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CIVIL AFFAIRS

HANDBOOK

DENMARK

WSoc #
LIBRARY

v.s ,*;

ARMY SERVICE FORCES MANUAL

(B)^ M I

\^
i.
i.

**

CIVIL AFFAIRS HANDBOOK

DENMARK
SECTION 7 : AGRICULTURE

UNCLASSIFIED
VHjmiPNr
Dissemination of restricted Batter. The information con tained in restricted documents and the essential characteristics of restricted \u25a0aterial may be liven to any person known to be in the service of the United States and to persons of andoHbted loyalty and discretion who are cooperating in Government work, but will not be coaaiin icated to the public or to the press except by authorized Military public relations (See also par. 18b, agencies. AR 380-5, 28 Sep 19*2.)

JAN 31*46

HEADQUARTERS, ARNY SERVICE FORCES, 23 FEBRUARY 1944

UNCLASSIFIED
DENMA.RK

v/a *-as7 USU


*, /

M 366-7 M 366-8 M 366-9

23 Feb# 1944 Section 7t Agriculture


20 Juiu 1944 Section 8t Industry and Commerce
2 Jun. 1944 Section 9: Labor

j**7

n^'^Xa^nc-et^SUa,^

UNCUSSIFIED

ARMY SERVICE FORCES MANUAL

M 366-7

Civil Affairs

UNCLASSIFIED
CIVIL AFFAIRS HANDBOOK

DENMARK
SECTION 7: AGRICULTURE

\
j^

HEADQUARTERS, ARMY SERVICE FORCES, 23 FEBRUARY 1944

o o
CD C\ O <O

Oisseminat ion of restricted natter. The information con tamed in restricted documents and the essential characteristics of restricted material may be given to any person known to be in the service of the United States and to persons of undoubted loyalty and discretion who are cooperating in Government work, but will not be communicated to the public or to the press except by authorized military public relations agencies. (See also par. 18b, AR 380-5, 28 Sep 1942.)

UNCLASSIFIED -

UNCLASSIFIED

NUMBERING SYSTEM OF

ARMY SERVICE FORCES MANUALS

The main subject matter of each Army Service Forces Manual Is Indicated by consecutive numbering within the following categories:

- M99 - M199 M2OO - ME99 M3OO - M 399 M4OO - M499 M5OO - M 599 M6OO - M699 M7OO - M799 MBOO - M899 up M9OO
Ml MIOO

Training Army specialized Training Program Induction Training

Basic and Advanced Personnel Fiscal

and Pre

and Morale Civil Affairs Supply and Transportation

Procurement and Production


Administration Miscellaneous
Equipment,

Materiel, Housing

and Construction

* * *

HEADQUARTERS,
Washington

ARMY SERVICE FORCES' 26, D. C. 23 February 1944.


Agriculture,

Army

Service Forces Manual M 366-7, Denmark,


the supervision of The Provost Marshal of all concerned.

has been pre


published

pared under

General and Is

for the information and guidance

[SPX

461

(21

Sep

43)/

command of Lieutenant

General SOMERVELLJ
W. D. STYER.
Major General,

General

Staff corps,

Chief of staff.

OFFICIAL: J. A. ULIO,
Major General,
Adjutant
General.

UK

iD

UNCLASSIFIED

This study on Agriculture in Denmark


vat

prepared for th#_

MILITARY OOTBRHMJBHT DI7ISIOI, 07FICB 07 THI PROVOST MARSHAL GENERAL


by the

DEPARTMENT Of AGRICULTURE, OFPIGE 07 TORIIGH ABBICULTURAL BSLATIOHB

Officers using this sate rial are requested

to sake suggestions

and

criticiss indicating the rerisions or additions which would make this

material more useful for their purposes.

These criticisms should be

sent to THE CHIS7 07 TES LIAISOH ABB STUDIES BRANCH, MILITARY QOVSBHMBKT

DIVISIOH, PMOO, 2807 MUHITIONS BUILDING, WASHINGTON 25, D. C.

-\

UNCLASSIFIED

IHTRODECTIOH
Purpose! of the

Civil Affairs Handbook,

The basic purposes of civil affairs officers are (l) to assist the Commanding General by quickly establishing those orderly conditions which will contribute most effectively to the conduct of military operations, (2) to reduce to a minimum the human suffering and the material damage resulting from disorder, and (3) to create the condition* which willmake it possible for civilian agencies to function effectively. The preparation of Civil Affairs Handbooks is a part of the effort to carry out these responsibilities as efficiently and humanely as possible. The Handbooks do not deal with plant or policies (which will depend upon It should be clearly understood changing and unpredictable developments). that they do not imply any given official program of action. They are rather ready reference source books containing the basic factual information needed for planning and policy making.
The study is divided in three parts. The first deals with the basic
The second part is
conditions under which Danish agriculture operates; pec- war position of the country's agriculture
devoted to a review of the and food economy, while the third part analyzes developments in agricult ural production, trade, and food consumption since the outbreak of war.

ILllk A2ZAISS lAHDBOOZI

ifiPICAL O2T LI II
Geographical and Social Background

Oorernsent

and Administration

Legal Affairs

4. Government finance
Money and Banking

latural Be source
Agriculture

Industry and Commerce

Labor

10. Public Works and Utilities

11. 12.

Transportation

Bys terns

Communications

13. Public Health and Sanitation

14. Public Safety


16. Education 16. Public Welfare

17.

Cultural Institutions,

This study on Agriculture in Denmark was prepared for the MILITARY 00T1RHMEHT DIVISION, 07FI0B 07 TRS PROVOST MARSHAL GENERAL by the 077101! 07 TOEBIQH AORICULTUBAL SSLATIOVS, DSPABTMX9T 07 AGRICULTURE.

II

TABLE 01* COHTBHTS


Page

Preliminary

-HoH

iv
1
1
6
8
17
19
22
29

Fart I.

Basic Conditions A. The country and its natural environment B. Types of farming D. Composition of farm labor. Ownership E. Land use and crop rotation F. Use of fertilizers and machinery

C.

The farms

Part 11. Denmark's agriculture and food economy prior to


World War II A* Introduction B. Crops D. Livestock numbers 2. Liestock products r T. Livestock breeds a. Total food self-sufficiency H. Composition of diet

C. Utilisation of crops

29
30
32

41
43
50
54
58

Part 111 Tood and Agriculture since the Outbreak of War A* Summary of war-time developments B* Agricultural production since the occupation Introduction Acreages, yields, and production Utilisation of crops Livestock numbers and production of
animal foodstuffs
C. Foreign trade in foodstuffs D. Food consumption in 1942-43 E. Domestic food supplies available for con-
in 1943-44 ?. Possible surpluses at time of reoccupatlon
Appendix

62

62
65
65
69
71
77
80
83
86
87
89

A Note on Agricultural Cooperatives

in Denmark

1&P: Soils of Denmark

26b

111

LIST Of TABLES
Page

1. Meteorological conditions, 1886-1925 average 2. Distribution of farms according to else, 1933 3. Land use on farms "by size groups, 1933 4. Land use on faros by size groups, 1933, (percentage distribution) 5. Livestock on farms of different sizes 6* "Livestock units" per 100 hectares, 1933 7. Man-years of labor per farm and per 100 hectares of agricul tural land in farms of all sixes, 1934 8. Composition of farm labor by farm size groups, 1934 9. Land use in 1937 10. Total quantities of plant food applied, 1933-34 11. Utilization of agricultural machinery, 1936 12. Agricultural land in farms using specified types of machinery,
13. 14. IS. 16.
17,

11

13

14

*1

16
18 21 23 26,26 28 31 34 37 39 42 44 44 46 47 49 51

18.

19.

20. 21. 22. 23. Livestock breeds, 1933 (numbers) 24. Summary of pre-war food production and consumption 25. Pre-war per capita consumption of food, average 1933-1937 protein, fat, and carbohydrate and 26. Nutritional conversions per kilogram of food calories 27. War-time reduction in plant food content of available fer tilizer and manure supplies 28. Disposition of the 1942 grain crop as determined in the Grain Law 29. Disposition of the 1942 potato crop 30. Available feed, 1940-41, 1941-42, and 1943-43 31. Food production, trade, and consumption, 1942-43 32. Per capita consumption of food, 1942-43

1936 Acreage, yield, and production of specified crops Available feed, average 1933-1937 pre-war grain balance, average 1933-1937 Pre-war balance of legumes, potatoes, and sugar, average 1933-1937 July census Livestock on farms Production of animal foodstuff* pre-war production of animal foodstuffs from domestic and imported feed, average 1933-1937 Pre-war milk balance, average 1933-1937 Pre-war edible fats and oils balance, average 1933-1937 Pre-war meat, fish, and egg balance, average 1933-1937

55
59 61 67 73 75 76 82 84

MAP

Soils of Denmark

93

IV

Preliminary Note

Danish agriculture "before the war was organized with a view to the most efficient production of aaimal foodstuffs. The country was the world market's greatest supplier of "butter,

"bacon, and eggs. Practically all of the crops produced including the bread grains wheat and rye were used as feed for livestock. In addition there were large imports of oil cake and corn for feed. For reasons of quality, bread grains for human consumption were largely imported.

After the outbreak of war, these imports of bread grain and However, the domestic crops concentrates were discontinued. rye normally fed to livestock constituted a re of wheat and
serve of bread grain, sufficient to supply human requirements of farinaceous foods. As a result the use of these grains for feed has been prohibited since the fall of 1939. The livestock industry had to be adjusted to this two-fold reduction in feed supplies, the absence of imported feed and the diversion of domestic bread grain from feed to food uses. By the summer of 1942 cattle numbers had been reduced. by almost 15 percent, hog numbers by more than 60 percent. An equilibrium had been reached when the domestic crops supplied the population with its bread stuffs, sugar* vegetables, fruits, etc., as well as the live stock industry with sufficient feed for a production which was severely reduced, to be sure, but still large enough to permit substantial exports.

Good crops in 1942 and 1943 have caused an upward trend in live stock numbers most important in the case of hogs. A possibly
less favorable growing season in 1944 and the cumulative effect of war-time shortages, for instance of fertilizers, may well arrest or* reverse this recent trend. In spite of such fluctua tions Denmark will probably be able to continue on a basis of food and feed self-sufficiency with some export surpluses of

animal foodstuffs.
Barring extensive disruptions of transportation and severe de structions of supplies Incident to military action, Denmark should not be in need of food relief at time of reoccupation. Far from being a liability to the United Nations in respect to foodstuffs, it could contribute some of the scarce and valuable animal foodstuffs to other countries. Furthermore, the produc tive capacity of Danish agriculture in the winter of 1944 is still so far intact that a reversion to the former high level of efficiency in respect to the livestock industry within a few years after the resumption of world trade is very well possible.

C UR INM.2I!AGR IV L I E
Part I BASIC CONDITIONS A. The
country

and its natural environment

Situated "between the North Sea and the Baltic Denmark it a country of many Islands and one peninsula, Jutland, stretch
ing north from the German border,
country is only 42,931

While the area of the whole

square kilometers (sq. km.), it has a


Out. of a total number of 483 Islands

coast-line of 7,438 km.


101 are inhabited. was 3,844,000.

The total population figure in November 1940

Of these, 1,406,000 lived in Jutland with its


(ha.)., while another 1,406,000

land area of 2,379,000 hectares

lived on the largest island, Sealand,

of 702,000 ha.

The presence

of Copenhagen with 814,000 inhabitants on this Island therefore


contributed to the high average population figure of 200 per sq.

km. as compared to only 59 per sq. km. in Jutland.

Second largest

of the islands is Funen with 326,000 inhabitants and 298,000 ha.


or 110 per sq. km.
Occupational

statistics are only available for 1930, when With their

525,752 persons
dependents

were employed in agriculture proper.

they numbered 1,029,208 or 29 percent of the population;

193,577 were owners or operators

of farms.

The farm population's

share of the whole population was only very slightly larger than

that of crafts and industries, but the latter constitute a much


less homogeneous

group.

The main resources

of the country are agricultural, and

climate, soils, and topography by and large favor agricultural


pursuits.

The climate is a cool temperate climate with mild


and humidity is high.
Precipitation,

winters and cool summers,

although not great, is therefore adequate

throughout the year.

Fluctuations
great.

in temperature

from day to day are generally not and precipitation "by months as well

Average temperature

as average numbers of hours of sunshine and days of frost are


shown in table 1.

Winter temperatures

generally oscillate around

freezing although severe

winters occasionally

occur.

Hard frosts The mean

in spring, causing damage to crops, are not frequent.


temperature

in the interior of Jutland is generally a degree or

two lower than along the coast, both in winter and summer.

While

precipitation is fairly plentiful all year round, it is greater


in the summer culminating in August with 80 mm. while February,

March, April, and May have only 34, 41, 40, and 42 mm. , respec

tively.

Dry periods during these months occasionally

hamper grains

on light soils.
cipitation.

The southern part of Jutland has the largest pre

In spite of the small area of the country, climatic differences are significant enough to influence crop conditions.

Thue the growing season starts 14. days to one month earlier on
the islands than in the northern and northwestern parts of Jutland,

and the frost-free period lasts about a month longer in western

Table 1. DENMARK: Meteorological conditions, 1886-1925 average


Average temperature

nth
January

Days of frost

Hours of sunshine 36
64
119
175
248
254
246
214
159
98
49
27

1/

Precipitation

Centigrade

millimeters 44
34
41
40
42
47
64
80
57
66
53
58
626

0.1 -0.1

21 21 18 7 1 0 0 0 0.2 3 10 16 97>

February

March
April May

1.6
5.5 10.7 14.2 16.0 15.3

June
July August September

12.3 8.1
4.1

October November
December Tear

1.6

7.. 5
Statistlsk
Aarbog, 1941.

1689

Source:

Office of Foreign Agricultural Relations


December 1943

1/

1903-1934

Jutland than in the rest of the country.

1/

Soils.- G-lacial deposits have formed the surface soils


of Denmark,
Only on the small island of Bornholm in the Baltic

does the granite bedrock in places appear from this, formations


country,

on the surface.

Apart

of the chalk period are the oldest in the

From the point of view of agriculture it is mainly the

"blanket of glacial deposits which is .of interest although the limestone of the chalk period is of direct importance too "because
it is toeing used in liming of the agricultural

soils.

The map on Glacial clay

page 93 shows the distribution of soils in Denmark.

loam, gravel, and sand are the three predominant

types of surface

soils.

Gravelly and sandy soils predominate

in the sections marked


type of sandy

"sandy soils. 11

wHeath soils" designate

the poorest

soils.

Glacial clay predominates

both as to extent and thickness

of deposits.

The islands and the eastern parts of Jutland are to


The clay has a variable

a large extent covered by this soil. content of stones,

rocks, sand, clay, and lime, depending upon

the geological formation of those regions over which the ice

sheets passed before reaching Denmark.

The lime content thus is


towards

high in the eastern parts of the country, but diminishes

the interior of Jutland.

The glacial clay Is made up of clay thoroughly mixed with sand and gravel and contains valuable plant foods.
Because of its

1/ Discussion of climate, soil, and


Jensen:

topography based on Einar

Danish

Agriculture.

physical properties it preserves moisture well and absorbs added


plant food readily.

It is the most important, most stable

soil

basis for Danish crop production although it is a rather heavy soil. Another heavy fertile clay soil is found in northern Jutland deposited in fresh or salt water in interglacial or post
glacial times.

The lighter soils of Denmark are made up of stratified


glacial sand and gravel.

An admixture of clay in many places


But where the

makes

them fairly good for agricultural purposes.

subsoil is glacial gravel which has too little power to absorb


plant food and

conserve moisture for agricultural purposes,

the

land has never been cleared of forests.


Through the central and western parts of Jutland is large stretch of glacial outwash plains of poor and sandy

soil.

On account caused obstacle

of the particular vegetation on this soil leaching has


which is a great

the deposit of a compact layer of hardpan, to all cultivation.


Only in recent

days of cheaper power,

fertilizer, and lime has it been possible to take in land of this


nature for agriculture*

The

topography

of a country is important to agriculture


the degree of ease

not only because

it determines

agricultural operations age of mechanized

can be carried out

agriculture

- particularly

with which in an

but also because

level land is
country

less subject to erosion.

In Denmark the bottom moraine

the fertile glacial clay loam district referred to above flat or gently rolling.

-
is

Where, on the other hand, terminal


of the land, steep hills and southern Funen, and in A third type of landscape

moraines have shaped the surface

ridges are found as in central Sealand,

a "belt through the middle of Jutland.

is formed by the already mentioned glacial outwash plains in

central and western Jutland, a gently, sloping surface occasionally


broken by land of higher elevation (moraine formation of earlier
glaciations,

smoothed down by erosion.)

Along the western coast of south Jutland is a

narrow

belt of fenlands, B.
Types

low level clay land, formed by ocean deposits.

of

farming

The differences

in the natural basis for agriculture as

between various parts of Denmark are not as striking as in most

countries, and it is therefore

to be expected

that farms at least


By and large

within a certain size group are fairly homogeneous. this is true.

A good medium size farm, say, from 15 to 30 ha.,

may have about 40 percent of its land in grain, 15 to 20 percent

in roots, and 30 to 40 percent in pasture and hay. and with the help of some purchased

On this basis, 10 to 15 cows

concentrates,

may be kept and a number of hogs, as well as some other livestock. Dairy products

and pork are the main source of income.

Sale of

plant products is generally not important.

This is a typical Danish farm.


are of two kinds.

Variations from the type

First there are some variations in farming

practices

due to variation in size of farm.

This may roughly "be

described "by an increase with a decrease

in the intensity of livestock production On the other hand, grain as

in the size of farm.

a source of cash is of importance

on the larger farms.

Second,
the data

there are regional variations.


involved in the farm management

A detailed study

2] of

and farm income reports collected

by the Danish Farm Management, Bur.eau

as well as official agri

cultural statistics may be summed up in the following types of


farming characterization.

1.

On the clay loam soils of eastern

Jutland

and the

islands, the type of farming conducted is of the dairy-hog type,


with 40 to 45 percent of the land in cereals, in roots, and 30 to 35 percent in meadows 12 to 16 percent

for pasture and hay.


the

Dairying provides a greater part of the farm income than does

sale of hogs and more than 40 percent of total income.

2.

Coastal stretches

of land along the eastern coast

of Jutland as well as coastal areas of the islands with the rich


est soil and mildest climate in the country have around 50 percent

of the farm land in grain and only about 25 percent in pastures and hay.
Sugar beets and root seed crops

are specialized crops


But dairying and pork

of particular importance in this region.

production remain the chief source of income.

3.

Around the western part of the Lime Tjord in northern The climate is,

Jutland is another fertile clay loam area.

}|7

Elnar Jenaen.

Danish

Agriculture, x>. 297.

however, somewhat different from the already described regions


windier and with more rainfall and a larger percentage

of the

land is in pastures.

While the number of cattle per unit of

land is as high as anywhere in the country, the number of dairy

cows is not as high, and beef production is here an important source of income together with dairying and pork production.
4.
On the sandy soils of western Jutland (south of the

Lime Fjord) cereals claim only 35 percent of the farm land and
yields

are fairly low while pastures

take up a full 50 percent.

Cattle raising emphasizes beef production as well as dairying.


Hog numbers

are smaller than in the first mentioned three sec

tions of the country.

5. In central Jutland are the poorest soils (partly


the glacial outwash plains). The relative share of land in

grains, pasture and roots is somewhat like that of wet tarn Jut

land.

Dairying is the

main farm enterprise, btef production is

not important, and the number of hogs is smaller than in most

other sections of the country. 6.

The fenlands on the west coast of southern Jutland,


There agriculture is

when drained, provide excellent pasture.

distinctly different from that in the rest of the country with fattening of cattle at the farmers
1

primary occupation.

C.

The farms
In 1933 there were 204,231 farms in Denmark with a total

agricultural

area of 3,176,000 ha. (table 2).

This gives an

Table 2.

BE1IMABK:

Distribution of farms according to size, 1933

Size-group

Farms otal number Percent 3309 4785 19899


f

Land in farms

Total area
hectares 3442 5889 43904 111303 360891 333715 973787 844828

Percentage

hectares 0.55 1

- 1.5

-1
3

1.6 2.3

0.1 0.2 1.4 3*5 11.4

1.5

9.7 13.6
i

3-5 5-10 10

27730 50054 26860 45492

- 15

24.5 13.2 22.3 10.5 1.8 0.4 0.1


100.0

10.5 30.7
26.6 9.1 3.7 2.8 100.0

15-30 30-60

21406
3769 740 287 204231

60-120
120-240 240 and over Total

290087
119172 89939 3175957

Source: Statistiske Meddelelser. 4 Raefcke, 102 Bind, 2 Haefte, og Kreaturhold efter Ejendqmsstdrrelse 1933".

wArealanvendelse

Office of Foreign Agricultural Relations December 1943

10

average

size of about 15 hectares,

glance at the table shows

a great concentration
prises
22,3 percent

of farms of 16 to 30 ha.

This group com

of all farms and 30.7 percent of the total


Farms of 30 to 60 ha. claim 10.5 percent

agricultural land.

of the farms with 26,6 percent of the area.

Another large group

from the point of view of number of farms is that of 5 to 10 ha. with almost one- fourth of the farms, but only 11.4 of the agri cultural area*

This small farm type has been favored by legisla


of small holdings,

tion, providing loans for the establishment


the so-called Stats-Husmandsbrug.

The legislation,

which dates

back to 1899, first aimed at the establishment


holdings,

of much smaller

which would prdvide only part-time occupation for its

owner.

The intention was partly to tie more agricultural labor

to the land, but this policy later gave way to one of establish
ing holdings of a size, which under Danish conditions emphasis

- with

on livestock production

-
would provide

a complete live

lihood for the family.

Tables 3 and 4 provide a description of the land use


on farms by size groups. The similarities in the land use on

large and small farms are more striking than the differences.

The area in grain is very close to 40 percent of the agricultural


land on farms of all sizes.

The more intensive livestock pro

duction on smaller farms is, however, reflected in the fact that farm 8 of less than 10 ha. have 20 to 28 percent of their land

11

Table 3. DENMARK! Land use on farms by size groups, 1933 Grain


Size-group

Roots

Other crops

Fallow

hectares 0.55 1 1-1.5 1.5 -.3


3-5 5-10

Grass and green feed in the rotation 1,000 hectares 1 2 12


29 91

Grass and green feed outside the rotation

Total area

agri

cultural

'
1 2 18 48
156

1 1
10

10 15 15-30 30-60
60 120

24
74

... ... ...


1 2

...

3 16
3

44

11
4

8
34

--120 240

142 408
344

113
48

62 164 125 37 15
11
524

1 5 6'
4

5 15 14
4

240 and over Total

37
1,317

3 6 29

2 3 48

83 233 183 56 19 13 722

41 148 172 77 31 21 536

111 361 334 973


844

291 118
91

3,176

Table 4. DENMARK: Land use on farms by size groups, 1933 (percentage Grain
Size-group

distribution)

Roots

Other crop

. Fallow ' Grass green


in the

and
feed

Grass and green feed outside the

Total agri cultural area

hectares

1 0.55 1 1.5 1.5 3


3-5 5-10

-
- -
--

rotation percent 34.4 38.1 28.2 23.7 22.6 21.6 20.4 18.6 16.8 14.8 12.8 12.9 11.9 16.5 6.3 3.0 1.8 0.9 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.7 1.2 2.8 6.3 0.9 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.1 1.1 1.4 1.6 1.7 1.3 1.8 2.9 1.5 22.3 26.4 27.2 26.2 25.3 24.9 23.9 21.7 . 19.3 16.2 14.2 22.7

rotation 8.1 8.0 5.9 6.9 9.6 12.2 15.3 20.4 26.5 26.0 23.7 16.9
1933,
M

4i.6
43.3 43.2 42.5 41.9 40.7 38.9 40.3 41.0 41.5

10-15 15 30 30 60 60 120 120 240 240 and over Total


Source:

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Statlstlske

"Arealanvendelse og Kreaturhold efter E,jendomsBtorrelse Meddelelser. 4 Raekke, 102 Bind, 2 Haefte. Office of Foreign Agricultural Relations December 1943

12

in root crops while the percentage is 12 to 18. in respect

for farms of more than 10 ha.


difference exists

A similar though less pronounced

to grass and green feed in the rotation,

for grass

and green feed outside

the rotation the trend is reversed.

The more intensive livestock production on small farms


is also brought out in table 6.

In this table all categories of

livestock on farms have been placed on a comparable basis by con


version into a common denominator, a "livestock unit. 11

3/

(Actual

livestock numbers are given in table, 5. )


as
ttnumber

They are then presented

of livestock units per 100 ha. N in farms of all sizes.

Small holdings of less than 5 ha. have from 200 to 350 such live
stock units per 100 ha. As might be expected the small holdinge In respect

are particularly well stocked with chickens and hogs.

to cattle, the concentration per 100 ha. is only twice as great

on the smallest farms as on the largest.


grown

The importance of home

coarse fodder (grass, roots, and green feed) is, of course,

much greater in the case of cattle than in the case of hogs and
chicken, so that the size of farm sets definite limits to the
number of cattle kept, while a large number of hogs or chicken
may be kept

on purchased concentrates

even on a very small farm.


outstanding

In this between

fact lies the basis of one of the

differences

the economic organization of the large and small farms in

according to which each type of livestock has been converted into livestock units is as follows: 1 livestock unit ; 1 horse over 2 years !;Sepl^B \u25a0 1 dairy cow 2*25 heads of young cattle 6 hogs iee P*

3/ The scale

4HHMKNMBHHto*

13

Table 5.

DENMAiIK: Livestock on farms of different sizes

Size-groiap

Horses

Cattle Total Cows


3 8 56 138 405 355 997 779 236 91

Sheep

Hogs

Chickens

hectares

0.55

1000 heads 1 1 2 12 34 87 56 144 111 31 2.. 6 42 98 264 209 543 400 117 49 37

1-1.5 1.5

-3

..

8 15 101 246 656 516

214 314

2 3 11 17 56 55 18 6 4 172

1,411 2,162 4,339 2,704 5,653 3,338


662

3-5 5-10

10

15

15-30
30 60

- 60
120

1,372 1,005
294 96

120-240
240 and over

'

10 7 495

153 63

63
3,131

56
4,365

Total

1,767

21.0J.3
1933," Statis

Source: "Arealanvendelse og Kreaturhold efter Ejendomsstdrrelse tlske Meddelelser. 4 Raekke, 102 Bind, 2 Haefte.

Office of Foreign Agricultural Relations December 1942

14

Tatle 6.

DENMARK:

"Livestock units" per 100 hectares,

1933

\u25a0

Horses

Size of farm
hectares

Cattle Total Cows 105.6 112.3 110.8 104.0 90.5 82.2 76.4 67.2 58.7 56.6 54.0 94.1 97.4 96.6 87.8 73.1 62.8

Hogs

Sheep

Chickens

Total

0.55-1 1-1.5 1.5-3


3-5

19,6

52.0

1.4
0.8
0.7

175.1 106.8
64.3

353.7 283.0 237.5 206.5 165.7 140.1 126.2 108.2 91.0 81.5
74.3

30.9 23.2 26.4

42.2
38.5 36.9 30.3 25.8 23.5 19.8 16.9 13.5

0.4
0.4 0.7

38.8 24.0 16.2 11.6 7.9 4.6 2.6


1.4

5-10
10-15 15-30 30-60

'

20.5
15.2

13.9

55.7
47.3 40.5 41.0

0.8 0.9 0.9 0.7 0.6 0.8

- 120 60
240 and over

12.4
9.9 8.1 8.0

120-240

41.1
55.6

10.3
22.9

Total
Source:

14.2

74.7

13.2

125.8

"Arealanvendelse og Kreaturhold efter Ijendomsstflrrelse Meddelelser. 4 Raekke, 102 Bind, 2 Haeft*. Office of Foreign Agricultural Relations December 1943

1933," Statistiske

If See footnote 3, page 11.

15

Denmark:
in cereals

the large farm

- grows

- with about - grown much

40 percent of its area

more grain than it uses and is therefore a

seller of grain while the small farm cent of its area in grain

- also

with about 40 per-

less grain than is needed

for feed, and it becomes a purchaser

of grain.

The difference in production intensity as between small


and large farms is further illustrated in the intensity of the
application of labor.

Table 7 gives the number of full-time

employed men on farms of various sizes, both in absolute numbers per farm, and in numbers per 100 ha. of agricultural land in

each size group.

All labor has been converted into this common


Leaving the very small hold

denominator,

the "man year of labor."

ings of less than 3 ha.

out of consideration, it will be seen that

the application of labor per

unit of land is 2 to 3 times as

great

on farms of 10 ha* or less as on farms over 60 ha.

The different intensity in the livestock production on


these farms as reflected in the figures of table 6 provide in part the explanation of this fact. It willbe noted, for instance,

that farms of 5 to 10 ha. have 2.2 times as many livestock units


per 100 ha. as the largest farms (over 240 ha.) and 2*3 times as

much labor.

Similarly, farms of 10 to 15 ha. have 1.9 times as

much livestock and I*B times as much labor per land unit as the farms over 240 ha. In spite of these differences, there is an essential the fact remains that

similarity in the type of farming on Danish

16

Table 7.

SKNHIKKi Man-years of labor per farm and per 100 hectares of agricultural land in farms of all siies, 1934

Si ge-group

Man-years per 100 hectares

Man-years
per

fain 0.9 I*o

hectares 0.55 -1.6 1.5


3

93.9 48.5 32.4 21.5

3-5 5-10 10

1.2
1.5

- 15
60

17.4
14.6 11.6 8.9

2.1
3.1 4.5 6.8 14.6

15-30 30

60-120 120-240 240 and Total


Source;
CTer

- 9.0
9.5 15.1
\u25a0

29.1
2.3 Statlstlske Meddelelser.

"Landbrugets Arbejdskraft 1934 og 1935, 4 Baekke, 102 Bind, 3 Haefte.

Office of foreign Agricultural Relations

December 1943

17

farma of all sizes.

All groups depend on mixed farming with


feed, supplemented

daily cattle and hogs fed on home-grown coarse

with purchased

concentrates

(imported oil cake and domestic or

imported grain) the main

source of income.
Qwnershi
that the family size farm

D. Corn-position of farm labor.

It is a common observation

or the farm with one or two hired helpers is characteristic

of

Danish farming.
of man-years

Table gives on a percentage basis the amount

of farm work supplied by the owner (operator), other


types of hired labor.

members of the family, and various

In the

country as a whole 56.2 percent of the labor was supplied by -the operators

of the farms or their relatives, but this percentage

varied f*?om 87.1 on the smallest holdings to 4.2 percent on the


very largest.

On farms of 15 to 30 ha*, which as stated before

comprise 22.3 percent of the number of farms and 30.7 percent of


the agricultural land, the farmer and his family supplied about

one-half of the number of man-years worked, while hired help, liv


ing on the farm, provided 44.6 percent and day laborers only 3*5 percent. Socially there are significant differences

between

the

various categories

of hired helpers.

Those men who work on small

or medium sized farms and live on the farm are often sons of

farmers for whom this work is training for their later occupation
as independent

farmers,

while those employed on larger farms and

the day laborers are to


proper.

be^onsideredasagri

cultural laborers

18

Table 8. ESKMARK: Composition of farm labor "by farm size groups, 1934

Size-grouo

Owner's la"bor on his own farm 67.7 64.4 63.7 57.5 41.0 27.4 18.3 12.7 5.4 2.4 34.6

Children and Hired help -permanent ~k! other relatives Male Female Total Male Female Total
percent

Day

Qcca-

laborers

sional
help

Grand total

hectares 0.55-1.5 1.5-3 3-5 5-10 10-15 15-30 30-60 60-120 120-240 240 and over All farms 8.3 9.7 10.7 11.1 19.4 11.5 21.2

4.6 5.3 6.0 9.1 20.1 29.5 39.2 42.8 44.3 44.6 25.6

6.7 6.8 5.6 6.1 10.6 15.1 16.5 17.0 16.6 16.2 12.5

11.3 12.1 11.6


15.2

0.4 0.7 1.2 0.7 0.6 1.? 5.0 10.5 23.4 28.5 3.3

1.2 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.7


2.3

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0. 100.0 100.0. 100.0' 100.0 100.0.
100,0'
4 Raekke,

11.1 21.8 24.8 26.0 24.5 18.2 13.3 3.9 1.8 21.6

13.7 11.1
14.6 13.9 10.5 11.4 10.6 7.7

30.7 44.6 55.7 59.8 60.9 60.8 38.1

2.8 3.7 6.4 6.5 2.4

7.4 5.9 2.7 1.2

0.6 1.2 12.0 9.6

Source: "Landbrugets Arbejdskraft 1934 og 1935," Statistiske Meddelelser. 102 Bind, 3 Haefte. Office of Foreign Agricultural Relations December 1943

1/ Farm laborers who live on the farm where

they are employed.

19

Viewed from a different angle it is found that in 1984,


57 percent of the Danish farms with 47 percent of the agricultural land engaged no farm laborers the farmer and his family. at all "but were operated entirely by

Another 19 percent of the farms (with

19 percent of the land) had only one hired man, while 24 percent of the farm 8 employed two or more laborers.
Ownership. owner-operated.

The great majority of Danish farms are


carrying low interest

Slowly amortized mortgages,

have been easy to obtain through credit institutions organised on a cooperative basis
siderably.

- a fact

which has encouraged ownership con

In 1919 the percentage

of owner-operated farms was 94.3,

and it is known that this percentage has Increased since then.


E. Land use and crop rotation

The use of the farm land is Intimately tied up with total


agricultural production of both plant and livestock products since

the major part of the crop on Danish farms is fed to livestock on


the farms where it is grown. the half century preceding; It is a

well known fact that

during

the present war Danish agriculture In the direction of more and

underwent a pronounced development

more intensive livestock production.

Around 1860 the country was

still a grain exporter, but 20 years later the increasing emphasis

on dairy cattle and pigs made grain Imports necessary.


not mean a decrease in the area devoted to grain growing

This did Then

as now about 40 percent

of the agricultural land was In grains,

20

but the grain is now fed on the farm, generally not sold.
rye

Wheat and and oats

are grown, but barley,

oats,

and a mixture of

barley

claim a much larger share of the acreage in grain.

The wheat and rye while

area in 1937 was 129,000 ha. and 139,000 ha. respectively,


barley, oats, and mixed grained acreage

was 369,000, 376,000, and

309,000 ha.

Under favorable soil and climatic conditions wheat and

barley give much higher yields than rye and oats, but the latter will

do relatively better on the less fertile and more acid soils. The larger part of the wheat and barley areas are there fore found on the islands (table 9) while Jutland claims
approximately

four-fifths of the rye and mixed grain area and more than two-thirds of the area in oats,
practically all of the wheat is winter wheat*

inter rye is also dominant.

The area in roots is approximately of


As to

the same relative magnitude on the islands and in Jutland.

individual root crops there are considerable differences, however, with potatoes and rutabagas claiming a larger relative share of the
root acreage

in Jutland than

on the islands, while the situation it

reversed in respect to sugar beets and mangels.

The less fertile soil of Jutland is reflected in the lar


ger

area devoted to grasslands both in and outside the rotation.

Out

6f the total agricultural land in Jutland such grassland constitutes


44 percent, while the corresponding percentage
only 31. Crop rotation practices country.

for the islands is

are fairly uniform throughout the

A seven or eight year rotation is common with, for Instance,

21

Table 9.

DENMARK: Land use in 1937

Item

Islands hectares
74131

Jutland hectares
55014 116760

Denmark hectares
129145 139218 368592 376259

Wheat
Bye Barley

22458
201506

Oats
Mixed grain Leguminous plants Total grain

111660
60416 2234 472405* 16902 56707 8618

167086
264599

248777
1495

309193
3729 1326136

85373163797
87246 8560 157771 14374

Potatoes
Mangels
\u25a0

80699 143953
17178

Fodder sugar beets


Rutabagas Turnips

39638
2086

Carrots Sugar beets: for sugar production


for feed Chicory Total roots

783 38815 4309


269 168627.

3346 1183
11423 107

197409 16460
4129

39998 16232
.
376 516434' 48399

34780713604
17304

Other crops Tallow

1/
in the rotation:

34795 30595 5072 14430


73532

37899 8480 18069 279115

405210

Grass and green feed Green feed Lucerne Clover


and grass: for hay for pasture Total

3408 3639
205583

98510 191544grassland

306700 519330-

710874.

Grass outside the rotation:


Meadows, permanent

for hay for pasture Outlying grasslands Total Total agricultural area
"Landbrugsstatistik Source? 4 Haefte.

15730 85034 22122 1228861010852*

120041 218176
100993

4392102190986,

135771 303210 123115 562096 3201838


4 Raekke, 106 Bind,

1937," Statistiske Meddelelser.

Office of Foreign Agricultural Relations December 1943

1/

Seed, buckwheat,

flax, etc.

22

3 or 4 fields of grain, 2 or 3 fields of clover and grass mix

tures, and one or two root or potato fields.- The smaller the
farm, the more roots and the less grass in the
is quite insignificant.
rotation,

fallow

The sequence

of crops varies greatly. are important considera

Combating of weeds and plant diseases

tions.

Foot rot, for instance, is particularly likely to de

velop if wheat and barley

occur too frequently and the oat


is used more often than Grass in the rotation

nematide may become serious if oat

every sth and 6th year in the rotation.

is often triennial, but is rarely of longer duration, and may be annual. to become
y.

The duration of the grass in the rotation has tended


shorter since the introduction of roots.

Use of fertilizers and machinery

fertilizers.- The use of artificial fertilizers has


greatly increased

in Denmark in the last 25 years before the the application of plant food by means of

war. Nevertheless

artificial fertilizers was not nearly as great in Denmark as in Holland and Belgium, and Germany. The intensive use of farm for this fact.

yard manure in Denmark no doubt accounts

Tor 1933-34 a comparison

is available

4/

of the re

spective amounts of plant food supplied by farmyard manure and

fertilizers (table 10).


is evident.

The predominant importance of

Jianure

It supplied 86 percent of the nitrogen, 62 percent Denmark


Agriculture 1935

\u26664/ The

Agricultural Council.

23

Table 10.

DENMARK: Total quantities of plant food applied 1933-34

Item

P205
1,000 metric tons

K2OK 20

Farmyard manure

166 28 194
Percentage figures

89 53 142

189 30 209

Fertilizers Total

Farmyard

manure

86 14 100

62 38
100

90 10 100

Fertilizers

Total

Source:

The Agricultural Council.

Denmark Agriculture 1935

Office of Foreign Agriculture December 1943

24

of phosphoric
compounds,

acid and 90 percent

of the potash.

All fertilizer

or in the case of superphosphate were imported.

the raw material

from which it was produced,

In terms of plant foods the applications per ha. in 1933-34 in 1938-39, respectively, was as follows:

kgs. per ha. 1933-34 1938-39 1938

N K2OK 20

*25

9.3 17.8 6.8

11.9 21.3 13.7 increase in

The figures indicate a rather considerable


the use of

fertilizers in the years immediately pre


to potash fertilizers.

ceding the war, particularly in respect

Trade figures support this fact and further show that during this period there was a decrease "but a more than corresponding rock imported. As to the use of fertilizers and manure for individual
crops,

in the imports of superphosphate,

increase in the amount of phosphate

the following (juot&tion from a publication by the Danish

Agricultural Council

j5/ provides an illustration of its

dig'

tribution in an ordinary rotation of crops on good clay loam soil:

1. Wheat. 200 kgs. superphosphate, per ha.

200 to 400 kgs. of lime

2. Swedes: Farmyard manure and liquid manure, phosphate per ha.

200 kgs. super

5' See footnote 4.

25

3. Barley: 100 to 200 kgs. superphosphate, nitrate of lime per ha.

oto 100 kgs.


200 kgs.

4. Mangels:

Farmyard manure, nitrate of soda.

200 kgs. superphosphate,

5. Barley with grasses and trifoils: 200 kgs. superphosphate, 100 kgs. potash, 0 to 100 kgs. nitrate of lime. 6. Clover grass; 100 to 200 kgs. superphosphate, potash per ha. 7. Biennial grass:
liquid manure

100 kgs.

8. Oats:

200 kgs. superphosphate, ammonia per ha.

100 to 300 kgs. sulphate

9. Permanent pastures:
potash per ha. Machinery.farming

100 to 300 kgs. superphosphate

and

In view of the special character

of Danish

one might expect that it did not lend itself particularly


As a matter of fact, however, "both labor

well to mechanization.

and machinery intensity is great, and Denmark is considered one of the countries where machinery is most extensively used.
This

is due partly to the fact that such a large share of the agri

cultural land is arable, partly to the great number of farms in


to relation i total area.

Furthermore, much machinery is used in

the preparation of feed on account of the great number of live


stock on farms.
High cost of labor is also a contributing fac

tor to the extensive use of machinery. Straw choppers are used on more farms than any other
type of machinery, namely on 139,728 farms (table 11) or 70.6

percent of all farms.

Some type of thresher

is used by 71.7

26

Table

11.

DENMARK: Utilization of agricultural machinery,


Percentage

1936
30 60 to to 6o 120

of farms in each size group using machinery.


hectares

0.55
to Type

3
5

to

numbers
Total number of farms:

to 10

10
to

15
30

120
to

to

240

and

15

percent

240

over

All farms

203 F)00

Number of farms
using machinery:

Tractors
Steam engines

Electro-motors Internal combustion


engines Power windmills

6660 1268 735H

Windmills for water pumps

34822 12587
2927

3.6 3.0 1.2 0.3 0.5 0.6 lO.b 20.6 26.7.38.8 4.8 1.2 18.4 21.9 6.4 3.9 8.3 0.4
2.4 0.3
0.1

1.7 5.4 22.6 58.3 78.5 34 0.7 0.7 1.8 8.7 28.2 0.6 53.5 65.0 69.2 60.5 71.9 37. 1 22.8 21.7 21.5 33.9 40.0 17.6 9.9 12.3 14.7 12.9 5,9 6,4
1.9

0.4

0.7

1.4

3.8

5.4 12.1

24.8

1.5

G-raiif threshers,

double screening Grain threshers, single screening Smaller, single screening threshera Threshers without
cleaning equipment Straw balers Straw presses without ties

13888
29752

65380 33163
29295

6.5 5.4 4,3 6.7 10 .7 30.1 3.1 4.8 7.3 12.2 24.4 36.8 38.0 4.3 14.6 31.7 44.8 48.6 42. 0 24.4
4.7

72.4 90.0 7.0 18.8 6.3 15.0 7.7


2.3 1.5 33. 0
0.7

IA..J 26.9 2A.5 18.7 b.O 8.1 10.

Feed mills
Straw choppers Root washers Root cleaning

14501 86083 139728

2191

10.3 4.8 19.8 32.9 8.4 0.8 2.1 4,0 8.3 12.4 13.8 5.3 13.3 30.2 R0.7 68.2 78.4 20.2 55.0 73.3 00.8 85.2 87.7 0.8

2.9 45.5

69.8 75.6 14.8


5.1 10.0

16.7

0.3

machines
Milking machines

3638

3354.

0.5

0.9

1.3

2.4

15.6 19.^ 20. 4 7.3 81.0 Bl.f 84. A 43.5 88.4 92.5 92.6 70.6 1.1
3.5
11.2 11.2

0.3

1.1

0.1

0.6

Drills
Broadcast seeders Potato planters

Fertilizer distributors Horse-drawn sprayers Liquid manure


distributors

112237 15823 2620

38

8902 3063
5499

354 51351 bO 5 75 57.7 94-.q 95.6 95.6 3 0.3 O.b 1.1 3.3 12.9 20.2 38 .8 63.4 70.7 0.2 I,* 5.0 13.4 24.3 28.1 0.1 0.3 1.3 6.A 15.5 35.6 67.9 84.8 0.2 0.4 1.0 l.b 4.2 13.5 30.4 45.2
0.1

2.3 3.0

R.J b.b

13.8

15.4. 23,3

21.1

1.7 1.0

56.7

0.5

0.9

2.7

4*3

7-4 11.4

16.5 17.8

8.0 1.3 4.5 1.5 2.8

26a

Mowers

Heaping attach
ments Reapers

115915 10b24 7133 19954

Binders Potato diggers Beet lifters


Liquid manure cisterns

29412 82303

54 17*7 0.7 6.2 0.7 A.I 4.3 8.1 0.1 0,2 0.3 0.8

46.9 73.6 88.5 96.2 98,7 94.5 8.6 6.5 7.0 19,2 26.2 18.6 8.2 5.5 5.9 3,4 5.3 10.4 21.3 43.7 70.0 90.4 96.4 95. 0 0.4 1.0 4.4 13.9 27.4 44.0 27 6.4 15.6 31.0 47.5 67.0
0.3 0.5 95.2 0.7

95.9

58.5

36.3

95.6
57.7

4,1 14.9 SA

41.6
3.6

78. 1 83.7
9.0

10.1

Silos

174418 1218

56.7 82.7 91.8 93.6 0.2 0.1


4 Rakke, 10b Bind,

96.4 98. 0 l.b

3.1

92.3

8.4

88.1 0.6

Source : Statistiske brugsmaskiner 193b

" Meddelelser,

Hafte, "Anvendelaen af Land

Office of Foreign Agricultural December 1943

Relations'

26b

U. S. DEPT. OF AGRICULTURE

NEG.256

OFFICE OF FOREIGN AGRICULTURAL RELATIONS

27

percent respect type.

of all farms, but there is probably some overlapping in to threshers where the same farm may use more than one

115,915 farms (58.5 percent) used mowers, while 82,303

used binders and 10,624 reapers.

112,237 farms reported the use


seeders.

of drills, and 15,323 furthermore used broadcast

Electro-motors are in general use, and combustion motors

are not uncommon.

Only 6,660 farms used tractors.

Only among

farms over 240 hectares

are they at all commonly used, while

they were used by 58.3 percent of the farms of 120 to 140 ha.

Attention is called to the fact that Danish machinery statistics


do not give machinery figures, but number of farms using each
particular type of machinery.

Table 12 gives total agricultural area in those farms


which use specified types of machinery, both in hectares a percentage of total agricultural land. and as

Since large farms are

more intensively mechanized


instance, thresher,

than small farms, it is found, for

that while 71.7 percent of all farms use some type of


these farms comprise

87*0 percent of all agricultural

land.

Similarly, that 58.5 percent of the farms which used

mowers Claimed 82.4 percent of the agricultural area.


parison of tables 11 and 12 discloses

A com

further examples of the

same

trend.

With the exception of binders, reapers, and tractors which are normally imported from Great Britain, Denmark produces
its own agricultural machinery.

28

Table 12.

DENMARK : Agricultural land in farms using specified types of machinery,

1936

Area in fame using 1000 hectares

specified

a of machine percent of all farmland

Tract ors Electro-motors Internal combustion engines Grain threshers, double screening Grain threshers, single screening Smaller single screening threshers Threshers without cleaning equipment Straw balers Straw presses without ties Feed mills Straw choppers Milking machines Drills Broadcast seeders Potato planters Fertilizer distributors Mowers Reaping attachments Reapers Binders Potato diggers Beet lifters

'

ljb

285 G9B

$.1 52,5 22*1

451 755 1197 337 021

14*3

38. 0
10*7 26. 0 11. 7 5.0

2634 2622

368

156 2369 030 IJ2 4&0

64.5 83*2

2598
743

452 208 215?

348

4*B 14..6 82*4 IA.J o.b 68.4 11.0


23,6

75.2 20.0

Source: Statistiske * Meddalelser, brugsmaskiner 193b. 1

4 Rakke, 106

Bind,

3 Hafte, "Anrendelsen

af

Office of Foreign Agricultural Relations December 1943

29

Part II S AGRICULTURE USD POOD BCOHOMY PRIOR TO WORLD WAR II A. Introduction

Within the framework of "basic conditions which has been outlined in the preceding chapter, Banish farming has taken the
shape of a highly commercialized type of agriculture,

which for

continued existence in its pre-war structure and volume was de


pendent

on Imports of such saw materials as concentrates

and

fertilizers and on exports of livestock products*

The parti

cular use of the land and the crops was adjusted to this situ ation. While bread grains were grown, most of the domestic

production

was normally used for feed; for reasons of quality,


The other

wheat and rye for human consumption were imported. domestic grains were also fed to livestock,
root crop 8 only a fraction

of the area in
served direct

perhaps one-seventh,

human consumption.

The remaining agricultural area was used feed.

for the production of absolute

In order to evaluate the output of grass and green feed and to apply a common denominator to all crop production, Danish

statistics make use of the Scandinavian unit represents

"feed unit.* A feed

the feed value of 1 kilogram barley, and all


They are, in other words,

crops are converted into this unit.

compared on the basis of their value as livestock feed.

This is

30

not unreasonable

under Danish conditions where such an over

whelming share of the crop is fed to livestock,

a detailed

account of the crop, its composition and utilization as well as of the livestock population and the production of animal food stuffs will be given in the following section. B. Crops A total agricultural area of about 3 million hectares in 1933-1937 (not including fallow land, some outlying fields,

etc.) produced a total crop of 3,353,000 metric tons of grain,


of which only 600,000 tons were bread grains; 1,300,000 tons of
potatoes;

1, 300 fOOO tons of sugar beets; and 22,360,000 tons of


In addition, 2 million tons of hay

roots for feed (table 13).

and 4,5 million tons of straw were grown, and an estimated

2, 7oo, rail.feed units were obtained from grass and green feed*

These crops represent high yields per acre, as table 13


reveals.

Wheat and barley yielded crops which

averaged

close to

30 metric quintals per hal, while oats yielded around 25 quintals,

rye

17

In respect

to roots it will be seen

that the

yield of

feed roots is 570 quintals per ha. as compared

with 326 for

sugar bests.

The dry matter content of the sugar beet is, how


turnips,

ever, much higher than that of feed roots (mangels,

rutabagas) cent.

, namely

22 to 24 percent as compared to 12 to 14 per


There are

Potato yields averaged 169 quintals per ha.

significant

differences between Jutland and the islands In

31

Table 13.

EBKMAHK: Acreage, yield, and production of specified crops

Crop

1933-37

1939

1940
Acreage

1941
(IQQQ hectares)

1942

1943

Wheat
Hye

119
145

134 137
421

82

Barley

Oats

356 378
333

Others, mainly mixed grain Total grain

1331
77

Potatoes
Sugar beets

Roots for feed Total roots Natural and cultivated meadows for hay (Trass and green feed

41 401 519 398


750

376 307 1375 70 40 415


525

139 397 347 329 1294 64


44 410

82 192 377 342 328 1321 73


46

46

518 325 875

393 512
267

ISO 413 338 376 1323 99 45 395 539 223 950

226 393 328 320 1313 ~ 1/ 128 385


553

45

358 816 Yield (100

960

kilograms per hectare)

Hye

29.2 17.3 Barley 28.2 25.8 Oats Others, mainly mixed 23.3 169.2 Potatoes Sugar beets 325.9 Feed roots 569.6 Hay 50.5 34.1 Straw Orass (100 feec? units per ha.) 35.9

Wheat

31.4 17.6 29.7 26.8 22.8 176.0 399.7 598.5 44.3 34.4 35.6

23.1 19.5 29.2 26.1 21.9 209.6 361.0 573.7 43.3 31.0 32.1

23.2 15.2 24.4

21.0 17.7 180.8 344.8


520.0

33.8 29.5 28.1

35.1 21.5 33.6 29.6 25.3 172.9 320.8 550.0 38.1 29.0 27.8

39.1 22.1 32.3 31.7 27.8 151.2 291.1 542.9

production (1000

metric tons)
190

Wheat
Hye Barley

348
252

419 241

189
272

20
410

Oats
Others, mainly mixed Total grain

1004 977
777

Potatoes
Sugar

3353 1306
1339

beets

Hoots for feed Total roots


Kay Straw

22860
25505

1249 1011 702 3622 1224 1583 24868


27675

1159 907
720

310 920 720


580

3247 1352
1570

23546 26468
1408 4003

2720 1320 1593 20447 23360


900

2009 4538 2696

1588
4731

3900 2700

1390 1000 950 3770 1700 1450 21700 24850 850 3845 2640

180 500 1270 1010


890

3880 1940 1310 30900 24150


2110

Grass and green, feed (million feed units)


Source:

29C8

2809

Partly official statistics; rsartly U. S. foreign service reports based

Office of

on official Danish statistics. Foreign Agricultural Relations. December 1943 According to one informant. Other sources indicate a potato area of roughly 1/ the same magnitude as in 1942.

32

respect

to potato yields*

In 1937, for instance, the yield in

Jutland was 171 qu. per ha.; on the islands it was only 137. In other years the difference was even greater.
A comparison be

tween the yields per ha. of grains and roots, on the basis of

feed units, shows that roots in general provide twice as many feed units per ha. as do grains (including the feed value of the
straw)

These high yields do, however, involve a high input of


labor, fertilizer, and animal draft power.
root 8 provide the main succulent
they must "be consumed

6/

Furthermore,

while

cattle feed in winter time,

on the farm where they are produced*

There is, therefore, no incentive for a farmer to increase hit


root production, except as his cattle numbers increase.

Production statistics for seeds are not available. Denmark is, however, self-sufficient in respect to seeds with
the exception of the seeds

of some leguminous plants in the

grass fields, such as lucerne, early clover, kidney vetch,

etc.

There are, on the other hand, significant exports of root and


grass seeds*

0. Utilisation of cro Jeed*JL* already emphasized, the major part of the

Danish crop is fed to livestock.

X comparison of the crop figures


normally about and potatoes

6/ Cost of production per ha* of feed roots was

50 percent higher than that of grain; for sugar beets almost twice as high.

33

of table 13 and the livestock feed figures in table 14 show to what extent this statement

holds good.

It will "be seen that 83

percent of wheat, rye, and "barley production was fed to live

stock, while the corresponding


were 90 and 88, respectively

figures for oats and mixed grain

(the remaining 1G to 12 percent

being mainly seed and waste)

In respect the crop was fed*

to potatoes

it was found that 44 percent of

Feed roots, hay, straw, grass, and green feed


No allowance has been In the case of roots

were* of course, altogether used as feed.


made for waste in respect to coarse feed.

it is probably considerable. The average amount of feeds tuffs available annually during the pre-war years from domestic as well as foreign sources is shown in table 14 Amounts are given both in metric tons

and converted into feed units.

An equivalent of a little over


If the milk fed to

11 billion feed units were fed annually.

pigs and calves is included, the total figure is 12 billion.

Of this, home grown coarse, feed provided 7 billion, domestically


produced concentrates

2.7 billion, and imported concentrates

1.5

billion. The bulk of the imported feed was oil cake, of which
the annual imports averaged 0.9 billion feed units, while corn

provided 0.4 billion and grains and bran 0.2 billion. On the
basis of their feed unit value the imported feeds tuffs, therefore

do not appear to have been

or^N^P^jM^BVftrtance.

On this

basis only 12*5 percent of all feed (including milk) was imported

34

Table 14. DENMARK: Available feed,

average 1933-1937

___^

Domestic Imported total feed feed feed 1,000 metric tons feeds: 289 209 835 882 690 2,905 7
90

Domestic Imported Total feed feed feed million feed units 289 209 835 741
621 90 379

Concentrated Wheat
Hye

33 1/
7

Barley

Oats Mixed grains grains ill


Legumes


'

Com Bran Feed meal from grains Other feed meals Oil cake Total concentrated feeds Coarse fodder: Potatoes for feed Feed roots
Hay
Grass and green feed

8 2

130 352 2/ 87 12 17 4' 759

..

379 242 835 889 690 3,035 7 352 95 14 17 759

33 ~ 6

242
835 747

2,695

129

373 7 70 2 12 17 3/ 911
1,513

621 2,824 7 373


77

14 17 911
4,223

2,710

578
22,860

Straw

2,009 4,538

Total coarse fodder Total feed of vegetable origin Milk for feed (all types)
Source:

~
~

578
22,860 2,009 4,538

151
2,396

846 967 2,696


7,056 9,766

~ -1,513

151
2,396

846 967 2,696


7,056 11,279

820

820

Based on official statistics

Office of Foreign Agricultural Relations


December 1943

1/ There was an export of 28,193 tons of barley.


2j Imported as bran or produced from imported grain.
3/ 246 .mi11i0n f v. produced domestically from imported oilseed.

4/ 205,000 tons

produced

domestically from imported oilseed.

35

However, the contribution of the imported feeds tuffs to the


protean rea to Danish livestock

was of much greater signifi


This is particularly

cance.

Domestic feed is low in protein.

true of roots which supply only about 36 grams of protein per

feed unit, while the feed of a high-yielding dairy cow should contain around 125 grams of protein per feed unit. The protein

deficit was therefore made up through the feeding of imported oil cake,

on

the "basis of protein content imported feeds tuffs

provided about

one- fourth of the total supply as compared with

only one-eighth on a feed unit basis*

If measured against the protein content of cattle feed


alone, the share contributed by Imported feed may be estimated
at about one- third.

This Is the more realistic comparison

since most of the imported oil cake is actually fed to dairy cattle.
It means

that the large export surplus of butter to a

great extent was not a genuine surplus but was directly depend

ent on the importation of oil cake.

Similarly a considerable

part of the exports of bacon and eggs was dependent

on imported

corn.

When in the early 1930*8 the foreign markets for Danish

livestock products became increasingly unfavorable as expressed


in low prices and Import restrictions

(more particularly the

British bacon quota), the question of how to bring the produc tion of livestock products more in line with domestic feed
production

was taken up for serious considerations

The war

and the resulting stoppage

of feed imports made a complete

36

adjustment

necessary.

Its consequences

in respect to Danish

livestock numbers and production of livestock products will be


discussed

later. Out of the total


grain crop of

Hunan consumption.-

3,358,000 tons only 59,120 tons, or less than 2 percent, were


used for direct human consumption. Half of this amount was

wheat, so that approximately 8 percent of the wheat crop appears


to have "been used for human consumption. Less than 13,000 tons

of domestic rye or 5 percent of total production was used for the production of rye flour.

The pre-war utilization of the total supply of grains domestic and imported

- is given in table

15.

A total of 424,000

tons of grains was used for the production of flour and groats, of which 365,000 tons were imported.

Furthermore, 47,000 tons

of domestic barley went into industrial uses (beer production).

With milling percentages

of 72.6 for wheat, 90 for rye, 65 for

barley, and 60 for oats a total of 335,000 tons of flour and groats

were produced.

Wheat and rye flour production were of

practically the same magnitude, namely 156,000 tons of wheat

flour and 161,000 tons of

rye flour.

There was, however, an

average import of 17,000 tons of wheat flour, whereas 5,000 tons

of rye flour were exported.

Total consumption of wheat flour


On a

thus was about 10 percent higher than that of rye flour.

per capita basis the total annual consumption of flour, groats,


and rice was 97 kilograms.

37

Table 15.

DENMARK: pre-war grain balance,

average 1933-1937

Wheat

Rye

Barley

Oats

Mixed

Corn

Rice

All
rains

rain 1000 metric tons


Supply

Production Seed and waste


Net production

Net "trade Total supply Utilization

347 31 316
+278

594

252 30 222 +199 421

1,004
83

978
87

769
73

921
-28 893

891
+17

6.96


+356 356

908

696

3,350

304
3,046

+ 832

3,868

Human consumption
as grain or
flour in terms of grain V

215

Other human consumption

Industrial consumption '

179

179

11
47

19

\u25a0


696 696

Feed Total consumption


Human consumption

379 594

242 421

835 893

889 908

352 356


+11

424 47
4 3,393 3,868

Grain for flour Percentage of ex traction Flour eauivalent Imported as flour, groats, etc. Total human con sumption of grain
as flour, grain

215 72.6 156 +17

11 65
7 +2

19
60

90
161

11
+1

-5

424 335 +26

or groats in terms of flour


Source:

173

156

12

11

361

Based on official statistics

Office of Foreign Agricultural Relations December 1943

V Of this

27,100 tons of wheat, 12,600 tons of rye, 10,880 tons of barley, 8,840 tons of oats, or a total of 59,120 tons were of domestic origin.

38

The pre-war "balances are given in table 16.

for legumes,

"potatoes,

and sugar

Total domestic production of legumes,

which after deduction for seed and waste amounted to 6,600 tons, was fed to livestock. Out of an import of 2,200 tons only 1,800 This amounts to only one-half

was used for human consumption.


kilogram per person per year.

Of a total potato production of 1,300,000 tons, according


to estimates
"by Danish authorities, 300,000 tons were used for

direct human consumption.

In addition to this the potato equi

valent of the annual consumption of potato flour was 65,000 tons.


In the first year of the period, that is 1933, there was an import

of 6,000 tons of potato flour, "but since 1934 the Danish potato flour industry has been able to cover total domestic consumption*.
Sugar-beet

production averaged 1,700,000 tons of which

an average

of 1,300,000 tons were used for sugar production.

This

figure varies greatly from year to year due to great vari

ations in yields,

Furthermore,

the sugar content of the beets In some years there have while other years

is subject to considerable

variations.

therefore been significant imports of sugar, showed an export surplus.

On the average for the three year

period there was an import of only 3,150 tons of refined sugar


refined sugar equivalent
production averaged

of imported raw sugar.

Domestic The

lfe,ooo

tons of the refined products.

result Is a very high per capita sugar consumption,


kgs. per year.

namely 49.9

39

Table 16.

EENMAEK: Pre-war 'balance of legumes, potatoes, and sugar rerage 1933^-1937

Legtmes

Potatoes

Sugar

(refined)

metric tons
Bupply

Production Seed and waste Net production


Net trade
\u2666

7740 1161 6579 2213 8792

1306040

181710

319980

986060 14308
971752

181710 + 3150 184860

Total supply Utilisation Human consumption (direct)

1793

300000 65269 28027

2/ 184860

Other human consumption


Industrial consumption
feed 6999

578456
$*1752 184860

Total consumption Source: Based on official statistics

8792

Office of Foreign Agricultural Relations December 1943

1/ Total

sugar beet production was 1,724,740 tons (1933-1937 arerage), of which 1,337,600 tons were used in sugar production, while 387,140 tons were fed. if Including sugar used in industries, of which the ultimate products are dom estically consumed.

40

The degree of of

self-sufficiency In respect

to foodstuffs JLn

vegetal origin may "be

illustrated with a few figures,

estimate has been mad on the basis of calorie content of flour,


groats, and other breadstuff s (including rice) to ascertain

the to

extent to which the Danish crap in normal tines contributes

the domestic consumption of breads tuffs. for other vegetal and animal foodstuffs*

The same has been done It was found that the

total annual consumption of 360,000 tons of breadstuff s amounted


to 1.224 billion calories.

Of these only 42,000 tons or 142 bilThe

lion calories, not quite 12 percent was of domestic origin.


corresponding

calculation for other vegetal foodstuffs gave the


of potato consumption (including potato flour)

following results:

98 percent was of domestic origin, of sugar 98 percent, of fruits


and nuts 72 percent, and of vegetables 100 percent, while all of the consumption of vegetable oil, cocoa beans, of foreign origin. and legumes was

Almost 90 percent of the calories derived


(hard liquor, wine, and beer, all In
It was finally

from alcohol consumption

terms of pure alcohol) was of domestic origin.

found that out of a total human consumption of 2,826 billion calories of foodstuffs of vegetal origin only 46 percent were
derived from Danish resources.

The heavy dependence

on imported

grains for flour production was the main, contributing factor to

this low self-supply percentage in respect to vegetal foodstuffs.


although this dependence

was more apparent

than real, as will


imports of vegetable

later be explained in detail.

6a/

Considerable
>*<

6a/ See

pa*e

56.

41

oils for margarine production were also an important factor in the country's deficit in vegetal products. D. Livestock numbers The feed situation described in the preceding section
provided the "basis for a considerable emphasis

livestock industry with The numbers of animals

on dairy cows and bacon pigs.

kept on Danish farms are given in table 17.

It should be men

tioned that the conceal some significant

average figures for the 1933-1937 period

trends.

For instance,

while the aver

age number of pigs on farms was 3,413,000,

there was a drop from

4,407,000 in 1933 to 3,061,000 in 1934.

UJhe hog figure had cul

mluated in 1931 with 5,455,000 on the basis of which 7 to 8 million pigs were slaughtered
annually.

But severe reductions the

in the bacon quota granted Denmark by England brought about drastic adjustment in the 1934 census
figures.

While total cattle numbers were steadily around 3,100,000


during the period, there was a significant reduction in the number

of dairy cows from 1,770,000 in 1933 to 1.574,000 in 1937 and


a corresponding

increase in the number of other cattle.

The

number of horses underwent a slow but steady growth, and chicken

figures reached a high of 28.6 million in 1935, fell to 26.5

million in 1937, and increased again to 32.4 million in 1939.


Sheep

were not of great importance.


The livestock situation on farms of various sizes has

been described

earlier (see tables 5 and 6).

42

Table 17.

DENMARK:

Livestock on farms

-
July

census

Type

1933-37

1939 ,

1940

___

1941

1942

1943

Horses Cattle: Dairy cows Other cattle Total


Hogs:

1/

523 1664 1428 3092 22 395 823 2173 3413

594 1642 1684 3326 18 390


'

594

589

596 1391
1474

2/ 600

1619
1660

1456
1548 3004

3279

2865
9

2980
9 231

Boars Sows Suckling pigs Other pigs Total

856
1919

17-11 240 761 440 2104 1079

336

172
253 772 1206

429
1342

3/

3183 13530
18869 32399 147

3218 13731
10837 24568

1770
6850 5098

2011

Chickens:
Hens

Other chickens
Total

12136 14736 26872

Sheep
Source:

4/

187

11948

11478 171

14000 180

1933 to 1940 official statistics; 1941-1943 U. S. foreign service reports, based on official Danish statistics

Office of Foreign Agricultural Relations December 1943

T7 The number of horses outside of rural districts was as follows: 1933, 19,000
1939, 17,000; and in April 1941 it was estimated at at least 24 f OOO.
2/ It is not definitely stated that this figure refers to horses on farms, but
it seems likely.
4,407,000 in 1933 to 3,061,000 in 1934.
There 3/ Figure was a drop from only.
refers to 1937 4/

B.

LlTestoek

products

Average annual production figures for the main products

livestock

are presented

in table 18.

The previous discussion of of

feed supplies brought out the fact that the export surpluses

butter, bacon, and eggs were dependent on imported feed supplies


to a considerable extent. In order to evaluate this dependence

in terms of the final product, an allocation of imported feed stuffs to the various types of livestock has been made and the
specific production resulting from this allocated imported feed

was estimated.

It goes without saying that such allocations are

somewhat arbitrary and can be presented only with reservations.


Nevertheless
they

are believed to give a fair approximation to


The results are presented in table 19 It will be seen that over

the actual relationship.

as "-production from imported feed.*

half of the butter production or 97,000 tons was attributed to


foreign feed,

This leaves a production from domestic resources

of 83,800 tons, of which only 33,300 tons were domestically con sumed.

7/

The genuine export surpluses

were also considerable

in

the case of pork and eggs.

Total pork production was 346,000

tons, with 185,000 tons from purely domestic sources and a dom

estic consumption of only 117,000 tons.

8/

Total eggs production

was 96,000 tons 9/, production from domestic feed alone 66,000 tons
and domestic consumption only 20,000 tons.

8/

7/

See table 21, pre-war edible fats and oils balance. 8/ See table 22, pre-war meat, fish, and eggs balance. 9/ Official Danish estimate. In view of later data, production at this time appears to have been underestimated by roughly 10,000 tons. Added to the original estimate,, this would leave a domestic egg consumption of 30,000 tons or 8.1 kgs. per capita.

44

Table 18.

EENMAEK: Production of animal foodstuff s

Foodstuff

933 "37

19 ?9

1940 1941 1000 metric tons 4615


163

1942

1943 2'

Milk
Butter

5281
181

5245
183

3606
125 27 59 190 166 8

3330
108 33

3600
115 33

Cheese Pork Beef and veal Ift** Source:

te 8

1/

29 96 346 149
17

33
135

34
113
,

309
155

13

316 203
11

38
115

38
140

2/5

146

110
6

Based on official statistics

"~"

Table 19.

EHHMABX:

Pre-war production of animal foodstuffs from domestic and imported feed, average 1933-1937

Foodstuff Mi3Jc
Butter

Production from imported feed metric tons

Production from domestic feed metric tons 3003000 83800 29320 66004 184967 149429 8860

Tota3 production metric tons 5261000 180800 29320 96004 346467 149429 17360

Cheese Stefi*
ork

3/

2278000 97000

Beef and veal I****

30000 161500 8600

Office of Foreign Agricultural Eelations December 1943

\J 2/

Estimated.

There was a steady increase in the production of eggs during the period.

% Intermediate

product utilized in production of that- 97,000 tons of butter which is attributed to imported fSed. /r 1/ (contd.) See also footnote 9, ppca *c 43.

45

With an average number of dairy cows of 1,664,000 total annual milk


kg6. per
production came

to 5,281,000

tons annually or 3,174

cow.

The utilisation of this milk is given in the pre

war milk "balance (table 20).

About 80 percent of the milk was Of the skim milk resulting

used for the production of butter.

from this production, a small part, 182,000 tons, was used in


cheese production, and a similar

amount* it tyas been estimated,


By far the greater part

is used for direct human consumption.

however, is used for the feeding of calves and pigs.

In addition

to the skim milk, 138,000 tons of whole milk was used in cheese
production.

Direct human consumption claimed 650,000 tons fresh


A

milk, and 250,000 tons of whole milk were fed to calves.

small amount, 25,000 tons, was used for the production of condensed
milk, of which practically all was exported.

Approximately 80

percent of the butter production and 30 percent of the cheese production were also exported.

If these dairy products are con

verted into their milk eauivalent, it is found that 3,500,000 tons or two- thirds of the milk produced was exported.

Of this

2,278,000 tons or 43 percent

of total milk production were pro

duced from imported feed.

Domestic human consumption claimed a


and

total of 1,529,000 tons of milk, consumed as butter, cheese,

whole milk. Butter consumption on a per capita basis worked out


at 9 kgs. annually, cheese at 5.6 kgs., and whole milk at 175 kgs.

The importance of butter in the total fats supply situation

of the country may be seen in table 21.

Of a total fat consumption

46

Table 20.

DENMARK:: Pre-war milk balance, average 1933-1937

Supply and

Milk

Butter

Cheese

disposition

Condensed milk

Fresh milk
Consumption "by
-producer

Teed

Consump tion "by

production
(Jtilization

5,281

4,218

138

1000 metric tons

others

of milk 1/ Ultimate
production

25

150

500

250

181
-148

2/29
-8
21

Net trade

-3,502
1,779

3/-25

Domestic utilization
Human consumption

33
33

150

500 500

250

4/

1,529

21

150

Based on Official statistics; partly estimated. Office of Foreign Agricultural Relations December 1943

1/ ~ZI

As per DanmarkB Me.ierl-Statistik 1933 to 1938 inclusive.


In the production of this cheese was also used 182,200 tons skim and butter milk.
Zj Fresh milk equivalent.
Fresh milk equivalent of all dairy products.

4/

47

Table 21.

BENMABK: Pre-war edible fats and oils balance, average 1933-1937

"

Olive
Item
;

Other
vegetable oils

Marine
oils

Slaughter fats

Butter

All fats and oils

Domestic production
Net trade Net supply

*47 47

1/

39966

metric tons

22097
-13524

180800
-147506 33294

242863
-144467

+2246
42212

4-14270 14270

8573

98396

Utilization:
For margarine

47 47

42212

Other food uses


Total utilization Source:

14270

2537 6036 8573

33294 33294

59019 39377 98396

42212

14270

Based on official statistics

Office of Foreign Agricultural Relations


December 1943

4J

Refined domestically or produced from imported oilseed

48

of 98,000 tons, i.e. 26.5 kgs. per capita annually


supplied slightly

butter

over one-third.

Vegetable oils provided

42,000 tons and whale oil 14,000 tons.


were used in margarine production. for 8,600 tons* It might be added,

Both of these products fats

Slaughter

that of the hog fats, only

lard is included in these figures.


in the pork figures*

Other hog fat is included

Table 22 finally presents production, trade, and con


sumption statistics

for meat, fish, and

eggs.

Of a total meat

production of 553,000 tons, pork accounted

for 346,000, beef

and veal for 169,000. one-half.


slaughter

Exports totaled 281,000

or just about

Exported live animals were converted into their weight equivalent

and included in these figures.

The

extent to which the export surplus of pork, as well as of eggs, is derived from imported feed has already been discussed. Dom

estic consumption of all meat was at 252,000 tons, which gives

the very high per capita annual average of 68 kgs.

The annual

fish catch averaged 89,000 tons of which 34,000 were exported,


leaving a per capita consumption

of around 15 kgs.

Total

eg*

consumption was 20,000 tons annually

10/ or 5*4 kgs*

per person.

While it was found that only 46 percent of the foodstuffs of vegetal origin consumed were home produced, there is a sur liie production of all livestock 10/ See footnote 9, page 43.
product

as

milk, butter,

cheese.

49

Table 22.

DENKABK: Pre-war meat, fish, and egg "balance, average 1933-1937

Item Domestic production Net trade Total supply Industrial utilization Human
consumption

Beef and veal

Pork

Lamb and mutton

Poultry

Offals

Total meat

Pish

Eggs

--
96004 -75846 20158

metric tons 169229 346467 -42653-229573 126576 116894

1/

3600 +293 3893

1/ 14000 2/
-2180 11820

20000

553^96
271843 19800 252043

88575 -34050 54525

-7340 -281453 12660

3/

19800

3893

~
11820

12660

106776 116894

54525

20158

Source:

Based on official statistics.


Foreign Agricultural Relations

Office of

December 1943

1/ 2/

Estimate for 1933 by Danish authorities. Estimate for 1933 by Danish authorities. Includes liver, hearts, kidneys, and r pork tenderloin.
production of meat meal, bone meal, technical fat, etc.
3/ For

50

meat,

slaughter fats, and eggs.

Fish, is also on an export

basis.

Only one animal foodstuff is imported, namely whale

oil for the production of margarine.

11/

A calculation on a

calorie basis shows that production of animal foodstuffs from domestic resources

(with production from imported feed left out

of consideration)
sumption in the

was as high as 337 percent of domestic con case of eggs, 251 percent in the case of butter,

159 percent for slaughter fats, 155 percent for meat and poultry,
and 142 percent for cheese.

Total annual fish catch was 163


Tor all foodstuffs of

percent of domestic fish consumption.

animal origin taken together (including whale oil) the percent


age was 146*5.

P.

Livestock "breeds
Horses.-

12/

The chief objective in Danish horse breeding

has been to develop a medium heavy draft horse suitable- for agri

cultural work, and the native Jutland horse was found to provide
good material

tor such

breeding.

Efforts to improve this breed


As

have been in progress

since the middle of the last century.

a result, the Jutland breed now provides excellent work horses

that mature early.


light-colored

They

are broad and heavy, generally red with


Stallions entered at shows weigh

manes and tails.

around 1,000 kgs. or more.

These horses are particularly common

in Jutland as table 23 indicates, but they are also in general


use on the Island of Funen. 11/ See table 21.

*"'"i '^W

12/ Based on Denmark

Pre-war fats and oils balance.


Agriculture. The Agricultural Council.

51

Table 23.

DENMARK: Livestock breeds, 1933 (numbers)

Type

Islands
Breeding Trails

Jutland Cows
Breeding

Denmark Cows
Breeding

Cows

Cattle Black and unite Jutland


cattle

Trolls 771 546018 786 4424 1630 354 311 4837 88831 12178 14444 803 243 74 9028 1283 554 11214 49821
Breeding

bulls 344484 335360 9093 3886 1584 193448 68323 73750 120247 1150175.
Mares

Red Danish milk cattle Holland cattle Jersey cattle Jersey crossings Shorthorn cattle Shorthorn crossings Others and mixed Unknown 1-otal Horses Jutland race
Belgian race

242 22141
110
214
24 24 9 175 6779 29718

647962
Mares 14105 8897 11013 8350 2559 171 4972

12420 36585 913 457 98 9052 1292 729 17993 79539-

345255 881378 9879 8310 3214 193802 68634 78587 209078 1798137
Mares

Breeding stallions

Breeding

stallions 577 242 70 73 53 30 116 714 1875.


Rams

stallions 58342 3462 5767 1423 1264 316 8060 695 676 122
254

Others and mixed (heavy)


Frederiksborg race Foreign half-blood

Pure blood Others and mixed Unknown Total


Shee-p

118 433 52 181 83 15 31 366 1279 Ram 8 651 59 582 1292

5006?
Ewes

78634
Ewe's

136 45 147 1080 l/ 3154- 1/128701, Rams 2916 436 4533 7885
%wes

72447 12359 .16780 9773 3823 487 13032

Oxford Down race


Leicester race
Others
Total Source: Statlstisk
Aarbog.

7542 616 9458 17616

377 3951 6593>

22.65

18612 2877 53913 75402

26154 3493 63371 93016

1936

Office of Foreign Agricultural Relations December 1943

1/ Total 226,100

number of stallions over 3 years was 3,300, mares ovef 3 years of age

52

On Sealand the Belgian type of haavy work horse was

introduced in 1894 and has "been crossbred with local animals. While the horses developed are not always equal to those of pore Belgian breed* the breeding of these Dano-Belgian horses has been steadily progressing,
the Oldenburg breed. JLs a carriage and
riding

A third breed of work horse is

horae.

the Jrederiksborg

horse

is the dominant "breed.


iksborg Stud in North

It is derived from the old Royal Freder

Sealand.

Around the middle of the last


English thoroughbred

century, when the stud was deteriorating,

stallions and stallions of pure Arab blood were introduced and mated with Sealand mares related to the stud horses.
sulting Trederiksborg horse is dark red with a height

The re

orer the

withers of from 160 to 175 cm.

She head is small, the neck erect,


shape*

and the horse on the whole of a harmonious

Besides these horses, bred in Denmark, there is a fair


somber of small horses
They

of foreign origin used on small holdings.

are generally Imported from Iceland, Russia, the Baltic or Poland.


In 1933 there were 89,700 such small horses

States,

in Denmark.

In northern Jutland there is some breeding of small

Weat-Horwegian horses*

Cattle.-

There are two national Danish breeds of oattle

the Red Danish Milk Cattle and the Black and White Jutland Cattle. Between them they account 'for oattle population.

shfm^WSlil^itthn

of the Danish

The Jutland Cattle is the older breed of

53

the

twjo

and until around 1865 it was considered


But as the work to develop a pure "breed

the superior

"breed.

main of the Red Danish Milk Cattle progressed


particularly, to high milk yield

-
this

- with a

within the do
view,

race gained ground, and as the Jutland cattle.

it is now two to three times as numerous

The remainder of the stock of cattle consists of Shorthorn Cattle


which account for about 17 percent, Jersey and Dutch Cattle which each account

for about one-half percent, plus various crossings


Table 23 gives an indication- of the numbers of

of these breeds.

cattle of each breed in 1933.

The Red Danish Milk Cattle is a horned type of cattle of


light red to dark red coloring. Markings are fairly

rare.

The

weight of a fully grown cow from an ordinary herd is generally

around 500 kgs. while a cow from an outstanding herd may weigh a

hundred

kilograms more,

A prize bull may weigh around 950 kgs.

In 1933-34 the average milk yield of 290,000 controlled cows of this breed was 3,584 kgs. with a fat content of 3.92 percent or

140.6 kgs. butterfat (157 kgs. butter), while the corresponding


figures for the highest yielding cow was 12,326 kgs. with a fat

content of 3.82. was 6 percent.

The highest fat content recorded for that year


The Black and White Jutland Cattle, which is

also horned, is of about the same size as the Red Milk Cattle, but the milk yield is somewhat
lower,

the

average milk yield

of 102,000 controlled cows was 3,327 kgs. in 1932-33, content of 3,74 or 124.4 kgs. butterfat

with a fat

(139 kgs. butter).

The fat.

highest yielding cow gave 10,394 kgs. milk with 4.35 percent

54

Pigs.-

When in the 1880 's the Banish hog raisers "began

to cater

to the English market a change of breed became neces

sary with a view to production of lean "bacon.

The medium- sized

Yorkshire pig and the Berkshire pig had been used extensively
but were not suited for this specific purpose while a cross be

tween a local native breed and the large Yorkshire pig proved more satisfactory. scientific basis. From 1896 on
Separate

this

breeding was placed on a

pedigree breeding centers

were es

tablished for the old Danish Landrace and the large white York shire pig, whereupon Yorkshire boars and Landrace centers sows from these

were mated, combining the bacon qualities of the York

shires with the ability of the Landrace to produce large litters.


A generation of work along these lines resulted in the breed of

an excellent bacon pig.


An indication of the breeds of sheep found in Denmark is given in table 23. G.

Total food

self-sufficiency

According to the preceding analysis,

only 46 percent of

the foodstuffs of vegetal origin consumed in Denmark were of


domestic exceeded
origin while the country's output of livestock products

its consumption by 46 percent.

In order to coordinate

these data and arrive at an estimate of the general food self-

sufficiency table 24 has been computed.


highly summarized

This table gives a

account

of production, trade, and consumption It will

Of vegetal and animal foodstuffs on a calorie basis.

\u25a0**

" OO

Table

24.

DENMARK: Summary of pre-war food production and consumption Calculation A Calculation B (domestic wheat and rye (domestic wheat and rye considered as feed) considered as food) Vegetal Animal Total Vegetal Animal Total foodstuffs foodstuffs foodstuffs foodstuffs food food billion calories

Item

Domestic production of food from: Domestic resources Imported feeds tuffs All sources Direct net imports
Consumption

1294 1294 1532 2826


percent

2264 1250 3514

-1969
1545
percent

- 437

3558 !?59 4858


4371
percent

2339 2339

35H

2093 1421

4432

486 2825
percent

-1969
1545
percent

5553 -1483
4370
percent

Calories consumed in percent of total Domestic production from all sources in percent of consumption Domestic production from domestic sources in percent of con sumption

64.6

35#4

100.0

64.6
82.8

35.4

100.0

45.8

227.5

110.0

227.5

134.0

45.8 146.5

81.4

82.8

135.5

101.4

Office of Foreign Agricultural Relations December 1943

56

be seen (calculation a) that total domestic production of


vegetal foodstuffs

I/

was 1,294 billion calories, that of feed 2,264 billion calories,

animal foodstuffs from domestic

and animal foodstuffs from imported feed 1,250 billion calories. Total production in terms of its ultimate food use therefore

was 4,808 billion calories.- Imported vegetal foodstuffs sup


plied 1,532 billion calories

while exports of animal foodstuffs thus there was a net trade

amounted

to 1,969 billion calories;

surplus of 437 billion food calories.

Since, however, produc

tion of animal foodstuffs from imported feed supplied 1,250

billions of the animal foodstuff calories, there was actually


a deficit of a little over 800 billion calories. As a result

it willbe seen that while total domestic consumption was 4,371

billion calories annually, total domestic production of food stuffs from purely- domestic sources was only 3,558 billion calories or 81.4 percent.
This, however, is not at all an adequate
expression

of the country's degree of food self-sufficiency.

It represents

the actual utilization of domestic crop production as it was


at the time, but Ignores the fact that a large crop of bread
grain

was raised which could have been used for human consump
From thqpoint of view

tion rather than as feed for livestock.

of the caloric value of the resulting foodstuffs, this use of


the crop for feed makes domestic
production appear very low sugar and vegetable

13/ This
oils.

comprise

legumes, fresh vegetable^frMt, o^^

breadstuff s (mcl. rice) , potatoes,

57

since roughly six-sevenths their utilization for feed.

of the calories are "lost* in The Danish 'bread-grain crop, in this cal

which was almost entirely used as feed, appears

culation, in terms of its resultant


products,

equivalent in livestock

with only around one-seventh

4 of the' caloric value of

the original crop.

On the other hand, the wheat and rye im

ported to take the place, so to speak, of the domestic grain

in human consumption appears value.

as a deficit with its full caloric

In order to make allowance for this particular situation

another calculation has been made (calculation B, table 24),


"based on the fact that the Danish wheat and rye crop was large
enough to country respect

cover domestic human consumption of bread grains.

The

was therefore in a very real sense self-sufficient in


to these products.

It could have supplied Itself with


On this

bread grain and fed the imported grain to livestock.

assumption

it is found that 82*8 percent

(calculation B) of

domestic consumption of foodstuffs of vegetal origin could be derived from domestic resources,

as compared to 45*8 percent

when domestic "bread grain is considered as feed (calculation A). On the other hand, the corresponding percentages
products is reduced from 146.5 to 135.5 because

for livestock of the larger The final self-

share of production derived from imported feed.


sufficiency percentage

for food as a whole works out at 101.4

58

(calculation B) as compared to 81.4 (calculation A). In this

sense Denmark had a small "but genuine surplus of ultimate food


production.

H.

Composition

of diet

Per capita consumption

of all foodstuff, on an annual The table furthermore contains a

basis, is given in table 25. calculation, of the average

daily caloric Intake and an analysis

of the diet by food constituents*

These figures are based upon


as

the calculation of human consumption in the food balances


per tables 15, 16, 20, 21, and 22.

No such balance was given

for fruits and vegetables

since only few data are available re

garding production of these foods*

The vegetable supply from which the per capita con

sumption figure is derived has been estimated at 148,000 tons on the basis of the commercial vegetable acreage with an es
timated additional amount from small garden production. was practically no foreign trade in fresh vegetables,
exports and imports cancelling cabbage

There

small that with

out.

It may be mentioned

claimed the largest whare of the vegetable acreage,

leak and celery next in importance.

Danish sources give total


around 1933

production of apples, pears, plums, and cherries

at 70,000 tons*

14/

To this was

added an estimated 12,000 tons

14/ This estimate teems fruit production during as high as 150,000 tons. the years preceding the Nevertheless, the fruit

very low In view of the magnitude of the the last few years which has been reported Extensive plantings of fruit trees in war account in part for this increase. supply in 1933 was probably underestimated*

59

Table 25.

EENMARX: Pre-war per capita consumption of food, average 1933-1937 (Population 3,706,000)

KiloFoodstuffs Breads tuff8 and cereals, includ ing rice in terms of flour Potatoes for food
Sugar Legumes fruits and nuts Cocoa Vegetables grams oer year ear

Grams per day

Consumption by food constituents and calories -per day Carbohy- Calories Protein Pat

. Grain 8
265

dfrate

Grams 2

Grams

97.2 98.5 49. 9 0.5 30.2 1.2


40,0

272
137 1

Alcohol

Vegetable oils

1.9 11*4

1 3l 110 2 5 31 30-

83

Subtotals: Foodstuffs of Tegetable origin Butter


Slaughter fats Marine oils All fats and oils

9,0

2.3 3.8 (6.5) 31*5 28.8 1.1 3.4 3.2 68.0 61.2 5.4 175.4 5.6

25 6

(72)
86
79

10

..
22
4
\u25a0

193
48 134

901
212

1
13
-.

548
3

58
13 33 35

29

33

396

(66)

20 6 10

281

1/2084
191 53 92 (617)

Pork Beef and veal Mutton and lamb Meat offals


Poultry All meat

10

9 187

(wholesale weight) (retail weight)

168 40 15 480 15

Fish
Eggs

2/

14.7

Fresh milk Cheese Subtotals: foodstuffs of animal origin Grand total


31. 4 3

\u25a0

26.

370 40 22
322 42

2
2

2 15

18 3

23.
23-

55. 84.

87120

1132

419.

1/

3216.

Office of foreign Agricultural Relations December 1943

1/
2/

Including 35 calories from alcohol. See footnote 8, pae-e 40,

**^2ls2SteiSflEHi^

60

of domestically grown berries and the average import of 30,000


tons

15/ of fruits,

giving a total fruit consumption

of 113,000

tons.

The net result is a per capita consumption of 40 kgs* of


and 30 kg8. of fruit annually. in Denmark in normal

vegetables

Consumption of animal foodstuffs

times is the highest in continental Europe.

Of a total daily

caloric intake of 3,216 calories, vegetal foodstuffs provided


65 percent and animal foodstuffs 35 as compared to 78 and 22
percent, respectively, Dally consumption

for continental Europe as a whole.

16/

of protein was 84 grams, of which 55 grams The fat consumption was 120 grams daily 419 grams.
In respect to in

were of animal origin.

and consumption of carbohydrates

dividual foodstuffs it will be seen that consumption of meats,

fats, and milk was high, of breadstuff s and potatoes low, while
sugar consumption

was exceedingly high.

The conversions used in calculating the composition of


the diet by food constituents are given In table 26.

15/ Of this 7,200 tons was dried fruit and 2,800 tons nuts, 16/ See foreign Agriculture, August 1942, p. 311.

61

Table 26.

DENMARK: Nutritional conversions

protein, fat, and carbohydrate and calories per kilogram of food

Foodstuff

Protein grams

Fat
grains

Carbo hydrate grams

Calories

\J

Breadstuffs and cereals,


including rice, in terms of flour Pre-war YJar-time Alcohol
Sugar Legumes

81 94

8 10

728 688

Potatoes
Other Fruits Fish Butter

2/ vegetables

165

13 15

7
187 100 6 2 4 200 200 107 32 32 32

Meats etc. (includixg fat pork} Lard


Other slaughter fats Vegetable oils, etc. Fish oils Cheese Pre-war War-time Eggs Whole milk Pre-war War-tin milk Skim

6 1 2 3 154 63 817 951 913 973 989 200 167 100 37 32 2

'

976 460 175 55 157 *

3400 3300 7000 4000 2620 780 300 700

2200
1000 7640 8850 8510

9050 9200
2800 2500 1470 670 630 360

30 30 6 48 48 50

Office of Foreign Agricultural Relations, as per European sources. Factors for food groups (meats, fish, vegetables, fruit) estimated by Office of Foreign Agricultural Relations* Protein, fat, and carbohydrate given /bn a digestible, not total, basis* December 1943

1/

Calories per gram:

Protein, 4.1; fat, 9.3; carbohydrate,

4.
for such wastage

2/ Household were made,

wastage of 11.4 percent deducted. If no allowance the values would run: 15, 1, 198, and 880,

62

Part 111 FOOD AftS AGRICULTURE SINCE THE OUTBREAK OF WAR A.


Summary

of war-time development

With the pre-war agricultural and food situation in mind,


it is immediately clear that war and occupation, with termination

of overseas
necessarily

imports and dislocation of export markets, must


have reduced

total agricultural production.

under the specific circumstances

- with a feed

But

grain production

that could be directed into the channels of production for direct


human consumption the threats
By

- and a great

surplus

of animal foodstuffs

of overall caloric deficiencies

were not imminent.

and large food supplies have until the late summer

of 1943 remained good as compared to other occupied countries.

Domestic grains have been substituted for imports in the pro duction of flour and groats, potato production has been stepped
up, and an increased

amount of this crop has been used for direct


Sugar production has been large enough so

human consumption.

the population might have been supplied with sugar in pre-war


quantities. Actually, however, sugar was rationed immediately

after the outbreak of war and consumption reduced to something like three- fourths of normal, in order to assure

an export

surplus in return for which much needed imports, particularly

wood and wood products, could be obtained from- the other Scan dinavian countries.
Vegetable and fruit supplies,

with the

63

exception of imported citrus fruit and "bananas,

appear

to have

been satisfactory.

Supplies of vegetable oils, however, have

been practically nil, and margarine production has been suspended

Production of animal foodstuffs was greatly curtailed


as was to be expected in view of the difficulties in supplying 1
adequate

feed for the large livestock population.

Significant

reductions in livestock numbers have taken place.

Milk yields

per cow hare also fallen, and there was a reduction in total

milk production by one- third. Production of pork and eggs has


suffered a similar decline, but beef and real until recently

were produced approximately in pre-war

amounts,

since the slaugh meat production

tering of capital livestock temporarily increased

While butter production is down to two-thirds of pre-war, dom


estic consumption has been doubled though in view of the lack of

margarine total fat consumption is considerably

reduced.

There

appears

to have been a general overall reduction in the daily

caloric intake by about 11 percent.


Exports

of

agricultural -products

are most significant in

respect

to butter and meats.

Sugar exports are also siseable,

while exports of cheese and eggs only come to smaller amounts.

The fish catch has been greater in 1941 and 1942 than in pre
war years, but a large part of the increase is supposed to have

into exports.
Only comparatively

ject to rationing

- primarily breadstuff s,

few agricultural products

are sub

sugar, and butter.

64

Meat sales

are also regulated (though meat Is not actually

rationed)
appears

, and

in the case of fresh milk for consumption there

to have "been local rationing at times.

While the overall war-time picture in regard to Banish food supplies thus appears
Considerable differences
satisfactory,

there are of course The farm

as among population groups.

population no doubt has maintained its food standards

best, and

the population in small towns, often with a vegetable garden and a few chickens, may also have had an above-average diet*

The low income groups in larger towns, particularly in Copen


hagen, have suffered considerable

hardships.

This is, however,


but to a shortage

not due to a general lack of food supplies,

or at least a reduction in available amounts of such products a


margerine and sugar on which they used to rely heavily. respect

In

to certain other products, prices severely limit con

sumption by these population groups.

As to the allocation of Danish agricultural production between domestic uses and exports, notably to Germany, the fol
lowing procedure

has been applied, at least until recently.

The

Danish authorities estimate what quantities of various products

will be available and after deduction of domestic demands, Ger


man requirements

are first considered and the amounts to be ex


Finally exports to the secondary

ported to. Germany agreed upon.

markets

mainly the other Scandinavian

countries, are negotiated

In respect to the share of Danish agricultural production which

65

Germany claims, the bulk of this is set forth in trade agree

ments, and there are some statistics available regarding the


ensuing exports.

There has "been practically no imports of food or feedstuff s into Denmark since the
occupation.

B. Agricultural production since the occupation Introduction

After the occupation in April 1940 the question of a re orientation of agriculture in accordance
was immediately with war-time conditions

taken up by the authorities

the Agricultural

Council and the Danish Government.

It was agreed that the ob


Firstly,

jective of the agricultural policy should be as follows:

to supply the Danish population with adequate

supplies of vegetal thirdly,

foodstuffs; secondly,

to secure adequate

seed supplies;

to provide industry with raw materials to the largest possible


extent; and finally to keep up

livestock production insofar as it


former objectives.

was possible in view of the three

The difficulties to be surmounted were first and foremost those of substituting home-grown cereals for
imports

and cur

tailing livestock numbers due to the two-fold reduction in feed

supplies (cessation of imports and diversion to food uses).

Further difficulties developed in the course of time such as


shortages

of man-power,

draft-power, fertilizers, insect sprays,

and binder twine.

The shortage

of labor was in part due to the

employment in the season

of large numbers of men in the peat bogs,

*\u25a0\u25a0

\u25a0n

66

since peat became an extremely important fuel when imports of

coal, coke, and fuel oils were severely reduced.

With other

draft -power in short supply an increase in the number of horses


has been attempted and some increase in the number of horses on Itmust be borne

farms is indicated by the figures in table 17.

in mind, however, that it takes close to four years to produce a

work horse*

The actual number of work horses available for agri

cultural work is therefore probably not much larger at present


than in pre-war years.
Exports of horses

to Oermany have been on

a larger than normal scale (15,000 to 16,000 annually compared to half that number before the war). Horses employed outside of agri

culture have increased in numbers (see footnote to table 17).


Imports of nitrogenous

fertilizers and potash from Nor


whereas

way and Germany have kept Denmark fairly well supplied,

the shortage decrease

of phosphates

has been severe.

If, however, the

in farmyard manure is included in the comparison with a shortage appears


slightly.

pre-war years,

also in relation to nitrogen, From August 1943, potash was,

while potash increased

however, reported to have been

rationed.

Table 27 reveals the fact that commercial phosphate tilizer has practically disappeared
pre-war being 97 percent.

- the

fer

reduction compared to

If, however, commercial fertilizers


as a whole in terms of plant food, the

and manure are considered

resulting reduction in phosphoric

acid comes to 50 percent.

Thit

reduction is rather drastic*

Superphosphate

is used on practically

67

Table 27.

DENMAEK: War-time reduction in plant food content of available fertiliser and manure supplies

*&S
Metric tons

KgO

Artificial fertilizer
Pre-war application 1942-43 application Reduction (-) or increase
Percentage

38,595 37,665

68,940

(\u2666)

- 930

reduction

- 67,140 - 97#

1,800

43,200 62,400 +19,300

* 44^

Farmyard

manure

Pre-war application 1942-43 application Reduction


Percentage

reduction

- 32,600 - 194

170,000 137,400

103,028

- 18,087 - 18

84,941

- 10,239
-5*

199,964 189,725

otal fertilizer and manure Total pre-war application Total 1942-43 application

Reduction {-) or increase


Percentage

(+)

reduction

- 33,530 - 16#

208,595 175,065

- 85,227 - 50#

171,968 86,741

243,164 252,125 +8,961

2f>

Office of Foreign Agricultural Relations


December 1943

68

all crops (see page 25), particularly on light soils.

The ef

fect of the shortage must become increasingly important.

While

the reduction in nitrogen supplied by commercial fertilizers

was only a little over 2 percent, the total reduction in nitro


gen

as supplied by "both fertilizer and manure

- is fully 16

percent. Damage

from

-plant diseases

and insect pests has con

siderably increased,

and the scarcity of spraying solutions made

its combat difficultr Hew varieties of noxious insects have

appeared

(leaf -wasp for instance),

and those already known were

particularly numerous in 1942 when the carrion beetle did great


damage

to turnips and sugar beet fields and aphlds injured the Beet fields and pastures in Jutland were seriously

fruit trees.

attacked by noctuids. Denmark normally has an annual consumption of 25 tons of 80 percent nocotine solution for spraying, but only a small
part of this amount has been available since the

war. Danish

farmers have used a mixture of 2 kgs. of lead arsenate per 50


kg 8. of wheat bran against

carrion beetle and noctuids.

Around 6,000 tons of binder twine is used in Denmark


each
year*

In 1942 approximately one-half was made of paper and

caused considerable
by Germany, Experiments paper twine.

difficulties.

Some fiber twine was furnished

and 2,000 tons were promised for this year's harvest.

are being carried out to improve the quality of

69

Adverse weather conditions were an additional soutce of difficulties encountered by Danish agriculture from the of the war until the summer of 1942,
winters

outbreak

In addition to very severe

which in the season

of 1941*42 resulted in such exten

sive winter-kill of wheat that practically all of the crop that


*

was left had to be reserved

for seed

early summer droughts have


in

been prevalent, and precipitation which is always greatest


August has been particularly heavy during the harvest
.creages.

season.

yields,

and

-production

17/

Acreages.-

The total acreage in grain has not undergone The acreage in wheat, however, has fluc

significant

changes.

tuated greatly under influence of adverse weather conditions. While it was 134,000 ha. in 1939, it fell to 82,000 in 1940 and
following the severe

winter in 1941-42 the acreage harvested

in

1942 dwindled to a mere 6,000 ha.


Eye acreage,

In 1943 it was 46,000 ha.


a fairly steady in

on the other hand, underwent

crease so that it is now 55 percent greater than in 1933-1937.


A large increase to potatoes.

has also taken place in the area devoted

First, there was a decline from 77,000 hectares

in

1933-1937 to 64,000 in 1940, but by 1942 it had increased to 99,000


hectares.
port states

The acreage

for 1943 is not certain although one re

a further Increase of 30,000 ha.

Other reports seem


In

to indicate an area approximately

the same as that of 1942.

view of the upward trend in hog figures since the summer of 1942

17/ See table 13.

70

and the fact that potatoes have 'become an important hog feed, the increase in potato acreage
sugar beet

is not improbable.

The

area is reported to be the same in 1943

as in the preceding war years although a decline was anticipated due to an expected labor shortage
satisfactory

in the sugar beet season,

un

sugar prices, and a shortage of seed.

The small

decrease

in the

feed

beet area is probably due to the fact that so that only a smaller root crop

cattle numbers have decreased can be utilized.

There has been a very pronounced decline in the hay acre


age, namely from 398,000 ha. before the

var to 223,000 ha. in


in the area in grass

1942, but a more than corresponding


and green feed.
Figures for 1943

increase

are not yet available.


of all grains were

Yields and

production.- The yields

exceedingly low in 1941, and the total grain crop in that year

was only 2,720,000 tons or almost 20 percent below the average


grain crop of 1933-1937.

But in 1942 excellent yields brought tons or more than 12 percent above this

the crop up to 2,770.000


average.

The 1943 yields were fully up to those of 1942, and the


The exceptionally high

total grain crop came to 3,880,000 tons.

yield of 39.1 metric quintals of wheat per ha. may be due to the
fact that with a smaller than normal area in wheat only the soils most explicitly suited for wheat growing are used for this crop.

The potato crop remained around 1,300,000 tons up until


1942 when the large increase in the potato area raised production

71

to 1,700,000 tone.

tons.

The 1943 potato crop climbed to 1,940,000

fb*

BWr "beet crop

was very large in 1939, 1940, and


But in

1941 (table 13), with a total of around 1,580,000 tons.

1942 it came to only 1,450,000 tons*


tent of the beets
estimated,

Furthermore the sugar con


It was, therefore,

was lover than in 1941.

that the total raw sugar production would cone to only


Sugar beet

2Q0,0Q0 tons as compared to 250,000 tons in 1941*


production in 1943 declined further to 1,310,000 expected to yield 194,000 tons of raw
sugar*

tons and is

The feftde* beet

crop underwent a slow decline as the acreage was diminished. While the hay crop has declined in keeping with the de cline in acreage, there has not been any increase
grass

in the amount

of feed units obtained from

and

green

feed.

This may be

due in part to the fact that drought has a deteriorating effect

on pastures and perhaps in part to the method "by which the feed
from pasture is evaluated since it is estimated on the basis of the number of livestock which has been grazing* With a con

siderable reduction in cattle numbers the estimated amount of


feed from pasture

would also go down.

till ion of cro sat The utilisation of the Danish grain crop during the years of occupation has roughly been as follows. Practically all of the net wheat and rye crop has beta used for domestic consumption

as flour and breadstuff s.

The use of these grains for feed

72

was prohibited at an early date (September


specific cases.

1939) except In

Furthermore, around 100,000 tons of oats and 35,000 tons of barley

barley have been utilized for groats.

have been used by the breweries, 12,000 tons for coffee sub
stitutes, and 7,500 tons have gone into distilleries*

The rest

of the grain crop has been utilized for livestock feeding.

Of the potato crop from 450,000 to 500,000 tons hare


been used for direct human consumption while Industry (potato

flour and alcohol) has claimed from 120,000 tons to 150,000 tons,
and from 450,000 tons to 600,000 tons hare been available for feed.

The disposition of the 1942 grain crops is given in


table 28.

This is the planned disposition as determined by the The provisions of the law do not
years*

Grain Law of March 30, 1942.

differ materially from those of preceding

The law states

that all rye and wheat and certain quantities of barley and oats
must be delivered by the farmers and mills. to authorized grain merchants

The quantity of grain covered by this compulsory


to 732,000 tons (565,000 tons for human con

delivery amounted

sumption and 167,000

tons for feed) or approximately 20 percent


The rest of the feed grains may
tje disposed

of the total crop.

of freely.

The grain crop of 1943 will no doubt be utilized in

a very similar manner although it is known that the amount of


grain allocated to flour and groats has been raised from
Oxo, ooC

to 563,000 tons.

73

Table 28.. BKHMABK: Disposition of the 1942 grain crop as determined in the
grain Law

1000 metric tons Total grain crop harvested


Shrinkage

Planned disposition for toman consumption: For bread (chiefly rye and barley) For groat 8 ("barley and oats) For breweries ("barley) For distilleries (barley) For coffee substitutes (barley) Balance For seed
Balance available

Available

quantity

3,750 375 3,375

410 100 35
8

12

65

2,810 255

for feed

2,555

Planned disposition for feed


Feed grain for small farms Feed grain for established swine and poultry raisers, (not farmers) For breeding centers, etc* For horses not on farms

100
23 4

40

167

Balance for free disposition

2,388

Office of Foreign Agricultural Relations December 1943

74

The disposition of the 1942 potato crop is given in table 29.. The very large crop of 1942 allowed the potato flour factories to operate at full capacity while at the same time

500,000 tons were provided for direct human consumption as com


pared to 300,000 tons "before the

war. Still over 600, 000 tons

were available for feed.


A summarized statement

of the total amount of feed from


1941-42, and

domestic

crops during the three years 1940-41,

1942-43 is given in table 30.

A comparison with table 14 shows

to what extent available vegetal

feeds tuffs have declined

(milk i not included). 8i 8


1933-1937,

While on the average for the period

11,279 million feed units were available for live

stock feed, this figure in 1941-42, the year of the poorest crops had fallen to 7,848 million feed units or roughly 70 percent of pre-war. The good crop of 1942 raised this figure to 8,567 mil
In

lion feed units or 76 percent of the 1933-1937 figure.


terms of protein the declines were even greater.

It has been

calculated that during 1934-1938 the average domestic production of feed protein was 734 million kgs. (excluding milk) to which

was added 287 million kgs. in the form of imported feedstuff s.


The corresponding figures for the war years are also given in table 30. The total protein supply declined from 1,021 million

kgs. in 1934-1938 by 40 percent*

to a low of 615 million kgs. in 1941-42, or

75

Table 29.

DKNMABK; Disposition

of the 1942 potato crop

1000 metric tons

Total crop harvested


Shrinkage

Balance For industrial uses


For planting For human consumption 500 150 250

1,700 178 1,622

900 622

Balance available for feed or export

1/

Source:

Based on official statistics

Office of Foreign Agricultural Relations December 1943

1/ Exports

amounted to only

, n^^t'|Mrtl,J, f dt to
Q Idt o1

76

Tafcle 30. BBHKABK: Available fead,

1940-41,
1941-42, and 1943-43

Feed

1940-41

1941-42

1942-43

Million feed unite Grain and similar products Oil cake and meal, other meals
Feed roots Beet top s, sugar "beet waste Hay Straw Grass and green, feed Total

2,001.9 45.5 2,787.2

1,502.5

12.6
2.575.4 167,. 0 320.8

2,921.6

135.0 504.7 640.6

2,700.0

569.8

2,386.1 21.0 2,290.4 153.2 275*3 800.5 2,640.0 8,566.5

9,036.5.

7,848.1

Protein content Grain and similar products Oil cake and meal, other meals
Feed roots Beet tops, sugar "beet waste Hay Straw Grass and green feed Total Source:

Millionkilograms

146.4 11.0 109.6 12.8


55.5

109.4 2.4 107.2

175.0

4.0 95.7
15.7

16.3
35.3

30.3
28.0 316.8 665.5

22.4
350.6

19.9 324.0 614.5

708.3'

Based on official statistics

Office of Foreign Agricultural Relations

77

From 1941 to 1942 there was an increase

In the amount

of feed available which, however, as table 30 shows was due to increases


in grain and straw, while other feed (feed roots,

"beet tops and hay) declined. To make the best possible use of available supplies,
ensilaging of feed (root tops, grass,

etc.) has greatly increased.

In 1942 15,000 farms had silos while 21,000 farms used earthen
pits.

Total cubic meter volume of silos increased from 183,000


Shortage

in 1941 to 400,000 in 1942.

of cement has been a hin

drance to the construction of silos.


Since the crop of 1943 according to recent reports is well up to that of 1942, there is no reason to expect a deter

ioration of feed supplies in the crop year of 1943-44 as com


pared to 1942-43.

Livestock numbers and

production

of animal foodstuffs after the occupation

The lack of imported feedstuffs

led to immediate reductions in livestock numbers, with the ex


ception of horses and sheep.

Total cattle numbers, which in

1939 were 3,326,000, had fallen to 3,004,000 in 1941 and de clined further to 2,865,000 in 1942. It willbe noted (table

17) that the number of dairy cows declined somewhat more sharply

(15$) than that of other cattle (12$).


shows an increase

The census of July 1943 The distribution

for all cattle to 2,980,000.

of this number as between dairy cows and other cattle is not

known.

78

The reduction in hogs, which in July 1940 numbered

3,218,000,
reached

was much more drastic*

In May of 1942 hog numbers a

the low of 1,162,000; by July they were 1,206,000,

reduction of over 62 percent compared to July 1940.


crop of 1942, both in grains and potatoes,

The better

provided a basis for

increased breeding of hogs, and by the summer of 1943 the figure had again passed

2,000,000.

In October 1943 it stood at

2,396,000.

This, however, is still about one-fourth below pre

war figures.
Numbers of chickens declined from a total of slightly over 32 million in 1939 to 11,500,000 to 14,000,000 in 1943. Farmer
8

in 1942.

They increased

hare been urged to increase

sheep breeding,

mainly to provide wool.

As a result, there has been an increase

of over 20 percent compared to 1939.

The 1939 figure of 147,000

seems very low, however, since sheep numbers in 1937 were re


ported to have been 187,000.

There has been a great increase

in the number of rabbits.

The fluctuations in the

-production

of animal foodstuffs

Which has resulted from this movement in livestock numbers is


apparent

from table 18.

Total milk production fell from 5,281,000

metric tons before the war to 3,330,000 tons in 1942 or by 37


percent*

Since the decline in the number of milk cows was only


the decline in milk yields

15 percent,

cow must have been

79

about one- fourth.

If the number of cows at the census in July


cow numbers
during the year t , we

1942 1b taken as representing


get an arerage

milk production per cow of not quite 2,400 kgs* that the pre-war yield came to 3,174 kg8,

It will "be remembered


per cow.

Butter production claimed around 2,400,000 in 1942

tons of milk

or

about 72 percent of

total milk! production.

This is

a lower proportion than the roughly 80 percent

which prevailed

before the war.

The resulting production was 108,000 tons of Cheese produc

butter as compared to 180,000 tons in 1933-1937.

tion, on the other hand, remained at roughly the pre-war level,

although the fat content of cheese has been considerably reduced.


Consumption of whole milk is stated to hare increased

somewhat.

Better feed supplies,

particularly better grazing in

the summer of 1943 and a slow increase has resulted in an Increase

this year in cow numbers Total produc

in milk production.

tion for 1943 has been roughly estimated at 3,600,000 tons. Butter production also increased during the summer months while the first three months of the year showed lower production than
in 1942. For the whole year it has been estimated at 115,000 tons

Utilization of total milk production in 1943 has been estimated as follows: for for for for butter cheese
2,565,000 135,000 700,000 200,000
tons tons tons tons negligible

direct human consumption feed for canning

80

Danish authorities have estimated that on the basis of


a pig population of 2,000,000 an annual production of 140,000 tons of pork nay be expected.

This estimate applies to 1943*

In 1942 production was down to 115,000 tons or only one- third of


average pre-war production*

The lowest hog number was registered in the early summer of 1942.
When the turning point came and Increased
breeding began,

hog slaughterings

fell to very low figures which contributed

to

the low total production of 115,000 tons for the year 1942. Beef and veal production is expected
to be considerably

lower in 1943 than in 1942, due to the better feed situation and
the farmers
1

desire to replenish reduced

cattle numbers.

Daring

the first six months of the year it was only 46,700 tons, and

total production in.1943 may not be much above 100,000 tons. It should finally be noted that the fish catch in 1940,
1941, and 1942 was reported much higher than in pre-war
years*

It is reported to have been 115,000 tons in 1940, 140,000 tons in 1941, and 160,000 tons in 1942 compared to an average

of 88,600

in 1933-1937.

While domestic consumption may hare increased

it has been estimated at about 20 legs, per capita In 1942 com


pared to 15 legs, before the war
0.
foreign

exports hare also increased.

trade in foodstuffs

Import of foodstuffs into Denmark during the

war hare

been practically nil. Among the foodstuffs of

vegetal origin,

sugar has supplied an important export surplus, 60,000 to 70,000

81

tons (table 31), which mostly goes to the other Scandinavian

countries.

At the 'beginning of 1943, when the results ojf the


crop became known, a redaction of the weekly

1942 sugar-beet

sugar ration from 500 grams to 375 grams went into effect in

order to safeguard

these sugar exports; a reduction in the There have,


As

amount allocated to industrial uses was also made.

furthermore, been some slight exports of grain to Norway.

a result of the abundant apple crop in 1941 exports of apples this indicated that amount might be doubled.

to

Germany

was scheduled at a total of 25,000 tons, but it was

The bulk of Denmark's food exports, however, consists


of animal foodstuffs.
Exports of "butter have been around 44,000

tons annually, of which Germany in the crop year 1941-42 got


31,000 tons.

The remainder went to the other neighboring At the beginning of the crop
Germany

countries, particularly Finland.


year 1942-43,

butter exports to

for that year were

scheduled to be 25,000 tons, but available information points


to a larger export*

It is probably safe to assume that butter have been of at least

exports through regular trade channels

the same magnitude as in the preceding year, that is, over 30,000

tons, and will,emain as great in the year of 1943-44. r

This Is

approximately the same amount that Germany used to get in pre

war years.

With the present great Influx of German troops and

civilians into Denmark very considerable amounts or butter ap pear to be consumed by Germans in Denmark or brought out of the

82

Table 31.

DENMARK: Food production, trade, and consumption, 1942-43

Foodstuffs

Production

Exports

Consumption

1000 e trie tons Breadstuff s and cereals, including rice in terns of flour Potatoes for food
Sugar LegUes Fruit 8 and nuts

1/ 2/

434

Cocoa
Vegetables Vegetable oils

. 143
156

550

300

Butter Slaughter fats (lard)

Marine oils All fats and oils


Meats Fish Eggs Fresh milk

115 6
121

~"

4/54


60

3/140
118

434 550

25

156

6 67 150

61

54 100

250
160

82

Cheese
December 1943

5/

38
700 33

78
34

700 28

Office of Foreign Agricultural Relations

1/

Based on grain allocation of 410 tons of grain for flour at 90 percent extraction and 100 tons of grain for groats at 65 percent extraction. The result corresponds well with a calculation based on bread and groats rations* 2/ 500,000 tons for direct human consumption, plus an estimated 50,000 tons for potato flour production* 3/ Includes industrial uses, since practically all of it goes into domestic consumption* Arriyed at by deducting domestic consumption from production. Includes consumption by Germans in Denmark. 5/ That part of the milk production which has been estimated used for direct human consumption*

4/

83

cotxntry by them.

When exports to secondary markets are added


in Denmark, this year.

to exports to Germany and consumption by Germans

a total of over 50,000 tons will probably be reached

Meat exports to Germany hare been around 100,000 tons

annually.

In 1941-42 they consisted

of 40,000 tons of pork and

60,000 tons of beef.

For 1942-43 a total of 100,000 tons was still appears to govern trans

envisioned, and this agreement


actions.

Exports of egg 8 and cheese

to Germany were 8,700 tons

and 4,800 tons, respectively, in 1941-42 and were to be reduced


to 1,000
jfcons

and 2,000 tons in 1942-43.

In addition there countries.

have been some exports of eggs to other Scandinavian

Fish exports have been greater than in normal years and


may have been as high

as 80,000 tons in 1942 when the fish catch

was of record proportions.


1).

Food

consumption

in 1942-43

While table 31 contains the figures for total amounts


of various foodstuffs produced in 1943-43, the amounts and the approximate
exported,

quantities domestically consumed,

table 32

gives the resulting per capita consumption and an analysis

of

this consumption by food constituents.

In the case of those

foodstuffs of which only a part is used for direct consumption, such as grain and potatoes,
only that part of the production

which has been allocated to direct consumption is included here. 18/

18/

For total product 1 onf^g^e%^mooKl^M.es 13 and 18.

84

Table 32.

UEIIMAHK:

Per capita

consumption,

of food, 1942-43.

("Estimated \u25a0oopulation 3,900,000)

KiloFoodstuffs Breadstuff s and cereals, includ ing rice in terms of flour Potatoes for food
Sugar

(Trams

grams per year

per
day

Consumption "by food constituents and calories -per day calories da: Carbohy- Calories Protein Fat drat c Grams Grams Grains

111.3 141.0 35.9 30.2 40.0

305 386
98 83

29 5

Legumes Fruits and nuts Cocoa Vegetables Vegetable oils

110

2
37

3 3 35. 5

210-

1006

68. 96 13 6 393

301 392 58 33
1790 328 51
(379)

Subtotals: Foodstuffs of vegetable origin Butter Slaughter fats (lard) Marine oils All fats and oils Meats (wholesale weight) (retail weight) Fish
Eggs

~
15.6 2.0
(17.6)

45
6

(49)
107


24 1 25

(40)
14 4

38.5 34.6 20.0 8.7 179.5 7.3

95
55

18

209 55 35 310
50

6
3

Fresh milk Cheese Subtotals: Grand total

24 492
20

Foodstuffs

of animal origin

16 4 -47 84

3 16
3

8083

1038 2828

418

Tentative estimates,

partly based on rations and official reports of crop disposition

Office of Foreign Agricultural Relations


December 1943

85

It has been assumed that per capita fruit and vegetable con
sumption is the same as in pre-war years.
Sugar consumption

is not based on the existing rations, but on estimated produc


ticn minus export* thus been included. Uses other than household
consumption hare

Butter consumption is based on rations as

of April 1943.

fresh milk consumption has been estimated at

700,000 tons as compared to 650,000 tons in 1933-1937.

There has been a reduction in average

daily

caloric

intake of 11 percent, namely from 3,181 (excl. alcohol) before the war to 2,828 in 1942-43.
It willbe noted that the re

duction is entirely due to a decline in fat consumption which has been our tailed from 130 grams to 83 crams dally. appearance The dis

of margarine (vegetable and marine oils) has only


for by increased consumption of butter.

in part been compensated

Consumption of bread and potatoes has gone up by a total of 194

calories per person per day, but was almost offset by reduced
consumption

of sugar.

There has been al5 percent decrease

in

the intake of animal proteins, but a corresponding the consumption of vegetable proteins.

Increase in
to

It is interesting

note that the number of calories obtained from animal foodstuffs in 1942-43 actually constituted a slightly larger share of total consumption

than in pre-war years, contrary to common The substitution of butter for margarine

war-time experience.

manufactured from vegetable oil in the consumption cf the Danes


accounts

for this unusual occurrence

86

Only "breadstuff s and cereals, sugar, and "butter are

rationed

The weekly "bread rations as of April 1943 were for


2,320 grama, for heavy worcers 3,020
grams*

normal consumers

for very heavy workers 3,720 grams, and for children under 6
1,230 grams, while groats rations were 310 grams for normal

consumers,

425 for heavy

, and

540 grams for very heavy workers. with the

The sugar ration was 375 grams weekly for everyone,


exemption of sea-going fishermen (500 grams).

It now stands

at 350

grams*

The butter ration was 300 grams, for sea-going


Home churning is prohibited.

fishermen 450.

There have not

been any complaints of rations being unobtainable. Meat is not actually rationed, but a system of regulat
ing sales was instituted in the spring of 1943, by which a more

equitable distribution of the reduced supplies was attained.

Ho separate analysis of the consumption by different


population groups has been attempted since the general food consumption level is above that of relief standards.
any analysis by regions been made because

Hor has

of the relative ease

of communication between the various parts of the country and because of the essentially homogeneous and its people*
Existing inequalities
at

character

of the country are mainly

in consumption

due to differences in income, such


although accentuated by

are met with at all times

war-time conditions.
available for
consumption in 1943-44

1.

Domestic food

supplies

Judging by the 1943 crop outturn there

seems to be no

prospect of drastic changes In total food production of Denmark


*%

%: '%mm

87

during the crop year 1943-44.

The production of vegetal and

animal products has arrived at an equilibrium where domestic


production and consumption is independent

of any imports of

food or feedstuffs

although imported fertilizers still contri-

bute to these results. still persisted

The upward trend in hog numbers, which

in November 1943 and, to a much smaller extent,

in cattle numbers may not continue, but there does nat appear to be reason
government

to expect a reversion of the trend if the Danish will remain comparatively free to

and Banish farmers

carry out their programs

of agricultural production.

It is, how-

ver, possible that excessive German demands,


pork, will be enforced regardless

say for meat and

of consequences

as to future

production.

Barring such developments

the food supplies for

domestic consumption and export in 1942-43 (table 31) should be a good indication of what may be available in 1943-44.

This does not mean that actual consumption by the Banish


population in 1943-44 necessarily

will be on the same level as

in 1943-43.

Greater

concentration

of German troops in Denmark

and more ruthless requisitioning may reduce average per capita

consumption by the Banish population even in case productive


capacity remains at the 1942-43 level.
But from the point. of

view of food supplies at the time of reoccupation it is of course

productive capacity that is of importance.


?

Possible

surpluses

at time of reoccupation

Barring extensive dislocation of population,

disruption

of transportation,

and seifre^^M^tM^t^ilAs"applis during the :

88

last phases

of the war, the Danes should not be in need of food

relief at time of reoccupation.

The cpuntry has "been independent


and it

of foreign food and feed supplies daring the occupation, could remain so during a period of reoccupation
following emergency period.

and the immediately

Far

from "being a liability to the United Nations in re

spect to foodstuffs it could contribute

some of the scarce and


Exports of food

valuable animal foodstuffs to other countries.

stuffs in 1943-43 (see table 31) give a clue to the magnitude of


the surpluses that may become available to the United Nations.

These figures, however, should be considered as maxima.

Destruc

tion due to war, less favorable crops irt 1944, and a possible* desire to increase,

for instance, domestic butter consumption until oils

for margarine production may become available, would all tend to


reduce these surpluses. In a later period there will be an import need for <such
agricultural raw materials

as fertilizers, machinery,

insecticides,

and certain kinds of seeds.

Furthermore, as shipping conditions

permit, a resumption of oil cake and

corn imports may be envisioned.

Such imports would contribute to restoring to more nearly normal


operation a livestock industry that is among the most efficient
in the world and whose products willbe sorely needed in other
European

areas.

89

APPENDIX A Note on Agricultural Cooperatives in Denmark

While the question of agricultural institutions in


general lies outside cooperatives

the scope of this study,

the agricultural

have constituted

such an integral part of the econ that a brief men

omic organization of modern Danish agriculture tion of their role may "be in order.

A very large share of the livestock products which the

Danish farmers in the years "before the present war placed on the
market was cooperatively
processed

and marketed.

Cooperative

creameries

accounted

for 90 percent of the butter produced for


slaughterhouses

export, cooperative

handled 80 to 85 percent of and 25 percent of the


egg export associa

the pork cured in export slaughterhouses,


eggs exported went through the cooperative

tions.

While processing

was the primary concern of the cream the export trade in their products

eries and slaughterhouses,

was also to a large extent in the hands of cooperative wholesale


organizations.

Thus, in 1932 there were 11 cooperative butter


of which 629 of the existing 1,400 coopera the membership. These export as

export associations

tive creameries sociations

constituted

handled almost 50 percent of the total butter exports.

Of the remaining 50 percent roughly one-half was handled by


private Danish butter exporters, while the other half went di
rectly from the cooperative

creameries

to agents in foreign markets.

90

Similarly, the cooperatively organized Danish Bacon Company,

which operated in the English market handled about 30

percent of all Danish exports of "bacon and other pork products.

Of the 59 cooperative 33 were members

slaughterhouses

that existed in 1932,

of the Danish Bacon Company.

There are also

cooperative

cattle export associations

and cooperative poultry

slaughterhouses*

But Danish farmers have not only used cooperative

enterprises

for the purpose of processing and marketing of


An exhaustive list of the cooperatives to

their products.

which they directly or indirectly (through their membership in other organizations)


might belong would also include cattle,

horge, and hog breeding associations

as well as milk recording The purchasing of im

societies (cow testing associations).


portant raw materials

was organized in cooperative -purchasing

pools such as the seed,

feed, and fertilizer associations*

Farmers,

finally, were very often members of general

consumers
cooperative

cooperatives

and had their mortgages

financed through

credit institutions. Both small and large farms have participated extensively
in the farmers cooperative

enterprises,

but on the whole It has

been the owners of the medium-sized

farms, say from 10 to 60 ha.

of whom the largest percentage tives*

have become members of coopera

As an illustration of the ex teat of participation the

following figures may be quoted:

In 1939 there were about

91

204,000 farms in Denmark,

Of these, SOI, OOO had dairy cows, There


In came

199,000 had hogs, while 190,000 had one or more horses.


were altogether

311,000 flocks of chickens in the country.


in the cooperative creameries

the same year the membership to 190,000,


corresponding

to 94.5 percent of the number of herds

of dairy cows.

The membership in cooperative slaughterhouses


to 194,000.

in the same year came


slaughterhouses

Since, however, some of these

also are exporters of eggs, it is not likely that


A detailed investigation in

all of the members are hog owners.

1923 revealed that 70 percent of all hog owners with 75 percent of all hogs were members of cooperative slaughterhouses*
The cooperative feed purchasing associations and the

cooperative
membership

fertilizer purchasing associations of 95,000 and 57,000, respectively. of the

in 1939 had a

The reasons for the success

cooperative movement

in Denmark are many and varied ,- social and political,, as well as economic, in character. mention here. the processing
Only a few may be singled out for

First may be stated the historical reason that


cooperatives, particularly the creameries,

de Butter

veloped together

with the trend towards dairy farming.

making had always been a farm enterprise

and not a prerogative the first cooperative

of commercial interests. creameries were established

When, therefore,

in 1882 and the following years,

they did not have to fight already established private organi

zations, but grew as the milk production increased and markets

for dairy products

92

Furthermore,

the cooperatives

in Denmark were success

ful because

each organization stuck strictly to its single and

well-defined purpose.
combine business

Banish cooperatives never attempted to What

with social or educational efforts.

effects they may have had in such directions have been entirely incidental.
It may finally be stressed that the cooperatives

were

not imposed or even urged upon the farming community from above but they developed voluntarily and spontaneously
ing realization

out of a grow

on the part of the farmers that the cooperative was in the long run to the

way fitted their purpose best and

economic advantage of them all.


Through their membership in the semi-official Agricultural
Council,

the federated agricultural cooperatives

play an import

ant part in the

formulation and execution of Danish agricultural

policy.

There are no indications that their sphere of influence*

in this respect or in any other has undergone any ohange during


the preient war.
**

ft

5
I