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5.10 APPLICATIONS OF DERIVATIVES

5.11 Maxima and Minima

Example 1 Find the values of x at which maximum and minimum values

of y and points of inﬂexion occur on the curve y = 12 ln x + x 2 10x

dy dx = 0

dy

dx

dy

dx

= 12 x

=0

Turning points;

+ 2x 10

d

2 y

dx

2

> 0

minimum;

2x 2 10x + 12 = 0

2 (x 2) (x 3) = 0

x=2,x=3

T P

@

(2, 7. 68)

(3, 7. 82)

d

dx

dx = d 2 y

dy

dx

2

= 12

x 2 +2

x=2

=12 +2=1<0

2

2

d 2 y

dx 2

< 0

x =3

d 2 y

dx 2

> 0

maximum TP @

=12

3 2 +2=

2

3

minimum TP @

(2, 7. 68)

(3, 7. 82)

Inﬂexion point @

d 2 y

dx 2

=0

d 2 y

dx 2

=12

x 2

+ 2 = 0, Solution is: 6, 6

Only

Inﬂexion

y = 12 ln x + x 2 10x

x = 6 point @

6, 7. 74

d

2 y

dx

2

< 0

maximum

Example 2

xαr 2 ln 1 r

x

= kr 2 ln 1 r

dx

dr

=

2kr ln

r kr

1

2kr ln 1 r kr = 0

69

kr 2 ln 1 r 1 =0

2 ln 1

r 1=0

ln 1 r = 1

2

r= 1

1

e

2

= 0.606 53

d

2 x

dr 2

=

2k ln 1 r 2kk

d
2 x
1
r −2k−k
dr 2
r=0.606 53 = 2k ln
1
2k ln
0.606 53 −2k−k=−2k

70

5.12 Optimization

Example 1 The total area of a sheet of paper is 20 cm 2 . The margins at the

3
top and bottom are 1 cm and on the sides
4 cm in length. What must the
dimensions of the paper be so that the area between the margins is a maximum.
3
4
3
4
1cm
1cm

y

cm

cm

x

Total Area A T = xy = 20

Area between margins A BM = (x 2) y3

2

Total area of Margins A M =2y+ 3

Maximize Area between margins xy = 20

y= 20

2

x

(x 2)

2

Area between margins A BM = (x 2) y3

A BM (x) = (x 2) 20

x

3

2

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d

dx

d

dx

(A BM )= 20 x

3

2

+ (x 2) 20

x

2

(A BM )= 20

x

40 20x

3

x

2

2

+

= 20

x

+ 40 20x

x 2

3

2

2
d
d
20 x
+ 40 − 20x
2 (A BM )=
− 3
= 1 3 (40x − 80) − 40
dx
dx
x
2
2
x
x
2
40x − 80
− 40
d 2 2 (A BM )=
dx
x
3
x
2
2
d
d
Maximum
@
(A BM ) = 0
and
dx 2 (A BM )<0
dx
d
(A BM )=0
dx
d
+ 40 − 20x
(A BM )= 20
− 3 =0
dx
x
x
2
2
x=− 4
√ 15,
x = 4
15
3
3
x= 4
√ 15
Only solution because measurement can never be −ve
3
40 4
√ 15 − 80
2
d
3
40
dx 2 (A BM )
=
15 2 = −0.580 95 < 0
4
4
x= 3 4 √ 15
15 3
3
3
x= 4
√ 15 = 5. 164 0
3
20
y=
= √ 15 = 3. 873 0
4
√ 15
3
= 5. 16
The dimensions of the paper
x so that the area between
y = 3. 87

the margins is a maximum.

Example 2 A piece of wire 12 m long is cut into two lengths. The one length is bent into a circle and the other into a square. if the sum of the areas of the circle and the square are required to be a minimum, ﬁnd the radius of the circle and the sides of the square.

L c = 2πr

L s =4l L = 2πr + 4l = 12

l=3πr

2

A c = πr 2

A s =l 2

A = πr 2 +l 2

A = πr 2 + 3πr

2 2

72

dA

dr

dA

dr

= 2πr π 3πr

2

=0

π 2r3+ πr =0

r=

3

1

2 π+2

2

=

0.84

d 2 A

dr 2

> 0

minimum

d

2 A

dr 2

=π 2+ π =π 1

2

2 π+2 = 11. 218 > 0

3

r= 0.840 15

1 π+2

2

π  

=

3

2 1 π+2

2

l=3

Check:

L = 2πr + 4l = 20

2π (0.84) + 4 (1. 68) = 11. 998 12.0

= 1. 680 3

.

Example 3 A farmer witht a ﬁeld adjancent to a straight river wishes to fence a rectangular region for grazing. If no fence is needed along the river, and the farmer has available 1600 metres of fence, what should be the dimentions of the ﬁeld in order that it ha a maximum area?

SOLUTION

l
l + 2w = 1600

73

w

(1)

We are to maximize

(2)

equation (2) is a function of two variables. Using equation (1), thus l = 1600 2w, substitute this into equation (2), thus

A = lw

A = w (1600 2w) = 1600w 2w 2 .

Then

dA

dw

= 1600 4w,

d dw 2 A 2 =4.

dA

dw

= 1600 4w = 0 w = 400, and the second derivative is negative thus

maximum area is achieved. Thus l = 800, w = 400. Maximum area is 320 000 m 2

Example 4 The strength of a rectangular beam varies directily as the width and the square of the de[th. what are the dimentions of the strngest rectangular beam that can be cut from a cylindrical log of radious r.

y
P (x, y)
(r, 0)

x

Let the strength of the beam be denoted by S : S = 2x (2y) 2 = 8xy 2 since P lies on the circle x 2 +y 2 =r 2 y 2 =r 2 x 2 S=8x r 2 x 2 =8x r 2 x 2 =8 r 2 xx 3

dS

dx

dS

dx

=8 r 2 3x 2 ,

d 2 S

dx

2

= 48x.

=8 r 2 3x 2 =0x=±

r

3

74

Thus x =

r 3 because x =

r 3 has no physical meaning.

for this x value we have y = r 2 x 2 = r 2 r 2

3

0.666 667 r 2

= 2

3 r 2 = 0.666 667 r 2 =

the width is therefore 2r 3 = 1. 154 7r and the depthis 2r

2

3

a beam of maximum strength.

= 1. 632 99r for

Example 5 Find two positive numbers whosw product is 100 and whse sum

is as small as possible SOLUTION 10 and 10

Example 6 Determine the altitude(height = h) of a cylinder of maximum volume that can be inscribed in a right circular come of height (H) and base radius (R).

H
R

From the notion of similar triangles:

75

ACE ≡ △BCD

E
D
C
A
B
AC
CE
Thus:
BC =
CD = AE
DB

Rr = H h

R

=h= H (Rr)

R

Volume of a cylinder V c = πr 2 h

V cyl = πr 2 H

(Rr)

R

For maximum volume:

dV c

dr

=0

dV

cyl

H πr (2R 3r)

R

dr

=

H

R

πr (2R 3r) = 0, Solution is:

r = 0,

or

r =

2

3 R

r = 0

has no meaning since we want to have a cylinder inscribed in the

cone thus radius can not be zero.

Thus for a maximum volume r =

3 2 R and h =

1

3 H

Example 7 Show that the right circular cylinder of greatest volume that can

be inscribed in a right circular cone has volume that is 4

9

of the cone

From example 6:

A right circular cylinder of greatest volume that can be inscribed in a right

circular cone has r =

2

3 R and h =

1

3 H

V cone =

1

3 πR 2 H=H=

3

πR 2 V cone

V cyl = πr 2 h

Since: r =

3 2 R and h =

V cyl =π

2

3 R 2

1

3 H = 4

27 πR 2 H

=

27 πR 2

4

πR 2 V cone

3

76

1

3 H

=

4

9

V cone

V cyl = 4

9

V cone

PROVED

Figure 8:

Example 7 Find two numbers whose sum is 18 and for which the sum of the fourth power of the ﬁrst and the sqaure of the second is a minumum.

SOLUTION:

Let the ﬁrst number be x and the second y.

x + y = 18 =y = 18 x

A=x 4 +y 2 =A=x 4 + (18 x) 2

dA

dx

=4x 3 + 2 (18 x) (1) = 4x 3 + 2x 36

For minimum dA =0

dx

4x 3 + 2x 36 = 0, Solution is: x = 2.

y = 16

x = 2, y = 16

Example 7 Plans for a new supermaerket requires a ﬂoor area of 900m 2 . The supermarket is to be rectangular in shape with three solid brick walls and a very fancy all-glass front. If the glass costs 1.88 times as much as the brick wall per

77

linear metre, what should be the dimentions of the building so that the cost of meterials for the walls is a minimum.

Area:

Cost:

xy = 900 =y = 900

x

A = xh + 2yh + 1.88 2 xh

A
= xh 1 + 1.88 2 + 2yh 900
x
dA
minimize the cost:
dx =0
dA
=h 1 + 1.88 2 −2h 900
dx
x
2
dA
=0
dx
h
1 + 1.88 2 −2h 900
=0
x
2
750
x=
1417 √ 1417 = 19. 924 0
y= 900
900
= 6
√ 1417 = 45. 171 7
x =
750
5
1417 √ 1417
x = 19.9m,
y = 45.2m

Check if cost is minumum:

d

dx 2 =

2 A

d

dx

h 1 + 1.88 2 2h 900 = 3600 h

x

2

x 3 >0

Thus cost is indeed minumum. The dimensions of the building so that the cost of meterials for the walls is a minimum are x = 19.9m and y = 45.2m.

Example 7b Suppose that the supermarket has a heat loss across the glass front and the heat loss is seven times as great as the heat loss across the brick walls per square metre. neglecting the heat loss across the roof and through the ﬂoor. What should be the dimentions of the building so that the heat loss is a minimum.

xy = 900 =y = 900

x

Area:

Heat loss:

Minimize heat loss: dH

H = xh + 2yh + 7xh

dx =0

H

= 8xh + 2 900 h

x

dH

dx

=8h1800 h=0

x

2

Solution is: x = ±15

But x = 15, has no physical meaning thus x = 15.

y= 900

15

= 60m

Check if heat loss is minumum:

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d

dx 2 =

2 A

d 8h 1800

dx

x

2

h = 3600 h 3 >0

x

Thus heat loss is indeed minumum. The dimentions of the building so that the heat loss is a minimum are x =

15m and y = 60m.

Exercise 3 An open cylindrical can has to be made out of a sheet metal with a predetermined volume of V litres. If the radius is r cm determine the following:

1. the area of sheet metal required in terms of the radius

2. the value of the radius (r) for a minimum surface area for the cylindrical can.

3. the value for minimum area required to construct the cylinder.

79

5.13 Partial Diﬀerentiation and Applications

Consider:

constant. Then z changes by δz because z depends on x then:

z = f (x; y)

let x change by δx while y is held temporarily

z + δz = f (x + δx; y) δz = f (x + δx; y) f (x; y)

δx δz = f (x + δx; y) f (x; y)

δx

δz

δx =

∂z

x = lim

lim

δx0

This is denoted by

δx0

f (x + δx; y) f (x; y)

δx

Similarly

∂z

x = lim

δx0

f (x + δx; y) f (x; y)

δx

Notations:

∂z

y = lim

δy0

f (x; y + δy) f (x; y)

δy

f x (x, y) =

f y (x, y) =

∂z

∂x =z x ∂z

∂y =z y

The partial derivative of f (x, y) with ∂z

respect to x. x =z x .

Examples

80

The partial derivative of f (x, y) with ∂z

respect to y. y =z y .