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China

22 Oct 1862 - 10 Nov 1872 War Ensign 10 Nov 1872 - 1890 1890 - 12 Feb 1912; 1 Jul 1917 - 12 Jul 1917

1903 - 12 Feb 1912 Civil Ensign 10 Oct 1911 Revolt flag 12 Feb 1912 - 22 Dec 1915;
22 Mar 1916 - 1 Jul 1917;
12 Jul 1917 - 8 Oct 1928

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22 Dec 1915 - 22 Mar 1916 8 Oct 1928 - 1 Oct 1949 Adopted 1 Oct 1949

Hear National Anthem


De facto ex-National Anthem
"Yiyonggjun Jinxingqu" Constitution
Map of China "The East Is Red"
(The March of the Volunteers) (4 Dec 1982)
(1960's - 1978)
Adopted 27 Sep 1949
China Military Regions Map Japanese Occupation Map Civil War Map (1946-1949) Ethnolinguistic Map of China
Capital: Beijing
National Holiday: 1 Oct (1949)
(Nanjing 1928-37, 1946-49;
Currency: Yuan (CNY) Anniversary of the Founding Population: 1,321,851,888 (2007)
Hankow 1937-1938;
of the People's Republic
Chungking 1939-1946)
Ethnic groups: Han (Chinese) 91.53%, Chuang (Zhuang) 1.30%,
Manchu 0.86%, Hui 0.79%, Miao (Hmong) 0.72%, Uygur 0.68%,
Exports: $974 billion (2006)
GDP: $10 trillion (2006) Tuchia 0.65%, Yi 0.62%, Mongol 0.47%, Tibetan 0.44%, Puyi (Buyi)
Imports: $777 billion (2006)
0.24%, Tung (Dong) 0.24%, Yao 0.21%, Korean 0.15%, Pai 0.15%,
Hani 0.12%, Kazakh 0.10%, Tai 0.09%, other 0.54% (2000)
Religions: Non-religious 42.1%, Daoist (Taoist) and
Total Armed Forces: 2,250,000 (2003)
Declared Nuclear Power (1964): est.400 weapons Chinese folk religionist 28.5%, Buddhist 8.4%, atheist 8.1%,
Merchant marine: 1,723 ships (2006) Christian 7.1%, traditional beliefs 4.3%, Muslim 1.5% (2000)
note: state is officially atheist
International Organizations/Treaties: ADB, AfDB, ANT, APEC, ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BIS, BTWC, CDB, CTBT (signatory),
EAS, ENMOD, FAO, G-24 (observer), G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO,
Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, KP, LAIA (observer), MIGA, NAM (observer), NPT, NSG, NTBT, OAS (observer),
OPCW, PCA, PIF (partner), SAARC (observer), SCO, UN, UN Security Council, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR,
UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
China Index
Chronology
People's
Republic of c.2000 BC - c.1500 BC Partly legendary Xia (Shia) dynasty.
China c.1700 BC - c.1027 BC Shang dynasty.
Administrative c.1027 BC - 221 BC Chou (Zhou) dynasty.
Divisions 475 BC - 221 BC Period of the Warring States, fragmentation of
Zhou kingdom.
Foreign
Colonies 22 Dec 221 BC Ch'in (Qin) dynasty, from which modern China
derives its name, founded.
221 BC - 210 BC First Emperor Shi Huang-ti reigns (b. 260 BC -
Chinese Empire
Rebellions d. 210 BC).
(1851-1874) 206 BC - 220 AD Han dynasty (9 - 24 AD, briefly interrupted).

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l Taiping
220 - 589 Era of disunity under Warlords. China not unified
l Shengping
under any one power. Huns, Turks and nomadic
l Cheng
tribes invade the north.
l Pingnan Guo
420 - 589 Divided under Northern and Southern dynasties.
Warlord Period 589 Reunification under the Sui dynasty (rules to 618)
(1911-1928) 907 - 979 Era of the "Five dynasties and Ten Kingdoms."
1276 - 1368 Yuan (Mongol) dynasty, Kublai Khan (b. 1215 -
Nationalist
d. 1294) rules 1276 - 1294.
China
(1917-1949) 28 Jan 1368 Great Ming (Shining) Realm inaugurated.
17 Feb 1616 Jing (Ch'ing [Manchu] dynasty) inaugurated.
Alternative 15 May 1636 Great Qing (Ch'ing dynasty) Empire
Governments inaugurated.
(1927-1934)
28 May 1858 Left bank of Amur River annexed by Russia.
Japanese 14 Nov 1860 Amur right bank below Ussuri junction (Primorye)
Occupation annexed by Russia.
(1937-1945) 4 Jul 1871 - 24 Feb 1881 Russia briefly annexes Ili.
Manchuria 2 Jun 1895 - 25 Oct 1945 Taiwan annexed by Japan.
(1900-32, 1945-46) Jul 1900 - 7 Sep 1901 Britain, Germany, Russia, Japan and allies
Manchukuo occupy Tientsin (14 Jul 1900), Peking
(1932-1945) (21 Aug 1901) and other areas during the
Boxer Rebellion.
Inner Mongolia/
10 Oct 1911 Revolution begins.
Meng Chiang
(1934-1945) 1 Jan 1912 Republic of China
Jan 1913 - 7 Oct 1951 Tibet (de facto) independent.
Kashgaria 1 Dec 1911 (Outer) Mongolia declares independence.
(1693-1877) 1 Jul 1917 - 12 Jul 1917 Restoration of Great Qing Empire.
East Turkestan 19 Feb 1920 - 3 Feb 1921 Mongolia briefly reincorporated.
(1934-1946)
10 Sep 1931 - 15 Aug 1945 Japanese occupy Manchuria (Manchukuo).
Dörben Oyriad 1 Dec 1931 - 15 Oct 1934 Communists declare Soviet Republic of China in
(Dzungar Khanate) Kiangsi province.
(1626-1757) Sep 1937 - Aug 1945 Japanese occupy northeast China, Yellow River
Tibet valley and coastal provinces.
(1720-1951) 1 Oct 1949 People's Republic of China (from 8 Dec 1949,
Tibet Exile Govt. Republic of China continues on Taiwan only.

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1 Jul 1997 Re-integration of the former British colony


Historical Maps of Hong Kong.
of China 20 Dec 1999 Re-integration of the former Portuguese colony
of Macau.

Note about Pinyin: To 1979 names are given Wade-Giles transliteration, where available, with
the pinyin version following in parenthesis (i.e., Li Yuan-hung (Yuanhong). After 1979, the
pinyin transliteration (which came into general use in 1979, but is rejected by the
Nationalist regime on Taiwan) following the names) is used. Under the People's Republic, all
names are given in pinyin with those before 1979 followed in parenthesis by the Wade-Giles
version (i.e. Mao Zedong (Mao Tse-tung). I have taken this additional step because most
sources prior to 1979 refer to Chinese names in the pre-pinyin fashion.

Chinese Empire
Hear National Anthem
National Anthem "Gong Jin'ou"
Constitution
Map Chinese Empire "The Tone of Li Zhongtang" (The Cup of Solid Gold)
(none adopted)
(1896-1911) (unofficial) (4 Oct 1911-12 Feb 1912
and 1-12 Jul 1917)
Currency: Chinese Silver National Holiday: 7 Feb (1906)
Capital: Peking Population: 431,735,400 (1900)
Tael (CST) Emperor's Birthday

Note: Emperors are listed with their personal name (ming), followed by their temple name
(miaohao), posthumous name (shi), and the era name (nianhao) roughly coextensive with the
particular reign (note that the overlap is not perfect). Although it is customary in "Western"
sources to refer to a Qing ruler by his nianhao (i.i., the Guangxu emperor), Chinese usually
refer to a former emperor by his miaohao, perhaps preceded by the name of the polity (i.e.,
Qing Dezong).

Emperors
17 Feb 1616 - 30 Sep 1626 Nurhachu (Nu'erhachi) (b. 1559 - d. 1626)
miaohao: T'ai Tsu (Taizu)/ shi: Gao huangdi
nianhao 17 Feb 1616 - 15 Feb 1627: T'ien Ming (Tianming)
20 Oct 1626 - 21 Sep 1643 Huangtaiji (b. 1611 - d. 1643)
miaohao: T'ai Ts'ung (Taizong)/ shi: Wen huangdi
nianhao 16 Feb 1627 - 14 May 1636: T'ien T'sung (Tiancong)

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15 May 1636 - 7 Feb 1644: Ch'ung Te (Chongde)


8 Oct 1643 - 5 Feb 1661 Fulin (b. 1638 - d. 1661)
miaohao: Shih Tsu (Shizu)/ shi: Zhang huangdi
nianhao 8 Feb 1644 - 18 Feb 1662: Shun Chih (Shunzhi)
1644 - 1650 Dorgan -Regent
1650 - 1657 Jirgaland -Regent
7 Feb 1661 - 20 Dec 1722 Hsüan-yeh (Xuanye) (b. 1654 - d. 1722)
miaohao: Sheng Tsu (Shengzu)/ shi: Ren huangdi
nianhao 18 Feb 1662 - 4 Feb 1723: K'ang Hsi (Kangxi)
10 Jul 1706 - 1707 Wei Zhiye (in rebellion)
nianhao 10 Jul 1706 - 1707: Wenxing
1707 - 1708 Zhu Cihuan
(styled Ding wang, heading Great Ming [or Shining] Realm,
in rebellion)
26 May 1721 - 30 Jul 1721 Zhu Yigui
(in rebellion, rules almost exclusively on Taiwan)
nianhao 26 May 1721 - 30 Jul 1721: Yonghe
27 Dec 1722 - 8 Oct 1735 Yin Chen (Yinzhen) (b. 1678 - d. 1735)
miaohao: Shi Tsung (Shizong)/ shi: Xian huangdi
nianhao 5 Feb 1723 - 11 Feb 1746: Yung Cheng (Yongzheng)
18 Oct 1735 - 9 Feb 1796 Hung Li (Hongli) (b. 1711 - d. 1799)
niaohao Kao Tsung (Gaozong)/ shi: Chun huangdi
nianhao 12 Feb 1736 - 8 Feb 1796: Ch'ien Lung (Qianlong)
Dec 1786 - 10 Feb 1788 Lin Shuangwen
(in rebellion, rules almost exclusively on Taiwan)
nianhao Dec 1786 - 10 Feb 1788: Shuntian
9 Feb 1796 - 2 Sep 1820 Yung Yen (Yongyan) (b. 1760 - d. 1820)
niaohao: Jen Tsung (Renzong)/ shi: Rui huangdi
nianhao 9 Feb 1796 - 2 Feb 1821: Chia Ch'ing (Jiaqing)
Mar 1797 - 1797 Li Shu (in rebellion)
nianhao Mar 1797 - 1797: Daqing
3 Oct 1820 - 25 Feb 1850 Min Ning (Minning) (b. 1782 - d. 1850)
niaohao: Hsuan Tsung (Xuanzong)/ shi: Cheng huangdi
nianhao 3 Feb 1821 - 31 Jan 1851: Tao Kuang (Daoguang)
9 Mar 1850 - 22 Aug 1861 Yi Chu (Yizhu) (b. 1831 - d. 1861)

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miaohao: Wen Tsung (Wenzong)/ shi: Xian huangdi


nianhao 1 Feb 1851 - 29 Jan 1862: Hsien Feng (Xianfeng)
22 Aug 1861 - 12 Jan 1875 Regents
- Empress Dowager Tz'u An (f)(Cian)(b. 1837 - d. 1881)
- Empress Dowager Tz'u Hsi (f) (b. 1835 - d. 1908)
(Cixi)(1st time)
- Prince Kung (Gong) (b. 1833 - d. 1898)
11 Nov 1861 - 12 Jan 1875 Tsai Ch'un (Zaichun) (b. 1856 - d. 1875)
miaohao: Mu Tsung (Muzong)/ shi: Yi huangdi
nianhao 30 Jan 1862 - 5 Feb 1875: T'ung Chih (Tongzhi)
25 Feb 1875 - 14 Nov 1908 Tsai T'ien (Zaitian) (b. 1872 - d. 1908)
miaohao: Te Tsung (Dezong)/ shi: Jing huangdi
nianhao 6 Feb 1875 - 21 Jan 1909: Kuang-hsü (Guangxu)
25 Feb 1875 - 4 Mar 1889 Empress Dowager Tz'u Hsi (f) (s.a.)
(Cixi)(2nd time) -Regent
(de facto 3rd time; from 20 Sep 1898 to 2 Dec 1908)
(21 Aug 1900 - 7 Jan 1902 in Hsian Foo, Honan refuge)
2 Dec 1908 - 12 Feb 1912 Pu-yi (Puyi) (1st time) (b. 1906 - d. 1967)
nianhao 22 Jan 1909 - 12 Feb 1912: Hsüan-T'ung (Xuantong)
2 Dec 1908 - 6 Dec 1911 Prince Chun (Zaifeng) -Regent (b. 1882 - d. 1951)
6 Dec 1911 - 12 Feb 1912 Empress Dowager Long Yu (b. 1868 - d. 1913)
Huagtaihou (f) (Longyu Xiaoding)
(holder of the Imperial seal)
1 Jul 1917 - 12 Jul 1917 Pu-yi (2nd time) (s.a.)
(from 12 Feb 1912 - 5 Nov 1924, Emperor
inside the Forbidden City only¹)
1 Jul 1917 - 12 Jul 1917 Chang Hsün -Regent (b. 1854 - d. 1923)

Grand Secretaries (Da Qing Da Xueshi)(serving jointly)


Jun 1682 - Nov 1701 Wang Xi (b. 1628 - d. 1703)
Dec 1682 - Mar 1683 Hoang Ji (b. 1611 - d. 1686)
Dec 1682 - Feb 1687 Wu Zhengzhi (b. 1618 - d. 1691)
Sep 1684 - 1687 Song Deyi (b. 1626 - d. 1687)
Apr 1687 - Feb 1688 Yu Guozho
Sep 1687 - Feb 1688 Li Zhifang (b. 1622 - d. 1694)

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Feb 1688 - 1691 Liang Qingbao (b. 1620 - d. 1691)


Feb 1688 - Jan 1703 Yiswang'a (b. 1638 - d. 1703)
Jul 1689 - 1699 Alantai (d. 1699)
Jul 1689 - 1690 Xu Yuanwen (b. 1634 - d. 1691)
Aug 1690 - Aug 1698 Zhang Yushu (1st time) (b. 1642 - d. 1711)
Dec 1692 - 1699 Li Tianfu (b. 1635 - d. 1699)
Sep 1698 - 1705 Wu Dian (d. 1705)
Dec 1699 - Jun 1703 Xiong Cilü (2nd time) (b. 1635 - d. 1709)
Dec 1699 - May 1700 Folun (d. 1701)
Dec 1699 - Jun 1709 Maqi (1st time) (b. 1651/52 - d. 1739)
Dec 1699 - 1701 Zhang Ying (b. 1638 - d. 1708)
Dec 1701 - Jul 1711 Zhang Yushu (2nd time) (s.a.)
Dec 1702 - Feb 1708 Sihana (Xihan)
Jun 1703 - 1712 Cheng Tingjing (1st time) (b. 1639 - d. 1712)
Dec 1705 - 1718 Li Guangdi (b. 1642 - d. 1718)
Jan 1708 - 1716 Wenda (d. 1716)
Jan 1711 - Jan 1723 Xiao Yongzao (b. 1644 - d. 1729)
Jul 1711 - 1712 Chen Tingjing (2nd time) (s.a.)
May 1712 - Jan 1723 Songzhu (1st time) (b. 1657 - d. 1735)
May 1712 - Feb 1723 Wang Shan (b. 1645 - d. 1728)
Jun 1716 - Nov 1735 Maqi (2nd time) (s.a.)
Sep 1718 - 1725 Wang Xuling (b. 1642 - d. 1725)
Jan 1723 - Aug 1725 Bai Huang (1st time) (b. 1660 - d. 1737)
Jan 1723 - 1728 Funing'an (d. 1728)
Mar 1723 - 1725 Zhang Pengge (b. 1649 - d. 1725)
May 1725 - Dec 1749 Zhang Tingyu (b. 1672 - d. 1755)
Aug 1725 - Jan 1727 Gao Qiwei (b. 1646 - d. 1727)
Oct 1725 - 1736 Zhu Shi (b. 1665 - d. 1736)
May 1728 - Feb 1731 Jiang Tingxi (b. 1669 - d. 1732)
Oct 1728 - Sep 1733 Ma'ersai (d. 1733)
Feb 1729 - Sep 1733 Chen Yuanlong (b. 1652 - d. 1736)
Feb 1729 - 1738 Yintai (b. 1651 - d. 1738/39)
Feb 1732 - 1745 O-er-tai (b. 1680 - d. 1745)
Jun 1733 - 1739 Ji Zengyun (b. 1671 - d. 1739)
Sep 1735 - Apr 1747 Jalangga (Chalang'a) (b. af.1680 - d. 1747)

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Sep 1735 - Jan 1738 Maizhu (b. 1670 - d. 1738)


Dec 1736 - Aug 1744 Xu Ben (b. 1683 - d. 1747)
Feb 1738 - Feb 1746 Fumin (b. 1673 - d. 1756)
Feb 1739 - 1741 Zhao Guolin
Sep 1741 - Feb 1749 Chen Shiguan (1st time) (b. 1680 - d. 1758)
Feb 1744 - Jul 1755 Shi Yizhi (1st time) (b. 1682 - d. 1736)
Jul 1745 - 1748 Noqin
Feb 1746 - Feb 1747 (Dong) Qinfu (d. 1749)
May 1747 - 1755 Gao Bin (b. 1683 - d. 1755)
Feb 1748 - 1764 Laibao (d. 1755)
Nov 1748 - 1770 Fuheng (b. 1721 - d. 1770)
Feb 1750 - May 1751 Zhang Yunsui
Feb 1751 - Jun 1758 Chen Shiguan (2nd time) (s.a.)
Jul 1755 - 1759 Huang Tinggui (b. 1691 - d. 1759)
Feb 1759 - 1761 Jiang Bo (b. 1708 - d. 1761)
Jul 1761 - 1773 Liu Tongxun (b. 1700 - d. 1773)
Aug 1763 - Dec 1763 Liang Shizheng (b. 1697 - d. 1763)
Dec 1763 - 1764 Yang Tingzhang (b. 1688 - d. 1772)
Jun 1764 - 1771 Yinjishan (b. 1696 - d. 1771)
Sep 1764 - 1767 Yang Yinju (d. 1767)
May 1767 - Apr 1771 Chen Hongmou (b. 1696 - d. 1771)
Nov 1770 - Jan 1772 A'ertai (d. 1773)
Apr 1771 - 1773 Liu Lun (b. 1711 - d. 1773)
Jul 1771 - Feb 1779 Gao Jin (b. 1707 - d. 1770)
Jan/Feb 1772-Jun/Aug 1773 Winfu (d. 1773)
Aug 1773 - 1777 Shuhede (b. 1711 - d. 1777)
Oct 1772 - 1780 Yu Minzhong (b. 1714 - d. 1780)
Jan 1774 - 1777 Li Siyao (d. 1788)
Jul 1777 - 1797 Agui (b. 1717 - d. 1797)
Feb 1779 - 1784 Sanbao (d. 1784)
Jan 1780 - Oct 1780 Chen Jingyi (d. 1786)
Jun 1780 - 1783 Yinglian (b. 1707 - d. 1783)
Sep 1780 - 1794 Ji Huang (d. 1794)
Sep 1783 - Jun 1785 Cai Xin (b. 1707 - d. 1800)
Sep 1784 - 1786 Wumitai (d. 1786)

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Jul 1785 - 1787 Liang Guozhi (b. 1723 - d. 1787)


Sep 1786 - 1799 Hoshen (b. 1750 - d. 1799)
Feb 1787 - Sep 1800 Wang Jie (b. 1725 - d. 1805)
Oct 1792 - 1796 Fukang'an (d. 1796)
Oct 1792 - 1796 Sun Shiyi (b. 1720 - d. 1796)
Dec 1796 - May 1797 Dong Gao (1st time) (b. 1740 - d. 1818)
1797 - 1805 Liu Yong (b. 1720 - d. 1805)
Nov 1797 - 1805 Suling'a
Feb 1799 - 1806 Baoning (d. 1808)
May 1799 - 1813 Qinggui (b. 1735 - d. 1816)
Jul 1799 - 1818 Dong Gao (2nd time) (s.a.)
Feb 1805 - 1807 Zhu Gui (b. 1733 - d. 1807)
Dec 1806 - Aug 1811 Fukang (d. 1816)
1807 - Jan 1810 Fei Chun (b. 1739 - d. 1811)
Feb 1810 - Nov 1814 Feimo Lebao (b. c.1740 - d. 1819)
Jul 1810 - 1811 Dai Quheng (b. 1756 - d. 1811)
Jul 1811 - 1813 Liu Quanzhi (b. 1739 - d. 1818/22)
Nov 1813 - 1835 Cao Zheyong (b. 1756 - d. 1835)
Nov 1813 - Jul 1817 (Malate) Songyun (b. 1752 - d. 1835)
Oct 1814 - Dec 1831 Tuojin (b. 1755 - d. 1835)
Aug 1817 - Jun 1821 Mingliang (b. 1735 - d. 1822)
May 1818 - 1820 Zhang Xu (d. 1824)
Apr 1820 - May 1824 Dai Junyuan (b. 1746 - d. 1840)
Aug 1821 - 1822 Bolin
Aug 1822 - Mar 1835 Changling (b. 1758 - d. 1835)
Sep 1824 - 1825 Sun Yuting (b. 1753 - d. 1834)
Aug 1825 - Nov 1830 Jiang Youxian (b. 1766 - d. 1830/31)
Nov 1830 - Apr 1833 Liu Yingbo (b. 1760 - d. 1835)
Jan 1832 - 1834 Fujun (b. 1749 - d. 1834)
May 1833 - Jul 1850 Pan Shi'en (b. 1770 - d. 1854)
Mar 1835 - 1838 Ruan Yuan (b. 1764 - d. 1849)
Mar 1835 - Aug 1836 Wenfu (d. 1841)
Sep 1836 - 1852 Muzhang'a (b. 1782 - d. 1856)
May 1838 - Feb 1841 Qishan (b. 1790 - d. 1854)
Jul 1838 - 1842 Wang Ding (b. 1768 - d. 1842)

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Mar 1841 - 1848 Jueluo Baoxing (b. 1776 - d. 1848)


Jan 1845 - 1855 Zhuo Bingtian (b. 1782 - d. 1855)
Dec 1848 - Dec 1850 Jiying (Kiying) (b. 1790 - d. 1858)
Jul 1850 - Jan 1855 Qi Junzao (b. 1793 - d. 1866)
Feb 1851 - Oct 1852 Saishanga (d. 1875)
Oct 1852 - Jan 1854 Narjinga (Na'erjing'e)
Dec 1852 - 1858 Yucheng (d. 1858)
Jan 1855 - Jul 1856 Jia Zhen (1st time) (b. 1798 - d. 1874)
Oct 1855 - 1856 Wenqing (b. 1796 - d. 1856)
Jan 1856 - Jan 1857 Ye Mingzhen (b. 1807 - d. 1859)
Nov 1856 - Oct 1860 Peng Yunzhang (b. 1792 - d. 1862)
Jan 1857 - 1862 Guiliang (b. 1785 - d. 1862)
Oct 1858 Bojun (d. 1859)
Oct 1858 - Jun 1859 Weng Xingcun (1st time) (b. 1791 - d. 1862)
Feb 1859 - Oct 1860 Ruilin (1st time) (d. 1874)
Nov 1859 - 1867 Jia Zhen (2nd time) (s.a.)
Feb 1861 - 1871 Guanwen (1st time) (b. 1798 - d. 1871)
Feb 1861 - 1867 Zhou Zupei (d. 1867)
Dec 1861 - 1862 Weng Xincun (2nd time) (s.a.)
Oct 1862 - 1871 Woren (b. af.1800 - d. 1871)
15 Feb 1867 - 1871 Guanwen (2nd time) (s.a.)
10 Jun 1867 - 1871 Zeng Guofan (b. 1811 - d. 1872)
Apr 1868 - 1872 Zhu Fengbiao (d. 1873)
Apr 1871 - 1872 Ruichang (d. 1872)
Aug 1871 - 1874 Ruilin (2nd time) (s.a.)
10 Aug 1872 - 1876 Wen Xiang (b. 1818 - d. 1876)
16 Aug 1872 - 1901 Li Hongzhang (b. 1823 - d. 1901)
1 Oct 1872 - 1874 Dan Moaqian (d. 1880)
18 Oct 1874 - 1885 Zuo Zongtang (b. 1812 - d. 1885)
Jul 1874 - 1884 Baoyun (b. 1807 - d. 1891)
Feb 1877 - 1878 Yingghui (b. 1798 - d. 1878/9)
5 Jul 1878 - 24 Oct 1880 Zailing (d. 1883)
23 Dec 1880 - 20 Oct 1881 Quanqing (b. c.1820 - d. 1882/83)
26 Dec 1881 - 1885 Linggui (d. 1885)
23 Jun 1884 - 28 Nov 1884 WenYu (d. 1884)

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Nov 1884 - 15 Apr 1896 Olohubu (Elehuobu) (b. af.1830 - d. 1901)


Jan 1886 - 1892 Encheng (d. 1892)
Jan 1886 - 23 Aug 1888 Yan Jingming (b. 1817 - d. 1892)
Jan 1889 - 20 Oct 1896 Zhang Zhiwan (b. 1811 - d. 1897)
Oct 1892 - 26 Jun 1895 Fukun (b. af.1830 - d. 1895)
17 Aug 1895 - 1898 Linshu (d. 1898)
14 Jun 1896 - 1903 Kun'gang (d. 1907)
9 Dec 1896 - 1900 Xu Tong (b. 1819 - d. 1900)
15 Jun 1898 - 1903 Runglu (Ronglu) (b. 1836 - d. 1903)
6 Jan 1900 - 21 Jun 1907 Wang Wenshao (b. 1830 - d. 1908)
31 Jan 1902 - 1909 Sun Jianai (b. 1827 - d. 1909)
Oct 1903 - 16 Oct 1904 Jingxin (d. 1908)
15 Oct 1903 - 29 Jun 1905 Chongli (d. 1908)
9 Nov 1905 - 28 Oct 1906 Yüde (d. 1906)
10 Jan 1905 - 30 Oct 1911 Shi Xu (b. 1852 - d. 1921)
10 Jan 1905 - 1911 Natong (b. 1856 - d. 1925)
10 Aug 1907 - 1909 Zhang Zhidong (b. 1837 - d. 1909)
6 Nov 1909 - 1910 Lu Zhuanlin (d. 1910)
Sep 1910 - 30 Oct 1911 Lu Runyang (d. 1913)
Sep 1910 - 30 Oct 1911 Xu Shichang (b. 1858 - d. 1939)
Premiers
8 May 1911 - 1 Nov 1911 Prince Yiguang (s.a.)
2 Nov 1911 - Mar 1912 Yuan Shi-kai (b. 1859 - d. 1916)
1 Jul 1917 - 12 Jul 1917 Chang Hsün (s.a.)

Polities Rebelling against the Ch'ing (Qing) Empire 1851-1872

Taiping

11 Jan 1851 Taiping tianguo (Heavenly Realm of Great Peace)


inaugurated.

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25 Oct 1864 Extinguished by Qing empire.

Heavenly Kings
11 Jan 1851 - 1 Jun 1864 Hung Hsiu-ch'üan (Hong Xiuquan) (b. 1813 - d. 1864)
1 Jun 1864 - 25 Oct 1864 Hung Fu (Hong Tianguifu) (b. 1849 - d. 1864)

Shengping

9 Oct 1854 Shengping tianguo (Heavenly Realm of Ascending Peace)


inaugurated.
24 Jul 1858 Extinguished by Qing empire.

Heavenly Kings
9 Oct 1854 - 24 Jul 1858 Hu Youlu (to Oct 1855)
+ Zhu Hongying

Cheng

27 Sep 1855 Great Cheng Realm inaugurated.


21 Aug 1861 Extinguished by Qing empire.

Kings
27 Sep 1855 - 21 Aug 1861 Chen Kai (styled Ping Xun wang)
+ Li Wenmao (to 1858)

Kashghar: see under Sinkiang

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Pingnan Guo

1856 - 26 Dec 1872 Pingnan Guo ("Pacified South State") is a major


Islamic rebellious polity in western Yunnan province.

Qa´id Jami al-Muslimin (Leader of the Community of Muslims)


(usually referred to in foreign sources as Sultan)
1856 - 26 Dec 1872 Sulayman ibn `Abd ar-Rahman (d. 1873)
(Du Wenxiu [orig. Yang Xiu])

¹According to the treaty signed between the Ch'ing (Qing) court and government of the
Republic of China, P'u-i preserved the title Emperor, received annual payment from the
Republic of China government, and had the right to live in the Forbidden City, to be protected
by imperial troops, grant noble and honorary titles, maintain certain government organs in the
Forbidden City (mainly for management of the Forbidden City and other palaces, management of
imperial families, etc.). Inside the Forbidden City the dragon flag of the Ch'ing dynasty was
flown. People in the Forbidden City still wore the Ch'ing official dress and used the Ch'ing
calendar system. In 1922, the Emperor was married and wife was called Empress. On 5 Nov 1924,
the Emperor was forced to leave the Forbidden City by a faction of the army of the Republic of
China and the above mentioned privileges ended.

Warlord China
10 Oct 1911 Revolution begins.
1 Jan 1912 Republic of China proclaimed.
22 Dec 1915 Empire of China
22 Mar 1916 Republic of China
1 Jul 1917 - 12 Jul 1917 Brief restoration of the Great Qing Empire (s.a.).

Hear National Anthem


Hear National Anthem
"Qing Yun ge" (The Song Constitution
"China Heroically Stands
Map of China to the Auspicious Cloud) (11 Mar 1912;
in the Universe"
(Jul 1921-1928 and provisional)
(Jun 1915-1916)
1937-1945 pro-Japan govts)

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Capital: Beijing Currency: Chinese Dollar/


Map of Warlord Control Population: 485,598,900 (1925)
(1912-1928) Yuan (CND)

Note: The following provincial military governments proclaimed their independence from the
Qing Empire in the name of a Republic of China in gestation at the end of 1911, and combined
in a Central Military Government at the end of November. Names in parenthesis are modern
pinyin transliteration (which came into general use in 1979, but is rejected by the
Nationalist regime on Taiwan) following the names (i.e., Li Yuan-hung (Yuanhong). When the
Wade-Giles style is unknown, the pinyin prevails.

Military governors
- Hupe (Hubei) -
11 Oct 1911 - 30 Nov 1911 Li Yuan-hung (Yuanhong) (b. 1864 - d. 1928)
- Hunan -
23 Oct 1911 - 31 Oct 1911 Jiao Dafeng (b. 1887 - d. 1911)
31 Oct 1911 - 30 Nov 1911 Tan Yankai (b. 1879 - d. 1930)
- Shensi (Shaanxi) -
23 Oct 1911 - 30 Nov 1911 Zhang Fenghui (b. 18.. - d. 1958)
- Kiangsi (Jiangxi) -
24 Oct 1911 - 2 Nov 1911 Ma Yubao (b. 1864 - d. 1933)
2 Nov 1911 - 12 Nov 1911 Wu Jiezhang
12 Nov 1911 - 30 Nov 1911 Peng Chengwan
- Shansi (Shanxi) -
29 Oct 1911 - 30 Nov 1911 Yan Xishan (b. 1883 - d. 1960)
- Yunnan -
30 Oct 1911 - 30 Nov 1911 Cai E (b. 1882 - d. 1916)
- Shanghai (actually called itself Military Government of the Republic of China) -
4 Nov 1911 - 30 Nov 1911 Chen Qimei (b. 1878 - d. 1916)
- Chekiang (Zhejiang) -
4 Nov 1911 - 30 Nov 1911 Tang Shouqian (b. 1856 - d. 1917)
- Kweichow (Guizhou) -
5 Nov 1911 - 30 Nov 1911 Yang Jincheng (b. 1880 - d. 1922)
- Kiangsu (Jiangsu) -
5 Nov 1911 - 30 Nov 1911 Cheng Dequan (b. 1860 - d. 1930)
- Anhwei (Anhui) -

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8 Nov 1911 - 28 Nov 1911 Zhu Jiabao (b. 1880 - d. 1923)


28 Nov 1911 - 30 Nov 1911 Sun Yuyun (b. 1869 - d. 1924)
- Kwangsi (Guangxi) -
9 Nov 1911 - 30 Nov 1911 Shen Bingkun (b. 1862 - d. 1913)
- Fukien (Fujian -
9 Nov 1911 - 30 Nov 1911 Sun Daoren (b. 1867 - d. 1935)
- Kwangtung (Guangdong) -
9 Nov 1911 - 30 Nov 1911 Hu Hanmin (b. 1879 - d. 1936)
- Shantung (Shandong) -
13 Nov 1911 - 30 Nov 1911 Sun Baoqi (b. 1867 - d. 1931)
- Szechwan (Sichuan) -
22 Nov 1911 - 27 Nov 1911 Zhang Peijue (b. 1879 - d. 1915)
27 Nov 1911 - 30 Nov 1911 Pu Dianjun

Military governor (Central Military Government of the Republic of China)


30 Nov 1911 - 31 Dec 1911 Li Yuan-hung (Yuanhong) (s.a.) Mil
Presidents
1 Jan 1912 - 10 Mar 1912 Sun Yat-sen (provisional) (b. 1866 - d. 1925)
10 Mar 1912 - 22 Dec 1915 Yuan Shi-kai (1st time) (s.a.)
(provisional to 10 Oct 1913)
Emperor
22 Dec 1915 - 22 Mar 1916 Yuan Shi-kai (s.a.)
nianhao 1 Jan - 22 Mar 1916: Hung Hsien (Hongxian)
(note: This attempt at imperial installation of Yuan Shi-kai
was not formally consummated by an enthronement, and
there are questions about its actual significance)
Presidents
22 Mar 1916 - 6 Jun 1916 Yuan Shi-kai (2nd time) (s.a.)
7 Jun 1916 - 1 Jul 1917 Li Yuan-hung (Yuanhong) (1st time) (s.a.)
1 Jul 1917 - 12 Jul 1917 Restoration of Great Qing Empire (s.a.)
12 Jul 1917 - 17 Jul 1917 Li Yuan-hung (Yuanhong) (2nd time) (s.a.)
17 Jul 1917 - 10 Oct 1918 Feng Kuo-chang (Guozhang) (b. 1859 - d. 1919)
10 Oct 1918 - 2 Jun 1922 Hsü Shih-chang (Xu Shichang) (b. 1855 - d. 1939)
2 Jun 1922 - 11 Jun 1922 Chao Tzu-ch'i (Zhou Ziqi)(acting) (b. 1871 - d. 1923)
11 Jun 1922 - 13 Jun 1923 Li Yuan-hung (Yuanhong) (3rd time) (s.a.)

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13 Jun 1923 - 9 Sep 1923 Chang Shao-ts'eng (Zhang Shaozeng) (b. 1879 - d. 1928)
(acting)
9 Sep 1923 - 10 Oct 1923 Kao Ling-wei (Gao Lingwei)(acting) (b. 1868 - d. 1943)
10 Oct 1923 - 2 Nov 1924 T'sao K'un (Cao Kun) (b. 1862 - d. 1938)
2 Nov 1924 - 24 Nov 1924 Huang Fu (acting) (b. 1880 - d. 1936)
24 Nov 1924 - 20 Apr 1926 Tuan Ch'i-jui (Duan Qirui) (b. 1865 - d. 1936)
(provisional chief executive)
20 Apr 1926 - 13 May 1926 Hu Wei-te (Weide) (acting) (b. 1863 - d. 1933)
13 May 1926 - 22 Jun 1926 Yen Hui-ching (Yan Huiqing)(acting)(b. 1877 - d. 1950)
(W.W. Yen)
22 Jun 1926 - 1 Oct 1926 Tu Hsi-Kuei (Du Xigui) (acting) (b. 1875 - d. 1933)
1 Oct 1926 - 18 Jun 1927 Ku Wei-chün (Gu Weijun) (acting) (b. 1887 - d. 1985)
(Wellington Koo)
18 Jun 1927 - 2 Jun 1928 Chang Tso-lin (Zhang Zuolin) (b. 1873 - d. 1928)
(Generalissimo of the Military Government of China)

Premiers
13 Mar 1912 - 27 Jun 1912 Tang Shao-yi (Shaoyi) (b. 1860 - d. 1938)
29 Jun 1912 - 25 Sep 1912 Lu Cheng-hsiang (Zhengxiang) (b. 1870 - d. 1949)
25 Sep 1912 - 1 May 1913 Chao Ping-Chün (Zhao Bingjun) (b. 1859 - d. 1914)
1 May 1913 - 31 Jul 1913 Duan Qirui (acting) (s.a.)
31 Jul 1913 - 12 Feb 1914 Xiong Xiling (b. 1870 - d. 1941)
12 Feb 1914 - 1 May 1914 Sun Pao-ch'i (Baoqi) (acting) (s.a.)
Secretaries of state
1 May 1914 - Dec 1915 Hsü Shih-chang (Xu Shichang) (s.a.)
(1st time)
Dec 1915 - 22 Mar 1916 Lu Cheng-hsiang (Zhengxiang) (s.a.)
(acting)
22 Mar 1916 - 23 Apr 1916 Hsü Shih-chang (Xu Shichang) (s.a.)
(2nd time)
23 Apr 1916 - 29 Jun 1916 Tuan Ch'i-jui (Duan Qirui) (s.a.)
Premiers
29 Jun 1916 - 23 May 1917 Tuan Ch'i-jui (Duan Qirui) (s.a.)
(1st time)
23 May 1917 - 28 May 1917 Wu Tingfang (acting) (b. 1842 - d. 1922)

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28 May 1917 - 2 Jun 1917 Li Jingxi (1st time) (b. 1859 - d. 1925)
2 Jun 1917 - 12 Jun 1917 Hsü Shih-chang (Xu Shichang) (s.a.)
12 Jun 1917 - 24 Jun 1917 Chang Shao-jong (Jiang Zhaozong) (b. 1861 - d. 1943)
(acting)
24 Jun 1917 - 1 Jul 1917 Li Jingxi (2nd time) (s.a.)
1 Jul 1917 - 12 Jul 1917 Restoration of Great Qing Empire (s.a.)
14 Jul 1917 - 30 Nov 1917 Tuan Ch'i-jui (Duan Qirui) (s.a.)
(2nd time)
30 Nov 1917 - 23 Mar 1918 Weng Shizhen (acting) (b. 1861 - d. 1930)
23 Mar 1918 - 10 Oct 1918 Tuan Ch'i-jui (Duan Qirui) (s.a.)
(3rd time)
10 Oct 1918 - 13 Jun 1919 Ch'ien Neng-hsün (Qiang Nengxun) (b. 1869 - d. 1924)
13 Jun 1919 - 24 Sep 1919 Kung Hsin-chan (Gong Xinzhan) (b. 1869 - d. 1943)
(acting)
24 Sep 1919 - 14 May 1920 Chin Yün-P'eng (Jin Yunpeng) (b. 1877 - d. 1925)
(1st time) (acting to 5 Nov 1919)
14 May 1920 - 9 Aug 1920 Sa Chen-ping (Zhenbing) (acting) (b. 1859 - d. 1952)
9 Aug 1920 - 18 Dec 1921 Chin Yün-P'eng (Jin Yunpeng) (s.a.)
(2nd time) (acting)
18 Dec 1921 - 24 Dec 1921 Yen Hui-Ching (Yan Huiqing) (s.a.)
(1st time)
24 Dec 1921 - 25 Jan 1922 Liang Shi-i (Shiyi) (b. 1869 - d. 1933)
25 Jan 1922 - 8 Apr 1922 Yen Hui-Ching (Yan Huiqing) (s.a.)
(2nd time) (acting)
8 Apr 1922 - 11 Jun 1922 Chao Tzu-Ch'i (Zhou Ziqi) (acting) (s.a.)
11 Jun 1922 - 5 Aug 1922 Yen Hui-Ching (Yan Huiqing) (s.a.)
(3rd time)
5 Aug 1922 - 29 Nov 1922 Wang Ch'ung-hui (Chonghui) (b. 1881 - d. 1958)
(acting)
29 Nov 1922 - 11 Dec 1922 Wang Ta-hsieh (Daxie) (b. 1859 - d. 1929)
11 Dec 1922 - 4 Jan 1923 Wang Cheng-t'ing (Zhengting) (b. 1882 - d. 1961)
4 Jan 1923 - 9 Sep 1923 Cheng Shao-ts'eng (Zhang Shaozeng) (s.a.)
9 Sep 1923 - 12 Jan 1924 Kao Ling-Wei (Gao Lingwei)(acting) (s.a.)
12 Jan 1924 - 14 Sep 1924 Sun Pao-ch'i (Baoqi) (s.a.)
14 Sep 1924 - 31 Oct 1924 Yen Hui-Ching (Yan Huiqing) (s.a.)

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(4th time)
2 Nov 1924 - 24 Nov 1924 Huang Fu (acting) (s.a.) Mil
27 Nov 1924 - 26 Dec 1925 Tuan Ch'i-jui (Duan Qirui) (s.a.)
(4th time)
26 Dec 1925 - 4 Mar 1926 Hsu Shih-ying (Xu Shiying) (b. 1873 - d. 1964)
4 Mar 1926 - 20 Apr 1926 Chia The-yao (Jia Deyao) (b. 1880 - d. 1940)
20 Apr 1926 - 13 May 1926 Hu Wei-te (Weide) (acting) (s.a.)
13 May 1926 - 22 Jun 1926 Yen Hui-Ching (Yan Huiqing) (s.a.)
(5th time)
22 Jun 1926 - 1 Oct 1926 Tu His-Kuei (Du Xigui) (acting) (s.a.)
1 Oct 1926 - 18 Jun 1927 Ku Wei-chün (Gu Weijun) (acting) (s.a.)
18 Jun 1927 - 2 Jun 1928 Pan Fu (b. 1883 - d. 1936)

"Independent" military governments in 1913

Military governors
- Kiangsu (Jiangsu) -
15 Jul 1913 - 29 Jul 1913 Cheng Dequan (b. 1860 - d. 1930)
- Anhwei (Anhui) -
17 Jul 1913 - 7 Aug 1913 Bo Wenwei (b. 1875 - d. 1947)
- Kwangtung (Guangdong) -
18 Jul 1913 - 3 Aug 1913 Chen Jiongming (b. 1878 - d. 1933)
- Hunan -
25 Jul 1913 - 13 Aug 1913 Tan Yankai (s.a.)

"Independent" military governments in 1916

Military governors
- Yunnan -
1 Jan 1916 - 8 May 1916 Tang Jiyao (b. 1881 - d. 1927)
- Kweichow (Guizhou) -
27 Jan 1916 - 8 May 1916 Liu Xianshi (b. 1870 - d. 1927)
- Kwangsi (Guangxi) -

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15 Mar 1916 - 8 May 1916 Lu Rongting (b. 1856 - d. 1927)


- Kwangtung (Guangdong) -
6 Apr 1916 - 8 May 1916 Long Jiguang (b. 1860 - d. 1921)
- Chekiang (Zhejiang) -
12 Apr 1916 - 8 May 1916 Lu Gongwang (b. 1879 - d. 1954)

These came together under an umbrella government:

Chairman of the Military Affairs Council


8 May 1916 - 14 Jul 1916 Tang Jiyao (s.a.)

"Independent" military governments in 1917

Military governors
- Anhwei (Anhui) -
29 May 1917 - 22 Jun 1917 Ni Sichong (b. 1868 - d. 1924)
- Shensi (Shaanxi) -
29 May 1917 - 22 Jun 1917 Chen Shufan (b. 1885 - d. 1949)
- Fengtian -
May 1917 - 22 Jun 1917 Chang Tso-lin (Zhang Zuolin) (s.a.)
- Shantung (Shandong) -
May 1917 - 22 Jun 1917 Zhang Huaizhi (b. 1860 - d. 1934)
- Fukein (Fujian) -
May 1917 - 22 Jun 1917 Li Houji (b. 1869 - d. 1942)
- Honan (Henan) -
May 1917 - 22 Jun 1917 Zhao Ti (b. 1871 - d. 1933)
- Chekiang (Zhejiang) -
May 1917 - 22 Jun 1917 Yang Shande (b. 1873 - d. 1919)
- Chihli (Zhili) -
May 1917 - 22 Jun 1917 Cao Kun (s.a.)

Nationalist China

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Note: The name of the polity is still Republic of China, but it overlaps the preceding polity
of that name, has a different flag and government system, and eventually a different capital
(Nanjing; Beijing is in fact deprived of the name-part jing, meaning capital, and is renamed
Beiping after the demise of the "warlord" regime).

10 Sep 1917 - 5 May 1921 5 May 1921 - 1 Oct 1949

Hear National Anthem


Text of National Anthem Constitution
Map of China "San Min Chu-i"
Adopted 3 Jun 1937 (25 Dec 1946)
(Three Principles of the People)
Capital: Nanjing
1927-1937, 1946-1949
Hear National Anthem Currency: Chinese Dollar/
(Canton 1918-1927;
"Revolution of the Citizens" Population: 481,151,700 (1936)
Hankow 1937-1938, Yuan (CND)
(1 Jul 1926-1937)
Chungking 1939-1946,
and 23 Apr - 1 Dec 1949)

Generalissimo of the Military Government


10 Sep 1917 - 5 Jul 1918 Sun Yat-sen (s.a.) KMT
5 Jul 1918 - 21 Aug 1918 Governing Committee of the Military Government
- Sun Yat-sen (s.a.) KMT
- Tang Shao-yi (Shaoyi) (s.a.) KMT
- Wu Tingfang (s.a.) KMT
- Cen Chunxuan (b. 1861 - d. 1933) KMT
- Lu Rongting (s.a.) KMT
- Tang Jiyao (s.a.) KMT
- Lin Baoyi (b. 1862 - d. 1927) KMT
21 Aug 1918 - 24 Oct 1920 Cen Chunxuan (s.a.) KMT
(chairman Governing Committee of the Military Government)
24 Oct 1920 - 4 May 1921 Governing Committee of the Military Government
- Sun Yat-sen (s.a.) KMT
- Tang Shao-yi (Shaoyi) (s.a.) KMT

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- Wu Tingfang (s.a.) KMT


- Tang Jiyao (s.a.) KMT
Extraordinary President
5 May 1921 - 29 Jun 1922 Sun Yat-sen (s.a.) KMT
Generalissimos of the National Government
2 Mar 1923 - 12 Mar 1925 Sun Yat-sen (s.a.) KMT
12 Mar 1925 - 1 Jul 1925 Hu Han-min (Hanmin) (acting) (s.a.) KMT
Chairmen of the National Government
1 Jul 1925 - 15 Apr 1926 Wang Ching-wei (Jingwei) (b. 1883 - d. 1944) KMT
16 Apr 1926 - 29 Mar 1927 Tan Yankai (s.a.) KMT
Chairmen of the Standing Committee of the National Government
20 Mar 1927 - 13 Sep 1927 Wang Ching-wei (Jingwei)(at Wuhan) (s.a.) KMT
17 Sep 1927 - 10 Oct 1928 Tan Yen-K'ai (Yankai) (s.a.) KMT
Chairmen of the National Government
10 Oct 1928 - 15 Dec 1931 Chiang Kai-shek (1st time) (b. 1887 - d. 1975) Mil/KMT
15 Dec 1931 - 1 Aug 1943 Lin Sen (acting to 1 Jan 1932) (b. 1867 - d. 1943) KMT
1 Aug 1943 - 20 May 1948 Chiang Kai-shek (2nd time) (s.a.) Mil/KMT
(acting to 10 Oct 1943)
Presidents
20 May 1948 - 21 Jan 1949 Chiang Kai-shek (s.a.) KMT
21 Jan 1949 - 1 Mar 1950 Li Tsung-jen (Zongren)(acting¹) (b. 1890 - d. 1969) KMT
(from 8 Dec 1949 on Taiwan)

Presidents of the Executive Yuan (premiers)


10 Oct 1928 - 22 Sep 1930 Tan Yen-K'ai (Yankai) (s.a.) KMT
Sep 1930 - 4 Dec 1930 Sung Tzu-wen (Song Ziwen)(acting) (b. 1891 - d. 1971) KMT
("T.V. Soong")(1st time)
4 Dec 1930 - 15 Dec 1931 Chiang Kai-shek (1st time) (s.a.) KMT
15 Dec 1931 - 28 Dec 1931 Ch'eng Ming-hsu (Chen Mingshu) (b. 1890 - d. 1965) KMT
(acting)
28 Dec 1931 - 28 Jan 1932 Sun Fo (1st time) (b. 1895 - d. 1973) KMT
28 Jan 1932 - 7 Dec 1935 Wang Ching-wei (Jingwei) (s.a.) KMT
7 Dec 1935 - 1 Jan 1938 Chiang Kai-shek (2nd time) (s.a.) KMT
1 Jan 1938 - 20 Nov 1939 K'ung Hsiang-hsi (Kong Xiangxi) (b. 1880 - d. 1967) KMT
("H.H. Kung")

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20 Nov 1939 - 31 May 1945 Chiang Kai-shek (3rd time) (s.a.) KMT
31 May 1945 - 1 Mar 1947 Sung Tzu-wen (Song Ziwen)(2nd time)(s.a.) KMT
1 Mar 1947 - 18 Apr 1947 Chiang Kai-shek (4th time) (s.a.) KMT
18 Apr 1947 - 24 May 1948 Chang Ch'ün (Zhang Qun) (b. 1889 - d. 1990) KMT
24 May 1948 - 26 Nov 1948 Wong Wen-hao (Weng Wenhao) (b. 1889 - d. 1971) KMT
26 Nov 1948 - 12 Mar 1949 Sun Fo (2nd time) (s.a.) KMT
12 Mar 1949 - 3 Jun 1949 Ho Ying-ch'in (He Yingqin) (b. 1889 - d. 1987) KMT
3 Jun 1949 - 7 Mar 1950 Yen Hsi-shan (Yan Xishan) (s.a.) Mil/KMT
(from 8 Dec 1949 on Taiwan)

¹The ambiguity of the Constitutional situation leaves it unclear whether this was a vacancy
or a substitution for Chiang.

Party Abbreviations: KMT = Chungkuo Kuomin Tang ("Kuomintang" or Chinese Nationalist Party,
Chinese nationalist, authoritarian, only legal party 1928-49 [1914-1919 Chung-hua Ke-ming Tang
(Chinese Revolutionary Party]); Mil = Military

Alternative governments of the Republic of China:

Chairmen of the Standing Committee of the National Government (at Nanjing)


18 Apr 1927 - 15 Aug 1927 Chiang Kai-shek (s.a.) KMT
26 Aug 1927 - 15 Sep 1927 Tan Yen-kai (Yankai) (s.a.) KMT

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Chairman of the Committee of the National Government (at Beiping)


1 Sep 1930 - 31 Oct 1930 Yen Hsi-chan (Yan Xishan) (s.a.) Mil

Chairman of the National Government (at Canton [Guangzhou])


1 Jul 1931 - 1 Jan 1932 Wang Ching-wei (Jingwei) (b. 1883 - d. 1944) KMT

Chairman of the People's Government (at Fuzhou)


21 Nov 1933 - 21 Jan 1934 Li Jishen (b. 1884 - d. 1959)

China under Japanese occupation:

17 Dec 1937 - 30 Mar 1940 11 Apr 1940 - 24 Feb 1941 3 Feb 1943 - Aug 1945
24 Feb 1941 - 3 Feb 1943 (indoors only 24 Feb 1941 - 3 Feb 1943)

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3 Feb 1943 - Aug 1945


Outdoor State Flag

Acting Chairman of the Provisional National Government (at Peiping)


14 Dec 1937 - 30 Mar 1940 Wang Kemin (b. 1873 - d. 1945)
Acting Chairman of the Reformed National Government (at Nanjing)
28 Mar 1938 - 30 Mar 1940 Liang Hongzhi (b. 1883 - d. 1946)
Chairmen of the National Government (at Nanjing)
30 Mar 1940 - 10 Nov 1944 Wang Ching-wei (Jingwei) (b. 1883 - d. 1944) KMT-WC
(acting to 1940)
20 Nov 1944 - Aug 1945 Chen Gongbo (acting) (b. 1892 - d. 1946) KMT-WC

Japanese Commanders of Shanghai Expeditionary Army


15 Aug 1937 - 2 Dec 1937 Iwane Matsui (b. 1878 - d. 1948)
2 Dec 1937 - 14 Feb 1938 Prince Yasuhiko Asaka
Commanders of China Expeditionary Army
22 Sep 1939 - 1 Mar 1941 Juzo Nishio
1 Mar 1941 - 23 Nov 1944 Shunroku Hata
23 Nov 1944 - 9 Sep 1945 Yasuji Okamura
Commander of Central China Area Army
30 Oct 1937 - 14 Feb 1938 Iwane Matsui (s.a.)
Commanders of Central China Expeditionary Army
14 Feb 1938 - 14 Dec 1938 Shunroku Hata (b. 1879 - d. 1962)
15 Sep 1938 - 23 Dec 1939 Otozo Yamada (b. 1881 - d. 1965)
Commanders of Central Army District
1942 - 1944 Jun Ushiroku (b. 1884 - d. 1973)
1944 - 1945 Masakasu Kawabe
Commanders of Northern China Area Army
26 Aug 1937 - 9 Dec 1938 Count Hisaichi Terauchi (b. 1879 - d. 1946)
9 Dec 1938 - 12 Sep 1939 Hagime Sugiyama (b. 1880 - d. 1945)
12 Sep 1939 - 7 Jul 1941 Hayao Tada (b. 1882 - d. 1948)
7 Jul 1941 - 25 Aug 1944 Yasuji Okamura (b. 1884 - d. 1966)
25 Aug 1944 - 22 Nov 1944 Noasaburo Okabe (b. 1886 - d. 1946)

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22 Nov 1944 - 19 Aug 1945 Sadamu Shimomura (b. 1887 - d. 19..)


19 Aug 1945 - Sep 1945 Hiroshi Nemoto (b. 1891 - d. 1961)
Commanders of Southern China Area Army
10 Feb 1940 - 5 Oct 1940 Rikichi Ando (b. 1884 - d. 1946)
5 Oct 1940 - 26 Jun 1941 Jun Ushiroku (s.a.)
1941 - 1945 Hisaichi Terauchi (s.a.)

Party Abbreviations: KMT = Chungkuo Kuomin Tang ("Kuomintang" or Chinese Nationalist Party,
Chinese nationalist, authoritarian, only legal party 1928-49 [1914-1919 Chung-hua Ke-ming Tang
(Chinese Revolutionary Party]); KMT-WC = Kuomintang-Wang Ching-wei (Nationalist Party-Wang
Ching-wei faction, personalist [Japanese puppet government 1940-44]); Mil = Military

People's Republic of China

1928 - 7 Nov 1931 7 Nov 1931 - 15 Oct 1934 Adopted 1 Oct 1949

1 Dec 1931 - 15 Oct 1934 Soviet Republic of China (in Kiangsi, capital Ruijin),
(referred to as the Kiangsi Soviet Republic).
19 Aug 1948 People's Government of North China
1 Oct 1949 People's Republic of China
8 Dec 1949 Final remnants of Nationalist government flee to Taiwan.

Note: Deng Xiaoping (Teng Hsiao-ping)(b. 1904 - d. 1997) was de facto leader from the late
1970's to the early 1990's. He did not take over the chairmanship of the State, the Government
or the General Secretary of the Party, but from 1978 to his death in 1997 he was the
unquestionable Paramount Leader. From Jun 1981 he was Chairman of the Military Affairs
Committee. It is impossible to provide exact dates; he rose to power in the aftermath of Mao's

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death (9 Sep 1976) and became more and more frail in the 1990's (he last appeared in public
9 Feb 1994).

Chairmen of the Communist Party of China (CPC)


8 Jan 1935 - 9 Sep 1976 Mao Zedong (Mao Tse-tung) (b. 1893 - d. 1976)
9 Oct 1976 - 29 Jun 1981 Hua Guofeng (Hua Kuo-feng) (b. 1921)
29 Jun 1981 - 12 Sep 1982 Hu Yaobang (b. 1915 - d. 1989)
General Secretaries (top party post from 12 Sep 1982)
29 Feb 1980 - 16 Jan 1987 Hu Yaobang (s.a.)
16 Jan 1987 - 24 Jun 1989 Zhao Ziyang (acting to 2 Nov 1987) (b. 1919 - d. 2005)
24 Jun 1989 - 15 Nov 2002 Jiang Zemin (b. 1926)
15 Nov 2002 - Hu Jintao (b. 1942)

Chairman of the Central Executive Committee of the Soviet Republic of China


1 Dec 1931 - 15 Oct 1934 Mao Zedong (Mao Tse-tung) (s.a.)
Chairman of the People's Government of North China
19 Aug 1948 - 1 Oct 1949 Dong Biwu (Tung Pi-wu) (b. 1886 - d. 1975) CPC
Chairman of the People's Government of the North-East
27 Aug 1949 - 1 Oct 1949 Gao Gang (b. 1895 - d. 1954) CPC
Chairman of the Central People's Government
1 Oct 1949 - 27 Sep 1954 Mao Zedong (s.a.) CPC
Chairmen¹
27 Sep 1954 - 27 Apr 1959 Mao Zedong (s.a.) CPC
27 Apr 1959 - 31 Oct 1968 Liu Shaoqi (Liu Shao-ch'i) (b. 1898 - d. 1969) CPC
31 Oct 1968 - 24 Feb 1972 Dong Biwu (s.a.) CPC
+ Song Qingling (f) (acting) (b. 1893 - d. 1981) CPC
(Sung Ch'ing-ling)
24 Feb 1972 - 17 Jan 1975 Dong Biwu (acting) (s.a.) CPC
Chairmen of the Permanent Standing Committee of the National People's Congress²
17 Jan 1975 - 6 Jul 1976 Zhu De (Chu Teh) (b. 1886 - d. 1976) CPC
6 Jul 1976 - 5 Mar 1978 Vacant³
5 Mar 1978 - 18 Jun 1983 Ye Jianying (b. 1897 - d. 1986) CPC
Presidents²
18 Jun 1983 - 8 Apr 1988 Li Xiannian (b. 1909 - d. 1992) CPC
8 Apr 1988 - 27 Mar 1993 Yang Shangkun (b. 1907 - d. 1998) CPC

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27 Mar 1993 - 15 Mar 2003 Jiang Zemin (s.a.) CPC


15 Mar 2003 - Hu Jintao (s.a.) CPC

Premiers
1 Oct 1949 - 8 Jan 1976 Zhou Enlai (Chou En-lai) (b. 1898 - d. 1976) CPC
4 Feb 1976 - 10 Sep 1980 Hua Guofeng (acting to 7 Apr 1976) (s.a.) CPC
10 Sep 1980 - 24 Nov 1987 Zhao Ziyang (s.a.) CPC
24 Nov 1987 - 17 Mar 1998 Li Peng (acting to 9 Apr 1988) (b. 1928) CPC
17 Mar 1998 - 16 Mar 2003 Zhu Rongji (b. 1928) CPC
16 Mar 2003 - Wen Jiabao (b. 1942) CPC

²The title "chairman" for the heads of state in 1954-75 represents the same Chinese term
(zhuxi) that is commonly translated "president" for the heads of state after 1983.

³Vice-chairmen of the Standing Committee during the vacancy: Wu De (b. 1914 - d. 1995), Song
Qingling (f) (b. 1893 - d. 1981), Liu Bocheng (b. 1892 - d. 1986), Wei Guoqing (b. 1913 - d.
1989), Seypidin (b. 1915 - d. 2003), Chen Yun (b. 1905 - d. 1995), Tan Zhenlin (b. 1902 - d.
1983), Li Jingquan (b. 1909 - d. 1989), Ulanhu (b. 1906 - d. 1988), Guo Moruo (b. 1892 - d.
1978), Xu Xiangqian (b. 1901 - d. 1990), Nie Rongzhen (b. 1899 - d. 1992), Zhang Dingcheng (b.
1898 - d. 1981), Cai Chang (f) (b. 1900 - d. 1990), Ngapoi Ngawang Jigme (b. 1910), Zhou
Jianren (b. 1888 - d. 1984), Xu Deheng (b. 1890 - d. 1990), Hu Juewen (b. 1895 - d. 1989), Li
Suwen (f) (b. 1933), Yao Lianwei (b. 1935), and, from 2 Dec 1976, Deng Yingchao (f) (b. 1904 -
d. 1992).

Territorial Disputes: Based on principles drafted in 2005, China and India continue
discussions to resolve all aspects of their extensive boundary and territorial disputes
together with a security and foreign policy dialogue to consolidate discussions related to the
boundary, regional nuclear proliferation, and other matters; recent talks and confidence-
building measures have begun to defuse tensions over Kashmir, site of the world's largest and
most militarized territorial dispute with portions under the de facto administration of China
(Aksai Chin), India (Jammu and Kashmir), and Pakistan (Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas); India
does not recognize Pakistan's ceding historic Kashmir lands to China in 1964; lacking any
treaty describing the boundary, Bhutan and China continue negotiations to establish a boundary
alignment to resolve substantial cartographic discrepancies, the largest of which lies in
Bhutan's northwest; China asserts sovereignty over the Spratly Islands together with Malaysia,
Philippines, Taiwan, Vietnam, and possibly Brunei; the 2002 "Declaration on the Conduct of
Parties in the South China Sea" eased tensions in the Spratlys but is not the legally binding
"code of conduct" sought by some parties; Vietnam and China continue to expand construction of

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facilities in the Spratlys and in Mar 2005, the national oil companies of China, the
Philippines, and Vietnam signed a joint accord on marine seismic activities in the Spratly
Islands; China occupies some of the Paracel Islands also claimed by Vietnam and Taiwan; China
and Taiwan continue to reject both Japan's claims to the uninhabited islands of Senkaku-shoto
(Diaoyu Tai) and Japan's unilaterally declared equidistance line in the East China Sea, the
site of intensive hydrocarbon prospecting; certain islands in the Yalu and Tumen rivers are in
dispute with North Korea; China seeks to stem illegal migration of North Koreans; China and
Russia have demarcated the once disputed islands at the Amur and Ussuri confluence and in the
Argun River in accordance with their 2004 Agreement; in 2006, China and Tajikistan pledged to
commence demarcation of the revised boundary agreed to in the delimitation of 2002;
demarcation of the China-Vietnam land boundary proceeds slowly and although the maritime
boundary delimitation and fisheries agreements were ratified in Jun 2004, implementation
remains stalled; in 2004, international environmentalist and political pressure from Burma and
Thailand prompted China to halt construction of 13 dams on the Salween River.

Party Abbreviations: CPC = Communist Party of China (communist, authoritarian, only legal
party since 1 Oct 1949); Mil = Military;

Manchuria (Manchukuo)

May 1922 - 18 Sep 1931 9 Mar 1932 - 1 Mar 1934 1 Mar 1934 - 15 Aug 1945

Hear National Anthem


Hear Former Anthem
"National Anthem of the Constitution
Map of Manchukuo "Nation's Founding Song"
Great Manchu Empire" (1 Mar 1934; in German)
(24 Feb 1933 - 15 Aug 1942)
(5 Feb 1942 - 15 Aug 1945)
National Holiday: 1 Mar (1934)
Capital: Changchun State Foundation
Currency (1932-1945): Population: 43,233 954 (1940)
(Hsinking or Celebration Day
Manchukuo Yuan (CNMY) (850,000 Japanese by 1945)
Japanese: Shinkyo) -------------------------------
7 Feb (1906)

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Emperor's Birthday
Exports: $148.9 million (1937) Ethnic groups: Chinese (no differentiation
Imports: $221.7 million (1937)
GDP: $N/A between Manchurian & Chinese) 95%, Korean 3%,
note: excluding trade with
the rest of China Japanese 1.5% (1938)
Total Armed Forces: 111,044 (1934) Relgions: Buddhist, Lamanist, Taoist, Roman
Japanese Troops: est. 1,000,000 (1945) Catholic, Shinto, Protesant
International Organizations/Treaties: None

1897 - 1917 Russian protectorate over Manchuria (from Sep 1905,


only northern Manchuria).
21 May 1900 - 10 Mar 1905 Russian occupation.
10 Mar 1905 - 15 Apr 1907 Southern Manchuria occupied by Japan.
1916 Manchuria under warlord control (nominally still of
of the Republic of China).
1922 Declared to be autonomous by local warlord.
29 Dec 1928 Manchuria "formally" reunified with China.
18 Sep 1931 Japanese invasion and occupation begins.
9 Mar 1932 Great Manchu State (Manchukuo [Manzhouguo])(not recognized¹).
21 Jan 1933 Chinese province of Jehol annexed.
1 Mar 1934 Great Manchu Empire
9 Aug 1945 Soviet forces begin invasion.
15 Aug 1945 - May 1946 Occupied by the Soviet Union.

Russian Military Governors


21 May 1900 - 25 Oct 1904 Yevgeny Ivanovich Alekseyev (b. 1843 - d. 1918)
25 Oct 1904 - 16 Mar 1905 Aleksey Nikolayevich Kuropatkin (b. 1848 - d. 1925)
Japanese Military Governors
10 Mar 1905 - 15 Apr 1907 ....
Military Governors
1916 - 7 Jun 1928 Chang Tso-lin (Zhang Zuolin) (b. 1873 - d. 1928)
(civil governor from 13 May 1922)
7 Jun 1928 - 18 Sep 1931 Chang Hsüeh-liang (Zhang Xuelian) (b. 1901 - d. 2001)
18 Sep 1931 - 9 Mar 1932 Jiro Minami (military governor) (b. 1874 - d. 1957)
Chief Executive
9 Mar 1932 - 1 Mar 1934 Pu-yi ("Henry" Puyi) (b. 1906 - d. 1967)
nianhao: Hsüan-T'ung (Datong)
(1908-1912, Jul 1917 Emperor of China)

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Emperor
1 Mar 1934 - 15 Aug 1945 Pu-yi (s.a.)
nianhao: Kang Teh (Kangde)
Soviet Military Governor
15 Aug 1945 - May 1946 Aleksandr Mikhailovich Vasilevsky (b. 1895 - d. 1977)

Premiers
9 Mar 1932 - 21 May 1935 Chang Hsiao-hisn (Zheng Xiaoxu) (b. 1860 - d. 1938)
21 May 1935 - 15 Aug 1945 Chang Ching-hui (Zhang Jinghui) (b. 1871 - d. 1959)

Japanese Ambassadors (and Commanders of the Kwantung Army)


1 Aug 1931 - 8 Aug 1932 Baron Shigeru Honjo (b. 1876 - d. 1945)
8 Aug 1932 - 27 Jul 1933 Baron Nobuyoshi Muto (b. 1868 - d. 1933)
29 Jul 1933 - 10 Dec 1934 Takashi Hishikari (b. 1871 - d. 1952)
10 Dec 1934 - 6 Mar 1936 Jiro Minami (b. 1874 - d. 1955)
6 Mar 1936 - 7 Sep 1939 Kenkichi Ueda (b. 1875 - d. 1962)
7 Sep 1939 - 18 Jul 1944 Yoshijiro Umezu (b. 1882 - d. 1949)
18 Jul 1944 - 11 Aug 1945 Otozo Yamada (b. 1881 - d. 1965)

¹the following 18 countries established official or unofficial diplomatic relations with


Manchukuo: Japan (15 Sep 1932), El Salvador (3 Mar 1934), Vatican City (18 Apr 1934), Italy
(29 Nov 1937), Spain (2 Dec 1937), Germany (12 May 1938), Poland (18 Oct 1938), Hungary (9 Jan
1939), Bulgaria (10 May 1940), Slovakia (1 Sep 1940), Japanese-sponsored National Government
China (30 Nov 1940), Rumania (1 Dec 1940), Finland (18 Jul 1941), Denmark (Aug 1941), Croatia
(2 Aug 1941), Thailand (5 Aug 1941), Japanese-sponsored Philippine Republic (1943) and
Japanese-sponsored Provisional Government of Free India (1944).

Inner Mongolia (Meng Chiang)

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1934 - 1936 Mongolian League 28 Jun 1936 - 1 Sep 1939 1 Sep 1939 - 10 Sep 1945

Capital: Hohohoto Currency (1936-1945): Articles of Corporation


Population: 7,174,200 (1936)
(Hohhot [Pailingmiao]) Meng Chiang Yuan (CNPM) (1 Sep 1939)

23 Apr 1934 Mongols in Inner Mongolia establish autonomous Mongolian


Federation (or League).
22 Dec 1935 Independence declared.
28 Jun 1936 Japanese form Mongol provinces into the Mengjiang Joint Committee
(Meng-chiang) parallel to the Japanese puppet Provisional
Government of the Republic of China, then later subordinate to
the Japanese puppet National Government of the Republic of
China (in former Chahar and Suiyuan provinces).
22 Nov 1937 Menggu zizhi bang (Mêng-ku Tzu-chih Pang [Menggu/Manzhou), the
Mongolian Federated Autonomous Government formed (Mongol
(Mongol Obesbeen Jasaha Uls).
Aug 1949 - Dec 1949 Inner Mongolia Autonomous Government

Chairman of the Autonomous Political Council


23 Apr 1934 - 8 Dec 1937 Dewang (b. 1902 - d. 1966)
(Prince Teh [Demcuk Dongrup])
Chairman of Inner Mongolia Federation
8 Dec 1937 - Dec 1949 Dewang (s.a.)

Commanders of the Japanese Garrison Army in (Inner) Mongolia


1936 - 1937 Hideki Tojo (b. 1884 - d. 1948)
28 Dec 1937 - 31 Aug 1939 Shigeru Hasunuma (b. 1883 - d. 19..)
31 Aug 1939 - 12 Sep 1939 Hagime Sugiyama (b. 1880 - d. 1945)
12 Sep 1939 - 29 Sep 1940 Noasaburo Okabe (b. 1886 - d. 1946)

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29 Sep 1940 - 20 Jan 1941 Masataka Yamawaki (b. 1884 - d. 19..)


20 Jan 1941 - 2 Mar 1942 Shigetaro Amakasu (b. 1887 - d. 1958)
2 Mar 1942 - 28 May 1943 Ichiro Shichida
28 May 1943 - 22 Nov 1944 Yushio Kozuki (b. 1886 - d. 19..)
22 Nov 1944 - 19 Aug 1945 Hiroshi Nemoto (b. 1891 - d. 1961)

Kashgaria/East Turkestan

12 Dec 1933 - 6 Feb 1934 12 Nov 1944 - 16 Jun 1946


Islamic Republic of Eastern Turkestan East Turkestan Republic

National Anthem (1933-1934)


Capital: Kashgar Population: 4,360,000 (1943)
"Qozghal, Birlesh" (March, Unite)

1514 Khanate of Kashgaria founded part of Djagataide Khanate.


17th cent. Divided into several minor khanates without importance, real
power going to the so-called Khwaja, Arabic islamic religious
leaders.
c.1678 Hidayat Allah Hazrat Apaq of the Aqtaghlik, with the help of the
Dzungars, deposed the last Djagataide Khan and ousted the rival
Qartaghlik, becoming the real ruler of Kashgaria under Dzungar
(Dörben Oyirad) protection.
1694 - 1720 Occupied by Dörben Oyirad.
Jul 1759 - May 1826 Occupied by Qing Empire.
1820 - 1828 Aqtaghliq rebellion.
1864 Detached from the Qing Empire Kingdom of Qäshqäriyä (Kashgaria).
1870 Polity renamed Jiti Shahar.
28 Dec 1877 Re-incorporated into Qing empire.

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1888 Eastern Turkestan formally annexed to Qing Empire,


renamed Sinkiang (Xinjiang).
1928 - 16 Jun 1946 De facto autonomous from central Chinese government.
12 Dec 1933 - 6 Feb 1934 Islamic Republic of Eastern Turkestan (in rebellion)
(also known as Uighuristan or Turkish Islamic Republic of
East Turkestan).
16 Jan 1943 Re-incorporation into China declared.
12 Nov 1944 - 16 Jun 1946 East Turkestan Republic (in rebellion)
16 Jun 1946 Re-incorporated into China.
1 Oct 1955 Creation of Xinjiang Ughur Autonomous Region.

Khans
c.1693 - 1720 Ahmed Khan (d. af.1720)
1720 - 1754 Daniyal Khwaja (2nd time)
1754 - 1757 Yusuf ibn Daniyal
1757 `Abd Allah Badshah Khwaja ibn Yusuf
1757 - Aug 1759 Burhan ad-Din ibn Ahmad (d. 1760)
1820 - 1828 Jahangir Hodja (in rebellion) (b. 1783? - d. 1828)
Sep 1830 - Dec 1830 Muhammad Yusuf Hodja (in rebellion)
May 1857 - Aug 1857 Wali Khan (in rebellion)
1864 - Feb 1865 Qutlugh Beg
Feb 1865 - 1866 Buzurg Khwaja ibn Jahangir Khan
(1st time)
1866 Muhammad Amin ibn Jahangir Khan
1866 - 1867 Buzurg Khwaja ibn Jahangir Khan
(2nd time)
1867 - 6 Dec 1873 Muhammad Ya`qub Beg ibn Pir (b. c.1820 - d. 1877)
Muhammad Mirza
Amir Khans
6 Dec 1873 - 29 May 1877 Muhammad Ya`qub Beg ibn Pir (s.a.)
Muhammad Mirza
29 May 1877 - 28 Dec 1877 Quli Beg ibn Muhammad Ya`qub Beg (b. 1821 - d. 1877)
President of the Turkish-Islamic Republic of East Turkestan
12 Dec 1933 - 6 Feb 1934 Xoca Niyaz Haci (b. 1887 - d. 1938)
President of East Turkestan Republic

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12 Nov 1944 - 16 Jun 1946 Alikhan Tore (b. 1885 - d. 1976)

Prime minister
Dec 1933 - Feb 1934 Abdul-Bakr Tabit Damla

Dörben Oyriad (Dzungar Khanate)

1626 Dörben Oyriad (Four Confederates) or Dzungar Kalmyk (or Kalmuck)


Khanate formed. Covering Xinjiang region of China, Kyrgyzstan,
eastern Kazakhstan, and western Mongolia.
1755 - 4 Oct 1755 Tributary of China.
4 Oct 1755 - 4 Oct 1757 In rebellion against Chinese suzerainty.
Mar 1756 Annexed by China.
4 Oct 1757 Dissolved.

Khans (2 Dec 1717 - 1720 also styled Protectors of Tibet)


c.1676 - 3 May 1697 Galdan Khan (b. 1645 - d. 1697)
1697 - 1727 Tsewang Rabdan
1727 - Aug/Sep 1745 Galdan Tsereng (d. 1745)
1745 - 1750 Tsewang Dordji Namgyal (Bayan Khan)
1750 - 1753 Lama Dardja (d. 1753)
1753 - 1755 Dawadji (d. 1759)
1755 - 4 Oct 1757 Amursana (b. 1722 - d. 1757)
(from 4 Oct 1755, in rebellion)

Chinese Imperial Commissioner


1755 - 4 Oct 1755 Pan Ti (d. 1755)

Tibet

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1920 - c.1925 c.1925 - 7 Oct 1950

Constitution
Hear National Anthem Text of National Anthem
Map of Tibet to 1950 Charter of the Tibetans in Exile
"Gyallu" Adopted 1949 (or 1960)
(14 Jun 1991)
National Holiday (to 1951):
Currency (1912-1951):
Capital: Lhasa 7 Jul (1935) Population: 1,700,000 (1947)
Tibetan Silver Rupee (TBR)
Dali Lama's Birthday
International Organizations/Treaties: 1912-1950 None; Govt. in Exile: UNPO (from 1991)
Tibetan Buddhism

c.600 Kingdom of Tibet


842 - 1244 State fragmented.
1244 - 1358 Under Mongol rule.
c.1642 - 2 Dec 1717 Under suzerainty of the Kochot Khanate.
2 Dec 1717 - 1720 Under suzerainty of the Dörben Oyriad.
1720 Under suzerainty of the Qing (Chinese) Empire.
24 Mar 1856 - 7 Sep 1904 Makes tributary payments to Nepal.
3 Aug 1904 - 23 Sep 1904 British occupations of Lhasa.
7 Sep 1904 Convention of Lhasa accords Britain commercial agents
in the Tibetan cities of Gyantse, Gartok and Yatung.
7 Sep 1904 - 1947 Under British influence.
Apr 1906 - Feb 1908 British occupation of Lhasa and Chumbi valley.
24 Apr 1906 Britain recognizes Chinese suzerainty by Treaty of Peking.
28 Oct 1912 Dalai Lama rejects inclusion in the Republic of China.
Jan 1913 Nominally independent (Kingdom of Tibet), de jure still part
of China (officially from 8 Mar 1913).
3 Jul 1914 By Convention of Simla, all of Tibet, Inner and Outer,
recognized by Britain as "state under the suzerainty but
not the sovereignty of China."

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7 Oct 1950 Chinese invasion and occupation.


23 May 1951 Annexed by China (see Tibetan region)

Note: Although the dates are firm in the Tibetan calendar, the correspondence between the
Tibetan and the Gregorian calendars is only approximate, as are, consequently, the dates
given here.

Khans (styled Protectors of Tibet)


1656 - 1670 Dayan Khan
1670 - 1700 Dalai Khan
1700 - 2 Dec 1717 Latsang Khan (d. 1717)
2 Dec 1717 - 1720 Tsewang Rabdan
Secular rulers (title Junwang, usually translated king)
11 Jan 1740 - 12 Mar 1747 Pho-lha-nas bSod-nams-stobs-rgyas (d. 1747)
"Mi-dbang Pho-lha"
1747 - 11 Nov 1750 Pho-lha-nas 'Gyur-med-rnam-rgyal (d. 1750)
"Ta-la'i-ba-dur"
Dalai Lamas
1679 - 1703 Sangs-rgye rgya-mtsho (Sangye Gyatso)
(adminstrator to 1683, then regent)
8 Dec 1697 - 27 Jun 1706 Rin-chen-blo-bzang-rig-'dzins-
tshangs-dbyangs-rgya-mtsho
(6th Dalai Lama) (b. 1683 - d. 1706)
1703 - 1706 Ngag-dbang rin-chen -Regent
(Ngawang rinchen)
27 Jun 1706 - 1707 Vacant
1707 - 1717 Ngag-dbang-ye-shes-rgya-mtsho (b. 1681/5 - d. 1723)
(usurping Dalai Lama)
1717 - 1720 sTag-rtse-zhabs-drung -Regent
(Taktse Shabdrung)
1720 - 1721 Yan-xin -Chinese administrator
16 Oct 1720 - 22 Mar 1757 rGyal-dbang-blo-bzang-bskal-
bzang-rgya-mtsho (7th Dalai Lama) (b. 1708 - d. 1757)
(ritually presumed to have ruled from 1708)
22 Mar 1757 - 29 Apr 1757 Council of Ministers

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29 Apr 1757 - 28 Aug 1762 De-mo sprul-sku Ngag-dbang-'jam- (d. 1770)


dpal-bde-legs-rgya-mtsho -Regent
28 Aug 1762 - 19 Nov 1804 Blo-bzang-'jam-dpal-rgya-mtsho
(8th Dalai Lama) (b. 1758 - d. 1804)
1804 - 5 Mar 1808 Kun-bde-gling rTa-tshag-rje-drung- (d. 1810)
sprul-sku Ye-shes-blo-bzang-
bstan-pa'i-mgon-po -Regent
5 Mar 1808 - 26 Mar 1815 Blo-bzang-lung-rtogs-rgya-mtsho
(9th Dalai Lama) (b. 1806 - d. 1815)
1815 - 28 Mar 1819 De-mo sPrul-sku Blo-bzang-thub-
bstan-'jigs-med-rgya- (d. 1819)
mtsho -Regent
30 Mar 1819 - 6 Feb 1822 mTsho-smon-gling sPrul-sku (d. 1844)
Ngag-dbang-'jam-dpal-tshul-khrims
(1st time) -Regent
6 Feb 1822 - 30 Sep 1837 Blo-bzang-tshul-khrims-rgya-mtsho
(10th Dalai Lama) (b. 1816 - d. 1837)
30 Sep 1837 - 29 Sep 1841 mTsho-smon-gling sPrul-sku (s.a.)
Ngag-dbang-'jam-dpal-tshul-khrims
(2nd time) -Regent
29 Sep 1841 - 31 Jan 1856 Blo-bzang-mkhas'-grub-rgya-mtsho
(11th Dalai Lama) (b. 1838 - d. 1856)
31 Jan 1856 - 1856 Council of Ministers
1856 - 26 Feb 1858 Rva-sgreng sPrul-sku Ngag-dbang- (d. 1888)
ye-shes-tshul-khrims-rgyal-
mtshan -Regent
26 Feb 1858 - 25 Apr 1875 Ngag-dbang-blo-bzang-'phrin-las-
rgya-mtsho (12th Dalai Lama) (b. 1856 - d. 1875)
25 Apr 1875 - 1875 Council of Ministers
1875 - 12 Feb 1878 Kun-bde-gling sPrul-sku rTa-tshag-
rje-drung-ngag-dbang-dpal-ldan-
chos-kyi-rgyal-mtshan -Regent
12 Feb 1878 - 17 Dec 1933 Ngag-dbang-blo-bzang-thub-bstan-
rgya-mtsho-'jigs-bral-dbang-phyug-
phyogs-las-rnam-rgyal

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(13th Dalai Lama) (b. 1876 - d. 1933)


(30 Jul 1904 - 25 Dec 1909 in Mongolia, later China exile;
25 Feb 1910 - Jun 1912 in exile in India)
30 Jul 1904 - 1910 Ganden Tripa Rimpoche Lobzang
Gyaltsen Lamashar - Administrator
(for exiled Dalai Lama)
23 Feb 1910 - 1913 Gaden Tripa Tsmoling Rimpoche
Ngawang Lozang - Administrator
(for exiled Dalai Lama)
17 Dec 1933 - Jan 1934 Council of Ministers
Jan 1934 - 25 Aug 1939 Rva-sgreng sPrul-sku Thub-bstan- (b. 1911 - d. 1947)
'jam-dpal-ye-shes-rgyal-mtshan -Regent
(regent [for the Dalai Lama to 16 Jan 1941])
25 Aug 1939 - rJe-btsun-'Jam-dpal-ngag-dbang-
blo-bzang-ye-shes-bstan-'dzin-
rgya-mtsho (14th Dalai Lama) (b. 1935)
(Head of state Mar 1951 - Mar 1959)
(from 31 Mar 1959 in exile [from 1 May 1960 in Dharamsala, India])
16 Jan 1941 - 1950 Stag-brag ngag-dbang gsung-rab -Regent
(Taktra Rimpoche Sungrab Ngawang)
31 Mar 1959 - Dec 1964 Bskal-bzang Tshe-brtan -Head of state
(10th Panchen Lama) (b. 1938 - d. 1989)
Military Commander-in-chief
Jan 1951 - Feb 1967 Zhang Guohua (b. 1914 - d. 1972)

Regents
1679 - 1705 A-bar Sans-rgyas rGya-mts'o
1705 - 1706 Ngag-dban Rin-ch'en
1706 - 1717 IHa-bzang
1717 - 1720 Sa-skyong sTags-rTse-pa lHa-rgyal-rab-
brtan
Chinese Administrator
1720 - 1721 Yan-xin
Regents

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1721 - 1727 K'an-tsen-nas bdSod-nams rGyal-po


1727 - 1728 Triumvirate
- Na-p'od-pa rDo-rje rGyal-po
- Lum-pa-nas bKra-shis rGyal-po
- sByar-ra-ba bLo-gros rGyal-po
1728 - 1740 P'o-lha-nas bSod-nams-sLobs-rgas
1740 - 1750 dGyur-med rNam-rgyal
1750 - 1751 dGa'-bzhi Pandita (acting)
1751 - 1757 Vacant
1757 - 1777 De-mo Qutuqtu (d. 1777)
(Demo Trulku Jampel Delek)
1777 - 1781 gNag-dban Ts'ul-k'rims (1st time) (d. 1791)
(Tsemoling Ngawang Tsultrim)
1781 - 1789 Vacant
1789 - 1790 rTa-ts'ag sPrul-sku Ye-'ses (d. 1810)
bLo-bzan bsTan-pa'i mGing-po
(1st time)
(Tenpai Gonpo Kindeling)
1791 - Apr 1791 gNag-dban Ts'ul-k'rims (2nd time) (s.a.)
1791 - 1810 rTa-ts'ag sPrul-sku Ye-'ses (s.a.)
bLo-bzan bsTan-pa'i mGing-po
(2nd time)
1811 - 1819 De-mo bLo-bzan t'ub-bstan Jigs-med (d. 1819)
rGya-mts'o
(Demo Thubten Jigme)
1819 - Sep 1844 gNag-dban Jam-dpal Ts'ul-k'rims
(Jampel Tsultrim Tsemoling)
1844 - May 1845 Blo-bzang-bstan-pa'i-nyi-ma
(7th Panchen Lama) (b. 1781 - d. 1854)
(Tenpai Nyima)
May 1845 - 1855 gNag-dban Ye-'ses Ts'ul-k'rims
rGyal-mts'an (1st time)
(Yeshe Gyastso Rating)
1855 - 1856 Vacant
1856 - 1862 gNag-dban Ye-'ses Ts'ul-k'rims

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rGyal-mts'an (2nd time)


1862 - Sep 1864 bSad-sgra dBan-p'yug rGyal-po (d. 1864)
(Wangchuck Gyalpo Shatra)
1864 - 1872 bLo-bzan mK'yen-rab dBang-p'yug
(Khenrab Wangchuk Dedrug)
1872 - 1875 Vacant
1875 - 1886 gNag-dban dPal-ldan c'os-kyi (d. 1886)
rGyal-mts'an
(Choskyi Gyaltsen Kundeling)
1886 - 1895 gNag-dban bLo-bzan 'P'rin-las
Rab-rgyas
(Demo Trinley Rabgyas)
1895 - 1913 Ganden Tripa Isomolin Rimpoch'e
1913 - 1934 Vacant
Jan 1934 - Feb 1941 T'ub-bstan 'Jam-dpal Ye-'ses
rGyal-mts'an
(Rating Rimpoche = Jampal Yeshe)
Feb 1941 - Nov 1950 gNag-dban gSun-rab gRub-t'ob
bsTan-pa'
(Tatkra Rimpoche Ngawang Sungrab)

Presidents of the Council of Ministers (Prime ministers [style Desi])


(usually serving jointly)
1862 - Sep 1864 bSad-sgra dBan-p'yug rGyal-po (d. 1864)
(Wangchuck Gyalpo Shatra)
1864 - 1907 Post abolished
1907 - 1920 Changkhyim (d. 1920)
1907 - 1923 Paljor Dorje Shatra (d. 1923)
1907 - 1926 Sholkhang (d. 1926)
1926 - 1940 Silong Yakkyi Langdun
1950 - Apr 1952 Lozang Tashi

Chinese ambans (representatives of the emperors at the court of the Dalai Lama)
1709 - 1711 Ho Shou -Envoy

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1720 - 1721 Yanxin -Military commandant


1721 - 1723 Ts'eban Norbu -Military commandant
1723 - 1724 Orai
1724 - 1726 Vacant
1726 Oci
+ Bandi
1727 - 1728 Sengko (1st time) -Envoy
+ Mai-u (2nd time) -Envoy
1728 - 1728 Jalangga -Military commandant
1728 - 1733 Sengko (2nd time)
+ Mailu (2nd time)
1733 - 1734 Qingbu
1733 - 1734 + Miyuser
1734 Nasutai (1st time)
+ Arxun
1734 - 1737 Nasutai (2nd time)
1737 - 1739 Hanggilu
1739 - 1741? Jishan (1s time)
1742 - 1745 Sopai (1st time)
1745 - 1747 Fujing (1st time) (d. 1750)
1747 - 1748 Sopai (2nd time)
1747 - 1748 Fujing (2nd time) (s.a.)
1748 Sopai (3rd time)
1748 - 1749 Labdon (La-bu-dun) (b. 1703 - d. 1750)
1749 - 1750 Jishan (2nd time)
1750 Fujing (3rd time) (s.a.)
1750 Jishan (3rd time)
1751 - 1751 Bandi (1st time)
1751 - 1751 Ts'ebin -Commissioner
1751 - 1752 Bandi (2nd time)
+ rNamrgyal
1752 - 1754 Duoerji
1754 - 1757 Salashan
1757 - 1761 Guanbao (1st time)
1761 - 1764 Funai

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1764 - 1766 Aminertu (Amiletu)


1766 - 1767 Guanbao (2nd time)
1767 - 1773 Manggulai
1773 - 1775 Wumitai
1775 - 1779 Liubaozhu (1st time)
1779 - 1780 Suolin
1780 - 1785 Beqing'e
1785 - 1786 Liubaozhu (2nd time)
1786 - 1788 Yamantai
1788 - 1789 Fozhi
1788 - 1790 Shulian
+ Bazhong
1790 Pufu
1790 - 1791 Bao-tai
1791 Kuilin
1791 - 1792 Ehui
1792 - 1793 Chengde
1792 - 1794 Helin
1794 - 1799 Songyun
1799 - 1803 Yingshan
1803 - 1804 Funing
1804 - 1805 Ts'e-pa-k'e (Cebake)
1805 - 1808 Yuning
1808 - 1811 Wenbi
1811 - 1812 Yangchun (Yangchun-bao)
1812 - 1813 Hutuli
1814 - 1817 Ximing
1817 - 1820 Yulin
1820 - 1823 Wen'gan (Wenning)
1823 - 1827 Songting
1827 - 1830 Huixian
1830 - 1833 Xingke
1833 - 1834 Longwen
1834 - 1835 Wenwei
1835 - 1836 Qinglu

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1836 - 1839 Guanshengbao


1839 - 1842 Mengbao
1843 - 1847 Qishan
1847 - 1848 Binliang
1848 - 1852 Mutenge
1852 Haimei
1852 - 1854 Zhunling
1854 - 1857 Hetehe
1857 - 1862 Manqing
1862 - 1869 Jing Wen
1869 - 1872 Enlin
1872 - 1874 Chengii
1874 - 1879 Songgui
1879 - 1885 Selenge
1885 - 1888 Wenshi
1886 - 1888 Wenshi
1888 - 1892 Shengtai
1893 - 1897 Kuihan
1897 - 1902 Wenhai
1902 - 1904 Yugang
1904 - 1906 Yutai
1906 - 1912 Lianyu
Chinese Special Envoys to Tibet
9 May 1912 - 2 Apr 1914 Zhong Ying
2 Apr 1914 - 16 May 1924 Lu Xingqi
2 Mar 1916 - 16 May 1924 Li Jiazhe (acting for Lu)
British Agents (resident in Sikkim 1908-1937)
1902 - 1921 Charles A. Bell (b. 1870 - d. 1945)
1921 - 1928 Frederick Marshman Bailey (b. 1882 - d. 1967)
1928 - 1932 Leslie Weir (b. 1883 - d. 1950)
1932 - 1935 Frederick Williamson (b. 1891 - d. 1935)
1935 - 1937 Basil Gould (b. 1883 - d. 1956)
Feb 1937 - 1940 Hugh Edward Richardson (1st time) (b. 1905 - d. 2000)
1943 - 1945 George Sheriff
1945 - 1947? Sir Basil J. Gould (b. 1883 - d. 1956)

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1947 - 1950 Hugh Edward Richardson (2nd time) (s.a.)


Indian Trade Agents
1950 Surendra Mohan Krishnatry (b. 1921)
1950 - Jan 1951 S. Sinha

Tibet Government in Exile: Central Tibetan Administration

Dalai Lama
25 Aug 1939 - rJe-btsun-'Jam-dpal-ngag-dbang-
blo-bzang-ye-shes-bstan-'dzin-
rgya-mtsho (14th Dalai Lama) (s.a.)
(from 31 Mar 1959 in exile [from 1 May 1960 in Dharamsala, India])

Chairmen of the Cabinet (Kalon Tripa)(in exile)


1959 - 1960 Jangsa Tsang
1960 - 1965 Zurkhang Ngawang Gelek (b. 1910)
1965 - 1970 Shenkha Gurney Topgyal
1970 - 1975 Garang Lobsang Rigzin
1975 - 1980 Kunling Woeser Gyaltso (b. 1905)
1980 - 1985 Wangue Dorji (b. 1915 - d. 2000)
1985 - May 1990 Juchen Thupten Namgyal
May 1990 - Jul 1991 Kelsang Yeshi
Aug 1991 - Jan 1993 Gyalo Thondup (b. 1928)
Feb 1993 - 4 Jun 1996 Tenzin Namgyal Tethong
4 Jun 1996 - 5 Sep 2001 Sonam Topgyal (b. 1934)
5 Sep 2001 - Samdhong Rinpoche (Lobsang Tenzin) (b. 1939)

No political parties existed prior to the 7 Oct 1950 Chinese invasion.

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©2000 Ben Cahoon

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