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In Calamba, Laguna

19 June 1861 JOSE RIZAL, the seventh child of Francisco Mercado Rizal and Teodora Alonso y Quintos, was born in Calamba, Laguna. 22 June 1861 He was baptized JOSE RIZAL MERCADO at the Catholic of Calamba by the parish priest Rev. Rufino Collantes with Rev. Pedro Casaas as the sponsor. 28 September 1862 The parochial church of Calamba and the canonical books, including the book in which Rizals baptismal records were entered, were burned. 1864 Barely three years old, Rizal learned the alphabet from his mother. 1865 When he was four years old, his sister Conception, the eight child in the Rizal family, died at the age of three. It was on this occasion that Rizal remembered having shed real tears for the first time. 1865 1867 During this time his mother taught him how to read and write. His father hired a classmate by the name of Leon Monroy who, for five months until his (Monroy) death, taught Rizal the rudiments of Latin. At about this time two of his mothers cousin frequented Calamba. Uncle Manuel Alberto, seeing Rizal frail in body, concerned himself with the physical development of his young nephew and taught the latter love for the open air and developed in him a great admiration for the beauty of nature, while Uncle Gregorio, a scholar, instilled into the mind of the boy love for education. He advised Rizal: "Work hard and perform every task very carefully; learn to be swift as well as thorough; be independent in thinking and make visual pictures of everything." 6 June 1868 With his father, Rizal made a pilgrimage to Antipolo to fulfill the vow made by his mother to take the child to the Shrine of the Virgin of Antipolo should she and her child survive the ordeal of delivery which nearly caused his mothers life. From there they proceeded to Manila and visited his sister Saturnina who was at the time studying in the La Concordia College in Sta. Ana. 1869 At the age of eight, Rizal wrote his first poem entitled "Sa Aking Mga Kabata." The poem was written in tagalog and had for its theme "Love of Ones Language." Jose Rizal: A Biographical Sketch BY TEOFILO H. MONTEMAYOR

JOSE RIZAL, the national hero of the Philippines and pride of the Malayan race, was born on June 19, 1861, in the town of Calamba, Laguna. He was the seventh child in a family of 11 children (2 boys and 9 girls). Both his parents were educated and belonged to distinguished families. His father, Francisco Mercado Rizal, an industrious farmer whom Rizal called "a model of fathers," came from Bian, Laguna; while his mother, Teodora Alonzo y Quintos, a highly cultured and accomplished woman whom Rizal called "loving and prudent mother," was born in Meisic, Sta. Cruz, Manila. At the age of 3, he learned the alphabet from his mother; at 5, while learning to read and write, he already showed inclinations to be an artist. He astounded his family and relatives by his pencil drawings and sketches and by his moldings of clay. At the age 8, he wrote a Tagalog poem, "Sa Aking Mga Kabata," the theme of which revolves on the love of ones language. In 1877, at the age of 16, he obtained his Bachelor of Arts degree with an average of "excellent" from the Ateneo Municipal de Manila. In the same year, he enrolled in Philosophy and Letters at the University of Santo Tomas, while at the same time took courses leading to the degree of surveyor and expert assessor at the Ateneo. He finished the latter course on March 21, 1877 and passed the Surveyors examination on May 21, 1878; but because of his age, 17, he was not granted license to practice the profession until December 30, 1881. In 1878, he enrolled in medicine at the University of Santo Tomas but had to stop in his studies when he felt that the Filipino students were being discriminated upon by their Dominican tutors. On May 3, 1882, he sailed for Spain where he continued his studies at the Universidad Central de Madrid. On June 21, 1884, at the age of 23, he was conferred the degree of Licentiate in Medicine and on June 19,1885, at the age of 24, he finished his course in Philosophy and Letters with a grade of "excellent." Having traveled extensively in Europe, America and Asia, he mastered 22 languages. These include Arabic, Catalan, Chinese, English, French, German, Greek, Hebrew, Italian, Japanese, Latin, Malayan, Portuguese, Russian, Sanskrit, Spanish, Tagalog, and other native dialects. A versatile genius, he was an architect, artists, businessman, cartoonist, educator, economist, ethnologist, scientific farmer, historian, inventor, journalist, linguist, musician, mythologist, nationalist, naturalist, novelist, opthalmic surgeon, poet, propagandist, psychologist, scientist, sculptor, sociologist, and theologian. He was an expert swordsman and a good shot. In the hope of securing political and social reforms for his country and at the same time educate his countrymen, Rizal, the greatest apostle of Filipino nationalism, published, while in Europe, several works with highly nationalistic and revolutionary tendencies. In March 1887, his daring book, NOLI ME TANGERE, a satirical novel exposing the arrogance and despotism of the Spanish clergy, was published in Berlin; in 1890 he reprinted in Paris, Morgas SUCCESSOS DE LAS ISLAS FILIPINAS with his annotations to prove that the Filipinos had a civilization worthy to be proud of even long before the Spaniards set foot on Philippine soil; on September 18, 1891, EL FILIBUSTERISMO, his second novel and a sequel to the NOLI and more revolutionary and tragic than the latter, was printed in Ghent. Because of his fearless exposures of the injustices committed by the civil and clerical officials, Rizal provoked the animosity of those in power. This led himself, his relatives and countrymen into trouble with the Spanish officials of the country. As a consequence, he and those who had contacts with him, were shadowed; the authorities were not only finding faults but even fabricating charges to pin him down. Thus, he was imprisoned in Fort Santiago from July 6, 1892 to July 15, 1892 on a charge that anti-friar pamphlets were found in the luggage of his sister Lucia who arrive with him from Hong Kong. While a political exile in Dapitan, he engaged in agriculture, fishing and business; he maintained and operated a hospital; he conducted classes- taught his pupils the English and Spanish languages, the arts. The sciences, vocational courses including agriculture, surveying, sculpturing, and painting, as well as the art of self defense; he did some researches and collected specimens; he entered into correspondence with renowned men of letters and sciences abroad; and with the help of his pupils, he constructed water dam and a relief map of Mindanao - both considered remarkable engineering feats. His sincerity and friendliness won for him the trust and confidence of even those assigned to guard him; his good manners and warm personality were found irresistible by women of all races with whom he had personal contacts; his intelligence and humility gained for him the respect and admiration of prominent men of other nations; while his undaunted courage and determination to uplift the welfare of his people were feared by his enemies. When the Philippine Revolution started on August 26, 1896, his enemies lost no time in pressing him down. They were able to enlist witnesses that linked him with the revolt and these were never allowed to be confronted by him. Thus, from November 3, 1986, to the date of his execution, he was again committed to Fort Santiago. In his prison cell, he wrote an untitled poem, now known as "Ultimo Adios" which is considered a masterpiece and a living document expressing not only the heros great love of country but also that of all Filipinos. After a mock trial, he was convicted of rebellion, sedition and of forming illegal association. In the cold morning of December 30, 1896, Rizal, a man whose 35 years of life had been packed with varied activities which proved that the Filipino has capacity to equal if not excel even those who treat him as a slave, was shot at Bagumbayan Field.

Early Education in Calamba and Bian

Rizal had his early education in Calamba and Bian. It was a typical schooling that a son of an ilustrado family received during his time, characterized by the four Rs- reading, writing, arithmetic, and religion. Instruction was rigid and strict. Knowledge was forced into the minds of the pupils by means of the tedious memory method aided by the teachers whip. Despite the defects of the Spanish system of elementary education, Rizal was able to acquire the necessary instruction preparatory for college work in Manila. It may be said that Rizal, who was born a physical weakling, rose to become an intellectual giant not because of, but rather in spite of, the outmoded and backward system of instruction obtaining in the Philippines during the last decades of Spanish regime. The Heros First Teacher The first teacher of Rizal was his mother, who was a remarkable woman of good character and fine culture. On her lap, he learned at the age of three the alphabet and the prayers. "My mother," wrote Rizal in his student memoirs, "taught me how to read and to say haltingly the humble prayers which I raised fervently to God." As tutor, Doa Teodora was patient, conscientious, and understanding. It was she who first discovered that her son had a talent for poetry. Accordingly, she encouraged him to write poems. To lighten the monotony of memorizing the ABCs and to stimulate her sons imagination, she related many stories. As Jose grew older, his parents employed private tutors to give him lessons at home. The first was Maestro Celestino and the second, Maestro Lucas Padua. Later, an old man named Leon Monroy, a former classmate of Rizals father, became the boys tutor. This old teacher lived at the Rizal home and instructed Jose in Spanish and Latin. Unfortunately, he did not lived long. He died five months later. After a Monroys death, the heros parents decided to send their gifted son to a private school in Bian. Jose Goes to Bian One Sunday afternoon in June , 1869, Jose, after kissing the hands of his parents and a tearful parting from his sister, left Calamba for Bian. He was accompanied by Paciano , who acted as his second father. The two brothers rode in a carromata, reaching their destination after one and one-half hours drive. They proceeded to their aunts house, where Jose was to lodge. It was almost night when they arrived, and the moon was about to rise. That same night, Jose, with his cousin named Leandro, went sightseeing in the town. Instead of enjoying the sights, Jose became depressed because of homesickness. "In the moonlight," he recounted, "I remembered my home town, my idolized mother, and my solicitous sisters. Ah, how sweet to me was Calamba, my own town, in spite of the fact that was not as wealthy as Bian." First Day in Bian School The next morning (Monday) Paciano brought his younger brother to the school of Maestro Justiniano Aquino Cruz. The school was in the house of the teacher, which was a small nipa hut about 30 meters from the home of

Joses aunt. Paciano knew the teacher quite well because he had been a pupil under him before. He introduced Jose to the teacher, after which he departed to return to Calamba. Immediately, Jose was assigned his seat in the class. The teacher asked him: "Do you "A little, "Do you "A little, know Spanish?" sir," replied the Calamba lad. know Latin?" sir."

The boys in the class, especially Pedro, the teachers son laughed at Joses answers. The teacher sharply stopped all noises and begun the lessons of the day. Jose described his teacher in Bian as follows: "He was tall, thin, long-necked, with sharp nose and a body slightly bent forward, and he used to wear a sinamay shirt, woven by the skilled hands of the women of Batangas. He knew by the heart the grammars by Nebrija and Gainza. Add to this severity that in my judgement was exaggerated and you have a picture, perhaps vague, that I have made of him, but I remember only this." First School BrawlIn the afternoon of his first day in school, when the teacher was having his siesta, Jose met the bully, Pedro. He was angry at this bully for making fun of him during his conversation with the teacher in the morning. Jose challenged Pedro to a fight. The latter readily accepted, thinking that he could easily beat the Calamba boy who was smaller and younger. The two boys wrestled furiously in the classroom, much to the glee of their classmates. Jose, having learned the art of wrestling from his athletic Tio Manuel, defeated the bigger boy. For this feat, he became popular among his classmates. After the class in the afternoon, a classmate named Andres Salandanan challenged him to an arm-wrestling match. They went to a sidewalk of a house and wrestled with their arms. Jose, having the weaker arm, lost and nearly cracked his head on the sidewalk. In succeeding days he had other fights with the boys of Bian. He was not quarrelsome by nature, but he never ran away from a fight. Best Student in School In academic studies, Jose beat all Bian boys. He surpassed them all in Spanish, Latin, and other subjects. Some of his older classmates were jealous of his intellectual superiority. They wickedly squealed to the teacher whenever Jose had a fight outside the school, and even told lies to discredit him before the teachers eyes. Consequently the teacher had to punish Jose. Early Schooling in Bian Jose had a very vivid imagination and a very keen sense of observation. At the age of seven he traveled with his father for the first time to Manila and thence to Antipolo to fulfill the promise of a pilgrimage made by his mother at the time of his birth. They embarked in a casco, a very ponderous vessel commonly used in the Philippines. It was the first trip on the lake that Jose could recollect. As darkness fell he spent the hours by the katig, admiring the grandeur of the water and the stillness of the night, although he was seized with a superstitious fear when he saw a water snake entwine itself around the bamboo beams of the katig. With what joy did he see the sun at the daybreak as its luminous rays shone upon the glistening surface of the wide lake, producing a brilliant effect! With what joy did he talk to his father, for he had not uttered a word during the night! When they proceeded to Antipolo, he experienced the sweetest emotions upon seeing the gay banks of the Pasig and the towns of Cainta and Taytay. In Antipolo he prayed, kneeling before the image of the Virgin of

Peace and Good Voyage, of whom he would later sing in elegant verses. Then he saw Manila, the great metropolis , with its Chinese sores and European bazaars. And visited his elder sister, Saturnina, in Santa Ana, who was a boarding student in the Concordia College. When he was nine years old, his father sent him to Bian to continue studying Latin, because his first teacher had died. His brother Paciano took him to Bian one Sunday, and Jose bade his parents and sisters good-bye with tears in his eyes. Oh, how it saddened him to leave for the first time and live far from his home and his family! But he felt ashamed to cry and had to conceal his tears and sentiments. "O Shame," he explained, "how many beautiful and pathetic scenes the world would witness without thee!" They arrived at Bian in the evening. His brother took him to the house of his aunt where he was to stay, and left him after introducing him to the teacher. At night, in company with his aunts grandson named Leandro, Jose took a walk around the town in the light of the moon. To him the town looked extensive and rich but sad and ugly. His teacher in Bian was a severe disciplinarian. His name was Justiniano Aquino Cruz. "He was a tall man, lean and long-necked, with a sharp nose and a body slightly bent forward. He used to wear a sinamay shirt woven by the deft hands of Batangas women. He knew by memory the grammars of Nebrija and Gainza. To this add a severity which, in my judgement I have made of him, which is all I remember." The boy Jose distinguished himself in class, and succeeded in surpassing many of his older classmates. Some of these were so wicked that, even without reason, they accused him before the teacher, for which, in spite of his progress, he received many whippings and strokes from the ferule. Rare was the day when he was not stretched on the bench for a whipping or punished with five or six blows on the open palm. Joses reaction to all these punishments was one of intense resentment in order to learn and thus carry out his fathers will. Jose spent his leisure hours with Justinianos father-in-law, a master painter. From him he took his first two sons, two nephews, and a grandson. His way life was methodical and well regulated. He heard mass at four if there was one that early, or studied his lesson at that hour and went to mass afterwards. Returning home, he might look in the orchard for a mambolo fruit to eat, then he took his breakfast, consisting generally of a plate of rice and two dried sardines. After that he would go to class, from which he was dismissed at ten, then home again. He ate with his aunt and then began at ten, then home again. He ate with his aunt and then began to study. At half past two he returned to class and left at five. He might play for a short time with some cousins before returning home. He studied his lessons, drew for a while, and then prayed and if there was a moon, his friends would invite him to play in the street in company with other boys. Whenever he remembered his town, he thought with tears in his eyes of his beloved father, his idolized mother, and his solicitous sisters. Ah, how sweet was his town even though not so opulent as Bian! He grew sad and thoughtful. While he was studying in Bian, he returned to his hometown now and then. How long the road seemed to him in going and how short in coming! When from afar he descried the roof of his house, secret joy filled his breast. How he looked for pretexts to remain longer at home! A day more seemed to him a day spent in heaven, and how he wept, though silently and secretly, when he saw the calesa that was flower that him Bian! Then everything looked sad; a flower that he touched, a stone that attracted his attention he gathered, fearful that he might not see it again upon his return. It was a sad but delicate and quite pain that possessed him. Life and Studies at Ateneo

The Jesuits were considered the best educators of Spain, and perhaps of Europe, and so, when they were permitted to return to the Philippines, although their power to administer parishes was restricted except in the remote regions of Mindanao, the privilege of founding colleges, they had to apply to the City of Manila for subsidies. That is why the college which began to function in the year 1865, was called the Ateneo Municipal. To enter the Ateneo a candidate was subjected to an entrance examination on Christian doctrine, reading, writing, grammar, and elementary arithmetic. Jose did not take his entrance examinations Jose did not remain in Manila but returned first to his town to celebrate the fiesta of its patron saint; it was then that his father changed his mind and decided to send him to the Ateneo instead. Since Mercado, the first surname of the family, had come under suspicion of the authorities because it was the name used by Paciano when he was studying and working with Father Burgos, in whose house he lived, Jose adopted the second surname, Rizal. Paciano who accompanied Jose, found him a house in Walled City, but Intramuros looked gloomy to Jose, and he later found lodging outside, in the house of a spinster situated on Calle Carballo, district of Santa Cruz. As if chance would furnish him data for his future campaigns, he became acquainted in that house with various mestizos, begotten by friars. The Jesuitical system of instruction was considered more advanced than that of other colleges in that epoch. Its discipline was rigid and its methods less mechanical. It introduced physical culture as part of its program as well as the cultivation of the arts, such as music, drawing, and painting. It also establishes vocational courses in agriculture, commerce, and mechanics as a religious institute, its principal purpose was to mold the character and the will of the boys to comply more easily with the percepts of the Church. The students heard mass before the beginning of the class, which was opened and closed with prayers. In the first two terms the classes were divided into groups of interns and externs: the first constituted the Roman Empire and the second, the Carthaginian Empire. In each empire there were five dignitaries: Emperor, Tribune, Decurion, Centurion, and Standard-Bearer. These dignities were won by means of individual competitions in which it was necessary to catch ones adversary in error three times. The empires considered themselves in perpetual warfare, and when an individual of one empire was caught in error by one belonging to the enemy empire, a point was counted in favor of the latter. At the end of each week or two, the points in favor of each were added and the empire, which obtained more point, was declared winner. There was a fraternity of Mary and Saint Louis Gonzaga, to which only those who distinguished themselves in the class for their piety and diligence could belong. This fraternity met on Sundays and after mass held public programs in which poems were recited or debates were held. With all these inducements it was only natural that should be a spirit of emulation, a striving to surpass ones colleagues found in the Ateneo. The first professor Jose had was Fr. Jose Bech, whom he describes as a man of high stature; lean body, bent forward; quick gait; ascetic physiognomy, severe and inspired; small, sunken eyes; sharp Grecian nose; thin lips forming an arch with its sides directed toward the chin." He was somewhat of a lunatic and of an uneven humor; sometimes he was hard and little tolerant and at other times he was gay and playful as a child. Among Joses classmates were Peninsulares and sons of Peninsulares; Francisco G. Oliva, very talented but not very studious; Joaquin Garrido, endowed with a poor memory but with much talent and industry; and Gonzalo Marzano, who occupied the throne of Emperor. From the first days Jose learned to systematize his work; he fixed a program of what he had to do in the twenty-four hours of the day and did not in the least deviate from it. Thus he disciplined his will and subjected it to the commands of his reason. As a newcomer, Jose was at first put at the tail of the class, but he was soon promoted and kept on being

promoted so that at the end of one month he had attained to the rank of Emperor. At the end of the term he obtained marks of excellent in all the subjects and in the examinations. He had reason to feel proud of his advancement; and so when he went home on vacation that year, he ran alone to see his mother in the prison and tell her the happy news. He must have uttered this exclamation on learning from his mother that they had played her a mean trick. The judge, who was a blind partisan of the friars having been a domestic of theirs, told her that if she confessed her culpability he would release her at once. With the desire to see her children again, she pleaded guilty; but the judge, instead of releasing her, convicted her. In a few months the judge asked her forgiveness for what he had done because according to him his conscience hurt him, but the case had no remedy because it was already on appeal. The second year, Jose had the same professor as in the previous year; but instead of lodging outside the City, he resided at No. 6 Calle Magallanes. At the end of the term he obtained a medal, and upon returning to his town, he again visited his mother in jail alone. This was three months before her release. The rejoicing that her release produced in his spirit had much influence on the result of his studies in the third year, for he began to win prizes in the quarterly examinations. About that time he devoted himself to reading novels, and one of those he enjoyed most was Dumas (father) The Count of Monte Cristo. The sufferings of the hero of the twelve years. He also asked his father to buy him a copy of The Universal History by Cesar Cantanu, and according to himself he profited much from its perusal. The family, who saw in Jose great aptitude for study, decided to place him as intern or boarding student in the college the following year. In the corner of the dormitory facing the sea and the pier Jose passed his two years of internship. In the fourth year of his course he had Fr. Francisco Sanchez as professor. Jose describes him as a model of rectitude, a solicitude, and love for the student, and his studied mathematics, rhetoric, and Greek, and he must have progressed much, for at the end of the year he-obtained five medals, which pleased him immensely because with them I could repay my father somewhat for his sacrifices. His aptitude for poetry revealed itself early, and from that time on he did not cease to cultivate it. An incident which demonstrates Joses independence of character took place at this time. Fr. Leoncio Lopez, parish priest of the town, who was a great friend of his father, also liked Jose as a little friend. He was cultured but at the same time timid and tender. One day Joses mother showed Father Lopez a poem of his young friend and that the latter must have copied it from a book. Jose, who heard this, answered the priest violently, for which his mother reprehended him. Afterward Father Lopez came to know from the Jesuits themselves that Jose was a pupil who excelled in poetry; and, in spite of his age, made a trip to Manila expressly to apologize to Jose. That gesture of Father Lopez won him Joses esteem and they became good friends again, lending each other the books they had. In the fifth years Jose had other professors: Frs. Vilaclara and Mineves. He studied philosophy, physics, chemistry, and natural history, but his devotion to poetry was such that his professor in philosophy advised him once to leave it, which made him cry. But in his rest hours he continued cultivating the Muses under the direction of his old professor, Father Sanchez. Jose had then written a short story (leyenda), which was only slightly corrected by his professor, and a dialogue, which was enacted at the end of the course, alluding to the collegians farewell. However, philosophy, just and serve, inquiring into the wherefores of things, interested him as much as poetry; physics, drawing back the veil that divine drama of nature was enacted, natural history seemed to him somewhat uninteresting although he much liked the shells and sometimes imagined seeing a goddess in each shell he was on the shelf. Jose was considered small of stature and he tried to correct this defect by applying himself regularly to gymnastics in the college. He also engaged in other physical exercises, such as fencing. After his baccalaureate, he surprised his family with his skill in handling the sword when he gave an exhibition bout with the best swordsman of the town. He also devoted time to painting and sculpture. In drawing and painting he was under the guidance and direction of the Ateneo professor, the Peninsula Don Augustin Saez, who honored him with his affection and consideration because of his progress. In sculpture his instructor was a Filipino, Romualdo de Jesus, who felt

proud in the last years of his life of having had such an excellent pupil.

Philosophies in Life
PHILOSOPHY may be defined as the study and pursuit of facts which deal with the ultimate reality or causes of things as they affect life. The philosophy of a country like the Philippines is made up of the intricate and composite interrelationship of the life histories of its people; in other word, the philosophy of our nation would be strange and undefinable if we do not delve into the past tied up with the notable life experiences of the representative personalities of our nation. Being one of the prominent representatives of Filipino personalities, Jose Rizal is a fit subject whose life philosophy deserves to be recognized. Having been a victim of Spanish brutality early in his life in Calamba, Rizal had thus already formed the nucleus of an unfavorable opinion of Castillian imperialistic administration of his country and people. Pitiful social conditions existed in the Philippines as late as three centuries after his conquest in Spain, with agriculture, commerce, communications and education languishing under its most backward state. It was because of this social malady that social evils like inferiority complex, cowardice, timidity and false pride pervaded nationally and contributed to the decay of social life. This stimulated and shaped Rizals life phylosophy to be to contain if not eliminate these social ills. Educational Philosophy Rizals concept of the importance of education is clearly enunciated in his work entitled Instruction wherein he sought improvements in the schools and in the methods of teaching. He maintained that the backwardness of his country during the Spanish ear was not due to the Filipinos indifference, apathy or indolence as claimed by the rulers, but to the neglect of the Spanish authorities in the islands. For Rizal, the mission of education is to elevate the country to the highest seat of glory and to develop the peoples mentality. Since education is the foundation of society and a prerequisite for social progress, Rizal claimed that only through education could the country be saved from domination. Rizals philosophy of education, therefore, centers on the provision of proper motivation in order to bolster the great social forces that make education a success, to create in the youth an innate desire to cultivate his intelligence and give him life eternal. Religious Philosophy Rizal grew up nurtured by a closely-knit Catholic family, was educated in the foremost Catholic schools of the period in the elementary, secondary and college levels; logically, therefore, he should have been a propagator of strictly Catholic traditions. However, in later life, he developed a life philosophy of a different nature, a philosophy of a different Catholic practice intermingled with the use of Truth and Reason. Why the change? It could have been the result of contemporary contact, companionship, observation, research and the possession of an independent spirit.Being a critical observer, a profound thinker and a zealous reformer, Rizal did not agree with the prevailing Christian propagation of the Faith by fire and sword. This is shown in his Annotation of Morgas Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas. Rizal did not believe in the Catholic dogma that salvation was only for Catholics and that outside Christianity, salvation was not possible even if Catholics composed only a small minority of the worlds religious groups. Nor did he believe in the Catholic observation of fasting as a sacrifice, nor in the sale of such religious items as the cross, medals, rosaries and the like in order to propagate the Faith and raise church funds. He also lambasted the superstitious beliefs propagated by the priests in the church and in the schools. All of these and a lot more are evidences of Rizals religious philosophy. Political Philosophy In Rizals political view, a conquered country like the Philippines should not be taken advantage of but rather

should be developed, civilized, educated and trained in the science of self-government. He bitterly assailed and criticized in publications the apparent backwardness of the Spanish rulers method of governing the country which resulted in: 1. the bondage and slavery of the conquered ; 2. the Spanish governments requirement of forced labor and force military service upon the n natives; 3. the abuse of power by means of exploitation; 4. the government ruling that any complaint against the authorities was criminal; and 5. Making the people ignorant, destitute and fanatic, thus discouraging the formation of a national sentiment. Rizals guiding political philosophy proved to be the study and application of reforms, the extension of human rights, the training for self government and the arousing of spirit of discontent over oppression, brutality, inhumanity, sensitiveness and self love. Ethical Philosophy The study of human behavior as to whether it is good or bad or whether it is right or wrong is that science upon which Rizals ethical philosophy was based. The fact that the Philippines was under Spanish domination during Rizals time led him to subordinate his philosophy to moral problems. This trend was much more needed at that time because the Spaniards and the Filipinos had different and sometimes conflicting morals. The moral status of the Philippines during this period was one with a lack of freedom, one with predominance of foreign masters, one with an imposition of foreign religious worship, devotion, homage and racial habits. This led to moral confusion among the people, what with justice being stifled, limited or curtailed and the people not enjoying any individual rights. To bolster his ethical philosophy, Dr. Rizal had recognized not only the forces of good and evil, but also the tendencies towards good and evil. As a result, he made use of the practical method of appealing to the better nature of the conquerors and of offering useful methods of solving the moral problems of the conquered. To support his ethical philosophy in life, Rizal: 1. censured the friars for abusing the advantage of their position as spiritual leaders and the ignorance and fanaticism of the natives; 2. counseled the Filipinos not to resent a defect attributed to them but to accept same as reasonable and just; 3. advised the masses that the object of marriage was the happiness and love of the couple and not financial gain; 4. censured the priests who preached greed and wrong morality; and 5. advised every one that love and respect for parents must be strictly observed. Social Philosophy That body of knowledge relating to society including the wisdom which man's experience in society has taught him is social philosophy. The facts dealt with are principles involved in nation building and not individual social problems. The subject matter of this social philosophy covers the problems of the whole race, with every problem having a distinct solution to bolster the peoples social knowledge. Rizals social philosophy dealt with; 1. man in society; 2. influential factors in human life;

3. racial problems; 4. social constant; 5. social justice; 6. social ideal; 7. poverty and wealth; 8. reforms; 9. youth and greatness; 10. history and progress; 11. future Philippines. The above dealt with mans evolution and his environment, explaining for the most part human behavior and capacities like his will to live; his desire to possess happiness; the change of his mentality; the role of virtuous women in the guidance of great men; the need for elevating and inspiring mission; the duties and dictates of mans conscience; mans need of practicing gratitude; the necessity for consulting reliable people; his need for experience; his ability to deny; the importance of deliberation; the voluntary offer of mans abilities and possibilities; the ability to think, aspire and strive to rise; and the proper use of hearth, brain and spirit-all of these combining to enhance the intricacies, beauty and values of human nature. All of the above served as Rizals guide in his continuous effort to make over his beloved Philippines.

The Many-Sided Personality

Filipinos and foreigners alike have paid tribute to Jose Rizal claiming that his place of honor in history is secure. It was his Austrian bosom friend, Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt, rector of the Imperial Atheneum of Leitmeritz, who said "Rizal was the greatest product of the Philippines and his coming to the world was like the appearance of a rare comet, whose rare brilliance appears only every other century." Another German friend, Dr. Adolf B. Meyer, director of the Dresden Museum who admired his all around knowledge and ability, remarked "Rizals many-sidedness was stupendous." Our own Dr. Camilo Osias pointed to him as the "versatile genius." His precocity since early boyhood turned into versatility in later years. Being curious and inquisitive, he developed a rare facility of mastering varied subjects and occupations. Actor Rizal acted as a character in one of Juan Lunas paintings and acted in school dramas. Agriculturist Rizal had farms in Dapitan, Zamboanga del Norte (1892-1896) where he planted lanzones, coconuts and other fruit-bearing trees. Ambassador Of Good Will His friendliness, goodwill and cultural associations with friends entitled him as one. Animal Lover As a small boy, Rizal loved animals including birds, fish, insects, and other specimens of animal life. Fowls, rabbits, dogs, horses, and cats constituted his favorites. As much as possible, he did not wish fowls to be killed even for food, and showed displeasure in being asked to eat the cooked animal. The family garden in Calamba abounded with insects galore and birds native to the Calamba environs. He wrote about and sketched animals of the places he had toured. Anthropologist He made researches on the physical and social make up of man. Archeologist Rizal studied monuments and antique currency everywhere he went. He drew most of the monuments he saw. Ascetic Rizal always practiced self-discipline wherever he went. Book lover He had a big library and brought many books abroad. Botanist

Rizal maintained a garden in Dapitan where he planted and experimented on plants of all kinds Businessman He had a partner in Dapitan in the Abaca business there (1892-1896). Cartographer He drew maps of Dapitan, The Philippines and other places he visited. Chess Player He played chess and bear several Germans and European friends and acquaintances. Citizen of the world His extensive travels and multitude of friends in Europe, Middle East and Asia made him one. Commentator Rizal always expresses and published his personal opinion. Conchologist He had a good shell collection in Dapitan. An American conchologist praised him. Educator Rizal taught in his special school in Dapitan. Ethnologist In his travels, Rizal was able to compare different races and he noted the differences. Father of community school He proposed college in Hong Kong and his special school in Dapitan made him a father of community schools. Fencer He fenced with Europeans and Juan Luna and other friends in Europe. Freemason abroad He was member of La Solidaridad Lodge in Spain. Horticulture and farmer He experimented on and cultivated plants in Dapitan. Historian His annotation of Antonio de Morgas Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas entitled him as one. Humorist There are many humorous incidents in the Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo. Ichthyologist He collected 38 new varieties of fish in Dapitan. Japanophile His admiration of Japanese traits and his knowledge of her language proved he was one. Journalist He authored the published many articles in Spanish and English and London. Laboratory worker He was employed in the clinic of Dr. L. Wecker in Paris. Linguist He spoke over 20 foreign languages. Lover of truth He chided Spanish writers for not writing the truth about the Filipinos. He was always truthful since

boyhood. Musicians He played the flute and composed pieces of music and cultivated music appreciation. Mythologist Rizal used mythology in his Noli and Fili. Nationalist He gave full expression of the native spirit strengthened by world civilization and loved and defended everything Filipino. Newspaperman He wrote and published articles in many publications and was one of the organizers of the La Solidaridad. Ophthalmologist He graduated in an ophthalmologic college in Spain. Orientalist Rizal admired the special characteristic and beauties of Oriental countries peoples. Pharmacologist Rizal treasured and popularized the usefulness and preparation of cures for treatment of his patients. Philologist Rizal loved of learning and literature is unequalled. Philosopher Rizal not only loved wisdom but also regulated his life and enjoyed calmness of the life at all time Physical culturist Rizal maintained a good health by exercising all parts of his body and eating proper foods Physicians He treated several patients afflicted not only with eye diseases. Plant lover As a child, Rizal spend most of his time in the family garden which was planted with fruit trees, Shrubs and decorative trees. His diaries contained detailed description and sketches of plants, flowers and fruits he saw in the places he visited. He wrote poems on flower he like very much as his poems To the Flowers of Heidelberg. Poet Rizal wrote over 35 poems including his famous Ultimo Adios. Politician Although Rizal did not engage in Politics, he exposed the evils of the political activities of the Spaniards in the Philippines through his writing. Polyglot Rizal spoke and wrote in 20 languages. Proofreader In Germany, He worked as a part-time proofreader of his livelihood. Propagandist As a reformer, Rizal encourages the recommendation of improving the government entities and discourage abuses publishing articles. Public relation man He worked for better cooperation of rulers and subjects in his country.

Reformer He published the modern methods of government administration, so changes could be made. Researcher Being a wide reader, he compared the old and new practices in life. Revolutionist Rizal encouraged reforms, discouraged old, impractical usage, and desired new and useful laws to benefit his countrymen. He desired changes for the better. Rhetorician Rizal has always practiced the art of persuasive and impressive speaking and writing. Rural reconstruction worker He practiced rural reconstruction work in Dapitan in 1894 and succeeded. Sanitary engineer His construction of a water system in Dapitan exemplified this practice by Rizal. Scientist Rizals practice of many sciences here and abroad made him noted scientist. Sculptor His works of his father and of Father Guerrico, S. J. typified his sculptural ability. Sharp shooter He could hit a target 20 meters away. Sinologist Rizals ancestry and his ability to speak Chinese made him one. Sociologist In Rizals study of Philippines social problems, he always encouraged and introduced solutions. Sodalist He always joined fraternities, associations and brotherhood, for self-improvement. Sportsman He engaged from a surveying class at the Ateneo after passing his A. B. there. Tourist He was considered the foremost tourist due to his extensive travels. Traveler He traveled around the world three times. Tuberculosis expert For having cured himself of this disease, he became and was recognized as an expert. Youth leader He considered the youth as "the hope of his Fatherland." Zoologist He was fond of pets. He researched later on their physiology, classification and habits.

Rizal's First Trip Abroad

3 May 1882 Rizal left Philippines for the first time Spain. He boarded the Salvadora using a passport of Jose Mercado, which was procured for him by his uncle Antonio Rivera, father of Leonor Rivera. He was accompanied to the quay where the Salvadora was moored by his uncle Antonio, Vicente Gella, and Mateo Evangelista. 4 May 1882 He got seasick on board the boat. 5 May1882 He conversed with the passengers of the ship; he was still feeling sea-sick. 6 May 1882 He played chess with the passengers on board. 8 May 1882 He saw mountains and Islands. 9 May 1882 Rizal arrived at Singapore. 10 May 1882 He went around the town of Singapore and maid some observations. 11 May 1882 In Singapore, at 2 p.m., Rizal boarded the boat Djemnah to continue his trip to Spain. He found the boat clean and well kept. 12 May 1882 He had a conversation with the passengers of the boat. 13 May 1882 Rizal was seasick again. 14 May 1882 On his way to Marseilles, Rizal had a terrible dream. He dreamed he was traveling with Neneng (Saturnina) and their path was blocked by snakes. May 15 1882 Rizal had another disheartening dream. He dreamed he returned to Calamba and after meeting his parents who did not talk to him because of not having consulted them about his first trip abroad, he returned traveling abroad with one hundred pesos he again borrowed. He was so sad and broken hearted. Soon he woke up and found himself inside his cabin. 17 May 1882 Rizal arrived at Punta de Gales. 18 May 1882 At 7:30 a.m., he left Punta de Gales for Colombo. In the afternoon, Rizal arrived at Colombo and in the evening the trip was resumed. 26 May 1882 Rizal was nearing the African coast 27 May 1882 He landed at Aden at about 8:30 a.m. He made observation at the time. 2 June 1882 He arrived at the Suez Canal en route to Marseilles. 3 June 1882 He was quarantined on board the Djemnah in the Suez Canal.

6 June 1882 It was the fourth day at Suez Canal and was still quarantined on board of the boat. 7 June 1882 Rizal arrived at Port Said. In a letter to his parents, He described his trip en route to Aden along the Suez Canal. 11 June 1882 Rizal disembarked and, accompanied by a guide, went around the City of Naples for one hour. This was the first European ground he set foot on. 12 June 1882 At ten oclock in the evening, the boat anchored at Marseilles. He sleptn board. 13 June 1882 Early on the morning he landed at Marseilles and boarded at the Noalles Hotel. Later he around for observation. 14 June 1882 His second in Marseilles. 15 June 1882 He left Marseilles for Barcelona in an express train.

Rizal, the Romantic

There were at least nine women linked with Rizal; namely Segunda Katigbak, Leonor Valenzuela, Leonor Rivera, Consuelo Ortiga, O-Sei San, Gertrude Beckette, Nelly Boustead, Suzanne Jacoby and Josephine Bracken. These women might have been beguiled by his intelligence, charm and wit. Segunda Katigbak and Leonor Valenzuela Segunda Katigbak was her puppy love. Unfortunately, his first love was engaged to be married to a town mate- Manuel Luz. After his admiration for a short girl in the person of Segunda, then came Leonor Valenzuela, a tall girl from Pagsanjan. Rizal send her love notes written in invisible ink, that could only be deciphered over the warmth of the lamp or candle. He visited her on the eve of his departure to Spain and bade her a last goodbye. Leonor Rivera Leonor Rivera, his sweetheart for 11 years played the greatest influence in keeping him from falling in love with other women during his travel. Unfortunately, Leonors mother disapproved of her daughters relationship with Rizal, who was then a known filibustero. She hid from Leonor all letters sent to her sweetheart. Leonor believing that Rizal had already forgotten her, sadly consented her to marry the Englishman Henry Kipping, her mothers choice. Consuelo Ortiga Consuelo Ortiga y Rey, the prettier of Don Pablo Ortigas daughters, fell in love with him. He dedicated to her A la Senorita C.O. y R., which became one of his best poems. The Ortiga's residence in Madrid was frequented by Rizal and his compatriots. He probably fell in love with her and Consuelo apparently asked him for romantic verses. He suddenly backed out before the relationship turned into a serious romance, because he wanted to remain loyal to Leonor Rivera and he did not want to destroy hid friendship with Eduardo de Lete who was madly in love with Consuelo. O Sei San O Sei San, a Japanese samurais daughter taught Rizal the Japanese art of painting known as su-mie. She also helped Rizal improve his knowledge of Japanese language. If Rizal was a man without a patriotic mission, he would have married this lovely and intelligent woman and lived a stable and happy life with her in Japan because Spanish legation there offered him a lucrative job. Gertrude Beckett While Rizal was in London annotating the Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas, he boarded in the house of the Beckett family, within walking distance of the British Museum. Gertrude, a blue-eyed and buxom girl was the oldest of the three Beckett daughters. She fell in love with Rizal. Tottie helped him in his painting and sculpture. But Rizal suddenly left London for Paris to avoid Gertrude, who was seriously in love with him. Before leaving London, he was able to finish the group carving of the Beckett sisters. He gave the group carving to Gertrude as a sign of their brief relationship. Nellie Boustead Rizal having lost Leonor Rivera, entertained the thought of courting other ladies. While a guest of the Boustead family at their residence in the resort city of Biarritz, he had befriended the two pretty daughters of his host, Eduardo Boustead.

Rizal used to fence with the sisters at the studio of Juan Luna. Antonio Luna, Juans brother and also a frequent visitor of the Bousteads, courted Nellie but she was deeply infatuated with Rizal. In a party held by Filipinos in Madrid, a drunken Antonio Luna uttered unsavory remarks against Nellie Boustead. This prompted Rizal to challenge Luna into a duel. Fortunately, Luna apologized to Rizal, thus averting tragedy for the compatriots. Their love affair unfortunately did not end in marriage. It failed because Rizal refused to be converted to the Protestant faith, as Nellie demanded and Nellies mother did not like a physician without enough paying clientele to be a son-in-law. The lovers, however, parted as good friends when Rizal left Europe. Suzanne Jacoby In 1890, Rizal moved to Brussels because of the high cost of living in Paris. In Brussels, he lived in the boarding house of the two Jacoby sisters. In time, they fell deeply in love with each other. Suzanne cried when Rizal left Brussels and wrote him when he was in Madrid. Josephine Bracken In the last days of February 1895, while still in Dapitan, Rizal met an 18-year old petite Irish girl, with bold blue eyes, brown hair and a happy disposition. She was Josephine Bracken, the adopted daughter of George Taufer from Hong Kong, who came to Dapitan to seek Rizal for eye treatment. Rizal was physically attracted to her. His loneliness and boredom must have taken the measure of him and what could be a better diversion that to fall in love again. But the Rizal sisters suspected Josephine as an agent of the friars and they considered her as a threat to Rizals security. Rizal asked Josephine to marry him, but she was not yet ready to make a decision due to her responsibility to the blind Taufer. Since Taufers blindness was untreatable, he left for Hon Kong on March 1895. Josephine stayed with Rizals family in Manila. Upon her return to Dapitan, Rizal tried to arrange with Father Antonio Obach for their marriage. However, the priest wanted a retraction as a precondition before marrying them. Rizal upon the advice of his family and friends and with Josephines consent took her as his wife even without the Church blessings. Josephine later give birth prematurely to a stillborn baby, a result of some incidence, which might have shocked or frightened her.

Rizal and the Katipuan

On June 21, 1896. Dr. Pio Valenzuela, Bonifacios emissary, visited Rizal in Dapitan and informed him of the plan of the Katipunan to launch a revolution. Rizal objected to Bonifacios bold project stating that such would be a veritable suicide. Rizal stressed that the Katipunan leaders should do everything possible to prevent premature flow of native blood. Valenzuela, however, warned Rizal that the Revolution will inevitably break out if the Katipunan would be discovered. Sensing that the revolutionary leaders were dead set on launching their audacious project, Rizal instructed Valenzuela that it would be for the best interests of the Katipunan to get first the support of the rich and influential people of Manila to strengthen their cause. He further suggested that Antonio Luna with his knowledge of military science and tactics, be made to direct the military operations of the Revolution.

Rizal and the Propaganda Movement

To prove his point and refute the accusations of prejudiced Spanish writers against his race, Rizal annotated the book, Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas, written by the Spaniard Antonio Morga. The book was an unbiased presentation of 16th century Filipino culture. Rizal through his annotation showed that Filipinos had developed culture even before the coming of the Spaniards. While annotating Morgas book, he began writing the sequel to the Noli, the El Filibusterismo. He completed the Fili in July 1891 while he was in Brussels, Belgium. As in the printing of the Noli, Rizal could not published the sequel for the lack of finances. Fortunately, Valentin Ventura gave him financial assistance and the Fili came out of the printing press on September 1891. The El Filibusterismo indicated Spanish colonial policies and attacked the Filipino collaborators of such system. The novel pictured a society on the brink of a revolution. To buttress his defense of the natives pride and dignity as people, Rizal wrote three significant essays while abroad: The Philippines a Century hence, the Indolence of the Filipinos and the Letter to the Women of Malolos. These writings were his brilliant responses to the vicious attacks against the Indio and his culture. While in Hongkong, Rizal planned the founding of the Liga Filipina, a civil organization and the establishment of a Filipino colony in Borneo. The colony was to be under the protectorate of the North Borneo Company, he was granted permission by the British Governor to establish a settlement on a 190,000 acre property in North Borneo. The colony was to be under the protectorate of the North Borneo Company, with the "same privileges and conditions at those given in the treaty with local Bornean rulers". Governor Eulogio Despujol disapproved the project for obvious and self-serving reasons. He considered the plan impractical and improper that Filipinos would settle and develop foreign territories while the colony itself badly needed such developments.

Rizal's Articles in La Solidaridad

La verdad para todos (The Truth for All) May 31, 1889 Rizals irst article. Verdades nuevas (New Facts) July 31, 1889 Una profanacion (A Desecration) July 31, 1889 A scathing attacked against the friars for refusing to bury Mariano Herbosa in the Catholic cemetary. The friars alleged that the deceased had not made any confession since his marriage to Lucia Rizal (1857-1919), Rizals elder sister. Diferencias (Differences) September 15, 1889 Filipinas dentro de cien anos (The Philippines Within One Hundred Years) serialized in La Solidaridad on September 30, October 31, December 15, 1889 and February 1, 1890 Rizal prognosticated the Filipinos revolution against Spain winning their independence, but later the Americans would come in over its colonization. Ingratitudes (Ingratitudes) January 15, 1890. A reply to Gov. Gen. Weyler who in company with the Dominicans, visited the Provine of Laguna. The Governor told the people : "You should not allow yourselves to be deceived by the vain promises of ungrateful sons."

Sin nobre (Without Name) February 28, 1890. Sobre la nueva ortografia de la lengua tagala (On the New Orthography of the Tagalog Language) April 15, 1890. Rizals advocacy of a new spelling in Tagalog. Cosas de Filipinas (Things About the Philippines) April 30, 1890. Sobre la indolencia de los Filipinas (On the Indolence of the Filipinos) serialized on July 15 to September 15, 1890. Rizals brilliant and masterly defense against the imputation of indolence of the Filipinos. Peaceful Life in Dapitan

During the early part of his exile in Dapitan, Rizal lived at the commandants residence. With his prize from the Manila Lottery and his earnings as a farmer and a merchant, he bought a piece of land near the shore of Talisay near Dapitan. On this land, he built three houses- all made of bamboo, wood, and nipa. The first house which was square in shape was his home. The second house was the living quarters of his pupils. And the third house was the barn where he kept his chickens. The second house had eight sides, while the third had six sides. In a latter to his friend, Ferdinand Blumentritt, on December 19, 1893, Rizal described his peaceful life in Dapitan. "I shall tell you how we lived here. I have three houses-one square, another hexagonal, and the third octagonal. All these houses are made of bamboo, wood, and nipa. I live in the square house, together with my mother, my sister, Trinidad, and my nephew. In the octagonal house live some young boys who are my pupils. The hexagonal house is my barn where I keep my chickens. "From my house, I hear the murmur of a clear brook which comes from the high rocks. I see the seashore where I keep two boats, which are called barotos here. "I have many fruit trees, such as mangoes, lanzones, guayabanos, baluno, nangka, etc. I have rabbits, dogs, cats, and other animals. "I rise early in the morning-at five-visit my plants, feed the chickens, awaken my people, and prepare our breakfast. At half-past seven, we eat our breakfast, which consists of tea, bread, cheese, sweets, and other things. "After breakfast, I treat the poor patients who come to my house. Then I dress and go to Dapitan in my baroto. I am busy the whole morning, attending to my patients in town. "At noon, I return home to Talisay for lunch. Then, from 2:00 to 4:00 p.m., I am busy as a teacher. I teach the young boys. "I spend the rest of the afternoon in farming. My pupils help me in watering the plants, pruning the fruits, and planting many kinds of trees. We stop at 6:00 p.m. for the Angelus

"I spend the night reading and writing."

Rizal's First Christmas in Dapitan

After a short time, Jose Rizal began to enjoy the simple life of Dapitan. Rizal became prosperous. Aside from his lottery prize, Rizal earned more money by practicing medicine. Some rich patients paid him well for curing their eye ailments. He began to buy agricultural lands in Talisay, a barrio near Dapitan. He planned to build his house in this scenic barrio by the seashore. As Christmas came nearer, Rizal became more cheerful. His savings increased, for the cost of living in Dapitan was cheaper than in Calamba. His health improved. Many Dapitan folks, who were formerly indifferent to him, became his friends. No wonder, Rizal enjoyed his first Christmas in Dapitan. He was one of the guests of Captain Carnicero at a Christmas Eve dinner in the comandancia (house of the commandant). The other guests were three Spaniards from the neighboring town of Dipolog and a Frenchman named Jean Lardet. It was a merry feast. The guests enjoyed the delicious dishes prepared by the commandants native cook. With the exception of Rizal, they drank beer, for he disliked hard liquor. At midnight, Captain Carnicero, Rizal, and other guests went to church to hear the Mass of the Noche Buena. In a letter to his mother, dated January 5, 1893, Rizal described how he enjoyed his first Christmas in Dapitan. He said: "I spent a merry Christmas here. It could not have been merrier. I had a happy dinner on Christmas eve, together with my host (the commandant), three Spaniards from a neighboring town, and a Frenchman. We heard Mass at 12:00 midnight, for you know I go to Mass here every Sunday."

Rizal as a Farmer in Dapitan

To prove to his people that farming is a good a profession as medicine, Rizal became a farmer in Dapitan. In a letter to his sister, Lucia, on February 12, 1896, he said: "We cannot all be doctors; it is necessary that there would be some to cultivate the soil." During the first year of his exile (1893), Rizal bought an abandoned farm in Talisay, a barrio near Dapitan. This farm had an area of sixteen hectares and was rather rocky. It lay beside a river that resembled the Calamba River-clear fresh water, wide and swift current. In his letter to his sister Trinidad on January 15, 1896, Rizal said: "My land is half an hours walk from the sea. The whole place is poetic and very picturesque, better than Ilaya River, without comparison. At some points, it is wide like the Pasig River and clear like the Pansol, and has some crocodiles in some parts. There are dalag (fish) and pako (edible fern). If you and our parents come, I am going to build a large house where we can all live together." On this land in Talisay, Rizal actually built a permanent home. With the help of his pupils and some laborers, he cleared it and planted cacao, coffee, coconuts, and fruit trees. Later, he bought more lands in other barrios of Dapitan. In due time, his total land holdings reached 70 hectares. They contained 6,000 abaca plants, 1,000 coconut palms, many coffee and cacao plants and numerous kinds of fruit trees. On his lands, Rizal introduced modern methods of agriculture which he had observed during his travels in Europe and America. He encouraged the Dapitan farmers to replace their primitive system of cultivation with these modern methods. These modern methods of farming consisted of the use of fertilizers, the rotation of crops, and the use of farm machines. Rizal actually imported some farm machines from the United States. Rizal dreamed of establishing an agricultural colony in the sitio of Ponot near Sindangan Bay. This region contained plenty of water and good port facilities. He believed that it could accommodate about 5,000 heads of cattle and 40,000 coconut palms. It was also ideal for the cultivation of coffee, cacao, and sugar cane because of its fertile soil and favorable climate. He invited his relatives and friends in Luzon, especially those in Calamba, to colonize the Sindangan Bay area. Unfortunately, his plan of founding an agricultural colony in Sindangan Bay did not materialize, like that of his former project to colonize North Borneo. He did not get the support of the Spanish government. Before Rizal was exiled in Dapitan, he already knew many languages. These languages were: Tagalog, Ilokano, Spanish, Latin, Greek, English, French, German, Arabic, Hebrew, Sanskrit, Catalan, Dutch, Italian,

Chinese, Japanese, Portuguese, Swedish, and Russian-19 in all. His knowledge of many languages was one aspect of Rizals amazing genius. Few men in history were gifted by God with such ability to learn any language easily. And one of these rare men was Rizal. To learn a new language, Rizal memorized five root words every night before going to bed. At the end of the year, he learned 1,825 new words. He never forget these foreign words because of his retentive memory. Rizal made a good use of his knowledge of many languages in his travels in Europe and America, in communicating with foreign scholars and scientists, and in his writings. Many times during his travels abroad, he acted as interpreter for his fellow travelers who belonged to various nationalities-Americans, British, French, German, Italians, Spaniards, Japanese and others. During his exile in Dapitan, Rizal increased his knowledge of languages. He studied three more languagesMalay, Bisayan and Subanun. On April 5, 1896, he wrote to his Austrian friend, Professor Blumentritt: "I know Bisayan already, and I speak it quite well. It is necessary, however, to know other dialects." By the end of his exile in Dapitan on July 31, 1896, Rizal had become one of the worlds great linguists. He knew 22 languages, namely, Tagalog, Ilokano, Spanish, Portuguese, Latin, Greek, Sanskrit, English, French, German, Arabic, Hebrew, Catalan, Dutch, Italian, Chinese, Japanese, Swedish, Russian, Malay, Bisayan, and Subanun. Rizal as a Painter in Dapitan

In Dapitan, Rizal demonstrated his talent for painting. Before the Holy Week of 1894, Father Vicente Balaguer, a young Jesuit parish priest, was worried. He needed a good backdrop (canvas oil painting behind the main altar) for the annual Lenten celebration. In his native city of Barcelona, Spain, a church had one that showed a colonnaded court, viewed from a wide open gate- a scene depicting the court of Pontius Pilate. Upon hearing of Rizals painting ability, Father Balaguer went to Talisay to talk with the exiled doctor. He was accompanied by a convent helper named Leoncio Sagario. "Doctor," he told Rizal, "I need your help. I would like to have a beautiful backdrop behind the church altar that shows the spirit of the Holy Week. Ive in mind something similar to one in a church in Barcelona." Father Balaguer made some rough sketches as he described the backdrop in the Barcelona church. " Can you paint in oil such a picture on a huge canvas, Doctor?" he asked. "Ill try, Father. You see, I havent done any painting for many years, but Ill do my best." The following day, Rizal went to the Jesuit priest, bringing his own sketch based on the latters ideas. Father Balaguer was satisfied and urged Rizal to begin the painting job at once. The actual painting of the backdrop was a difficult task. Rizal obtained the help of two assistantsSister Agustina Montoya, a Filipina nun from Cavite who could paint, and Francisco Almirol, a native painter of Dapitan.

The trio-Rizal, Sister Montoya, and Almirol- made the sacristy of the church as their workshop. Rizal sketched in soft pencil the general outline of the picture, after which his two assistants applied the oil colors. Daily, Rizal supervised the work of his assistants. He himself put the finishing touches. He was glad to note that he still had the skill in painting. Father Balaguer was very much satisfied with the finished oil painting of the backdrop. " Beautiful, very beautiful," he said. He warmly thanked Rizal and his two assistants for the work well done. The gorgeous backdrop became a precious possession of the Dapitan church- Santiago Church. It was truly a masterpiece. Senate President Manuel L. Quezon saw Rizals painting masterpiece during his visit to Dapitan. He was deeply impressed by its majestic beauty. At one time General Leonard Wood, governorgeneral of the Philippines, saw it and said that it was truly "a Rizalian legacy". After the establishment of the Commonwealth of the Philippines, the beautiful backdrop was sent to the Museum of the Ateneo de Manila for safekeeping. Unfortunately, it was destroyed during the Second World War when fires and bombs razed the city of Manila. Rizal's Son Dies

By the beginning of 1896, Rizal was very happy. His beloved Josephine was heavy with child. Within a few months, she would give birth to a child. As an expectant father, Rizal had every reason to be cheerful and gay. "I wish it would be a boy," he told Josephine. "I also have the same wish," she replied. "Let us hope and pray," said Rizal, " that it will be a boy. I will name him after my father." "Suppose," asked Josephine in joking manner, "that it will be a girl?" "Then, I will name her after my mother." Unfortunately, Rizal and Josephine were not destined to have a child. One day in early March 1896, Rizal played a practical joke on Josephine, which frightened her terribly. As a result of her great fright, she gave birth prematurely to an eight-month baby boy. The baby was very weak and was gasping for breath. Seeing the babys condition, Rizal immediately baptized him Francisco in honor of his father. He did everything he could to save the life of his infant son, but in vain. All his knowledge and skill as a physician could not save little Francisco. Sorrowfully, Rizal saw his child die three hours after birth.

With a heavy heart, he drew a sketch of his dead son. Then he buried him under a shady tree near his home. He prayed": "Oh, God, I give you another tiny angel. Please bless his soul."

Rizal's Last Christmas in Dapitan

The Christmas of 1895 was one of the happiest events in Rizals life. It was because of the presence of Josephine, who proved to be a loving wife and a good housekeeper. She was now used to living a simple rural life in the Philippines. She was industrious and learned to cook all sorts of native dishes. In his letter to his sister, Trinidad, on September 25, 1895, Rizal praised Josephine, thus: "She cooks, washes, takes care of the chickens and the house. In the absence of miki for making pancit, she made some long macaroni noodles out of flour and eggs, which serves the purpose. If you could send me a little angkak, I should be grateful to you, for she makes bagoong. She makes also chili miso, but it seems to me that what we have will last for 10 years." On December 25, 1895, Rizal and Josephine gave a Christmas party at their home in Talisay. By a strange twist of fate, it proved to be Rizals last Christmas in Dapitan. Rizal roasted a small pig to golden brown over a slow fire. He also made chicken broth out of a fat hen. He invited all his neighbors. They all danced and made merry until dawn. Writing to his sister, Trinidad, on January 15, 1896, Rizal described his last Christmas party in Dapitan. "We celebrated merrily, as almost always. We roasted a small pig and hen. We invited our neighbors. There was dancing, and we laughed a great deal until dawn."

Adios Dapitan

On the morning of July 31, 1896, his last day in Dapitan, Rizal busily packed his things. He was scheduled to leave the town on board the Espaa, which was sailing back to Manila. He had sold his lands and other things he owned to his friend, mostly natives of Dapitan. At 5:30 in the afternoon, he and eight other companions embarked on the steamer. His eight companions were Josephine; Narcisa (his sister); Angelica (daughter of Narcisa); his three nephews, Mauricio (son of Maria Rizal ), Estanislao (son of Lucia Rizal), and Teodosio (another son of Lucia Rizal); and Mr. And Mrs. Sunico. Almost all Dapitan folks, young and old, were at the shore to see the departure of their beloved doctor. The pupils of Rizal cried, for they could not accompany their dear teacher. Captain Carnicero, in full regalia of a commandants uniform, was on hand to say goodbye to his prisoner, whom he had come to admire and respect. The town brass band played the music of the farewell ceremony. At midnight, Friday, July 31, 1896, the steamer departed for Manila. The Dapitan folks shouted "Adios, Dr. Rizal!" and threw their hats and handkerchiefs in the air. Captain Carnicero saluted his departing friend. As the steamer left the town, the brass band played the sad music of Chopins Farewell March. Rizal was in the upper deck, with tears in his eyes. He raised his hand in farewell to the kind and hospitable people of Dapitan, saying: " Adios, Dapitan!" He gazed at the crowded shore for the last time. His heart was filled with sorrow. When he could no longer see the dim shoreline, he turned sadly into his cabin. He wrote in his diary: "I have been in that district four years, thirteen days, and a few hours."

Rizal's Last Hours

Dec. 29, 1896. 6:00 7:00 a.m. Sr. S. Mataix asks Rizals permission to interview him. Capt. Dominguez reads death sentence to Rizal. Source of information: cablegram of Mataix to EL Heraldo De Madrid, "Notes" of Capt. Dominguez and Testimony of Lt. Gallegos.

7:00 8:00 a.m. Rizal is transferred to his death cell. Fr. Saderra talks briefly with Rizal. Fr. Viza presents statue of the Sacred hearth of Jesus and medal of Mary. Rizal rejects the letter, saying , "Im little of a Marian, Father." Source: Fr. Viza. 8:00 9:00 a.m. Rizal is shares his milk and coffee with Fr. Rosell. Lt. Andrade and chief of Artillery come to visit Rizal who thanks each of them. Rizal scribbles a note inviting his family it visit him. Sources: Fr. Rosell and letter of Invitation. 9:00 10:00 a.m. Sr. Mataix, defying stringent regulation, enters death cell and interviews Rizal in the presence of Fr. Rosell. Later, Gov. Luengo drops in to join the conversation. Sources: Letter of Mataix ti Retana Testimony of Fr. Rosell. 10:00 11:00 a.m. Fr. Faura persuades Rizal to put down his rancours and order to marry josephine canonically. a heated discussion on religion occurs between them ion the hearing of Fr. Rosell. Sources: El Imparcial and Fr. Rosell . 11:00 12:00 noon. Rizal talks on "various topics" in a long conversation with Fr. Vilaclara who will later conclude (with Fr. Balaguer, who is not allowed to enter the death cell) that Rizal is either to Prostestant or rationalist who speaks in "a very cold and calculated manner" with a mixture of a "strange piety." No debate or discussion on religion is recorded to have taken place between the Fathers mentioned and Rizal. Sources: El Imarcial and Rizal y su Obra. 12:00 1:00 p.m. Rizal reads Bible and Imitation of Christ by Kempis, then meditates. Fr. Balaguer reports to the Archbishop that only a little hope remains that Rizal is going to retract for Rizal was heard saying that he is going to appear tranquilly before God. Sources: Rizals habits and Rizal y su Obra. 1:00 2:00 p.m. Rizal denies (probably, he is allowed to attend to his personal necessities). Source: "Notes" of Capt. Dominguez. 2:00 3:00 p.m. Rizal confers with Fr. March and Fr. Vilaclara. Sources: "Notes" of Capt. Dominguez in conjunction with the testimonies of Fr. Pi and Fr. Balaguer. 3:00 4:00 p.m. Rizal reads verses which he had underlined in Eggers german Reader, a book which he is going to hand over to his sisters to be sent to Dr. Blumentritt through F. Stahl. He "writes several letters . . . ,with his last dedications," then he "rest for a short." Sources: F. Stahl and F. Blumentritt, Cavana (1956) Appendix 13, and the "Notes" of Capt. Dominguez. 4:00 5:30 p.m. Capt. Dominguez is moved with compassion at the sight of Rizals kneeling before his mother and asking pardon. Fr. Rosell hears Rizals farewell to his sister and his address to those presents eulogizing the cleverness of his nephew. The other sisters come in one by one after the other and to each Rizals gives promises to give a book, an alcohol burner, his pair of shoes, an instruction, something to remember. Sources "notes" of Capt. Dominguez and Fr. Rosell, Diaro de Manila. 5:30 6:00 p.m. The Dean of the Cathedral, admitted on account of his dignity, comes to exchange views with Rizal. Fr. Rosell hears an order given to certain "gentlemen" and "two friars" to leave the chapel at once. Fr. Balaguer leaves Fort Santiago. Sources: Rev. Silvino Lopez-Tuon, Fr. Rosell, Fr. Serapio Tamayo, and Sworn Statement of Fr. Balaguer. 6:00 7:00 p.m. Fr. Rosell leaves Fort Santiago and sees Josephine Bracken. Rizal calls for Josephine and then they speak to

each for the last time. Sources: Fr. Rosell, El Imparcial, and Testimony of Josephine to R. Wildman in 1899. 7:00 8:00 p.m. Fr. Faura returns to console Rizal and persuades him once more to trust him and the other professors at the Ateneo. Rizal is emotion-filled and, after remaining some moments in silence, confesses to Fr. Faura. Sources: El Imparcial. 8:00 9:00 p.m. Rizal rakes supper (and, most probably, attends to his personal needs). Then, he receives Bro. Titllot with whom he had a very "tender" (Fr. Balaguer) or "useful" (Fr. Pi) interview. Sources: Separate testimonies of Fr. Balaguer and Fr. Pi on the report of Bro. Titllot; Fisal Castao. 9:00 10:00 p.m. Fiscal Castao exchanges views with Rizal regarding their respective professors. Sources: Fiscal Castao. 10:00 11:00 p.m. Rizal manifests strange reaction, asks guards for paper and pen. From rough drafts and copies of his poem recovered in his shoes, the Spaniards come to know that Rizal is writing a poem. Sources: El Imparcial and Ultimo Adios; probably, Fiscal Castao. 11:00 12:00 midnight Rizal takes time to his hide his poem inside the alcohol burner. It has to be done during night rather than during daytime because he is watched very carefully. He then writes his last letter to brother Paciano. Sources: Testimonies and circumstantial evidence. 12:00 4:00 a.m. Rizal sleeps restfully because his confidence in the goodness of God and the justness of his cause gives him astounding serenity and unusual calmness. Dec. 30, 1986. 4:00 5:00 a.m. Rizal picks up Imitation of Christ, reads, meditates and then writes in Kempis book a dectation to his wife Josephine and by this very act in itself he gives to her their only certificate of marriage. 5:00 6:15 Rizal washes up, takes breakfast, attends to his personal needs. Writes a letter to his parents. Reads Bible and meditates. Josephine is prohibited by the Spanish officers from seeing Rizal, according to Josephines testimony to R. Wildman in 1899. 6:15 7:00 Rizal walks to the place of execution between Fr. March and Fr. Vilaclara with whom he converses. Keeps looking around as if seeking or expecting to see someone. His last word, said in a loud voice: "It is finished" 7:00 7:03 Sounds of guns. Rizal vacillates, turns halfway around, falls down backwards and lies on the ground facing the sun. Silence. Shouts of vivas for Spain.

Texts of Rizal's Retraction

The "original" discovered by Fr. Manuel Garcia, C.M. on May 18, 1935 Me declaro catolica y en esta Religion en que naci y me eduque quiero vivir y morir. Me retracto de todo corazon de cuanto en mis palabras, escritos, inpresos y conducta ha habido contrario a mi cualidad de hijo de la Iglesia Catolica. Creo y profeso cuanto ella ensea y me somento a cuanto ella manda. Abomino de la Masonaria, como enigma que es de la Iglesia, y como Sociedad prohibida por la Iglesia. Puede el Prelado Diocesano, como Autoridad Superior Eclesiastica hacer publica esta manifastacion espontanea mia para reparar el escandalo que mis actos hayan podido causar y para que Dios y los hombers me perdonen. Manila 29 de Deciembre de 1896

Jose Rizal Jefe del Piquete Juan del Fresno Ayudante de Plaza Eloy Moure Translation (English) I declare myself a catholic and in this Religion in which I was born and educated I wish to live and die. I retract with all my heart whatever in my words, writings, publications and conduct has been contrary to my character as son of the Catholic Church. I believe and I confess whatever she teaches and I submit to whatever she demands. I abominate Masonry, as the enemy which is of the Church, and as a Society prohibited by the Church. The Diocesan Prelate may, as the Superior Ecclesiastical Authority, make public this spontaneous manifestation of mine in order to repair the scandal which my acts may have caused and so that God and people may pardon me. Manila 29 of December of 1896 Jose Rizal La Voz Espaola, December 30, 1896 Me declaro catolica y en esta Religion en que naci y me eduque quiero vivir y morir. Me retracto de todo corazon de cuanto en mis palabras, escritos, inpresos y conducta ha habido contrario a mis cualidades de hijo de la Iglesia Catolica. Creo y profeso cuanto ella ensea y me somento a cuanto ella manda. Abomino de la Masonaria, como enigma que es de la Iglesia y como sociedad prohibida por la Iglesia. Puede el Prelado Diocesano, como autoridad superior eclesiastica hacer publica esta manifastacion espontanea para reparar el escandalo que mis actos hayan podido causar y para que Dios y los hombers me perdonen. Manila, 29 de Diciembre de 1896-Jose Rizal Jefe del Piquete Juan del Fresno Ayudante de Plaza Eloy Moure Fr. Balaguer's text, January 1897 Me declaro catolica y en esta Religion en que naci y me eduque quiero vivir y morir. Me retracto de todo corazon de cuanto en mis palabras, escritos, inpresos y conducta ha habido contrario a mi calidad de hijo de la Iglesia. Creo y profeso cuanto ella ensea y me somento a cuanto Ella manda. Abomino de la Masonaria, como enigma que es de la Iglesia, y como Sociedad prohibida por la misma Iglesia. Puede el Prelado diocesano, como Autoridad superior eclesiastica hacer publica esta manifastacion espontanea mia, para reparar el escandalo que mis actos hayan podido causar, y para que Dios y los hombers me perdonen. Manila, 29 de Diciembre de

Rizal's Famous Quotations

1896-Jose Rizal

"Ang hindi magmahal sa sariling wika, daig pa ang hayop at malansang isda." "He who does not love his own language is worse than an animal and smelly fish." "It is a useless life that is not consecrated to a great ideal. It is like a stone wasted on the field without becoming a part of any edifice." "While a people preserves its language; it preserves the marks of liberty." "There can be no tyrants where there are no slaves." "Ang hindi marunong lumingon sa pinangalingan ay hindi makakarating sa paroroonan." "He who does not know how to look back at where he came from will never get to his destination." "The youth is the hope of our future."