n important as pec t of gender is the pow er relationship that
subordinates females in a low er status than males

Best Interests of the Child (Artic le 3): A ll actions concer ning the child shall
be in his or her best inter ests. The best inter est of the child is a major building
bloc k in the philosophy of the CRC. It reflects a fundamental aspect of the
CRC: the contradiction betw een the v ulnerable and the c ompetent child.
“Best inter ests” c overs all dec isions affecting boys and girls . In any action
involving childr en, their bes t inter ests should be a primary consider ation. This
means ac tions taken by the state, by the authorities and by relevant private
institutions. Pr ocedures must be developed to ensur e gover nments and
dec ision-making bodies consider the inter ests of the child befor e taking
dec isions that affect him or her .

“Best interest” w ill not normally be the only c onsideration w hen dec isions are
made w hich affect children but it should be among the first aspects to be
cons ider ed and should be given c ons ider able w eight in all decis ions affecting
girls and boys . It is als o impor tant to include the principle of participation in
deter mining w hat the best inter est of the child might be.

The Child’s Rights to Survival and Developm ent (Article 6) Ev ery child has
the right to life. The State has an obligation to ens ure the child’s surviv al and
dev elo pment. A basic concept of the CRC is that childr en carry w ithin
themselves the potential for their ow n dev elopment. This Article states that all
children should be allow ed and supported to develop to their full potential. It
recogniz es that c hildren, especially young ones, ar e v ulner able and need
spec ial pr otection and suppor t. They must be kept from har ming thems elv es,
but they must als o have the optio ns, both phys ically and s oc ially, to be active
in their ow n physical and s ocial development: to play explor e and interact; to
think for themselv es and have their view s recognized.

The conc ept of the developing capacities of the c hild is one of the key
features of Article 6. This means that the age and maturity of the child s hould
be taken into c onsideration w hen determining the scope of self -determination
and freedom of the c hild.

Participation (Article 12) : Gir ls and boys hav e the r ig ht to be involv ed in

dec isions affecting them. Article 12 places an obligation on gov er nments to
ens ure that gir ls ’ and boys’ v iew s are s ought and cons ider ed in all matters
that affect their liv es. Children of any age s hould be allow ed to expr ess their
view s and in w ays w ith w hich they ar e comf ortable.

Appr oaches adopted in pr ogramming to make a reality of child rights by

ens uring that all c hildren ar e able to realize their rights is w hat is ter med as
child rights bas ed approach.

Concept of Duty- Be arers and Rights-Holders

This c onc ept of duty-bearers and r ights-holders c an be r epr esented by a

diagram. The principle of non-discr imination is the hear t of w ork on c hild rights
programming. Through a rights bas ed programme r ights holders (gir ls and
boys: age, class, cas te, HIV/A IDs status , religion, region, children wit h dis abilities,
sexual pr eferenc e, etc .) can be empow ered and duty-bear ers made
accountable to fulfil their respons ibilities to addr ess and combat all for ms of
discr imination.

R I G H T - R E S P O N S I B IL I T Y – C L A IM SC has put
spec ial
emphasis on
c Du ty b e are r a thr ee
c R es p ec t s , p r o t ec t s r underpinning
a nd f u l f i ls r i ght s
o t
u i CRP
n F ulfils C laim s c principles:
t N ON - i
r e s p ons ib ilit y r igh t
a DI S CR I M I N p accountabilit
t ow ar d s fr o m
b A T IO N & a
y, child
i EQ U A L I T Y t
l i par tic ipation
i o
t R ig ht h o ld e r n and non-
y discriminatio
n, w hich are
als o seen as
important princ ip les for organis ational dev elopment as pec ts. These pr inciples
are alw ays reflec ted and emphasised dur ing CRP w orkshops and in CRP
tools . Further mor e, these are also the under lying princ iples for mos t rights
bas ed organis ations , but often addr essed only from an “ adult” perspectiv e.

While w orking w ith child partic ipation it is important to ensur e participation of

all children, w hich through a non- discr imination lens w ould mean gir ls and
boys c oming from var ious bac kgr ounds: age, s ex, c lass, cas t, religion, sex ual
preference, HIV/A IDS status, etc. It also implies pr omoting the values of

diversity w ithin gr oups of c hil dr en and ensur ing that SC does not per petuate
discr imination thr ough its interventions, but c hallenge pow er relations and
promotes equality /equity. Similarly , pr omoting c hildren’s participation w ithout
strengthening accountability of governments and civil society for protecting,
fulfilling, fac ilitating and promoting child r ights w ill not bring about sustainable
changes in childr en’s liv es. It is therefore important that SC interv entions does
not only pr omotes children’s partic ipation in dec ision making but als o ensures
that these decisions ar e tr ans lated into concrete actions. ( E.g. for example
that NPAs for c hildren ar e implemented and that monitoring mec hanism are in
plac e.)

Adult’s r es istance tow ards children’s participation is often the most impor tant
hinder ing factor in promoting children’s par tic ipation. Gover nment officials,
family and community members need to be sensitised on the values of
children’s par ticipation and on non- discrimination in or der to empow er chil dr en
and pr omote a cultur e, w hich r espects all childr en’s r ights.

Wor k on non- discr imination w ill mean that SC w ill hav e to develop s truc tur es,
mechanisms and approaches, w hich promote participation of all c hildren. In
prac tic al ter ms it w ould mean to develop, not only child friendly mater ial, but a
step beyond that, to develop material and information for c hildren w ho are
blind, w ho us e s ign language and thos e w ho do not read and w rite. It w ill
mean that extr a efforts needs to be made to reac h girls and boys w ho are
often not reached by NGOs and to use mobilis ing and empow ering
techniques w hich enable all children to participate. This w ill require an
incr ease in budgets and creating partnership w ith or ganisations that
spec ialise in such fields. It is impor tant to adv oc ate gov er nments to make their
policies and progr ammes not only gender sens itive, but also sensitive to the
needs and realities of children from v ar ious bac kgrounds . Gover nments and
NGOs als o need to dev elop indic ators and monit or ing systems that ar e able
to measur e diversity and inclus ion. A ll forms of discriminatory pr actices
should be view ed from a gender lens . In most societies ar e girls more
discr iminated bec ause of their sex , for example a mentally challenged girls
from a low er cast family in the most rur al distr ict in India ar e likely to face
multiple for ms of discrimination.

Very often, thr oughout the r egion, c hildren hav e been c ons ult ed for var ious
UN proc esses , but ther e has not been deliberates efforts to inc lude gir ls and
boys from all bac kgr ounds and to use methods to make ev ery body speak out.
(For ex ample us ing s ig n language for deaf children, having separ ate groups
of girls and boys as times) SC members hav e seld om ac ted on childr en’s
agendas w hen developing their str ategies and pr ogramme interventions and
they have not made enough conscious efforts to follow up and lobbying the
gov ernment to act on children’s agendas.

Wor king from a CRP perspectiv e implies addressing both immediate and root
caus es of rights viola tions. Root c aus es suc h as pow er structures and
patriarc hal values needs to be addressed. For example, w orking against child
sexual abuse and exploitation implies address ing sensitive iss ues such as
male s exual behaviour. A c entr al part of any situation analys is is therefor e to

acquire as much infor mation as poss ible of perc eptions, values attitudes and
behaviour and how thes e v alues are tr ansfor med into struc tures and
mechanisms for the perpetuation of inequalities . It also requires infor mation
on c hanges that has/are taking place in the soc iety – w hy has changes taken
plac e, how have they taken place, w ho w ere the c hange and w ho w here the
opponent to c hange, etc . Pow er structur es has to be addressed both from a
community bas ed (bottom up) approac h as w ell as from a top dow n approach
(legislation and its implementation, c ustomary law s, etc.) Empow erment of
those w ho fac e discrimination through participatory methodologies is crucial in
the pr ocess. Pow er relations hav e to be addr essed from a multi-s ectoral
appr oac h address ing pover ty, discr imination and perceptions of childhood
simultaneously .

CRP als o implies that organis ations and pr ogrammes need to be addr ess ed
simultaneously in or der to hav e a holistic appr oach. E.g. w hile address ing
non- discrimination in progr ammes it is also centr al to address it w ithin our
ow n or ganisations, e.g. how diverse is our w orkforc e. How many men and
women from v arious bac kgrounds do w e have at management, pr ogramme,
and suppor t staff level? What are the attitudes tow ards gender and divers ity
among staff? How do staff members related w ith each other ? Do the
organis ations have s truc tur es in plac e to deal w ith sex ual har ass ment? Is the
office acc essible for adults and childr en w ith disabilities ? Does the
organis ation have a gender and div ers ity policy and action plan?

Children’s participation is also clos ely related to partic ipation w ithin our ow n
organis ations . E.g. How partic ipatory are our dec ision-making mec hanisms?
How are men and w omen from var ious backgr ounds empow ered to speak up
dur ing meetings? Ar e there informal decis ion- making mec hanisms in place? If
yes, w ho benefits from these mechanis ms ? Child pr otection iss ues w ithin
organis ations are another centr al aspect of CRP. E.g. does the organisation
hav e a child protection policy? Is it implemented? How child friendly ar e the
office building and the staff members, etc?

Applying a Child Rights-Based Approach

Save the Children w orks for the implementation of the CRC through a number
of programmes w orldw ide. Child Rights Pr ogramming is the appr oach that w ill
enable Save the Chil dr en or ganisations to plan, implement, monitor and
evaluate their progr ammes from a child rights perspectiv e and to ensur e that
the r ights of the c hild are str engthened.

• Applying a r ights-bas ed approach to pr ogr amming means:

• Putting childr en at the center, rec ognizing them as rights-holders and
social actors.
• Rec ognising gov ernments as primary duty- bearers acc ountable to their
citizens – including c hildren – and the international community.
• Rec ognising par ents and families as primary caregivers, pr otectors and
guides – and s upporting them in these roles.
• Giv ing prior ity to c hildren and a child friendly environment.
• Being gender sensitive and seeking inclus ive s olutions that involves a
focus on boys and girls w ho are at risk and discriminated against.

• Addr ess in g unequal pow er structures (class, s ex, ethnicity, age, etc).
• Holding a holistic vision of the r ights of the child w hile making str ategic
choices and taking spec ific actions.
• Setting goals in terms of fulf ilm ent of rights.
• Aiming for sustainable r esults for c hildren by focusing on not only on the
immediate but als o the root causes of problem s.
• Using participatory and em pow ering approaches.
• Building partnerships and alliances to promote the r ights of the child.
• Counting on international cooperation
• A focus on those w ho are mos t at r isk and discr iminated against.
• Taking a holistic perspectiv e that r equires a multi-sectoral response.
• Providing a long-ter m goal that is c lear ly set out in international legal
fram ew orks that are shared by governments, donors and civ il society.
• Encour aging reform s including legal ones, like establis hing r egular
monitor ing mechanis ms, cr eating possibility of s ustainable change.

All of abov e may have implic ations for the str uctures and mec hanis ms for
Save the Children and its partner or ganisations. To begin w ith it r equires a
willingness on part of management to see the changes in the pr ogr amme. It
requires s trengthening c apacity and inter nalisation of principles of
par ticipation and non- discr imination at all lev els w ithin or ganisations. In
additio n to changes in the organiz ational struc tures and mec hanis ms, at the
same time it requires development competenc ies in the area of child rights,
and natio nal and inter national pr oc edur es in addressing them. Save the
Children or ganis atio ns across the globe hav e a c lear ly s pelled out focus on
fulfilling the c ommitment to protec tion and promotion of child rights pr ovided
under the UNCRC. Mos t of the global and country policy framew orks w ithin
Save the Childr en prov ide a sound platform for assimilating c hild rights
programming bas ed appr oac hes.

III. Child R ights Programming Tools
• What ar e Tools and their us efulness?
• Who are the tools for ?

The tools are intended for the us e of the progr amme staff and managers of
Save the Childr en, their partner organis ations and other agenc ies in
implementing pr ogramme activities to addr ess child r ights issues. The tools
prov ide an easy s tep- by-step guide to adopt Child r ights Principles at var ious
stages of programme planning, implementation and impact assessment. It
can als o be us ed as a guide for developing a country situation analys is and
strategy as w ell as for project and progr am rev iew . The tools enable users to
ens ure that key pr inc iples of CRP are applied to pr ogramme cycle stages in a
cons istent manner.

The tools can also be applied to the thematic analys is, to ens ure that the
strategies and interv entions env isaged ar e rights based and can be monitor ed
from a CR perspectiv e. IN the c as e of thematic w ork it w ould be requir ed that
the theme being addressed and CRC prov isions related to that par tic ular
thematic area ar e foc used upon dur ing all the s tages of project cycle

CRP pr ofess ionals need to us e var ious pr ocess es and methodologies for
CRP integration. Thes e may include training, w orkshop, meetings and
coac hing. Perhaps the most v ital has been the coaching proc ess es, w hich
can be us ed by individual progr amme person for building capac ity of partner
organis ations / dir ectly implemented projects for integr ating CRP princ iple in
their ongoing and future w ork. This inv olv es a long- term v ision and

“ Coaching for CRP is an ongoing partnership that enables in dividual/ group to

produce/ fulfilling r esults in their personal/pr ofessional liv es. Through the
proc ess of coaching individuals / group deepens their learning, impr ov e their
performance and enhance quality of progr ammes that have integr ated the
core princ iple of child participation, non- discrimination and acc ountability in
their pr ogramme and or ganisations ”.

“ Coaching is about enabling people to cr eate change through learning,

par ticipating and empow ering. It is about people doing mor e, being mor e,
receiving more and above all contr ibuting more. It is about s upporting people
and to get people from w here they ar e to w here w ant to go”

Lena Karlsson and Ravi Karkara, CRP in South Asia Draft Paper presented at the Global Meeting on

Step by step guide to use of CRPCM kit

IV. Child Rights Progr amm e Cycle M anagement

There are five broad steps in implementation or management of a progr amme

that pr otects and pr omotes child rights and pr events r ights v iolation, starting
from situation analys is to assessing the impact the programme has had on the
lives of the childr en.

Situ ation
Analysis Rights b ased
Ev al uation goal s, strategy
and objectiv es


Programm e
Pl anning and
M onitoring Activities


As show n abov e the CRP princ iple needs to be integrated at all stages of
programming. For ex ample w hen c arry in g out a r ights bas ed s ituational
analysis then c hildren should be inv olved either dir ectly thr ough a consultative
proc ess or thr ough s econdary r eview with childr en on pr iorities laid by them
through ear lier consultations and pr ocess es. It is important to ens ure that all
children (girls and boys: age, class, caste, HIV/A IDs status, r eligion, region,
children w ith disabilities , sexual prefer ence, etc.) voices are included in the
proc ess. All duty bear ers commitment, both policy and financ ial commitment
are ass ess ed

Rat ionale and overview of the M odule:

IV.A. Child Rights Based Situation Analysis

The first module c overs how to conduct a child r ights bases situation analys is,
with concrete tools for analys ing immediate and underly ing causes of rights
violation, for conduc ting gender and pow er analysis and for duty bearer
analysis , etc.

IV.B Strategic Planning,

The second module covers tools for strategic planning, including SWOC
analysis , tools for ass ess in g project proposals and for or ganis ational
assess ments as w ell as tools for setting objectives, identifying activ it ies and
dev elo ping w ork-plans.

IV.C. Implem entation of Activit ies and monitoring

The third module inc ludes tools and how to implement activ it ies as w ell as
tools on child r ights bas ed monitor ing and management,

IV.D. Evaluation
The las t module inc ludes tools on child rights based evaluation, w ith a focus
on 6 dimensions of c hange.

The four modules ar e interlinked and there is a clear reference betw een the
various modules.

IV. A.Child Rights Based Situation A nalysis
Intr oduc tion:

A comprehens ive situation analys is or assess ment at the v ery begin ning of
the programme/pr oject formulation is the best w ay to ens ure that progr amme
and policies ar e r elev ant to the liv es of the c hildren and are likely to achieve
the desired impac t. It involves c ollectin g relev ant information to be able to
make a realistic assess ment of w hat needs to be done in order to improve the
lives of childr en. It is the ess ential first step tow ards establishing pr iorities and
making appropriate c hoices – w hether in an emergency or in more stable
situations. A situation analysis cr eates the basis for assess ing progress and
evaluating the long- term impac t of an intervention. Depending upon the need
the situation analysis c an be live pr ocess w here by infor matio n is gather ed
and analysed from a rights pers pective on a r egular basis. At times s uch
updates could res ult in alter ing the pr ogr amme appr oach in order to make the
programme more relevant to the lives of children. At a br oader level
understanding the s ituation of childr en’s rights in a country is not a one- off
proc ess. It should be built up over time.

A child rights based approach to situation analys is involves mapping of the

rights v iolations. It als o includes an analysis of both immediate and underly ing
caus es of the violations of children’s rights. Legislation and its implementation
as w ell as cultural practic es and attitudes should be analysed. In this process,
the view s of the child should be respec ted and given due impor tance. Duty-
bear ers and other main ac tors and s pec ific iss ues related to them s hould be
identif ied. A c hild rights situation analys is ess entially looks at the situation
through the r ights lenses, w ith a clear focus that c hildren s hould be able to
claim their rights entitlements prov id ed to them in international and national
law s and that duty bear ers are acc ountable to fulf il these r ights. The situation
analysis in conducted through a non-discr imination lens, inc luding
disaggr egated statis tics and information.

Incr eas ingly ther e has been a c lear and str ong focus on girl and boys
par ticipation in the pr oject and policy lev el. It’s important to ens ure childr en’s
par ticipation – not just in mere c ons ultation but als o pr oviding them w ith
opportunity for making infor med decis ions. Infor med decis ion- making includes
not just pr esenting a “ menu” of av ailable oppor tunities but presenting to
children the analysis of social and economic reality, pow er dynamics, iss ues
related to r esources etc to enable them to dev elop a broader and
compr ehensive v iew of their situation. Impor tantly pers pectives matter: In
rights based s it uation analysis it is important to v iew girls and boys (from
various backgrounds) as c itizens and as holders of rights and not just as
recipie nts of development benefits and to make sure that all c hildren have an
equal say.

Child rights based situation analysis

There is no bluepr int or a set patter n for conducting a child r ig hts bas ed
situation analysis, given the v ast v ariation in the c ircums tanc es in w hich
programmes are implemented. Some of the iss ues to be cover ed are
highlighted below but it must be kept in mind that a good s ituatio n analysis
must have a cr eative dimension, addr essing the needs of the complex soc ial
reality in w hich the programme is situated. The CRP principles needs to be
integrated and reflec ted in the analysis .

It’s the first step of the pr ocess w here the ex isting s ituation is analys ed at
macro and micro level to develop a v ision of the prospective desired situation
and to selec t the s trategies that w ill be applied to ac hieve it . The key
objective her e is to address c hild rights violation and denial issues both at
programme and policy levels. Follow ing tools and steps ar e useful for
conducting a s ituation analysis:

1. Infor matio n collation and analysis that w ill include looking at a) v ariety
of sourc es of infor mation for child rights v iolations from the pers pective
of issues such as soc ial, economic al, political, c ultur al c ontext – v alues,
prac tic es and perceptions, legal and policy framew ork, Budgetary,
adminis trative and struc tur al as pec ts etc. This w ould als o include
infor mation and insight gained through childr en’s partic ipation inc luding
any r ecommendation that they might have. Follow it up w ith analysis of
spec ific rights that have been violated in s pec ific circ umstanc es.

2. A nalysis of Causes- Immediate and root c auses analys is

An analysi s of cau ses of right s violations will include both im mediate and root
cau ses. The analysi s will also include a gender and powe r analysi s, since
underlying cau ses are clo sely related to power relation s. The im mediate and root
cau se analysi s once com pleted will pre sent a com preh en sive picture of cau sal
facto rs which should be key fa cto rs to info rm the interve ntion s.

3. Res pons ibility analys is. In or der to identify and s elect key duty bearer(s) an
objective assess ment of the duty bear ers needs to be done in relation to they
level of impac t they hav e on childr en’s situation. The other as pec ts w hich
could also be considered w hile selecting the duty bearers could be: w hat
added v alue they w ill hav e on the overall childr en’s situation; c ost implic ations
of their inv olvement (not vital if benefits are more); their (duty bearers)
commitments ; and possible obstac les w hic h may aris e due to their
involvement in the project.

Europe Aid, European Union


O rganisational Priority Areas

And Strategy

Social, economical, cultural Cultural context: values, Legal framework and the
and political situation practices, and perceptions political system/policies

Child Rights Violati on Analysis

Informati on coll ati on and i ts analysis incl udi ng
Children’s c onsul tations, Budgetary/Ad ministrative /
Struc tural Analysis

Causali ty Analysis : Immediate and Underli ne

Power and Ge nde r Anal ysis

Re sponsibility Analysis: Duty Be are rs & stakeholde r Analysis



Information collation and analysis

A. Variety of sourc es of infor mation for c hild rights violations from the
pers pective of issues s uc h as s oc ial, economical, political, cultural
contex t – v alues, pr actic es and perceptions, legal and policy
framew ork, Budgetary , adminis trative and str uctural as pec ts etc.
B. Infor matio n and insight gained thr ough childr en’s partic ipation inc luding
any rec ommendation that they might have
C. Analys is of specific rights v iolation in s pecific circ umstances.

A) Sources of Information

Infor matio n about childr en’s situation in a given geogr aphic al or soc ial context
can be acc ess ed from a range of sourc es. This c ould be both in the form of
quantitative and qualitative infor mation, r ecent or older information; in pictor ial
or w ritten for m; from divers e sources suc h as res earch institutions,
gov ernment r eports, statistic al departments, donor r epor ts, civil s ociety
reports , NG O r eports etc. Its important to be careful about the v alidity of the
infor mation and to know if there hav e been any objections, es pec ially from
gov ernanc e institutions about the authentic ity of infor mation. Its impor tant to
scrutin is e media r eports carefully as they might have sens ational
char acteristic. How ever at times they may be the only source of infor mation
on c ertain ev ents or facts. Many a times infor mation may be scattered in
several documents. In s uc h cases its important that its pieced together to
dev elo p a c omprehensiv e pictur e.

Its important to determine the level of situation analys is and hence the
sources of information. For ev ery macr o contex t its impor tant to understand
the reality at the micro lev el and vis a vers a. At times for the dis tric t level
situation analysis information from a global source may or may not be very
relev ant, the managers hav e to us e their discretion in judging the relevanc e of
sources of information to their par ticular c ontext. For instanc e for higher level
of rights based analysis, such as country rev iew s of childr en’s r ights as a
whole, the best starting point and a bas e should be documentation from UN
Committee on the Rights of the Child, w hich inc ludes:

ƒ State party repor ts (outlining the gov ernment official assess ment of child
rights in the c ountry and their plans to address v iolations).
ƒ Alt ernative reports ( produc ed by NGO coalitions in the c ountry , outlining
their view s on pr iority issues).
ƒ Rec ords on the proc eedings of the meetings betw een the UN Committee
and the gover nment r epr es entativ es.
ƒ Concludin g observations made by the UN Committee (including their
recommendations on pr iority ac tions).
ƒ End dec ade r eview for the spec ial s ession on children
ƒ Reports from children’s cons ultations
ƒ NPAs in the country

Other key sources of information from both primary and secondary
sources m ay include:
ƒ Country law s, budgets and polic ies , etc.
ƒ Statistics, r esearc h and reports produc ed by the gover nment, the UN,
univ ersities, r esearch institutes, and by inter national and loc al NGOs.
(Amnes ty, Human Rights Watc h, Save the Childr en members , UNICEF
and UNDP, loc al y outh and w omen’s organis ations, etc.).
ƒ State par ty repor ts and c oncluding observ ations for other conventions
such as CEDAW and CERD.
ƒ Ow n res earch (this might be necessary in order to incor por ate the view s of
boys and girls).
ƒ Res earch, analys is made by both UN agenc ies, bi- lateral agenc ies on the
situation in country
ƒ Human Dev elopment Reports, Pov erty Reduc tion Strategy Plans , etc.
ƒ Sate of the World of Children by UNICEF
ƒ Reports By Amnesty Internationals, Hu man Rights Watch, etc .
ƒ Anthropologic al studies
ƒ Relevant Inter net sites of various donors , res earch institutions , univ ersities
etc. Many a times suc h s ites provide option of dow nloading documents.
ƒ Rights bas ed sit uation analysis of similar situations from another region or
country .
ƒ Dir ect discussions w ith childr en, community members, leaders,
researc hers , gov ernment officials, donors, c ivil society , media personnel,
etc may pr oduce impor tant facts that may not be r eported elsew here.
Often suc h information w ill be most updated unlike documented
infor mation how ever some of it may be v ery sensitive as w ell, w hich may
require a certain degr ee of res pons ib ility in its use and quoting source w ith

Spe cial Notes :

ƒ Disaggr egated data should be used, when available (on age, gender,
disability, class, ethnicity, geographic c over age, etc.) Changes overtime
should also b e identified (e.g. on dis parities between boys and girls and
different gr oups of children over the las t dec ade) .

ƒ Original field based res earch is expensi ve and time-consuming. Before

investi ng any r esourc es in new res earch it is essential to r eview available
secondary data on a gi ven iss ue. While s om e studi es will be published in
the public dom ain, invaluable data can often b e found in the unpublished
reports of local NGO s, the UN, inter-national NG Os and uni versiti es.

ƒ At times official r eports may present a gener alised pictur e of the situation,
and hi de certai n critical facts. Cross checking all forms of inform ation will
hel p ens ur e genuineness of suc h piec es of informati on.

ƒ Participants should be enc our aged to get inform ation for the above list (at
the sam e time do not drown in informati on from the inter net and double
check the acc urac y of the m aterials)

ƒ Be selective in collecting inform ati on, the important thi ng is that you do not
use all your time just collecting i nformation than usi ng the time for
anal ysing them

ƒ Programme staff’s own knowl edge and experience is a good res ource for
gathering i nformation Situational anal ysis

Sources of Information - Check List

Broad sources of Information

UN Committee on the Rights of the Child’s documentation, w hich
Docum entation Y/N
‰ State party r eports (outlining the government official
assess ment of child r ights in the c ountry and their plans to
address v iolations).

‰ Alternativ e reports ( produced by NGO c oalitions in the country,

outlining their view s on priority issues).

‰ Rec or ds on the proc eedin gs of the meetings betw een the UN

Committee and the gov ernment r epresentatives . Lis t of iss ues

‰ Concluding obs erv ations made by the UN Committee

(inc luding their r ecommendations on priority actions).

‰ End decade r eview for the special session on c hildren

‰ Reports from boys and gir l’s cons ultations

‰ NPAs in the country

‰ Universities, r es earc h institutes, Ex perts, policy makers , key

individuals, etc.


‰ Country law s and polic ies, etc.

‰ Statistics, research and repor ts pr oduc ed by the government,

the UN, univ ers ities , researc h institutes, and by inter national
and loc al NGOs . (A mnesty, Human Rights Watch, Sav e the
Childr en members , UNICEF and UNDP, local y outh and

women’s organis ations, etc.).

‰ State par ty reports and concluding obs ervations for other

conventions s uc h as CEDA W and CERD.

‰ Ow n research ( this might be nec ess ary in order to inc or por ate
the view s of boys and girls).

‰ Res earch, analys is made by UN agenc ies, bi- later al agencies,

NGOs , on the situation in c ountry

‰ Human Dev elopment Repor ts, Pov erty Reduction Strategy

Plans, etc.

‰ Sate of the Wor ld of Children by UNICEF

‰ Reports By A mnesty Internationals, Human Rights Watch, etc .

‰ Anthropologic al studies, etc.

‰ Pover ty r eduction str ategies

‰ Media ( new spaper, internet new s, folk media, etc.)

‰ Add more…

B. Information from Girls and Boys

Save the Children has done pioneering w ork in the r egion by establis hin g a
netw ork of children’s or ganisations that have been w orking tow ards
achievement of their rights. Suc h platfor ms provide them c hannels for making
their voice heard at v arious levels for pr ogr amme and policy discussions for
programmes r un by Sav e the Children, donors and gover nments. There are
many suc h effective gr ass-r oots childr en’s institutions acr oss the region.
These children have a legitimate r ight pr ovided to them through Child Rights
Convention to have a say in management of pr ojects that effect their liv es. All
projects should es tablis h effective mechanis ms to enable gir ls and boys from
various backgrounds to participate in all s tages of pr ojec t/progr amme

At the c ore of Save the Children c ommitment to pr omotion and protec tion of
children’s rights is empow ering and enabling gir ls and boys from var ious
bac kgr ounds to understand their r ights and voic e their opinion on issues that
effect their liv es, and equally importantly develop confidenc e to repor t and
disc uss any r ights viola tions. Such pr ocess of empow erment is demonstrated
by the quality of children’s participation in the dec isions and proc esses

affecting their liv es. Empow er ment and participation ar e like tw o sides of the
same c oin. Participation also has pr actical value in impr oving the quali ty of
programming as it helps enhanc e the efficiency, effectiveness and
sustainability of projects and pr ogrammes. W ithin Save the Children it is
incr easingly linked to establishing and strengthening childr en’s citizenship and
gov ernanc e c apac ity to par ticipate and influence iss ues related to policies and
prac tic e that affect their lives. Situation A nalysis is the starting point for
children’s participation and res ultant empow er ment, and these approac hes
must be cross c utting at each stage of programme cycle management. Its
important to establish good pr ecedent at the start of the pr oject and integrate
princ ip les of participation and empow er ment thr ough out the progr amme

It is als o important to unders tand w hat constitutes par ticipation. Ther e are
well-identified different levels of partic ipation, each one is impor tant by itself
but not sufficient unless there are clear indicators that the pr ocess has been
empow ering for the girls and boys and that they ar e able to influenc e the
dec ision affecting their liv es 7:

• Information Sharing: Boys and Gir ls ar e told about w hat dev elopment
programmes w ill be implemented and how they may affect them and so
they can decide on their lev el of inv olvement in it.
• Consultat ion: Girls and Boys ar e c onsulted on key issues and may
prov ide vital feedbac k to pr ojec t managers
• Decision-Making: Boys and Girls ar e involved in the des ig n and
implementation of progr ammes, and thus influence its dev elopment at
every stage.
• Initiating Action: Girls and Boys organise thems elves to take action in the
face of a s har ed problem or area of inter est, rather than responding to the
init iative of outside agencies.

At times children may not have full capacity to participate and influence
dec ision affecting their lives . This may be either due to age factor or bas ed on
the pr inciple that all children should enjoy childhood and must not be
bur dened w ith pr oblems that adult duty bearers should addr ess. In s uch
cases duty bearers have responsibility to act in the bes t interest of the c hil d.

Children’s c onsultation documents can be us ed from prev ious c onsultations if

relev ant or the new cons ultation events could be or ganised w ith either ex isting
children’s groups or new groups if enter ing a new geographic al area. Ex isting
children’s groups may be involved in facilitating the c onsultations w ith new
groups. In such cas es the consult ations c ould seek insights into specific
infor mation.

Guideline to Review children and young people’s consult ations

World Bank Particip ation Learning Group

Review ing Pre-consultation
Assess number of cons ultations
hav e taken place?
What w as the bac kgr ound
preparation for these consultations ?
What kinds of bac kgr ound
preparation infor mation w as given to
children and how ?
Representation & Facilitation
What w ere childr er n’s bac kgr ounds
– age, sex, c lass, region, religion,
ethnicity, and ability?
Who w ere they r epr es enting? Who
where they claiming to repr esent?
What w ere the selection criter ia for
the c ons ultations ?
Who facilitated thes e consultations ?
Adult’s or c hild fac ilitators ?
What methodology us ed for
facilitating childr en to expr ess
How did they ensure participation
and ex pression all c hildren c oming
from v arious bac kgrounds – age,
sex, class, region, r eligion, ethnicity,
and ability ?
Where s pecial measures w ere taken
to ensure Under 10 c hildren’s ( U10)
opinion and v iew s?
Review ing Outcomes of Consult ations
What issues w ere raised by children
coming from different age, s ex,
class , region, religion, ethnicity,
ability es pec ially girls and boys,
disabilities and younger children?
What w ere the key issues disc ussed
and w hat w as the final outcome and
cons ensus ?
Are ther e common iss ues and
recommendations in all the
cons ultations? If y es w hat are they ?
Analys e from this infor mation w hat
rights hav e been denied or viola ted
for that particular group of childr en?
Priorit ies set by children and young people
How w ere the pr ioritisation made- in
separate gr oups of boys and girls –

age s pec ific groups, disable gir ls
and boy’s ground etc .?
Final analyse of pr ior ities set by
children and young people
Q’s for review ing follow up on children’s consult ations
What foll ow up mechanisms are in
plac e to take action on
recommendations made by gir ls and
boys ? Both in relation to
Gov ernment and SC.
What actions w here taken and by
How much w ere the childr en (w hich
children) involv ed on deciding on the
actions ?
What has been the r ole of SC in the
whole pr oc ess?
What has been the role of other
NGOs and childr en organizations in
the w hole proc ess?
What mec hanisms are in plac e for
monitor ing, evaluating and
doc umenting the ac tion taken? How
much are children (w hich children)
involves in that?

Abov e guideline is for general us e and s pec ific information areas c an be

adopted or discarded accor din g to the needs of a s pecific situation.

C. Child Rights Violation Analysis

Child Rights violation Analys is helps in bringing a fur ther foc us to the
problems being addr essed. Thr ough a issues based approac h suc h as child
labour , child sexual abuse, disability, gender based v iolence, childr en in
conflict w ith law , etc., analys is s hould be under take of w hich r ights are
violated for w hich groups of childr en in relation to the ar eas in w hich
organis ation is planning to w ork or is alr eady w orking. Follow ing steps s hould
be foll ow ed in disc ussion w ith children’s groups, adult groups , indiv iduals or a
des k based analys is based on other sourc es of infor matio n:

1. Identif y the specific CRC pr ovisions being violated ( Specific Articles)

2. Identif y the key r elational articles from the CRC
3. Identif y the Inc idenc e and s ev erity (intensity) of violations and r elate to
the 4 CRP pr inc iples of surviv al and development; best inter ests of
children, non-discr imination and partic ipation.

4. Consider information from c oncluding observations. Gover nment
reports alternative r eports and other infor mation about chid rights
situation in the country
5. Identif y the most dis advantaged groups of childr en w hose rights are
being violated and analyse w hat pr ocesses c ontr ibute to rights
violation. As far as possible consider disaggr egated information by sex,
age, dis ability, ethnic ity, r eligion, ec onomic status etc.
6. Follow it up and combine w ith other analytic al tools pres ented in this
doc ument.

Tool on Violat ion of Rights

Follow ing tool can help fac ilitate an analysis to identify the v iolations of rights
and establishing links to the relev ant article of the CRC - both specific artic les
and r elational artic le .

Violation of rights on spe cified issues

(specific or m any)(s uch as child labour ,
chills s exual abus e, disability, c hildren in
conflict w ith law )

Spe cific Articles

Relational Articles

- CRP principl es appl y to all the ab ove as cor e princi ples.

- The CRC as a whol e is equally applicable i n developing programs and pr ojec ts
on above them es.

Analysis of child rights violations

Analysis of child rights violations
- Make the linage between the vari ous articles
- Highlight the importance of making the linkage
- Include the CRP pri nciples in the anal ysis

Violation of rights on spe cified issues Child domes tic w orkers in ‘Banai ’ part
(specific or m any)(s uch as child labour , of Dhaka (iss ues needs further
chills s exual abus e, disability, c hildren in elaboration……………)
conflict w ith law )

Spe cific Articles 8 32

Relational Articles 2, 12, 31, 28, 29, 33, 34, 17, 35…….

- CRP principl es ( article – 2,3,4,6,12) appl y to all the ab ove as core pri nciples .
- The CRC as a whol e is equally applicable i n developing programs and pr ojec ts
on above them es.

Analysis of child rights violations

- Make the linage between the vari ous articles
- Highlight the importance of making the linkage
- Include the CRP pri nciples in the anal ysis
- Concequescies if som e aspects ar e left out ( for example pr otecti on against
sexual abuse c an be l eft out in r elations to c hildr en’s right to education)

8 Refer to the Guide to the Reportin g Guidelines and the Eight Thematic Areas of CRC

E. Analysis of Causes: Immediate and root causes analysis tool

To develop appropr iate responses tow ards fulfilment of a child’s rights it is

important to analyse the situation from a r ig hts perspectiv e to see w hat rights
are denied/violated, and w hat ar e the c auses . Its impor tant to look at both
immediate causes as w ell as to do an in-depth analys is to s ee the deep
rooted causes. For instance for a girl child w ho has never been to a school
the immediate c aus es may lie in the family situation s uch as bur den of
hous ehold w ork but the root caus e might be soc ial and c ultur al nor ms related
to w omen’s s ubordination and patriarc hal norms. Us ing the method of
problem analysis the harmful featur es of a situation that c hildren face in a
given s ituation can be identifie d. This w ill help identify the rights that are being
violated that the state is obligated to fulfil. The immediate and r oot cause
analysis once c ompleted w ill pr esent a comprehensiv e pictur e of causal
factors w hich s hould be key factors to inform the in terv entions.

Tool to ident ify the immediate causes and corresponding roots causes
of a particular situation


Analysis of Immediate and Roots Cause Analysis

Establis h the link betw een the immediate and roots causes
Describe the inter linkage betw een the different immediate and r oot c auses
Describe the mos t vital caus e/c aus es


Immediate causes of CSA ROOT CAUSES of CSA

• Lac k of appropriate sex education • Lack of children’s participation

for children (life s kills) in society at large
• Availability of sex-sites on the • Patriar chal society. Masculinit y,
inter net roles of men, (boys sexual
• Denial/ignorance by adults on behaviour)
CSA • In equal pow er relations
• Parenting: Low partic ipation of (gender, age, class, disabilit y,
children in families (parents do not caste, religion, et c)
listen to their c hildren.) • Overall violence in society
• Adults attitudes tow ards childr en, including violence against
social taboos e.g. blaming the children
child • Unequal sexual relations
• Inappr opr iate law s and ineffective betw een m ale and females
implementation • Stereotyped gender
• Sexualis ation of childr en in the socializ ation.
• Poverty, ignor anc e and low level
of educ ation

Analysis of Immediate and Roots Cause Analysis

Establis h the link betw een the immediate and roots causes
Describe the inter linkage betw een the different immediate and r oot c auses
Describe the mos t vital caus e/c aus es

F. Gender and Pow er Analysis

Gender stereoty ping is a sys tematic proc ess that begins at bir th and is
continually shaped and modelled throughout lif e. Lear ning sex specific gender
roles is a prominent feature of childhood. Dur ing the s ocialization process,
children learns throughout c hildhood that amount/lev el of pow er that she or he
can enjoy is very much based on the economic, soc ial, cultur al status that
they have. Ther eby a pattern of discriminations sets its roots in the lif e of
children. They learn w ho is pow erful and w ho is not; w ho has higher status
and w ho does not; w ho has almost guar anteed access to dev elopment
opportunities and w ho does not; w hos e voice w ould be hear d and w hose not;
who has acc ess and contr ol over r esources that effect their lives and w ho
does not and w hose rights are s een as impor tant and w hose are not.

For a jus t society and to enable all c hildren to enjoy all their rights, it’s
important that they begin to r ecognize discriminatory s oc ial patterns and
understand its negativ e implications that w ould mark a person’s entire
lifes pan. For programme staff it is important to unders tand specific natur e of
discr imination to enable them to des ign appropriate interventions and adopt
appr opr iate appr oac hes. It is also important to be aw are that change do take
plac e and to identify how and w hy change take plac e, including the agents
that do bring about c hange.

Empow er ment is a central as pect of bringing about c hange. Through a

proc ess of empow erment girls and boys can gain strength, confidenc e, and
pur pose to w ork for the positiv e c hange them. A dis- empow ered person is
usually vulner able to further v iolations of his or her rights. Personal
empow erment, espec ia lly w hen c ombined w ith collec tive ac tion, can prov ide
an enabli ng environment to boys and gir ls to c laim their rights and address
violation of their rights w ithin the social and political institutions of family,
community, state and natio n.

Key consider ations.

• Sit uation/issue s pec ific s ex and diversity dis aggregated data and gender
and div ers ity analytical information by age gr oup, r ur al ur ban situation,
working- non w orking c hildren etc. This might r eveal for example
differences betw een gir ls and boys – of var ious bac kgr ounds- in school
attendance, r etention and achievements , difference betw een w ork bur den
at home and w ork plac e; access to social infras tructur e. This kind of
infor mation is important for pla nning and monitor ing pr ocesses.
• Gender and diversity s ensitiv e duty bearer analys is and partic ipation –
cons ultation proc ess ens ur ing that the boys and girls, from var ious ages
and backgr ounds, pers pec tives, problems and pr ior ities are recogniz ed
and addressed. Girls may be expected not to speak out public ly in many
cultures, hence its impor tant to provide them w ith friendly s pac es to enable
them to ex pr ess their v iew s. Its important to r ecognize that girls might
hav e different needs from boys and als o that girls in ur ban poor families
may not necessarily repr esent the view s and prior ities of rural poor gir ls. It

is important to r ecogniz e that not all gir ls and boys may have the same
inter ests in the same location. Their choices might be deter mined on the
bas is of class , ethnic ity, age, family c ompos itio n, c aste, and other factors.
Its important not only to consult but also to inv olve both boys and gir ls in
dec ision making, implementation and monit oring processes.

A useful tool of understanding iss ues r elated to pow er and discrimination is

the Access and Control Tool. Access can be defined as res ources to w hich
people have acc ess to for fulfilling their needs s uc h as access to land w here
people can farm, access to other employment oppor tunities , acc ess to
educ ational facilities , access to w ater resources etc. It’s important to
deter mine the lev el or degree of access and w ho can deter mine level or
degr ee of acc ess and if there are any conditionality attac hed to acc ess. The
control could be defined as situations w here people can hav e a say in how
resourc es ar e managed in addition to also being able to acc ess them.
Corr es ponding ex amples could be people not just ow nin g land but als o able
to deter mine w hat s eeds they w ill grow , w hat types of fertil iz ers they w ill
apply, w here they w ill s ell their pr oduce and at w hat pric es. Childr en able to
not just study in schools but also able to deter mine that the curr ic ula is
relev ant to their lives, sc hool timings ar e s uitable to their collec tiv e lifestyle,
that their r ights are not v io lated w ithin the premises of school by anyone. All
members in a rural c ommunity not just able to acc ess w ater for survival but
ow n their rightful share, determine its quality, able to access as per their need
and w hen they need it. Children and Women may have access to key
resourc es, but if they lack control, then they hav e little say w hen decisions
need to be made or w hen r esourc es are threatened. Similar ly in w orking
children’s c ase contr ol over their ow n inc ome lies in the hand of adult men.

Save t he Children Gender Equit y Policy Fram ew ork

The Gender Equity Policy prov ides the legitimacy w ithin the or ganisation for
this analys is. The International Sav e the Children A l ianc e ( The Alliance)
believes in social justice and c hallenges all for ms of discr imination, especially
that bas ed on sex , age, soc ial c lass, dis ability, HIV status, sexual pr efer enc e,
religion, r ace and ethnicity. Thr ough its w ork w ith childr en, the Allianc e has
unique opportunities to transfor m soc ial attitudes tow ards boys and girls, as
well as gender r elations among boys and girls for the next gener ation. The
All ianc e rec ognis es that the ac hiev ement of full and equal r ights for gir ls w ill
result from changes in soc ial values, public policy and pr actice. The A lliance
works to s upport both gir ls and boys to fulfil their potential and become active
members of their soc ieties . It rec ognises the need to understand better the
different needs of girls and boys, and to address those needs by dir ecting
resourc es through its progr amme w ork in or der to improv e their positions in
society .

The policy states that the SC Allianc e w ill s eek to ensur e that gir ls are not
discr iminated against and hav e equal access as boys to adequate food,
educ ation, healthc ar e, s helter , leis ure, emotional suppor t and r espect. It also
promote activities to enhance girls s elf esteem , their access to infor mation
and know ledge about their r ights and their participation in activities and

dec isions that affect their liv es. At the same time the Allianc e rec ognis es that
boys and girls hav e different socially defined gender r oles and respons ibilities
and as a res ult w ill s eek to be aw are of these differences and des ign
appr opr iate pr ogr ammes and advoc acy w ork in order to r espond to these
needs. The SC A lliance w ill challenge all types of violenc e. The SC A lliance
recognis es that gender issues vary betw een cultures and over time and w ill
addr ess issues of gender equity w ith great sens itivity in dif ferent cultural
contex ts. Equally partnership, res pect and co- oper ation betw een the sexes
are values that w ill be pr omoted throughout our w ork.

Gender guidelines for m part of the child rights progr amming ( CRP)
framew ork. Addr essing gender differenc es is vital to CRP, just as it is vital to
addr ess other differenc es such as age, disability, ethnicity, r ac e, sex ual
preference and HIV s tatus.

Access and Control Tool

This tool c an be applied in s elected ar eas of w ork and adopted in any c ontext.
For example w ork on educ ation c an look at res ources and benefits related to
educ ation like books, time for studying at home, w ater and sanitation
facilitates in schools , distance of school, etc. The tool for analys is of access
and control can also be us ed in r elation to other iss ues on non- discr imination
such as class, cas te, dis ability, religion, etc.

Access and Control over Resour ces

Examples Access Control

Resources/ Girls Women Boys M en Girls Women Boys Men




Leisure &

Tim e, Etc.


Examples Access Control
Resource Girl Disable Boy Disable Girl Disable Boy Disable
s/ s d girls s d s d girls s d
Services/ Boys boys




Leisure &

Explanation of the Tool Done in iss ues based framew ork, this c oncept
emphasizes the importance of differentiating betw een access (for instanc e,
being able to far m on s omeone else’s land) and c ontr ol (for instanc e ow ning
that land and being able to decide how that la nd is used). Childr en and
Women may hav e access to key resources, but if they lac k c ontrol, then they
hav e little say w hen decisions need to be made or w hen resources are
threatened. Similarly in w orking childr en’s c ase control ov er their ow n income
likes in the hand of adult men and boys and girls acc ess and c ontr ol.

G. Responsibilit y Analysis

Identif ic ation of those w ho have responsibility or ar e accountable tow ards

child r ights is vital in or der to dev elop appr opriate r espons es to a problem
area. This could be perceiv ed in tw o ways, i.e. those w ho have r esponsibility
for fulf illing rights of c hildren and secondly, thos e w ho ar e res pons ible for child
rights v iolations and denials. Very often ar e thos e respons ible for fulfilling
rights ar e als o those w ho v iolate childr en’s rights. It’s impor tant to pr obe if
there any negative actions that duty bearers might be taking that could
potentially har m c hild rights .

Mechanisms for acc ountability can take a div erse range of forms from for mal
top dow n processes of consultations, c hil dr en’s groups to bottom up
strategies s uc h as

The tool for identifying duty bear ers is quite us eful in this c ontex t that also
help identify w hat their duties ar e, w hat actions they may or may not have
taken to fulfil their duties and w hy its important to w ork w ith a partic ular duty
bear er. This tool can be s upplemented w ith Stakeholder analys is if needed.
The later is for identification of the pr ojec t’s key stakeholders, an assessment
of their interests and the w ays in w hich thes e interests affect pr ojec t ris kiness

and viability. It is linked to both institutional appraisals and soc ia l analys is;
draw ing on the infor mation der iving from thes e approaches, but also
contributing to the c ombining of suc h data in a s ingle framew ork . The key
difference betw een duty bearer and stakeholder is that the for mer has an
obligation to fulfil c hild r ights w hile the later may or may not have an obligation
to fulf il rights but may impact a c hild’s r ights indir ectly. For an instance
relev ant government officials, parents and teac hers ar e duty bear ers and c an
be held accountable for their actions w ith children; stakeholder w ill be those
people/groups w ho hav e inter est in activ ities/events c oncer ned w ith chil dr en
and may benefit or loos e due to that inter est. For ex ample consumers of child
labour produc e are not duty bear ers but they stand to benefit from the cheap
labour of the child and therefore have a stake in projects concer ned w ith
working childr en.

In an ideal situation both duty bearers and stakeholder analys is s hould involve
par ticipation of key duty bearers and stakeholders ensuring a balanc ed
repr esentation of interests and to help other duty bearer to develop a full
compr ehension of the c ertain r oles of cer tain duty bear ers. This w ould enable
the par ticipants to be realis tic and prac tic al in their appr oac h.

Checklist: Questions to ask regarding pow er relations

1. What forms of pow er relations ex ist w ithin your local c ommunity, in the
larger s ocial c ontext and in activities planned?

2. Who is inv olved? Who is le ast visible or leas t inv olved?

3. Who is controlling the process?

4. Who is in the ‘p ow er up’ pos ition (men, major ity group, particular caste,
class , ethnic group, etc) and w ho is in a pow erless pos it ion? (W omen,
girls, boys, minority groups, etc)

5. Who has access to and w ho contr ols res ources ?

6. Who ar e the most influential and w ho controls the social, economic and
political ar enas ?

7. What c hanges in pow er relatio ns have taken plac e in the last ten years?

8. How do partic ipatory pr oc esses contribute to changing pow er relations

among gir ls/boys from different groups in the community?


Key question to c ons ider w hile r ev iew ing institutional commitment

Guidance on St akeholder Analysis, Depart ment for International Development.

• What legal framew orks c ould be used for the implementation of children's
rights? ( CRC, CEDA W, CAT, CERD, law s, polic ies , NPAs, etc) ?

• What obligations have been made by the state in r elation to these

framew orks ?

• Which institutions ar e res ponsible for implementing these obligations ?

• What c oordination mechanis ms ar e av ailable w ithin various ins titutions?

• Which monitoring mechanis ms ar e in plac e?

• Are statistics and information desegregated? (Gender, age, ability, etc)

• What r es ourc e has been alloc ated in or der to implement these

obligations ? ( How muc h has been all oc ated for the implementation of
children's rights? % of ov erall budget?)

• How are these res ource allocations being spent?

• What has been the impact on girls and boys from v arious bac kgr ounds ? (i
think w e should deleted this – it is too broad o be as ked here)

• How much has the v iew s of childr en ( girls and boys from v arious
bac kgr ounds) been incorpor ated w hen making commitments and
allocating r esourc es?

• What independent w atchdog mechanis ms ar e av ailable for monitoring that

commitments are fulfilled?

H. Dut y Bearer Analysis:

If chil dr en and young people are the holders of rights and hav e a legal
entitlement that their rights are sec ur ed, then it is essential that those
responsible for fulfilling thes e r ights ar e identif ied and made acc ountable and
responsive. A lthough gover nments ar e often s een to be the primary duty-
bear ers and indeed it is their respons ibility to ensure that rights ar e secured,
other adult me mbers of soc iety – both individuals and groups – are als o duty-
bear ers. Children als o have res ponsibilities – not violating other c hildren’s and
adult’s rights. This means that these individuals and gr oups have an active
role to play in ensur ing that the r ights of the y oung people in their car e are
secured . It is important that the duty bear er analys is takes plac e as early
as poss ible dur ing the pr ojec t planning s tage as this w ill enable proper
identif ication of the issues and interventions.

Child Rights Programming, A handbook for International Sav e the Children Alliance Members, Save
the Children, 2002

Identification and Sele ction of Duty Bearers: This w ill mainly depend on
the type of intervention being planned to achieve a set of objectiv es. The aim
should be to identify and select the key duty bear ers ( after and in- depth
analysis of all the potential duty bearers) w ho are respons ible for br inging
pos itive (ex pected c hanges as per pr oject goals and objectives) changes in
children’s s ituation.

In or der to identify and s elect key duty bear er(s) an objective assessment of
the duty bear ers needs to be done in r elation to they level of impact they have
on c hildren’s situation. The other as pec ts w hich could als o be cons ider ed
while s electing the duty bear ers could be: w hat added value they w ill have on
the over all children’s situation; cost implications of their involv ement (not v ital
if benefits ar e mor e); their (duty bearers) commitments; and possible
obs tac les w hich may ar ise due to their involv ement in the project. The key
duty bear ers could be id entified and s elected by using a simple matrix
described in this s ection. Importanc e of bein g very s pecific w hen selecting key
duty bearers to w ork w ith/address .

Why is it important to Work w ith duty bearers? Whil e consider ing the
selection of duty bearers one should lo ok into the follow ing as pects and on
this basis should make an objectiv e ass ess ment and selec tion of duty
bear ers:

• Their M aximum Impact on Children’s Sit uat ion i.e. They w ill play an
important r ole in bringin g the ex pec ted changes in c hildren’s s ituation.

• Less Risks Involved i.e. w e are certain that not big ris ks are inv olv ed and
if for some reason the identifie d duty bearer is not able to play the r equir ed
role, the pr ojec t w ill not be too muc h affected.

• Their Role is cle arly Identified/defined i.e. some duty bear ers role has
clear ly been identif ied or defined due to their pr oximity w ith children or
their responsibilities tow ards childr en have c lear ly been defined in their job
plac ements e.g. teachers, vacc inators etc.

• Added Value i.e. their inclus ion besides impr oving the situation of chil dr en
in pr oject c ontext w ill also hav e positive influence on other duty bearers
which are not identified or selected. e.g. Involvement of religious leaders in
a pr oject, bes ides helping in ac hiev ing the objectiv es may also br ing
pos itive changes in other s oc ial, c ultural and r eligious pr actices like girls
educ ation, ear ly marriages etc.

Cost Effectiveness i.e. their involv ement w ill not be too expens ive ( in project
contex t) as compared to other duty bearers.


Dev eloped by Mehmood Asghar, L ena Karlsson and Ravi K arkara, Sav e th e Children Sw eden, 2003

Dut y Be arers What responsibilit y do Why is it important t o w ork
they have to fulfil w ith
children rights and w hat Re asons/Justif ications
actions have they taken?
E.g. leaders
village planning
committee, etc.

Sub- National
E.g. head of
prov incial
educ ation
department, etc.

Nat ional
e.g. Additional
Educ ation
Ministry , etc.

Fam ily
E.g. father,
mother , uncles,

E.g. religious
leaders , etc.

E.g. teacher,
princ ip les, etc .


Workplace (infor mal or for mal sec tor)

E.g. employ er,
superv isor , etc.

Girls and boys

E.g. Childr en’s
organis ation, etc.

International comm unity

E.g. UN, World
Bank, SC, donor
agencies, etc.

Media and Private Sector

e.g. Sec tor
spec ific
jour nalist,
associatio ns,

Note: Ther e is a need to be very specific w hen identifying the key duty
bear ers e.g. village governi ng body – who is the village governi ng b ody’s c an
make a differenc e in combating and taking action against child rights
viol ations.

Further us e of follow ing tool to suppor t pr ev ious analys is of responsibility and

gender and pow er analysis can help deter mine prec isely the w ays tow ards
realization of rights. This tool helps undertake a c ombines analysis sev eral
factors s uc h as:

1. What ar e the still unr ealized/violated or denies rights of the child?

2. What ar e the c aus es for the same?
3. Who are the respons ible actors/duty bear ers ?
4. What is the reason/s for their inaction?
5. What obstacles do they fac e? Infor mation from s econdary sourc es also
can inform as to if thes e obstacles lie at the policy lev el or at a more
prac tic al lev el?
6. Taking into c ons ider ation w hat actio ns c an be taken to influence the
duty bearers to be more res ponsiv e/accountable?

Unrealised Causes Responsible Re asons Obstacles Actions to be
rights act ors for taken /w ays to
Examples: - inaction overcom e
inaction/to make
duty be arers

Immedi Gov ernment

ate • Loc al
causes • Sub-national
• National

Family members

Me mbers


Root Gir ls and boys


Pr ivate s ector &


Stakehold er A nalysis:

The ter m Stakeholders is used to descr ibe all those individuals, groups of
people and or ganisatio ns that w ould be dir ectly or indir ectly affected by an
intervention or that might have inter est in it or an influence on it. Stakeholders
can be divided into tw o categories – primary and sec ondary . Pr imary
stakeholders are those ultimately affected, either positively or negatively.
Secondary stakeholders are the inter mediar ies in the aid delivery process.
This defin ition of stakeholders includes both w inners and losers and those
involved or excluded from dec ision-making proc ess es. Key s takeholders are
those w ho can significantly influence or ar e important to the s ucc ess of the
Stakehold er analysis aims to :

ƒ Identif y and define the c haracter istics of key stakeholders;

ƒ Assess the manner in w hich they might affect or be affected by the
programme/pr ojec t outcome;
ƒ Understand the relation betw een stakeholders including an
assess ment of the r eal or potential conflicts of inter est and expectation
betw een stakeholders;
ƒ Assess the capac ity of different stakeholders to par ticipate

Stakehold er A nalysis Servers three main pur poses :

1. It for ms the bas is of effective partic ipation in des ign, implementation

and monitor ing of the project or pr ogr amme.
2. It makes vis ible the important stakeholders and as a r esult c an
contribute to identifying w ays and means of empow ering them to
bec ome more influential.
3. It highlights the dy namics of relations betw een s takeholder categories,
identif ying potential ris ks to ac hiev ement o project pur pose. The
findings of the stakeholder analysis should be used to s hape project
des ign and w here this is not possible s hould be highlighted as a r isk.

Why do stakeholders Analys is?

A stakeholder analysis helps in assessing the project environment and

to inform the negotiating position in the planning and implementation
stages. It identif ies needs, interests, and possible effects. It helps:
• Draw out the interests of stakeholders in relation to t he problems
that the proje ct is seeking to address
• Identif y conflicts of interests between stakeholders that w ill
influence assessm ent of the projects riskiness before the
financial commitments are m ade.

Stakeholder Participation and Analysis, Soci al Dev elop ment Division, DFID, 1995.

• Help to identify the relations betw een stakeholders that can be
built upon and may enable coalitions of project sponsorship,
ow nership and cooperation.
• Help t o assess the appropriate type of participation by different
stakeholders, at successive stages of the project cycle.

When should the Stakeholder Analysis be done?

The stakeholder analys is should be done at the start of a project or

programme. A stakeholder analys is w ill be useful thr oughout the project life
from planning to implementation to monitoring and evaluation stages.

Who should do Stakeholder Analysis?

Ideally a stakeholder analys is should be done by a team of conc erned parties

such as pr oject officers, NGO staff, chil dr en, community repr es entativ es,
gov ernment officials, employers of childr en etc. A analys is at suc h a meeting
can gener ate information that is s ens itiv e, as many interests ar e covert and
sometimes real agendas ar e hidden. In s uch a situation there ar e few benefits
of direct confrontations betw een dif ferent inter est groups. Its important that
infor mation gener ated is tr eated diplomatically as there is not much benefit in
unc overing such agenda in public.

Stakehold er Partic ip ation:

It’s a pr oc ess w hereby thos e w ho are holders of rights and or have inter est in
the outcomes of the pr oject play an activ e r ole in dec ision-making and in the
cons equent activities that affect them. How ever it is als o tr ue that childr en as
primary stakeholders may lack the politic al pow er or ins titutional suppor t (s uch
as children’s groups) for their view s to be taken into account. Sometimes its
wise to ens ur e that the init ial phase of the pr oject focus es on the dev elopment
of representative’s c apac ity to par ticipate, for ex ample establishing childr en’s
groups in the first six months or so of a pr ojec t’s lif e. The primary stakeholders
may als o lack the infor mation they need for making effective and appropr iate
dec isions. Suc h a gap c an be br idged through educ ation w ork or using life
skills tr aining, expos ure v isits etc. Within the gr oups of pr imary stakeholders –
for example childr en residing in a s lum ar ea, ther e may be some childr en w ho
are more activ e, artic ulate and dominant and henc e more pow erful than other
children. Often gir ls might be in a dis advantaged position if they ar e r equir ed
to par ticipate in activities together w ith boys. Targeted activ ities may be
needed to include pow erless groups, such as girls , c hildren from extr emely
poor families, physic ally challenged childr en, children from low er caste groups
or other ethnic minor ities .

At times the legitimacy of childr en’s partic ipation might be c hallenged by

adults in the area or may not be given the due respect. A t times boys might
challenge the participation of girls . A final dec is ion s hould alw ays depend
upon fulfilling the rights of all stakeholder involved w ithout w hile minimiz ing
the adv erse impact on the partic ipation of others. Sometimes childr en w ho
are ec onomically ac tiv e or girls and boys w ho have hous ehold c hores

responsibility or r esponsibility to c are for younger s iblings may v iew the time
and money costs of participation as being too high w hen c ompar ed to benefits
of the project. Information, consultation, planning and management activities
must be designed to r es pond to this c hallenge.

Steps in Stakeholder Analys is:

Draw up a stakeholder table that lists all potential stakeholders; identifies their
inter est/s in r elation to the iss ue being address ed; br iefly assess es the likely
impact of project on eac h of these interes t ar eas ; and indicate the pr iority that
the project should giv e to each stakeholder in meeting their inter ests .

Types of Stakeholders

Both pr imary and secondary stakeholders should be identified and lis ted.
Primary s takeholders are those childr en or groups of childr en w ho are
ultimately affected by the pr ojec t. This includes intended benefic iar ies or
those negativ ely affected (for instance victims of abuse) .

Primary stakeholders should be further categoriz ed by soc ial analys is such as

gender , age gr oup, social or income classes, w orking and non-w orking
children, etc. Par ticipation of pr imary s takeholders is essential in pr ojects that
are expected to have a direc t positive impact on defined gr oup of childr en.

Secondary stakeholders are thos e w ho ar e conc erned w ith deliv ery of the
programme and w ould include most duty bearers, employ ers of children, and
a range of other inter mediar ies suc h as politicians, social or r eligious leaders,
local leaders, res pec ted persons in the community, businesses w ithin and
outside the country, tr aders etc w ho can potentially influence the fulfillment of
child rights in a negative or pos itiv e manner.

For ins tance in a project that addr esses the educ ation needs, pr imary
stakeholders w ill be boys and gir ls in different age gr oups, teachers. While
secondary stakeholders w ill be officials of Minis try of education, employers of
children, parents,

Chec klis t for identifying stakeholders:

Have all the pr imary and s ec ondary stakeholders been listed?

Have all potential supporters and opponents of the project been
identifie d?
Has child rights analysis been us ed to identif y different
stakeholders in primary and sec ondary categories?
Has gender analys is been used to identify different stakeholders?
Have the inter ests of girls and boys and vulnerable boys and girls
been identified?

Chec klis t for w hich s takeholders ar e important for s uccess of the


Which c hild rights iss ues, affecting w hich stakeholders does the
project/pr ogr amme seek to addr ess or alleviate?
Which stakeholders interes ts c onver ge most clos ely w ith the
objectives of the progr amme?

Do an assess ment of each stakeholder ’s importance to project success and

their relative pow er/influenc e

Draw ing out interests of the stakeholders :
Inter ests of the stakeholders c an be dr aw n out by rela ting each stakeholder to
either the child r ights violation that the pr oject/programme is seeking to
addr ess or the es tablished objectives of the project. Inter ests may be dr aw n
out by asking:

What ar e the stakeholder ’s expectations of the project?

What benefits are there likely to be for the primary and s econdary
What other interest does the stakeholder hav e w hich may conflict w ith the
What r esourc es w ill the stakeholder w ish to c ommit or not commit to the
How does the stakeholder r egar d other stakeholders in the lis t?

Assessing the influence and Impor tanc e of the s takeholders:

Key stakeholders are those w ho can significantly inf luence or are

important to the success of the project. Influence refers to how pow erful
a stakeholder is in terms of im pacting the process negatively or
positively. Influence is the pow er that stakeholders have over a project –
to control w hat decisions are made, facilit ate its im plementation or exert
influence that affects t he proje ct negatively. Influence is perhaps best
understood as the extent to w hich people groups or organisations are
able t o persuade others int o making decisions and follow ing certain
courses of act ion.

Importanc e refers to thos e stakeholders w hose proble ms, needs and inter ests
are the pr iorities of the programmes, i.e. if these stakeholders ar e not
supported then the pr ogr amme cannot be deemed to be a success. By
combining the influence and importance using a matr ix diagr am stakeholders
can be class ified into different gr oups, w hich w ill help identify assumptions
and the ris ks that need to be managed thr ough the pr ogramme/project cycles.
Before outlining this matrix w ays of influence and impor tance are suggested.

A stakeholder analysis c an help in deciding how the key stakeholders can be

included in the pr oject. The stakeholder analys is c an help identif y the ris ks

and ass umption in relation to var ious stakeholders and enable planners and
par ticipants to address these iss ues r ight from the start. A stakeholder
analysis helps dur ing the monitoring and evaluation pr ocess.





A. Descript ion

1. A short description of the ov erall soc ial, economic al,

cultur al and political situation linking to the situation of
gir ls and boys in Bangladesh (country) and map tr ends
and for es een pr ospects .

2. A short description of the cultural context (s), tr aditional

values, prac tices and perceptions tow ards gir ls and
boys. ( For ex ample in r elation to age of matur ity, child
dev elopment, gender s ocializ ation, s exuality, marr ia ge,
child w ork, etc)
ƒ Descr ibe child r ear ing pr actices and harmful
traditional pr actices that exists.
ƒ Which ar e the capacities and s upport s truc tur es that
exis ts at v arious levels to pr otect children?
ƒ Which changes hav e taken plac e and are for eseen
to take place in the near futur e?
ƒ Dis aggr egate sex , age, dis ability, ethnic ity , religion,
economic status.

B. Budgetary/Administrative/Struct ural Analysis

3. A short description of the legal framew ork and the

political system/polic ies in relation to children and
children’s r ig hts w ill be included.

4. A short description of r elev ant law s and its


5. Analys is of budgets allocation and us e of res ources and

implementation of c hild r ig hts
ƒ Analys is of increase or decr ease of budget allocation
on implementation of childr en r ights

6. Analys is of functioning of adminis tration (the relation

betw een var ious lay ers of the governanc e s truc tur e like
loc al, s ub-national and national) w ith s pecified
capac ities .

7. Where does the major r espons ibility lies and analys is of

their coor dinatio n, cooperation, capac ity and ac tivities of

various bodies involv ed in implementation of childr en’s
rig hts. Inc luding c ooper ation and relation w ith c ivil

8. Descr iption of Accountability, trans par ency, and

efficie ncy of public institutions

9. Mapping of independent reporting mechanis m and




C. Child Rights V iolation Analysis

10. A description of w hich r ights are violate for w hich gr oups

of children in relation to the ar eas in w hich or ganis ation
is planning to w ork (or is alr eady w orking)
ƒ Specific artic le (s) v iolated
ƒ Key relational articles

11. Inc idence and sever ity (intensity) of violations and r elate
to the 4 CRP principles ( ens ur e accur acy of source of
infor mation w ith r efer enc e)

12. Identify the most ex pos ed groups of children or thos e

most r isks of hav ing their r ights viola tes and descr ibe
how the r ights are violated and make them v isible in the

D. Imm ediate and Underline Causality Analysis

13. A detail description on immediate causes (law s, policies,

lac k of child par tic ipation, gender dis parities, etc.)

14. A detail description on under li ne c aus es ( pow er

relations, patriarc hy, nor ms and v alues on par ticipation,

15. Analys is of inter linkages betw een the immediate and

underline causes


E. Pow er and Gender Analysis

16. Gener al pow er relations in the family and ov erall s ociety

(div agate by age, sex, disability, etc.)

17. Descr ibe how pow er is dis tributed in the c ommunity ,

who contr ol ov er r es ourc es and decision making
( money, labour, food, time, leis ure, sc hooli ng,

18. Descr ibe w ho has w hat needs to prioritis e – w hich

groups of children and excluded and discriminated
agains t.

F. Responsibilit y Analysis

19. Identify duty bear ers at different levels: family,

community, local, sub national, natio nal, r egional and
inter natio nal

20. Pr ioritis e the most r elev ant and effective duty bearers
and ex plain w hy

Be specific w hil e descr ibe the duty bearers pers on or

ins titutions, for ex ample (gover nment – planning
ministry , under s ectary, etc .)

Descr ibe key ac tors /duty bearers and their actions or


21. Descr ibe obstac le and r eas ons for inactions of key
actors/ duty bear ers

22. Descr ibe w hat others actors/duty bear ers are doin g
(other NGOs, pr iv ate sector, media, etc.)

23. Analys is of gover nments c ommitments made at

national, regional (SAA RC) and inter national for ums

F. Decentralisat ion
24. Dec entralisation entails that w ithin the country, political,
economic and/or administrativ e pow er is transferred
from the c entr al level to regional and/or local level. Has
such a dec entralisation that is r elevant for the sector/the
area taken place?

25. To w hich level(s) have pow ers been tr ansferr ed?
Which pow ers have been tr ansferred ( decis ion- making,
financ ing, administr ation)?

26. Has the decentralisation opened up s pac e for local-lev el

par ticipation, including c hildren’s par ticipation? Descr ibe
how .

G. Legal and Political Framew ork

27. Relevant law s, their contents and possible limitations in
relation to the Conv ention on the Rights of the Child?

28. Implementation of relevant law s and possible

shor tcomings ?

29. Gov ernment polic ies , str ategies and action plans that
are relevant for the s ector/the planned w ork in the area?

30. Separ ate betw een respons ibilities of national lev el

author ities , r egional and local decision-making bodies
and institutio ns.

31. Implementation of thes e policies, str ategies and ac tion


32. In ther e a national c hil d r ights ombudsperson? Describe

role and func tions?

33. Is ther e a local c hil d r ights ombudsperson or other

defenc e office to w hich c hildren and their families can
tur n w hen their rights ar e v iolated? If y es, descr ibe.

H. Econom ic and Budget Analysis

Budget allocatio ns and actual s pending from national,
regional and local level on the sector/the area.

35. Tr ends in budget allocations and spending over the last


36. Other types of res ource mobilis ation ( e.g. from donors

I. Civil Society
37. Actors w ithin the sector/the ar ea? Br ief description of
what the civil society ac tors do. ( This can be done
separ ately in a mor e compr ehens ive actors ’ analys is or
can be left as ide for the time being if r elevant partner(s)
hav e already been identified. In that c as e, describe only
what the identified partner is doing.)

38. Ty pe of civ il soc iety actors w ithin the s ector/the ar ea.
( Mainly me mbers hip- bas ed organisations or
inter mediary agencies? Service pr ov iders, advocacy
organis ations , organisations w orking w ith
empow erment? How w ell embedded 13 ar e the c ivil
society or ganisations in the society ?)

39. Relations hip betw een state actors and civ il s ociety
(ranging from non-acceptance from the state to active
state pr omotion of autonomous or ganisations)

40. Cooper ation betw een the s tate and c ivil s oc iety actors in
relation to the sector/area.

J. Analysis of Children and Young People’s Recommendations

41. Analys is the outcome of the childr en’s cons ultations

(from v ar ious bac kgr ounds: sex , age, dis ability,
ethnic ity, religion, economic status, etc.)
ƒ What issues w ere r aised by children c oming from
different age, sex, class, region, religion, ethnic ity,
ability especially gir ls and boys, disabili ties and
younger childr en?
ƒ What w ere the key issues disc uss ed and w hat w as
the final outc ome?
ƒ Are there common issues and rec ommendations in
all the c onsultations ? If y es w hat are they ?
ƒ How w ere the pr ioritisation made- in separate gr oups
of boys and girls – age s pec if ic gr oups, disable gir ls
and boy’s gr ound etc .?
ƒ Analys is of pr ior ities set by childr en and y oung

42. If not held then - or ganize a meaningful consultation on

the pr oblems that the pr ojec t w ants to addr ess w ith
children and young people

Seen as important, respected.

Handout 13



A. Descript ion

1. Descr ibe the ec onomic, political, soc ial and c ult ural
issues that affecting the lives of the children of the
geographic al area.
ƒ Dis aggr egate sex , age, dis ability, ethnic ity , religion,
and ec onomic status.

2. A shor t description of the spec ific cultur al c ontext that is

affecting the spec ific gr oup of children and the
capac ities of the support s truc tur e those are in plac e.
ƒ Which changes hav e taken plac e and are for eseen
to take place in the near futur e?

B. Budgetary/Administrative/Struct ural Analysis

3. ƒ Descr ibe the loc al governmental structure. Has it got

any decision making pow er?
ƒ What r esourc es has it got from centr al lev el and local
lev el?
ƒ Whether childr en’s issues are their part of their
activities or not.

4. ƒ Descr ibe the role of local administr ation in protecting

the rights of the c hildren.
ƒ How the NGO coor dination committee is functioning,
espec ially in relation to children issues?
ƒ What are the r oles of civ il s ociety ?

5. Is ther e any s pac e for people par ticipation?

C. Child Rights V iolation Analysis

6. A br ief descr iption of w hich rights are violate for the

specific gr oup of gir ls and boys (from var ious
bac kgr ounds; age, s ex, disability, ethnic ity, etc.).

7. Inc idence and sever ity (intensity) of violations and r elate

to the 4 CRP principles ( ens ur e accur acy of source of
infor mation w ith r efer enc e)

D. Imm ediate and Underline Causality Analysis

8. Which ar e the immediate c aus es of childr en’s rights

violations ?

9. Descr ibe the under ly ing causes (e.g. pow er relations]

10. Analys is of inter linkages betw een the immediate and

underly ing causes

E. Pow er and Gender Analysis

11. Are there any specific pow er relations that ar e affecting

the liv es of the childr en?

12. Descr ibe how pow er is dis tributed in the c ommunity ,

who contr ol ov er r es ourc es and decision- making
( money, labour, food, time, leis ure, sc hooli ng etc].

13. Which gr oups of children (from var ious backgrounds;

age, sex, dis ability, ethnicity, etc.) are exc luded and

E. Responsibilit y Analysis

14. Identify duty bear ers and their actions or inac tions at
different levels : family, c ommunity, loc al sub national,
national, regional and inter national

15. Pr ioritis e the most r elev ant and effective duty bearers
and ex plain w hy

16. Descr ibe obstac le and r eas ons for inactions of key
actors/ duty bear ers

17. Descr ibe w hat others actors are doing ( other NGOs ,
media, etc .)

18. Analys is of gover nments c ommitments made at national,

regional ( SAA RC) and inter national forums

F. Decentralisat ion
19. Dec entralisation entails that w ithin the country, political,
economic and/or administrativ e pow er is transferred
from the c entr al level to regional and/or local level. Has
such a dec entralisation that is r elevant for the sector/the
area taken place?

20. To w hich level(s) have pow ers been tr ansferr ed?

Which pow ers have been tr ansferred ( decis ion- making,
financ ing, administr ation)?

21. Has the decentralisation opened up s pac e for local-lev el

par ticipation, including c hildren’s par ticipation? Descr ibe
how .

G. Legal and Political Framew ork

22. Relevant law s, their contents and possible limitations in
relation to the Conv ention on the Rights of the Child?

23. Implementation of relevant law s and possible

shor tcomings ?

24. Gov ernment polic ies , str ategies and action plans that
are relevant for the s ector/the planned w ork in the area?

25. Separ ate betw een respons ibilities of national lev el

author ities , r egional and local decision-making bodies
and institutio ns.

26. Implementation of thes e policies, str ategies and ac tion


27. In ther e a national c hil d r ights ombudsperson? Describe

role and func tions?

28. Is ther e a local c hil d r ights ombudsperson or other

defenc e office to w hich c hildren and their families can
tur n w hen their rights ar e v iolated? If y es, descr ibe.

H. Econom ic and Budget Analysis

Budget allocatio ns and actual s pending from national,
regional and local level on the sector/the area.

30. Tr ends in budget allocations and spending over the last


31. Other types of res ource mobilis ation ( e.g. from donors

I. Civil Society
32. Actors w ithin the sector/the ar ea? Br ief description of
what the civil society ac tors do. ( This can be done
separ ately in a mor e compr ehens ive actors ’ analys is or
can be left as ide for the time being if r elevant partner(s)
hav e already been identified. In that c as e, describe only
what the identified partner is doing.)

33. Ty pe of civ il soc iety actors w ithin the s ector/the ar ea.
( Mainly me mbers hip- bas ed organisations or
inter mediary agencies? Service pr ov iders, advocacy
organis ations , organisations w orking w ith
empow erment? How w ell embedded 14 ar e the c ivil
society or ganisations in the society ?)

34. Relations hip betw een state actors and civ il s ociety
(ranging from non-acceptance from the state to active
state pr omotion of autonomous or ganisations)

35. Cooper ation betw een the s tate and c ivil s oc iety actors in
relation to the sector/area.

J. Analysis of Children and Young People’s Recommendations

36. Analys is the outcome of the childr en’s cons ultations

(from v ar ious bac kgr ounds: sex , age, dis ability, ethnic ity,
religion, ec onomic status, etc.)

‰ What issues w ere r aised by children c oming from

different age, sex, class, region, religion, ethnic ity,
ability especially gir ls and boys, disabili ties and
younger childr en?
‰ What w ere the key issues disc uss ed and w hat w as
the final outc ome?
‰ Are there common issues and rec ommendations in
all the c onsultations ? If y es w hat are they ?
‰ How w ere the pr ioritisation made- in separate gr oups
of boys and girls – age s pec if ic gr oups, disable gir ls
and boy’s gr ound etc .?
‰ Analys is of pr ior ities set by childr en and y oung

37. If not held then - or ganize a meaningful consultation on

the problems that the pr oject w ants to addr ess w ith
children and young people

Seen as important, respected

Guide t o the reporting guidelines and the eight thematic areas of CRC

The Committee on the Rights of the Child dur ing its first meetings drafted
Guidelines for Initial Reports. These divide the Convention into eight “clusters”
of Articles w hich, in the w ords of the Committee, “r eflec t the Convention’s
holistic perspective of children’s rights: that they ar e indivisible and inter-
related, and that equal importance should be attached to eac h and every r ight
recognis ed therein.”

The Committee’s Guidelines for Periodic Reports, drafted in 1996, demand a

critical analysis by States of the fur ther progr ess they hav e made tow ards full

These Guidelines us e the s ame structure of clusters of Articles, but spell out
in 50 pages the detailed infor matio n r equired to enable the Committee to
judge eac h State’s pr ogr ess for its c hildren. Reports mus t contain “sufficient
infor mation to pr ovide the Committee w ith a compr ehensiv e understanding of
the implementation of the Conv ention in the country c oncerned” . Additionally,
“the pr oc ess s hould be one that encour ages and fac ilitates popular
par ticipation and public scr utiny of gov er nment polic ies”.
The follow ing are the clusters:

I. General M easur es of Implementation

ƒ Artic le 4: implementation obligations ;
ƒ Artic le 42: making Convention w idely know n;
ƒ Artic le 44( 6): making reports w idely available (in Guidelines for Periodic
Reports, also c overs
ƒ Artic le 41: res pect for ex isting standards) .

II. Definition of the Child

Artic le 1.

III. G eneral Principles

ƒ Artic le 2: non- discr imination;
ƒ Artic le 3(1): best interes ts to be a pr imary c onsideration; (the Guidelines
for Per iodic Reports also cov ers
ƒ Artic le 3(2): The State’s obligatio n to ens ure necessary car e and
protection; and
ƒ Artic le 3(3): standards for ins titutions, s erv ices and fac ilities);
ƒ Artic le 6: the r ight to life, surviv al and development (see als o, VI, below );
ƒ Artic le 12: res pect for the view s of the child.

CRP S C Hand Book, Sa ve the Children, 2002

IV. Civil Right s and Fr eedoms
ƒ Artic le 7: right to name, nationality and to know and be car ed for by
par ents;
ƒ Artic le 8: pres erv ation of child’s identity ;
ƒ Artic le 13: freedom of ex pression;
ƒ Artic le 14: freedom of thought, c onscienc e and religion;
ƒ Artic le 15: freedom of association and peaceful ass embly;
ƒ Artic le 16: protection of priv acy;
ƒ Artic le 17: child’s acc ess to in-for mation, and role of mass media; Artic le
37( a): r ight not to be s ubjected to tor tur e or other cruel, inhuman or
degr ading treatment or punis hment.

The Guidelines for Per iodic Reports indic ate (para 48) that thes e are not the
only pr ovis ions in the Conv ention, w hich constitute c ivil rights and freedoms.

V. Family Environment and Alternative Care

ƒ Artic le 5: parental guidance and child’s ev olving capac ities;
ƒ Artic le 18( 1) and ( 2): par ental r espons ibilities and state’s assistance;
ƒ Artic le 9: s epar ation from parents;
ƒ Artic le10: family r eunification;
ƒ Artic le 11: illic it tr ansfer and non-r eturn;
ƒ Artic le 27( 4): r ecovery of maintenance for the child;
ƒ Artic le 20: children depr ived of their family envir onment;
ƒ Artic le 21: adoption;
ƒ Artic le 25: per iodic r eview of placement and treatment;
ƒ Artic le 19: protection from all for ms of violenc e;
ƒ Artic le 39: rehabilitation and reintegr ation of victims of viole nce (see also
VIII below ).

VI. Basic Health and Welfare

ƒ Artic le 6: r ight to life, surviv al and development (s ee als o, II abov e);
ƒ Artic le 18( 3): s upport for w orking parents;
ƒ Artic le 23: rights of disabled childr en;
ƒ Artic le 24: right to health and health s ervic es;
ƒ Artic le 26: right to soc ial sec ur ity;
ƒ Artic le 27( 1)-(3): r ight to adequate s tandar d of liv ing.

VII. Education, Leisure and Cultural Activities

ƒ Artic le 28: right to education;
ƒ Artic le 29: aims of education;
ƒ Artic le 31: right to leis ure, play and par tic ipation in cultur al and artis tic

VIII. Special Protection M easures

A. Children in Situations of Emergency

ƒ Artic le 22: refugee childr en;
ƒ Artic le 38: children and armed conflict;
ƒ Artic le 39: rehabilitation of child victims (s ee als o abov e).

B. Children Involved with the Syst em of Administration of Juvenile

ƒ Artic le 40: administr ation of juv enile jus tic e;
ƒ Artic le 37( a) prohibition of c apital punishment and life imprisonment;
ƒ Artic le 37( b)-(d): r estr iction of liber ty;
ƒ Artic le 39: rehabilitation and r eintegr ation of child v ictims (see also V
abov e).

C. Children in Situations of Exploitation

ƒ Artic le 32: child labour;
ƒ Artic le 33: drug abus e;
ƒ Artic le 34: sex ual ex ploitation;
ƒ Artic le 35: sale, traffic king and abduction;
ƒ Artic le 36: other forms of exploitation.

D. Children Belonging t o a Minority or an Indigenous G roup

ƒ Artic le 30.


Cult ure is compr ised of values, attitudes, nor ms, ideas , internalis ed habits
and perceptions as w ell as the concr ete for ms or expr ess ion they take in. For
example, soc ial roles, structur es and relationships , codes of behaviours and
explanations for behav iour that ar e to a s ignificant extent shar ed among a
group of people. Cultur e is learned and inter nalised, and influences people’s
actions and inter pretations of circums tances at the s ame time as people in
turn influences the content of culture by their compliance w ith it or by
challenging it.

Declarations articulate agreed upon princ iples and standards. These

doc uments ar e not in themselv es legally binding. But s ome declar ations , most
notably the Univ ers al Dec lar ation of Human Rights , have been s o w idely
recognis ed that their prov is ions ar e cons ider ed as binding on all s tates.

Dut y-bearers: Human rights are linked to duties, accountability, obligation

and responsibility . Duty- bearers ar e the actors c ollectively responsible for the
realisation of human rights. Thos e w ho bear duties w ith res pect to a human
right ar e acc ountable if the r ight goes unrealis ed. W hen a right has been
violated or insufficiently protected, there is alw ays someone or some
institution that has failed to perfor m a duty.

Gender: Cultural inter pretation of biological sex ; definitions of w hat is

cons ider ed to be feminine and masculine in par ticular cultur al and soc ial
settings , and expectations of w omen and men, boys and girls w ith res pect to
these definitions; soc ial, economic and political relations hips betw een males
and females in specific soc ieties .

Hum an rights ar e the rights possessed by all pers ons, by v irtue of their
common humanity , to liv e a life of freedom and dignity . They give all people
moral c laims on the behav iour of individuals and on the des ign of soc ial
arrangements. Human r ights are univers al, inalienable and indivis ible. They
expr ess our deepest commitments to ensur ing that all persons are sec ur e in
their enjoy ment of the goods and freedoms that are nec essary for dignified

Hum an rights treaties, covenants and conventions are part of in ternational

law . Us ed interchangeably, tr eaty, covenant and c onvention refer to legally
binding agr eements betw een s tates. These agr eements define the duties of
states parties to the tr eaty, covenant or convention. They apply in times of
peac e and conflict. Hu man r ights treaties regulate obligations of states
tow ards persons in their ow n territory (rather than tow ards other states). Ev en
though the UDHR is not a convention, it has bec ome “common law ” and is
now considered legally binding for all s tates.

Hum anitarian law (Genev a Conv entions) rules the behaviour of states and
other c ombatants in ar med c onflic ts. It clar ifies obligations betw een states,
e.g. on: hi-jac king, nuc lear w eapons , airspac e, extradition, law s ruling the
behaviour of parties in ar med conflict.

Inalienability: Human r ights are inalienable: they cannot be taken aw ay by
others, nor can one give them up voluntar ily.

Indivisibility: Human rights ar e indiv isible in tw o senses . First, ther e is no

hier archy among different kinds of rights. Civil, political, ec onomic, soc ial and
cultural rights ar e all equally nec essary for a life of dignity . Second, some
rights c annot be suppr essed in order to pr omote others. Civil and political
rights may not be violated to pr omote economic, social and cultur al rights. Nor
can ec onomic, social and c ultural rights be suppr essed to pr omote civ il and
political rights.

Rat ification of an international agr eement (tr eaty, cov enant, c onvention)
repr esents the pr omise of a state to uphold it and adhere to the legal nor ms
that it spec ifies . Ratification is an act of government or parliament that makes
a tr eaty binding and enforceable in the state.

Realisation of human rights. A human right is r ealised w hen individuals enjoy

the freedoms c overed by that right and their enjoy ment of the right is s ecur e.
A pers on’s human r ights ar e realis ed if sufficient soc ial arrangements are in
plac e to protec t her /him against thr eats to her/his enjoyment of the freedoms
covered by those rights.

Reservation to a tr eaty (covenant, c onv ention) indic ates that a state party
does not agree to comply w ith one or mor e of its pr ovis ions . Reserv ations ar e,
in pr inciple, intended to be used only tempor ar ily, w hen s tates are unable to
realise a tr eaty pro-v ision but agree in principle to do s o.

Signing a tr eaty (covenant, conv ention) is an act of gov er nment or

par liament. It repr es ents a promis e of the state to adher e to the princ iples and
nor ms spec if ied in the document w ithout cr eating legal duties to comply w ith
them. Signing is the first step that states undertake tow ards ratifying and thus
bec oming states par-ties to an agreement. Pr esidential signatur e of an
agr eement must be ratified by parliament for the agr eement to become legally

States parties to an inter national agr eement ar e the countr ies that have
ratified it and ar e thereby legally bound to comply w ith its prov isions.
Gov ernments are r epresentatives of states. Once they hav e r atified an
inter national tr eaty, all subsequent gov er nments of that state hav e to abide by
them. If they don’t abide by the treaties ratified by earlier gover nments, the
inter national community can impose sanctions.

Treaty bodies ar e the committees for mally established through the pr incipal
inter- natio nal human rights treaties to monitor states parties’ complianc e w ith
the treaties. Tr eaty bodies hav e been set up for the six cor e UN human rights
treaties to monitor states parties’ efforts to implement their provis ions.

Universalit y. Hu man r ights belong to all people, and all people have equal
status w ith res pect to these r ights. Failur e to r espect an in dividual’s human

right has the same w eight as failur e to respect the right of any other – it is not
better or w orse depending on the person’s gender , race, ethnicity, nationality
or any other distinction.

Acronyms and Abbreviations
CAT Convention agains t Torture and Other Cr uel, Inhuman or
Degr ading Tr eatment or Punishment
CEDAW Convention on the Elimination of A ll Forms of Discrimination
Against Women
CICL Children in Conflic t w ith the Law
CRC Convention on the Rights of the Child
CRP Child Rights Pr ogr amming
CSA Country Situation Analys is
CSP Country Strategy Paper
HR Human Rights
ICCPR Inter national Covenant on Civil and Polit ic al Rights
ICERD Inter national Conv ention on the Elimination of All Forms of
Rac ial Discrimination
ICESCR Inter national Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
ILO Inter national Labour Or ganis ation
NPA National Plan of Action
RBP Rights- bas ed Programming
Sc save the Childr en
UDHR Univ ersal Declar atio n of Human Rights
UN United Nations
UNDP United Nations Development Pr ogr amme
UNICEF United Nations Childr en’s Fund
UNIFEM United Nations Development Fund for Women


All ianc e Child Rights Pr ogramming Working Gr oup TOR


CRP Chec klist for Assessing a Pr oject Proposal

References :

Child Rights Pr ogr amming, How to apply Rights based approac hes in
Programming: A handbook for Internatio nal Save the Chidlr en Alliance
Members, Sav e the Children, 2002

Compr ehensiv e Par tic ipatory Planning and Evaluation. Lefevre Pierr e;
Kols ter en Patr ick; De Wael Marie-Paule; Byekw aso Fr ancis; Beghin Ivan;
Tropical Medic ine, December 2000.

Implementation handbook for the conv ention on the Rights of the child,
UNICEF, 1998

Inter national Sav e the Chidren Alliance Child Pr otection Policy

Gender in Early Childhood Edited by Nicola Y elland, 1998

Hand Book For Child Rights Pr ogr amming, Sav e The Children, 2002

Tools for CRP, Joac him Thesis , 2001

Tool Kit On Child Rights Pr ogramming Save The Children Denmark, 2002

Brief Descriptio n of the session:
Part icipant s are in troduced to the Too l fo r CR Situational An alysis by talking
them th ro ugh each step of the guideline


Obj ecti ves:

By the end of the se ssion participants will -
ƒ Be able to describe the application of Guideline for Child Rights Situation

M ethods/Tools: Discussion an d pre sentat ion

Training M aterials: OHP, flip chart, pen, m arke rs, et c.

List of Handout s: Guideline fo r Child Rights S ituation Analysis


Step 1
Ask participants to discuss in small groups
ƒ What h ave bo ys and girls prioritised?
ƒ Which are the prioritised dut y beare rs an d what are the dut y bearer’s
prio rit ies?
ƒ What are the other acto r’s prio ritie s?
ƒ What are the (own ) o rganisation’s prio rities from SWO C analysis?

Step 2
Ask participants to discuss in small groups
ƒ Which prio rities would have the highest impact on addre ss children’s
righ ts violatio ns?
ƒ How will it prio rities help in st ren gthenin g on accountabilit y of duty
ƒ How will the prioritie s enable children and yo un g peo ple (from all
backgroun ds: age, sec, ethnicity, disabilit y, etc.) active participat ion in
pro gram me?
ƒ How will priorities help to address discrimin atio n in t he so ciety?

Step 3
Part icipant s agree ion a plenary the key o rganisat ional priorities for
strengthening their pro gram me work.

Special Notes:
ƒ Partici pants us e t his inf orm ation t op develop t heir programme strat egy or
revi ew t heir existing programme st rat egy