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Platonic Technology * A Glossary of Distinctive Terms used by Platon and other Philosophers in an Arcane and Peculiar Sense Compiled

by Alexander W ilder, Professor of Psychological Science, etc., in the United States Medical College

Aer, h ahr. The air; the lower atmosphere which the demons or tutelary spirits inhabit; the element or compound which is constantly in motion and changing; the Primal Darkness (perhaps Chaos). Agape, h agap. Lovingness; love; the complete exercising and manifesting of the best disposition of the mind. Agathon, to agaOon. The Good, as considered by itself; the Supreme Good; the Divine Cause and Source of Good; that perfect principle which is in and by itself; God. Aidios, o and aidioz. Always existing; the perpetually now-existing, to nun. As contrasted with aiwnioz, God, the essence always existing. ----------* The Greek font used here lacks diacritical marks and is inadequate to the original. - dig. ed. ----------Aion, o aiwn. An age; a long period of time; a period of time not defined; unlimited time; the equivalent of Zero-ana akarena; an age or lifetime; time; all time; a mode of existence; (perhaps) eternity. Aionios, aiwnioz. Lasting; continuous; without interval, unceasing; constant; preexistent (as distinguished from existence at the present time); lasting for an indefinite period but not perpetually. Aisthesis, h aisQhsiz. Perceptivity; physical sense; knowledge which is acquired through the agency of the senses. Aither, o aiQhr. The ether; the supernal atmosphere, in which the stars are placed, and the theoi or higher divinities dwell; the fifth element, said by Aristoteles to have appeared prior to fire at the beginning, but by Platon immediately after it, but prior to the Air. Jacob Bryant, somewhat fancifully yet not unplausibly, derives the term from ait, an archaic name of the sun, and fire, and aer. It is sometimes given to Zeus himself. Aitia or aition, h aitia or aitih, to aition. The cause; the supernal agency by which every thing is produced; the principal or efficient cause; or in other words, the Superior or Interior Mind (nouz), and the

reason or understanding. Aletheia, h alhQeia. The Truth; the Absolute Fact; the enosis or being at one of the excellent (to calon), the just (to dicain), and the good (to agaQon); that which is, as distinguished from the maya, or that which appears, or is physical and transitory; the unbegotten ideal; the eternal fact; the uttering of that which is true. "If the Truth is perpetually in our soul, then that soul is immortal." - Menon. Some of the Alchemists, the medieval Mystics, formed this word from alh, breath, and Qeia, divine. Alethes, to alhQez. See Aletheia. Anamnesis, h ana mnhiz. Reminiscence; recollection; remembering; memory; truth which has been concealed in the mind and is potentially contained in its faculties; ideas or concepts of the eternal world which have been latent or dormant in the interior mind, but are now brought into conscious knowledge. "To learn is to recover our previous knowledge; and this is properly recollecting." See Dialectic. Ananke, h anagch. Necessity; matter in its unconditioned form; space, abstractly considered; the phenomenal state; the physical basis on which the Divine Mind operates; that entity without which nothing can be made to exist; that entity or condition which is the very negative of Mind (probably the same as Chaos or the Primal Darkness). It is a significant fact that the modern agnostic school of reasoners, rejecting all idea of divine or noumenal agency, but only accepting materialistic conjectures of evolution by virtue of arbitrary law, are more pronounced fatalists than ever were Calvinists or Moslems. Except, indeed, the prior and superior entity of mind is acknowledged, and phenomena are remanded to a subordinate rank, any other conclusion is logically impossible. Anastasis, h anastasiz. A rising up to one's feet from a suppliant attitude; a resuscitation; a condition of spiritual being distinct from corporeal existence; a state of beatitude, the same as the nirvana of the Buddhists, and probably the metempsychosis of the Pythagoreans; the restoration from the lepsis or apostasia, by which souls left their prior condition and became subject to necessity and the conditions of material existence. The doctrine of anastasis or removal from the Underworld or Hades to the aerial or supernal regions, was a part of the Essenean or Mithraic theosophy, and was taken from the Persian religion. "The sons of this period marry, and the daughters are given in marriage; but those who become worthy to attain that condition of existence (aiwn), the restoration from among the dead, neither marry nor are given in marriage. For they cannot die, because they are like angels, and are sons of God and sons of the restoration." - Gospel according to Luke, xx: 34-36.

Andria, h andria. Manliness; fortitude; presence of mind; firmness in the right; a moral condition in which the individual is neither despondent nor audacious and foolhardy. Angelos, d and h aggeloz. An angel; a courier or messenger; a personage of the supernal world subordinate to the deities but superior to the daemon or tutelary spirit, probably the same as the ized of the Mithraic pantheon. Porphyrios, or Malech, the philosopher, himself of Jewish or Syrian parentage and familiar with Chaldean literature, mentions this order in his letter to Anebo; and Iamblichos in reply explains their rank and functions. The Jews, whom Aristotles declares to be of Hindoo origin, brought the doctrine of angels from Babylonia. Anthropos, o anQrwpoz. Man; one of human kind; a creature standing upon two feet, without wings, and having nails; the only living thing on the earth that can receive knowledge intuitionally and by the interior mind. Perhaps from anaQorw, to rise up, and pouz, the foot. Apeiron, to aperon. The Undefined; the unconditioned; the nonexisting, which is nevertheless capable of being made to exist; matter in the unconditioned form, as not limited and circumscribed by the creative energy. See Aion, Ananke, Chaos. Apodeixis, h apodeixiz. Demonstration; just reasoning; a form of reasoning that makes a matter plain by means of that which was previously known. See Anamnesis, Dialectic, Episteme, Idea, Logos. Apocalupis, h apocaluyiz. Uncovering of the body; the removing of a veil, screen, or curtain; hence a disclosure of arcana; a manifestation of facts and noumenal causes; an apocalypse or revealing. Apokatastasis, h apocatastasiz. A complete cycle in the heavens when the sun, moon, and planets return to the same place from which the observation was taken; a restoration to the original condition; reestablishment. "Whom it is necessary for heaven to receive till the completion of the period of restoration of all things to the original condition." Acts of the Apostles, iii : 21. Apokrupha, ta apocrufa. Arcana; occult learning; the interior wisdom; things hidden; the contents of the sacred kista. The modern designation of the theosophical works of certain Jewish writers of the Alexandrian school. See next. Aporreita, ra aporrhta. Arcana; occult rites and knowledge; the sacred Orgies or Mysteries; things that may not be divulged except by incurring the guilt of sacrilege; the sacred and arcane knowledge which is disclosed to the initiated. Apotelesma, to apotelesma. Completing; the finishing of a rite;

an arcane symbol; the white pebble given to a candidate on his initiation as a soldier of Mithras; a talisman; a magical emblem; an Astrological symbol, having influence on destiny. Arche, h argwn. Beginning; origin; principle; the Cause of all phenomenal existence; the inherent principle in all development, as contrasted with the stoigeia, or elements, and the ouenecen, or end, for the sake of which all things exist. "In the inherent principle (argh) was the Reason." Plural argai - elements; principles; first fruits; dominions; chieftains. Archetupos, d argetupoz. The archetype, pattern, or mold; the idea or principle of determinate form according to which all things have been formed. Archon, d argwn. A magistrate; a lord or potentate in the aerial region; an order of spiritual beings inferior to the daemons or tutelary spirits, that preside over the world, and impart worldly and material benefits to mankind. Arete, h areth. Excellence; virtue; merit; fitness for any purpose; a just proportion of all motives; excellence as coming from the interior mind; knowledge or cognition of the Supreme Good. Platon very elaborately defines this term as embracing fronhsoz (sagacity, right purpose); dicaiosunh (justice, fidelity); andria (fortitude, presence of mind); and swfrusunh (orderly life, self-control, sobriety, and moderation in the enjoym ent of pleasure). Arreta, ta arrhta. See Aporreta. "He was carried into paradise and heard arcane disclosures which it is not permitted to a man to repeat." Epistles of Paulos to the Corinthians, II, xii: 4. Asteos, d and h astewz. Self-possessed; pleasing; polished; like one who lives in a city and is urbane in manners. Athanasia, h aQanasia. Immortality; the endless career of an ensouled being or living essence. Athanaton, to aOanaton. See Athanasia. Auto, to auto. The same; the identical; the selfhood; the interior mind; the eternal and indivisible principle in humankind which is identical and of like nature and substance with the Divine. See Nous, Daimon. Basileus, d basileuz. An overlord; a monarch holding supreme power in a state by divine or religious authority, as distinguished from a turaniz or an Imperator; the chief or patriarch of a family, clan, or people; the second archon at Athens, who superintended the religions rites.

Bathos, to baQoz. The deep or abyss; the profound; the expanse. Hebrew bau. 'II baQeia aiQhr, the expanded heaven. Boule, h boulh. Counsel; a weighing of the advantages offered. Chaos, to gaoz. Chaos; the primeval darkness; the first form, condition, or evolution of matter; the first material substance, still unconditioned, in which all the elements exist potentially; the infinite Void; necessity; the migma or mixture; perhaps what Prof. Crookes considers as the fourth form of matter. See Ananke, Apeiron. Choikos, d and h goicoz. Fluid; earthy; constituted of dust having in it the seminal principle and possibility of life; consisting of atoms; of sporedust. Chresimon, to grhsimion. Fitness; effectiveness to some purpose or end; the cause of good. Chrestos, d grhstoz. Useful; worthy; noble; pertaining to temples, oracles, and arcane worship, hence a title of Apollos and other divinities; a good citizen. Cosmos, d cosmuz. Order; trimness; the world; the universe; the extended heavens; the general order of things. Criterion, to crithrton. The criterion or standard of judging; the idea of right which exists natively in every one. Dadochos, o dadougoz. A torch-bcarer; one, generally of the inferior class of initiates, who carried a lamp or torch in the Eleusinian Mysteries, in commemoration of the search of Demeter for KorePersephoneia, and in the Dionysia of Kore for Zagreus. Daimonion, to daimonton or daimonon ti. A guardian principle; a certain something divine; the nouz or interior mind. Usually denominated "the demon of Sokrates," and explained by him as an interior sign, voice, or influence that restrained him from incurring danger needlessly, or doing any thing which he ought not. "The interior mind (nouz) is our guardian." - Menandros. "An interior consciousness." - Xenophon. Daimon, o or h daimwn. A tutelary spirit; a guardian genius; a Spiritual being next in rank after the deities and angels; the guardian of an oracle. There is some little confusion in regard to this term, strikingly analogous to that in the case of its Aryan equivalent, daeva. Kleanthes apostrophizes the Supreme Deity as Daimon, and Homeros terms the gods themselves daimones. PIato, Iamblichos, and Porphyrios rank daimonez in the order of their spiritual rank next after the angels and immortal gods; but Ploutarchos declares them to be mortal, perhaps meaning that they are again

brought into the conditions of birth and physical existence. Hesiodos described them as the souls of the men who had lived in the first or Golden Age, now acting as guardians. Sokrates is represented in the Kratylos as stating "that daemon is a term denoting wisdom; and that every good man is daimonian, both while living and when dead, and is rightly called a daimon." This statement is in very close harmony with the practice of styling men of great merit and those who were considered to be inspired or entheast, theoi or gods. "He called them gods to whom the word of God came." As in the old worship daimones were thus specially esteemed, the early Christians, in order to make it odious, were in the habit of attaching the worst meaning to the designation. The divinities of the Greek-speaking communities were so denominated; and the Pharisees of Judaea styled the overlord of Palestine "Beel-Zeboul, the archon of the daemons." Perhaps the later translation of devils makes much of the opprobrious meaning. The Platonists of the Alexandrian school also make mention of "material daimons," or spirits that are still held by corporeal conditions, a lower grade of essences that are able to assume forms which make them perceptible by the physical senses. Deinotes, h deinothz. Moral force; power; interior energy; the power which is felt to accompany eloquence; the peculiar influence sometimes denominated magnetic, which is perceived from eloquence; the interior operation of words and ideas. "Power in speaking and corresponding influence in acting." - Suidas. Deisidaimon, o and h deisidaimwn. God-fearing; of a religious and reverential turn of mind; disposed to venerate or worship; religious; revering divine and spiritual beings; conscious of the presence of the divine. "Those who fear the divinities fear men less." - Xenophon. "Athenians! I bear witness that in all matters you are of exalted religious disposition." - Acts of the Apostles, xvii. Dekanos, o decagoz. A decan; a chief of ten; a dean; the chief of the corpse-bearers; a chief of ten parts in a degree of the zodiac. Thus Iamblichos mentions thirty-six decans for the 360 degrees. Demiurgos, o dhmiourgoz. An architect; an artist; the Framer of the Universe; the demiurge; the Evil Potency, as set forth by the Gnostics, who formed the material universe; also, a chief magistrate in Archaian cities. Demos, o dhmoz. The country population; the populace, as distinguished from citizens; an assembly of the Commons at Athens. Euthydemos. Desnoina, h descoiga. A lady; a queen; the goddess Demeter, honored in the Phigaleian Mysteries, represented with the head of a hippos or mare, to indicate her encounter with Poseidon, both having the equine

form; but more probably a pun on her archaic designation of Hippa or genetrix. Despotia, h despoteia. A lordship; absolute rule, in which the head of the government is not subject to the scrutiny, or other interference from a Senate or Sacerdotal College; the dominion of a despot or plebeian not belonging to the military or sacerdotal class; tyranny. Diabolos, o or h diabwlwz. A detractor; a slanderer; one who falsely accuses or detracts from the good fame of another. Perhaps a corruption from Diobolos, the thunder as sent by Zeus (genitive Dioz); a son of that God, as Bacchus. It was a common practice to change the spelling of a name in order to make it a term of reproach, as Satan, the adversary, for Seth; Beel-Zebub, the lord of flies, for Baal-Zebul, the Overlord, or the Lord of all Oracle. As Seth the Hittite divinity was probably identical with the Oriental Bacchus, it is very possible that the designation Diobolos, or Zeusbegotten, was changed to Diabolos, devil or false accuser, and Seth in turn became Satan, or adversary. The Aryan terms Ahura, daeva, yezid, are good or evil in signification, as employed by Brahmans or Parsis. Strabos denominated the judgment of his adversaries a diabulh. Dialectike, h dialectich. Dialectic; discourse; the elementary principles of interior knowledge; the conversational method employed by Platon and his disciples, by means of which interior truth, which had been before latent or dormant in the mind, is brought into the foreground of consciousness; the evolving of interior truth. See Anamnesis, Technike. Dianoema, to dianohma. A conception of the mind; purpose; intention; a thought; an opinion deduced from reflection. See Nous. Dianoesis, h dianohsiz. The mind; thought; the act of thinking; the forming of a conception. See Nous. Dianoetikos, dianohticoz, a, on. Relating to the faculty of intuition; whence to dianohticon, the faculty of comprehending interior truth. Platon employed the adjective h dianohtich in antithesis to h doxasth, to denote the world of causes, the nounenal as contrasted with the phenomenal; the field of real knowledge as distinguished from matters of conjecture and speculation. See Nous. Dianoia, h dianoia. The understanding; the mind or reasoning faculty as distinguished from the nous or intuitive principle; the faculty of tracing relations, of which the logoz is the open showing; the mind as distinguished from the body; the affections as a whole; the faculty which reasons from things known and understood to deductions still more recondite. "The spirit is in mankind, and the inspiration of the Almighty giveth them understanding." - Job, xxxii. "The son of God hath given us understanding

that we may know the truth." - Epistles of John, I, v. Diathesis, h diaQesiz. A transient tendency or disposition; an arrangement of parts. Dikaiosune, h dicaiosugh, also to oicaion. Justice; the right; doing exactly what ought to be done. Platon defines justice to include equity, truthfulness, fidelity, usefulness, and endeavor to secure the well-being of others, and holiness, or being like God. "Nor does it regard merely a man's external action, but what is really internal, relating to the man himself and what is properly his own; not allowing any principle in him to attempt what is the province of another, or to meddle and interfere with what does not belong to it; but well establishing in reality his own proper affairs, and maintaining proper self-government, keeping due order, becoming his own friend, and most naturally attuning these three principles" - namely: the restraining principle of the interior mind, the will or psychic entity, - and the epithumetic or external principle. Dinos, h dinoz. A vortex; a turner's lathe, whence dinoz aiOhrioz, the vortex of infinity. A designation given by Aristophanes to the deity which, as he asserted, Sokrates had introduced instead of Zeus. Dogma, to dogma. A traditional dogma, a tenet; a decree or ordinance; a doctrine or command uttered - and arbitrarily enforced. "Not facts, but dogmas, perplex men." - Epiktetos. Doxa, h doxa. Opinion; empirical knowledge; judgment based upon experience; conviction; physical as distinguished from moral and interior science; probable truth, the knowledge of which is acquired by the perception of the external senses. "This is called opinion, through our combining of the recollection previously brought into action with the sense-perception recently produced." - Alkinous. The Christian writers frequently use this term in the sense of glory, splendor, brilliant luminosity. Doxastikos, doxastoz, h. on. Relating to the forming of opinions; Judging empirically from appearance; opinionable. Doxastos, doxastoz, a, og. Pertaining to the sensible world; relating to opinion. "The opinionable is to the cognizable as the image to the reality." - Platon. Dunamis, h duamiz. Power; a facility; energy; the necessary conditions for the existence of any thing before that thing comes into being. Used in the New Testement to denote the orders of superior and supernal beings, miracles, wonderful powers. Also, a mantic or ecstatic condition of mind. "My discourse and doctrine were in demonstration of spirit and interior power." - Paul's Epistles to the Corinthians, l, ii: 4. "I am not ashamed of this gospel: for the power of God is to salvation." - Epistle to the Romans, i: 16.

To this day the Shamans and some Christian sectaries denominate a trance by this epithet, "the power." Dusapodeiktos, dusapodeictoz on. Hard to demonstrate. Dusgnostos, dusgnwstoz, on. Hard to perceive; difficult of knowing. Dusgoetetos, dusgohthtoz, on. Not easy to deceive; hard of impressing with falsehood. Dusnoeta, ta ousnohta. Things hard to understand; hence, interior knowledge not brought out to the comprehension of persons who are external, superficial, and scientific rather than philosophical. "None of the archons of this world have known Divine wisdom; for the psychical man receivekh not divine things, because they are foolish to him." - Paul's Epistles to the Corinthians, I., ii. "In which are certain things difficult to comprehend, which the untaught distort to their own ruin." - Catholic Epistles of Peter, II, iii: 16. Dusthanateo, dusQanatew. To die a lingering death; to contend against dying. "Struggling against death by his superior skill (sufia), he achieved a great age." - Platon: Statesman, iii: 406. E, 'E. Thou art. The inscription on the temple at Delphi, meaning the cognition of the Absolute One. E, h. He said. E gar? h gar. Is it not so? The interrogatory clause at the end of sentences in the Dialogues. E gar an, n gar an. Else; otherwise. Ecclesia, h ecclhsia . An assembly called by public proclamation; a stated meeting; an assembly or regular meeting of the people, as distinguished into ranks and orders, in distinction from the agora, a mixed and promiscuous assemblage; the meeting-house; the place of meeting. Also, a meeting or feast of the gods; the place of such meeting. In Christian usage, the church; the association of holiness; the whole Christian body; the hall or edifice where Christian assemblies are held; the clergy as distinguished from the laity. From the Phoenician Kal, to call; to assemble by a public crier; also, the leader in the meeting. Eclecticoi, oi eilecticui. The Eclectics. This designation, though somewhat indefinite, is generally applied to those philosophers, both of the New Academy and the Alexandrian School, and especially the followers of Potamon, who endeavored to cull the doctrines of Platon, Zenon, Aristoteles, Epikouros, and the various Indian and Babylonian sages and prophets, and to combine them into a homogeneous system of ethics and metaphysics. A

sect of physicians of which Claudius Galenos was the brightest luminary was also so denominated. The Neo-Platonists, and perhaps Philon, Apollonios of Tyana, etc., were generally included under this name. Their teachers, Arnmonios Sakkus, Plotinos, Porphyrios, Iamblichos, Hierokles, Proklos, Marinos, Isidoros, and Zenodotos, taught the Platonic philosophy in the form of a religion embracing some of the characteristic features of Jainism, the Sankhya and Pythagorean schools, and the occult rites of Mithras. See Eklektos. Egersis, h egersiz. An awakening; rousing from sleep; resuscitation; rising up. Eidesis, h eidhsiz. Skill; knowledge; ability; science. This term, and also the verb eidhnai, used as a noun, denote only the mediate knowledge which we acquire through external sources, and is not to be confounded with that derived from intuition or demonstration. Eidolon, to eidwlog. A likeness; effigy; representation; simulacrum; the image of a person or object; a wraith; a spectral representation; perhaps a spiritual materialization; an image formed in the mind. Eidos, to eidoz. Form; likeness; species; the form or exemplar according to which a thing is produced. Both Platon and Aristoteles use this term as synonymous with idea, yet often as distinct. It is the productive force in matter, but distinct from it; the indwelling energy, whereas matter is the dunamz or potentiality. See also Einai, Idea, Dunamis, Energeia. Eikasia, h eicasa. Guess; conjecture; the knowledge of the images or shadows of bodies, as distinguished from the faith or knowledge of their property, and from demonstrated or intuitive knowledge. Eikon, to eicwn. An image; a representation; a resemblance; a statue; a simile or comparison. Einai, to einai. An infinitive verb used as a noun. Being; being in itself; absolute being; the ground and reason of all being, the noumenal as contrasted with ginesOai and genesiz, the phenomenal. See Eidos, Ousia. Eirine, h eirhnh. Peace; concord; tranquility; friendship. Probably the same as Salam, peace, perfection, prosperity; a word common from the China Sea to the Atlantic. The Syrian goddess Salambo was the personification of this principle; as also, perhaps, the Israelitish king Salamba, or Solomon. Eirene and Sophia - peace and wisdom - were also personified in the Gnostic pantheon; and the first Konstantinos, upon the establishment of his capital at New Rome, not only struck off coins and medals to Sol Invictus, but erected temples to these two principles.

Eironeia, h eirwneia. Irony; dissimulation; language meaning differently from what it seems - the method employed by Sokrates. "Under the hypocritical pretense of knowing nothing, he attacks and brings down all the fine speakers, all the the fine philosophers of Athens, whether natives or strangers from Asia Minor and the islands." - R.W. Emerson. Eklektos, eclectuz, h, un. Elect; chosen; choice; excellent. Ekplexis, h ecplhxiz. Terror; panic; dismay; astonishm ent; consternation. Ekstasis, h exstusiz. Astonishment; amazement; ecstasy; trance; a standing or existing outside of the objective personality; a condition in which the activity of the senses is more or less suspended, and the interior consciousness is correspondingly vivid. This term is not used by Platon or classical writers. Ekstatikos, ecstuticoz, h, on. Having the faculty to perceive while the external senses are quiescent; entranced; ecstatic; transported; inspired with a divine fury; entheast; frantic; astonished. Ektasis, h ectasiz. Extension; lengthening; stretching out; the lengthening of a short syllable in versification. Ekios, extoz. Outside; without; beyond. 'O ectoz, the outside; the external surface. Oi ectoz, those who are outside; strangers. Elenchos, o egelloz. Scrutiny; argument; contradiction; disputation; refutation; i nvestigation; demonstration; moving; conviction; anything which seems to convince or confute. "Confutation is the greatest and chief art of purifications." - Platon: Sophistes, 34. "Faith is the substructure of things hoped for, the certain persuasion [egelloz] of things not seen with the eyes." - Epistle to the Hebrews, xi: 1. "All scripture divinely inspired, and profitable for teaching, for the elenchos, etc., is to the end that the man may be expert, ready for good work." - Epistle to Timotheos, II, iii: 16, 17. When refutation had done its utmost, and all the points of difficulty and objection had been brought out, the Dialectic method had accomplished its purpose. By its application the philosophers demonstrated as a consequence that we are in possession of some elements of knowledge which have not been derived from perception through the senses; that there are in all minds certain notions, principles or ideas, which have been furnished by a higher faculty, which transcend the limits of experience and reveal the knowledge of real Being. See Anamnesis, Dialektike. Eleutherion, eleutheriotes, to eleoOeriog, to eleuOeriothz. Freedom; self-government; liberality of sentiment and action; generosity. Eleutheros, elewQeroz, a, og. Free; able to rule one's self;

liberal; liberated. Elpis, h elpiz. Hope; trust; reliance; expectation; opinion; notion. Used by Platon in this latter sense. Emmanes, emmeleia. Raving; full of mantic ardor; entheast. See Entheasmos. Emmeleia, h emmeleia. A sacred dance, as at the Mysteries and Orgiastic revels; harmony in music. Empeiria, h empeiria. Experience, especially without the knowledge or comprehension of principles; skill; practice; reflection; the operation of the mind upon facts and principles, elaborating them into scientific form. Empeirikoi, oi empeiricoi. Empirics; the designation of a school of physicians who profess to be practical, to the disregard of rational inductions. Also, philosophers, the followers of Herakleitos, Protagoras, and Aristippos, who appear to have ignored the existence of any faculty beyond the receptive energy of sense, like the agnostics of the present century. Aristoteles m ay also be included. Empousa, h empousa. An apparition; the spectral appearance witnessed by neophytes about to undergo initiation; a hobgoblin. - Hekate. Empsuchos, emyugoz, o, h. Endowed with soul; animated; living; breathing. Energeia, h energeia. Active energy; actuality; efficacy; operative power, as distinguished from dunamiz, or potentiality. It is the formative cause, as set forth by Aristoteles. "One energy is invariably antecedent in time up to that which is primarily and eternally the Moving Cause." Metaphysics, viii, ix. Enkrateia, h egcrateia, also to egcrateuma. Selfcommand; moderation; restraint; continence; the ability to restrain by the power of will the desire of improper pleasures; bearing up against a natural desire or passion. Ennoia, h ennota. An idea; interior thought; an intuitive suggestion. Ennomos, ennomoz. According to law; just; cooperating with law as a magistrate. Entelechia, h entelegeia , from ev telei egein, being in a state of perfection. Entelechy; actual existence; the perfected act; the completely actual; absoluteness; completion; actuality; the tendency of passive matter to perfection, and the energy of active powers; actual existence as oppssed to possible existence. The word is altered from the suntelegeia of the ancient Pythagoreans, and is more expressive

because the syllable en denotes that the tendency to perfection or to the accomplishment of the purpose is actually resident in the being of which it is predicated. "The soul is the first actuality of a physical body having life in potentiality [ounamit]." - Aristoteles: Concerning the Soul, ii: 5. Entheasmos, o enOeasticoz. Entheasm; the mantic condition; inspiration by a divine spirit. See Mania. Entheastikos, enOeasticoz, h, on. Entheast; rapt; inspired; filled or led by a divine impulse; enthusiastic. Entheos, egOeoz, o, h. Entheast; divinely inspired; mantic; divine; full of God; led by God. To enOoon, divine guidance; inspiration. Enthousiasis or enthousiasmos, h enQousiasiz, d enQousiasmoz - also to enQousiasticug. Divine transport; the entheast condition; enthusiasm; the raving induced by the sacred fury; fanaticism; wild passion. Eos, h ewz or h hwz. Morning; the dawn; daylight. Ephoros, d efuroz. An ephoros or inspector at Sparta; a guardian; a superintendent; also a person initiated at the Greater Mysteries. See Epoptes. Epikouros, d, h epicouroz. A champion; an ally; an assistant. Epimetheus, d epimhQeuz. Wise too late; over-cunning; prudent; name of the brother of Prometheus, who opened Pandora's casket. Episteme, h episthmh. Knowledge, especially of the good and true; positive or demonstrated knowledge; knowledge of Real Being, or the First Principle; full and perfect knowledge, so far as it may be acquired by human beings; metaphysical science. "Knowledge relates to that which is, and ignorance to what has no existence; ....and it is the function, therefore, of knowledge to define what real being is." - Republic, v: 20. See Eudoxia, Gnosis. Epithumia, or epithumetikon, h epiQumia, to epiQumticon. Desire; cupidity; eager longing; appetite; lust. Plato by the latter designation only meant "that vital impulse which leads from one sensation to another." - Henry Davis. Pertaining, however, to the phenomenal world, and being the seat of sense, this life is compared to a cave in which all are captives, having their back toward the entrance, so that all they see are but the shadows of objects to which they attribute a perfect reality. Epitrope, h epitroph. A trust; guardianship; reference to an arbiter; the superintendence of law. Epoptes, d epopthz. A witness; a seer; a spectator; an inspector or superintendent; one who had attained the autopsia or self-view, the last stage of initiation in the Eleusinian Rites, and had looked upon the sacred

sym bols in the kista. "We were witnesses of his majesty." - Epistles of Petros, II, i: 16. See Ephoros. Ergon, to epgon. Work; action; business; achievement; the result of endeavor. Sometimes used for the performance of the Sacred Rites. Eros, o erwz. Love; desire; passion; the sexual attraction; also the god of love, like the Hindoo Kama and the Latin Amor, or Cupido. In the Orphic writings, the principle of attraction or magnetism which binds all things together; personified as the Creator, the Demiourgos, the elder Dionysos. "Eros, the most ancient, generated all things." - Argonautics. The "Platonic Love" is the eager desire of the soul for the Supreme Excellence. It is also, in a subordinate sense, the attraction of souls, its kindred immortal essences, to each other in the world of sense, the latter being but a form of the higher universe. Everywhere it is the conatus of the spirit for the perfect, or of Divinity for man. * ----------* 'Agaph [agape] was often employed by the post-classical writers in place of Eros, especially in the New Testament. It appears to be a word of Semitic origin, from Ahab, to love, - as, Abraham loved Isaac his son, and Isaac loved his wife Rebekah, and also "savory meat." As a noun it signifies love; also a lover. It was the designation of a king of Israel; and we find it in the Proverbs or Parables of Solomon, x:12: "Hatred stirreth up strife; but love [Ahab] covereth all transgressions." ----------Ethos, to eQoz. A custom; habit; an established usage; an institution. "After the manner of Moses." - Acts of the Apostles, xv: 1. Ethos, to hQoz, plural ta hQh. Ethics; morals; customs; usage; practice; an ethical discourse. "Ill discourse corrupts good morals," hQh grhsta. Euangelion, to euaggelion. Good news; a reward for bringing joyful tidings; a sacrifice of praise; evangel; gospel. "Let this be my evangel." - Homeros: Odyssey, xiv: 152. "Eteonikos offered up a sacrifice for the good tidings." - Xenophon, I, vi. Euboulia, h euboulia. Good counsel; sagacity; the art of planning wisely how to act and what to do. Eudaimonia, h eudaimonia. Felicity; happiness; the chief good; the happy state effected by a beneficent guardian spirit. Eudoxia, h eudoxia. Good judgment; a well-formed opinion. See episthmh.

Euexia, h euexia. A good condition; doing well; a fortunate result. "Happiness is the good work of a tutelary spirit." - Alkinous: Introduction to the Doctrines of Plato, 27. Eugeneia, h eugeneia. Noble birth; good parentage and ancestry; generosity; excellence from good conduct in word and deed; disposition to do aright and kindly. Eunoia, h eunoia. A feeling mind; benevolence; good will; kindness; especially, seeking the well-being of others. Eunomia, h eunomia. A state of being well governed; a good government or constitution; the observance of justice; equity. Euporia, h eupoia. Property; resource; a faculty of procuring what is desired; ready judgment. Eustochia, h eustogia. Skill at hitting a mark; acuteness at conjecturing; ready wit. Exegetica, ta exhghtica. The books of the priests or learned caste, containing an explanation of religious matters; exposition; unwritten laws; interpretations. See Hermeneutika. Gaia or Ge, h Gaia or gh. The earth; land; soil; region; province; country. In the Cosmogony of Hesiodos, Gaia is personified as appearing imm ediately next to Chaos or Primal Darkness. She brought forth Ouranos and Pontos, without paternity, and then accepting the former as her consort, the two became parents of the various ancient races. Some, who are fond of tracing Indian precedents to Hellenian ideas, consider Gaia as originating with Gaya, the country in Hindostan where Buddha Siddarta lived and attained nirvana, or divine bliss. From gaw, to become; to produce; to generate. Galaxias, o galaxiaz. The Galaxy or Milky Way. It was fabled by the philosophers that souls leaving eternity passed as in a galaxy into the transition-sphere. This was declared by Pythagoras; and Plato himself, in the Vision of Eros, affirms that souls approached the sphere of genesiz like stars. - Republic, x: 16. Gamos, o gamoz. The union or alliance between the sexes; nuptials; marriage; also an arcane rite in the Mysteries. The same designation was applied to the unions of the gods, and their mutual participation of each others' powers and energies; also to the admission of human beings to a participation of the divine nature. We find the term so applied in the Hebrew Sacred Writings; also in the philosophical essays. "I passed by thee and saw thee; behold it was thy time, the time of love. And I spread my skirt over thee and covered thy nakedness; and I swore to thee, and entered into covenant with thee, and thou becamest mine." - Ezekiel, xvi:

8. "Now her unknown bridegroom (Eros) ascended the couch, and made Psyche his wife." - Apuleius: Metamorphoses, v. "Theologists regarded this communion of the gods belonging to the same order as a sacred marriage, and called it the marriage of Hera and Zeus, Ouranos and Ge, Kronos and Rhea; and again, where the superior order became associated to the inferior, they call it the marriage of Zeus and Demeter; and still again, where the superior is blended with underling natures, they call it the marriage of Zeus and Kore. There are with the gods these alliances to those of the same order, those of lower to higher, and of higher to those still farther beneath." - Proclos: Commentary on Parmenides. Gegeios or Gigas, o gegeioz, o gigaz. A giant, or offspring of the Earth; earth-born; autochthon, one native to a region. A designation of the early races of Babylonia, also of the Rephaites of Palestine, and other archaic and fabulous races, generally of Aethiopian origin. Genea, h genea. Birth; race; parentage, production; a lifetime. Genethlion, to geneQlon. A birthday, or rather the fifth, eighth, or ninth day after birth, at which time it was usual to sprinkle the infant solemnly with lustral water and consecrate or legitimize it by passing it over or carrying it around the fire of the sacred hearth. The Semitic and other fire-worshiping priesthoods, like the Chaldean, Hebrew, and Arabian, made the calculations of those periods by astrological and other portents, a sacred calling. See Plato: Theaitetos, 47. Genesis, h genesiz. Generation; creation; nativity; rank; a period of time; philosophically used to denote the transition-sphere between the states of usia or essence; from the noumenal state to the phenomenal into the world of nature. The movement toward phenomenal existence; the metalhy iz or sharing of dual life - by a change in mode of being; a becoming as distinguished from really being; relative existence; the passing of the soul or prior spiritual essence from eternity into nature. On the ninth day of the Eleusinian Mysteries, the worshipers placed two vessels of wine, one at the East and the other at the West, and emptied them in turn, pronouncing the words uiz [son] and tocuie [genitrix], as implying that man was the offspring of eternity, and nature his mother. The whole paraphernalia and ceremonial of the Mysteries related to the coming of man into the natural world and his effort to go hence. "I think we ought to define what that is which is over-existent and has no genesis; and that which is in a state of transition [genesiz] or becoming, but never really is.... There are three distinct modes that preceded the establishing of this cosmical universe: being, space, and transition" [genesiz]. Plato: Timaios, ix, xxvii. "Others of the heavenly faculties go forth from them into the nature-sphere of the universe, and into

the cosmical universe itself, passing in due order through the sphere of transition [genesiz] and therefrom pervading every part." - Iamblichos: Mysteries, I, xviii. From gignomai, to become. Genos, to genoz. A race; a genus; an order; a family; a tribe; offspring; birth; sex; the human race, etc. Iamblichos ranges the higher orders of being in genh, orders, or genera, namely: divinities, daimons or tutelaries; heroes or half-gods, and souls or psychical essences. The Chaldeans had also archons, angels, archangels; and in the Pauline or Markionic Epistles to the Chrestians of Ephesos and Kolossai, we find also enumerated archai, exousiai, kosmokrators, and pneumatika, which would seem to be in very close analogy. Plato uses it in the sense of elements or principles. Geometria, h gewmetria. Geometry; the science of landmeasuring. Also gewmetren, to measure the earth; to be a geometer. There was a more arcane meaning attached to these words by the philosophers, as well as to its sister terms, manQunw, maQoz, aQhma, all which relate to esoteric knowledge. Thus we find in Ploutarchos, the maxim ascribed to Plato: "God is constantly a geometer." (Symposiacs, viii: 2.) The democratic or popular government which Solon approved as being based on equality, was denominated arithmetical; a show of hands by wise and ignorant alike being sufficient to determine all questions, as when Sokrates was condemned. The geometrical was regarded by Plato and others as not to be excelled. It was also called the sacred or sacerdotal rule. "The statesman's science will never willingly establish a government composed alike of good and bad men;" "We assign to every one that employment which is suited to his nature, and prescribe to each his peculiar art." "It endeavors to bind and weave together the natures inclining in contrary directions from each other, so as to be in accord with the alliance that fits together the eternal part of their soul with a divine bond." The Alexandrian Platonists in like manner taught that the spiritual world was arranged in geometrical order, as with gods, daemons or guardian spirits, heroes or halfgods, and souls. Hence, geometry was not a technic of sensible things, but of facts transcending them; "a science that takes men off from sensible objects, and makes them apply themselves to the spiritual and eternal nature, the contemplation of which is the end of philosophy, as a view or epopteia of the arcana of initiation in Holy Rites." It is a technic of eminence according to excellence, and of all authority with sole regard to merit and ability, irrespective of every consideration of equality or the accident of factitious rank. Gephyra, h gefura. A mound; a bridge; an embankment; a space

between two points or parties. The Way of Holiness from Athens to Eleusis passed over the Kephissos; and on the occasion of the Mysteries, men, women, and boys grouped there and interchanged ribald jests with the worshipers. These were denominated Gephyrians; but Herodotus and Thoukydides both declare that the Gephyrai were Pheonicians from Boiotia who were naturalized in Athens and introduced the worship of the Achaian Demeter, - perhaps the Eleusinia or Thesmophoria, - with orgiastic rites. Glaukon, Glaucwn. Glaukon, a favorite brother of Plato, prominent in the Republic. Named from Glaub, the owl, which was sacred to Athena. Glykothumia, h glucoQumia. A quietness of mind; calm enjoym ent. Gnome, h gnwmh. The mind; mode of thinking; the judgment; the will or inclination; knowledge, especially esoteric learning; wisdom; a maxim. The same as nomoz, a song, or law; the laws being anciently in rhythmic sentences. Gnosis, h gnwsiz. Knowledge; cognition; wisdom; esoteric learning. The doctrine of the Gnostics, a sect of religionists who flourished, in the earlier centuries of the Christian era. Basilides of Alexandria, Tatian of Assyria, Markion of Poutos, and Mani were the conspicuous teachers. Their system comprised a glomerate or digest of Chaldean theosophy, Mithraism and certain of the earlier Christian doctrines. They were "the most polite, the most learned, and most wealthy of the Christian name." They appear to have had secret worship, crypts, and signs or symbols of recognition; and some were Ophites, or serpent-worshipers. Mention is made of the Gnosis in the Pauline epistles, apparently as being the doctrine of the Jew Apollos. See Gospel according to Luke, xi: 52, where the lawyers are impugned for taking away the key of the Gnosis or higher wisdom; also Epistle to the Corinthians, I, viii: 1, 11; xiii: 8; Ephesians, iii: 19; Timothy, I, vi: 20. Though many of their doctrines resembled the Platonic, they seem to have made a merit of depreciating Plato. Goeteia, h gohteia, also to gohteuma. Black m agic; sorcery; fascination; witchcraft; juggling tricks; also the art of the orator. "They bewitch our very souls." - Plato: Menexenos, 2. Grammateus, o grammateuz and o ierogrammateuz. A scribe; a secretary; a teacher of the sacred laws; a theologist. The Hebrew books of Chronicles mention the Kenites of Southern Judea as Scribes; and traditions preserved elsewhere represent Moses as marrying a Kushite or Kenite wife; also Saul, David, and others as familiar with them. The nabaim or prophets, the sages of Idumea, the nazirim, and perhaps the Essens, were of the same caste. The Scribes constituted a distinct class in Egypt, and

appear to have been the Pharisaian Rabbis in Palestine and Babylonia. Hades, o Aidhz for o Aiohz. Helli, the invisible state of existence; the general receptacle of souls after bodily dissolution; the Underworld; the state of existence in which souls continue that have separated from the body before passing into other conditions; hence also perhaps the genesiz or transition-sphere. Plato in the Kratylos hints its derivation from ael douz, always giving, the synonym of Plouton, or from ploutoz, rich; Aidoneos or Hades being the reputed lord of the Underworld. He also assimilates the term to 'Aidz, Wise, the One who sees; which would make it appear that the Underworld was the region of fact. T h e t e r m i s c lo s e l y rela te d to oidioz, perpetual; aidwz, reverence, awe, modesty; aidoiuz, to be revered; venerable - applied in the neuter gender to the sexual parts, which were sacred symbols in the Mysteries as typifying the arch-arcanum of life. The Hel of the Northnen, Orcus of the Italians, Amenti of the Egyptians, Saol of the Syrians, Ereb of the Assyrians, and Patalo of the Indians, all denoted the condition of disbodied souls. Haplosis, h aplw siz. The simple selfhood; a condition of divestment from external conditions. - Plotinos. Harmonia, h armonia. Harmony; established order; the cosmos; agreement; concord. Some attempt to derive the term from Hermon, the name of a mountain in Syria; as denoting Harmonia, bride of Kadmos. It may be from H'R'M, a harem or home; but more likely it is from arma, union, marriage, connubial love. The proper name is doubtless the feminine of Hermes, a name of Kadmos, the patron of learning. One tradition gives the same rank to Harmonia, whose four books are declared to be as old as the human race. Iamblichos uses the term as the synonym of xosmoz. Hebe, h "Hbh. Youth; the time of bloom; the period of physical maturity; manhood; womanhood; the lower region of the body. Also the goddess of youth, said to have attended on all the gods, also to have become the wife of Herakles when immortalized. From the Phoenician Heba, concealed, secret arcane; or Heva, she who is the source of being. Hedra, to xdra. A sect; a throne; an assembly of suppliants; a basis, support, or foundation; vehan or vehicle of a god; an altar; a statue; something permanent. Hekate, h Ecath. Hekate; the same as Brimo, Artemis, and Persephone; the goddess of Night, and queen of the Underworld. The name is Epyptian, Hakte being a form of Ino. Helene, h Elenh. Helena, the reputed wife of Menelaos. The etymology is as uncertain as the verity of the legend. Some derive it from

elenh, a basket, hence symbolical of a woman; and others from elanh, a torch, as bringing destruction to Ilian. Max Muller, however, identifies the name with Saranya, the Vedic goddess of the Dawn. It may be from the Phoenician AL, or hliuz, the sun. Helios, o hlioz. The sun; the greatest of the stars visible in the daytime; a fire in the sky only visible and the same from morning till night; an eternal living being with a soul. "We must therefore call the nature of the stars, and such things as we perceive existing together with the stars, the Visible Gods, the greatest and most worthy of honor, and who as seeing on every side the most acutely, are the first in rank." - Plato: Epinomis, 8. Hen, to En. The ONE; the Supreme Being; the Unity; the One Nous or Intelligence pervading the Universe; the comprehensive conscious thought or plan which binds all parts of the Universe in one great whole (to pan); the principle of Order; God as always the same, and not diverse, phenomenal, or existing in change. Henosis, h enwsiz. Oneness; unity; union; the atonement or state of being at one. "In the reduction of your soul to its simplest selfhood (aplwsiz), its divine essence, you attain this union (enwsin). - Plotinos. See Ekstasis. Hermes, o 'Ermhz or o 'Ermeiaz. Mercurius, or more properly the Egyptian Thoth, Tat, or Kadmos; the personification of the whole Sacerdotal College; the god of science; the interpreter of the will of the gods. He appears to have been nearly identical with the Nabu of the Akkadians and Assyrians, and the Buddha of India. He was represented by a phallic statue with a human head; also as the Mihr or winged disk, also as hawk-headed. All sacred learning, especially as relating to medicine, astronomy, and theosophy, was imparted to this divinity. - Iamblichos: Mysteries, I, i. Hierophantes, o ierofanthz. A hierophant; the presiding priest at Eleusis who initiated the candidates; an initiating priest; a priest of the secret worship; an instructor in sacred and arcane knowledge. Hippa, h "Ippa. Hippa; the soul of the world [Proklos]; the nurse of Bacchas; the Great Mother; a name of Rhea or Kybele. The derivation of this name appears to have been Phoenician, and to have been from the verb Hippa, to vail; to perform secret rites [Kings II, xvii, 9]. It signifies the sexual parts, and therefore by Synecdoche became the designation of the Mother of the Gods. Pausanias states that Poseidon, Ares, Here, Athena, and the Despoina of Arkadia were all denominated Hippian. Their worship was brought from beyond the Mediterranean, and they were non-HelIenian divinities. By a play upon words which was anciently very common, the hippos or horse became the symbol of the goddess as well as of Poseidon.

The horses Pegasos and Areien, are said to have been sons of Poseidon; and the goddess Persephone-Despania was represented with a horse's head. The designation became also a title of the priests. Jacob Bryant says that "the Hippoi, misconstrued mares, were priestesses of the goddess Hippa, who was of old worshiped in [Lydia, Phrygia] Thessaly and Thrace and many different regions." "The rites of Dionysos Hippios here carried into Thrace, where the horses of Diamedes were said to be fed with human flesh." Moore would have called them priests of the Yoni. They immolated human victims in their rites; as indeed was universal in the worship of Dionysos and Poseidon in earlier periods. It is not unlikely that many of the proper names compounded from hippos relate to the divinity in question, as was a common practice. Hydra, h udra. The Hydra; a water-snake; t he many-headed serpent of Lerna reputed to have been slain by Herekles. A serpent with a fiery body and seven heads was an ancient Akkadian and Assyrian sym bol, as well as the device of the Naga tribes of India. The fabled Zobak (Dahaka or Deiokes) was doubtless an Assyrian conqueror or dynasty, which was represented by a similar emblem. See Kabeiroi. Hyle, h ulh. Wood; fuel; weeds; gross material; dregs; material of any kind; the vehicle of the soil. The term is used by the philosophers to denote the elementary principle of physical nature; which they taught, involved the soul as it passed from heaven into the transition-sphere. It has of itself neither form, figure, species, or quality, but is receptive of all forms, and so the mother, nurse, and origin of all things, through Eros the demiurgic creator. Accordingly all unbodied souls which are involved in the sphere of change were denominated hylic or material, as being subject to influences toward material existence. The word is derived from fuw, to produce, to cause to exist; whence is fusiz, nature or the producer; uioz, son or offspring: Latin filius and Spanish hijo. See Hypodoche. Hyparchonta, ta upargonta. The essential properties; the principles; the things which are as contrasted with those which seem to exist. Hyparxis, h uparxiz. Being; subsistence; the highest attainment of the soul; existence, wealth. Hypnos, o upnoz. Sleep; repose; the magnetic sleep, such as was occasioned by the manipulating priests at the temples of Apollo, Paion, and Asklepios; the prophetic sleep. Hypokeimenon, to upoceimenon. The subject; the topic of consideration; the hypothesis; matter for thought as distinguished from ulh, or matter of potential manifestation. See hypothesis. Hypodoche, h upodogh. A receptacle; receiving; the designation

of matter as a vehicle of the soul. See Hyle. Hyponoia, h uponoia . The undermenning; the real sense of a drama, allegory, fable, or myth; an allegory; a conjecture; a suspicion. Hypostasis, h upostasiz. A foundation; a cause; basis; substruction; subject-matter; principle; inherent nature; underived existence; self-existing intelligence; confident persuasion. "Faith is the hypostasis of things hoped for, the elenchos of things not seen." See Hypothesis. Hypothesis, h upoQesiz. A principle not demonstrated; the summary of a discourse; a basis laid for anything; a foundation; the subject; the object proposed; a plan; a condition; a philosophical opinion. Iao, n 'Iaw or 'Iawn. Iao, an ancient name of Bacchos, used chiefly in the Mysteries; perhaps the same as Yau or Yio, the Noetic god or god of Intelligence in Babylon, called also Ramaun. The name was evidently arcane. Idea, h idea. An idea; that which is seen; the ideal; a form, shape, or figure; an abstract notion; a model or pattern; a species or kind; a plot in a drama; countenance, aspect. Upon an accurate perception of the Platonic definition of this term, the right understanding of the doctrine of the Akademe is based. The philosopher transcends the empirical method of reducing all knowledge to the accidental receptive quality of the organs of sense, with the faculties of conjecturing and reasoning superadded; by which there can be no certainty of anything. He taught that there is a world of Intelligence, governed by one grand and presiding Unity, yet diversified by innumerable intelligential essences. That which is changeable pertains to time; the intelligential is always in eternity. An idea is, therefore, all eternal principle which determines the power of thought, and both transcends and controls experience. "Idea is, as regards God, a mental operation by Him; as regards us, the first things perceptible by mind; as regards matter, a standard; but as regards the world, perceptible by itself, a pattern; but as considered and demonstrated with reference to itself, all existence." - Alkinous: Introduction to the Doctrines of Plato, ix. Professor Cooker thus clearly sets forth the whole doctrine of Ideas: "Viewed in their relation to the Eternal Reason, as giving the primordial thought and law of all being, these principles are simply eioh auta caQ auta, - ideas in themselves, - the essential qualities or attributes of Him who is the supreme and ultimate Cause of all existence. When regarded before the Divine imagination giving definite forms and relations, they are the tupoi, the parudeigmata - the types, models, patterns, ideals according to which the universe was fashioned. Contemplated in their actual embodiment in the laws, and typical forms of the

material world, they are eicunez - images of the eternal perfections of God. The world of sense pictures the world of reason by a participation (meQexiz) of the ideas. And viewed as interwoven in the very texture and framework of the soul they are umoiwmata - copies of the Divine Ideas which are the primordial laws of knowing, thinking, and reasoning. Ideas are thus the nexus of relation between God and the visible universe, and between the human and the Divine reason [nouz]. There is something divine in the world, and in the human soul, namely: the eternal laws and reasons of things, mingled with the endless diversity and change of sensible phenomena. These ideas are 'the light of the intelligible world;' they render the invisible world of real Being perceptible to the reason of man." - Cooker: Christianity and Greek Philosophy, p. 337. The knowing of these ideas constitutes the episthmh or actual knowledge, because the reality of things is from participating in an archetypal form. These forms or ideas are therefore the eternal thoughts of the Divine Intellect; and we attain the truth when our thoughts conform with His - when our general notions are in conformity with the ideas." - Thompson: Laws of Thought, p. 119. Idioma, to idiwma. A property; a peculiar endowment; a distinguishing characteristic; idiom. This term is much employed by the philosophers and theurgical writers in regard to the different orders of superior beings. Ilus, h iluz. Dregs; slime; mud; the material principle by which the soul is involved in the sphere of change called genesis; chaotic substance; the objective entity, hyle or matter, by means of which psychic essences become embodied; the condition of the impure soul. Kabeiroi, oi Kabeiroi. The Kabeiri; gods of the arcane worship. As the Mysteries cover the same ground, and typify what Philosophy explains, a notice of them is essential. The Kabeiri, whose rites were celebrated at Lemnos and Samothrakra, appear to have antedated the Eleusinia, Thermophoria, and other westein religious observances. They were Semitic deities, though probably of the earlier origin. The designation is formed with equal facility from Arir, the mighty, Habor (whence Hebron, or Kiriath-Arba, the city of the Few), an association, magic, - and Kabir, great, superior, ancient. Legends make them the seven sells of Ptob in Egypt and of Sedek in Palestine, Esman or Aesculapios, the Apollo Ismenios of Boiotia being included as the eighth, blending them into one. Other stories reduce the number to three or four, whose mystic names are rendered to us as Demeter, Peruphane or Hekate, Dionysos or Hades, and Hermes, Kadmos, Kadmillos or Asklapios. They are undoubtedly the divinities of the seven planets, as

enumerated in the Panthon of Assyria, who also presided in the Underworld. Their unity was represented by a fiery Dragon, Asdar or Esmun, with seven heads, and a luminous halo of ten rays or horns. (Apocalypse of Iiannes Theologos, xii: 3.) This dragon was the seven-headed Akkadian serpent, the Phoenician Esculapius or serpent on a pole, which was borne upon the standard of the "Great King" - first of Assyria, next of Persia, and afterward of Rome. The rites of Osiris, Dionysos, Poseidon, Demeter, and others, appear to have originated in the Kabeirian worship, and to have typified alike the lepsis of the soul, its probation, and final purification. From the Mysteries originated the Drama, and both culminate in Philosophy. Kadmos, o Kadmoz. The Ancient One; the Eastern. The legend of Kadmos makes him the son of Agenor, the Ancient of Days, who sent him forth in quest of his sister Europe (Eres, the west, the future, the Underworld). He established many cities, gave the alphabet to the priests, and instituted Mystic rites. Indeed, he is one of the Kabeirian gods, and identical with Hermes, Thoth, and Hea of Assyria. Another legend makes him the husband of the Sphinx, an Amazon; and another of Harmonia, the patroness of Order and Beauty. Kakon, to cacon. That which is evil; the principle of badness; privation of good; disorder, whether of mind, body, or condition; class; depravity of the soul; in short, the democracy of the passions rising over the ascendancy of the interior mind. "It is not possible that evil should be destroyed; for it is necessary that there shall be always something contrary to good; nor can it be seated among the gods, but of necessity moves round this mortal nature and this region." - Plato: Theaitetos, 84. Kallone, h callonh. Excellence; beauty; grace; personified merit and attractiveness. "Fate, Eileithyia, and Kallone are the three who preside over the phenomenal world." - genesiz. - Plato: Banquet. Kalon, to calon. Excellence; beauty; "excellence of form as perceived by sight, utility, and benefit to others." The term is more commonly rendered beauty, but it relates to interior qualities, especially to utility. Katabasis, h catsbasiz. Descending; the lepsis or entrance of the soul into the sphere of transition, from which the anabasis is its emancipation. Katalepsis, h catalhy iz. A seizure; an apprehension; catching an idea; perception; conception; a condition induced by mesmerism; catalepsy. See Kataphora, Ekstasis. Katanoesis, h catanohsiz. Discerning; perceiving; cognition; understanding; contemplation. Kataphora, h catafora. A descent; a fall; a blow; a deep sleep;

a trance; as catalepsy. See Ekstasis, Katalepsis. Katastasis, h catastasiz. A condition; a permanent state; establishment. Katharos, caQaroz, a, on. Pure; holy; free from matter or the material obversion; whole; divine. "If the soul is separated in a pure state from the body, taking nothing of the body with it, as not having been willingly in a common partnership with it in the present life, but having shunned it and gathered itself within itself as constantly studying this - this is nothing else than to pursue philosophy aright." - Plato: Phaidon, 68. Katharotes, h caOarothz. Purity; freedom from coporeal contamination; clearness from material obsession; innocence; the state of the soul before its contact with material conditions, or its descent into the transition-sphere. Katharsis, h xaQarsiz. A cleaning; a purification; a freeing from the taint of the material condition. "There are two sorts of purification: one is concerned with the soul and another with the body." - Plato: Sophist, 27. The preliminary rites of the Mysteries were entitled purifications. The Dramas acted at the Theatre were also regarded as of the same nature and purpose. Hence Iamblichos says: "When we contemplate the emotions of others in Comedies and Tragedies, we repress our civil passions, moderate them, and are purified. In the Sacred Dramas, also, we are freed by the spectacles and narratives of vile and wicked matters, from the hurt which occurs from the actions illustrated by them." - Mysteries, I, xi. In like manner Aristotle declares that Tragedy, by arousing pity, fear, or terror, purges the mind of these and similar passions, tempering and reducing them to just measure, with a kind of delight, by seeing those passions so well imitated. As Philosophy was the outcome of the Tragedies and Mysteries, and accordingly the more complete accomplishing of their purpose, Plato made use of the Dialectic or Elenchos for that object. "This is the purification at which the spirit of the Dialectic wants to arrive, that of the soul or understanding." "Proof by argument (elengoz) is the greatest of purifications; and he who has not been convinced, though he be the Great King [of Persia] himself, is in the highest degree impure; he is uninstructed and uncomely in those respects in which he who would be truly happy, ought to be pure and fair." - Sophistes. Kinesis, h xinhsiz. Motion; the first phenomenon of matter; the polarization of atomic bodies. The word Oeuz, or god, signifies the Muse of motion. Kirke, h Kirch. Kirke, the reputed sister of Aietes of Kolchis, and it personage of the archaic religion. The name is appareutly from Kircoz, a circle, and is evidently associated with the temend or sacred temple-precinct,

as well as with the choric dance of the Mysteries, which is said to have originated in Kolchis. She transformed the companions of Odysseus into animals; which is a figurative expression for the bestial degradation of souls that covet the delights of sense-perception and the material life. Korybuntismos, o Korubantismoz. The celebration of the Korybantic mysteries; an initiation into the Korybantic Mysteries; the religious frenzy incident to the worship of the Mother of the gods; a sacred fury. The rites were like those of Baal in Syria. The priests were denominated Kadeshim or sacred ones. They ran in procession, crying, beating drums and timbrels, and especially playing on the flute, and cutting their flesh in honor of the slain god Aiys. Logismos, o logismoz. A reckoning of accounts; reasoning; thinking; deliberation; the reasoning faculty. Logistikon, to logisticon. The discursive reason; the logical faculty; the power by which we discern conclusions from premises. Logizesthai, to loyizesOai. Reasoning; the tracing of relation. Logos, o loyoz. A word; a discourse; speech; the external expression of the interior thought; the thought itself; a definition; a reason; a science; an art; a proposition; the faculty of the mind which enables it to proceed from hypotheses or fundamental principles to their legitimate results. "Logos is to make one's thought clear by the voice; ....to describe it by its elements and defining." - Theaitetos. Mageia, h mageia. The doctrines of the Magi, a caste of priests in Media, Persia, and Assyria, who instructed the youth, took charge of the Sacred fire, and performed religious offices; sacred knowledge; wisdom; latterly magic, enchantment, occult learning, the black art. Maieusis, h maieusiz. The office of an accoucheur. Plato gives this designation to his method of drawing out the thoughts of his pupils, as delivering the mind of the disciple of the ideas with which it was pregnant. "I am not myself at all wise, and I have no such discovery as is the product of my own mind; but those who associate with me make a wonderful proficiency, and make it without learning anything from me, but from their own resources finding and becoming possessed of many excellent things." - Theaititos, 20. See Amamnesis. Mania, h mania. Entheasm; enthusiasm; prophetic or poetic fury; divine or demoniac possession; the peculiar frenzy incident to religious excitem ent; the Bacchic inspiration ; raving; extravagant conduct. "You have all partaken with me of the mania and Bacchic fury of Philosophy." - Banquet,

41. "There were two kinds of mania; one produced by human infirmity, the other by a divine release from the ordinary ways of men. The divine mania was subdivided into four kinds, - prophetic (or mantic), telestic, poetic, and amatory." - Phaidros, 107, 108. Plotinos defines it as entheasm, an exaltation which assimilates the good and makes it at one with God. Mantike, h mantich. The gift of prophecy; the prophetic art; prophecy; speaking from divine inspiration. "In proportion as prophecy is higher and more perfect than augury, both in name and reality, in the same proportion, the ancients testify, entheasm (mania) is superior to a normal condition of mind (sufrsunh) - the one coming from Divinity and the other from human endowments alone." - Phaidros, 48. Mantis, o mantiz. An entheast; one under the influence of divine inspiration; a prophet; a person under the prophetic frenzy; a diviner. Ancient prophets received their inspiration in trance or frenzy; and accordingly in the old languages the same terms are used for madness and divine inspiration. Mathema, to maQhma, plural maQhmata. Learning; instruction; what is learned; arcane learning; mathematical and especially geometrical science; the science of harmony; the art of discursive reasoning, which accepts hypotheses as first principles. Metempsychosis, h metem yugwsiz. The metempsychosis; the continuing existence of the soul; the passing of the soul from one body or form of existence to another. "This, or something like this, is true of our souls and their abodes." - Plato: Phaidon, 145. See Anastasis. Methexis, h meOexiz. Participation, especially of ideas, thus uniting the human and the divine reason. Similars do not participate. Methodos, o meOodoz. Method; regular order of proceeding; travelling in the same road; manner of investing; a close investigation. Metis, h Mhtiz. Metis; Wisdom personified; the first spouse of Zeus; the Hakamoth of the Gnostics; skill; intelligence. Mithras, o MiOraz. Mithras, the chief of the Yezdis or angels; the angel of the Sun; the god of truth; the Friend; Troth; fidelity to plighted faith. "He who blesseth himself in the earth shall bless himself in the God of truth, and he that sweareth shall swear by the God of truth." Kings II, v. 20-27. Stephanus declares Mithras to have been originally an Ethiopian divinity, which is very likely, as he came into the Persian Pantheon at a later period of history. He was also an arcane divinity, worshiped in caves and by secret rites. After the conquest of Poutos by Pompeias, Mithraism was introduced into the Roman world and so became universal. The Apocalypse abounds with references to his ritual, as the tree of life (haoma), the second death, the

manna or honey-cake, the white pebble, the mornIng star, empire, white raiment, the enthroning of the "soldier," etc. The Gnostic worship, Christmas festival, and Holy Report, came from this source. The Emperor Constantinus was a "soldier of the Invincible Sun," and Paphyrias represents Mithras as the divinity of the secret worship. The witchcraft or wisdom-craft of the Middle Ages was a remnant of the Arcane Mithra-worship. Mixis, h mixiz. A mixing or commingling; a mixture; the union of spiritual forms with the material principle; sexual connection; the alliance of gods and human beings. Mneme, h mnhmh. Memory; a remembrance; the faculty by which we preserve in the mind the truths of the Foreworld; a memorial; a tradition. Moira, plural Moiroe, h moira, ai Moirai. The fixed order of things; destiny; lot; a part. There were three Fates. In the Norse mythology they were the Norns or Weird Sisters - Urd, the Past; Verdanti, the Present or Becoming; and Skuld, the Future. Another legend makes them two - Kaun, or the possible, and Mass, or the inevitable. The Norns sit at the root of the tree Ygdracil, and mark out human fortune. "There were other three sitting round at equal distance from each other: the Fates, daughters of Necessity (Anagch), clad in white vestments; Lachesis, Klotho, and Atropos, singing to the harmony of the Seirens - Lachesis singing the Past, Klotho the Present, and Atropos the Future." - Republic, X, xiv. Monogenes, o, h. monogenhz. Only-begotten; born alone; principal; chief; first. Persephone, who is so designated as disjointing the inner from the outer soul, and so producing the better part of man alone. Monoeides, o, h monoeidhz. Uniform; of one single nature; alike throughout. Morphe, h morfh. Form; shape; figure; appearance. Not synonymous with eidos, but rather with Logos and Energeia. Muesis, h muhsiz. Initiation into the arcane worship; instruction, especially in mystic learning. Conjectured to be derived from the Sanskrit Moksha. Mysterion, to musthrion, plural musthria. A religious festival at which arcane rites are performed; secret worship; the secret rites of Demeter at Eleusis; the Dionysiac festival; religious orgies; any secret or occult matter; a drama in which gods and heroes were the principal characters; a dramatic representation or initiation, in which the human soul was represented as coming from the world of real being into the region of change and phenomenal existence, undergoing a remedial discipline, and so becoming purified and enabled to enjoy divine felicity. These rites were afterward modified, and became a source of public entertainment. After the

accession of Peisistratos, the liturgies of the various festivals were revised. The Dionysia or Bacchic orgies were expanded into dramatic representation, the Tragedies and Comedies, - in that the Theation. Philosophy was the endeavor to unfold the ideas which underlay the dramatic and mystic exercises, hence Plato represents it as initiation into perfect Mysteries. The Christians established an analogous system of Mysteries, or dramas to represent scenes in the life and passion of Jesus. These in their turn evolved the Modern Theater. Mystes, o miisthz. An initiated person; one who has been sworn, and purified, but has not yet been admitted to the autopsia. According to Plato and Sokrates, the philosopher, though never initiated, was the true mrystes. Mystika, ta mustica. Mystic rites; arcana; occult knowledge. Narthex, o narOhx. Narthex or giant fennel; the stryrsos or staff, surmounted by a pine-cone, which was borne in procession at the Bacchic festivals, by neophytes. Nebris, h nebriz. A fawn-skin; the spotted robe worn by the Bacchants. The Sem or high priest of Osiris and Isis wore a leopard-skin; also certain of the priests of Mylitta at Babylon. The Assyrian name Nimrod and the Greek Nebrod, both mean spotted, and seem to relate to the Bacchic rites. Nektar, to nectar. Nectar; the beverage of the gods; honey; perfume. The word is Semitic, and denotes a sacred liquor prepared from honey, which was drunk by priests and worshipers, in Assyria. Noeros, noeroz, a, on. Spiritual; intelligential; intelligent; capable of understanding; to be perceived by the interior understanding rather than by the senses. Noema, to nohma. Thought; an a priori idea; what is had in mind; intention; purpose; an invention; a plan; understanding; sentiment; the mind; a concept. Noeo, noew. To revolve in mind; to consider; to know; to discern; to perceive; to know intuitively; to understand; to cognize, hence to noein, thought. "Thought and Being are identical." - Parmenides. Noesis, h nohsiz. Intuition; intuitive knowledge; intelligence; pure reason as distinct from discursive knowledge. "Analagous to these four departments of knowledge are four faculties of the soul: the noesis or pure reasoning answering to the highest; understanding (dianoes) to the second; belief (pistiz, or empirical knowledge, now Modern Science) to the third; conjecture to the last." - Plato, Republic, VI. xxi.

Noetos, nohtoz, a, on. Noetic; pertaining to the highest faculty of the mind; intelligential; conceivable in the mind only, and not as an object of sense; spiritual; divine; supreme, Topoz nohtoz, the world of intelligence, the region of spirit. Noos or Nous, o nouz, o nouz. Intuitive Intellect; pure reason; the spirit; the Interior mind; the rational soul; the "inner man;" the daimonian; the intuitive principle as contrasted with the logoz or reasoning faculty; God. Anaxagoras treats of the nouz ao tocrathz, the Absolute Mind, which moved and established Order in the Universe; Plato believed in a nouz basileuz, or Royal Intelligence of the noumenal world; Aristoteles taught that the nouz alone, and not science, art, or sagacity could ascertain and evolve principles. He also classified the human intelligence into Receptive and Creative - nouz paQhticoz and nouz poihticoz. "The receptive intellect, which is as Matter, becomes all things by receiving their forms. The Creative reason gives existence to all things, as light calls color into being. The Creative reason transcends the body, being capable of separation from it, and from all things; it is an everlasting existence, incapable of being mingled with matter or affected by it; prior and subsequent to the individual mind. The Receptive intellect is necessary to individual thought; but it is perishable, and by its decay all memory, and therefore individuality, is lost to the higher and immortal region." - The Soul, III, v. He divided the Creative intellect again into the episthmonicon, or Intuitive reason, and the logisticon, or discursive faculty. In all cases he discriminates between the nouz and the soul, as distinct entities, assigning only to the former a place in eternity. Plotinos, whom Augustinus denominated a "re-incarnation of Plato," carried the tendencies of the Great teacher to their legitimate conclusions. Plato hesitated at the enwsiz or absolute identity of the nouz and the ideas which it comprehended. Plotinos asserted that the Intuitive reason was the object conceived, the subject conceiving and the act of conception at one. The arche or Absolute principle was to en - unity above essence; the second nouz, pure reason; the third, soul. The nouz contemplates the One and exists by it; and by thought constitutes all true existences. The soul is evolved and depends upon the nouz. Noumenon, to noumenon. The noumenal; an idea beyond sense perception; a cognition of the things which are; an idea inherent in the mind, transcending sense. "Nihil est in intellectu quod non prius in sense, nisi ipse intellectus." - Leibnitz.

On or Ontos On, to on, to ontwz on. Real being; Absolute Being; that which really is; the really-existing as distinguished from the transitory; the permanent, eternal, and unchangeable; the Eternal Goodness, Truth and Excellence; the real being underlying all existence; the whence and why of all things; God. Orgia, ta urgia. Orgies; sacred rites; arcane observances; the Mysteries; the Bacchic rites; the frenzy peculiar to worship, often followed by temporary trance or catalepsy. Ouranos, o, ouranoz. Heaven; the Sky; the expanse; the air; also Ouranos the camp of Gaia, the Earth and father of Kronos, the horned or rayed god. Probably the Aryan divinity Varuna, the god of the sky and the waters above the sky. His dethronement, by deprivation of the lingham or creative energy, is essentially after the Hindu method. Onsia, h ousia. Essence; substance; entity; the being and essence of things; the permanent reality; the grand and efficient cause of all phenomenal existence; the substance intermediate between the absolute identity and the outstanding objectiveness, combining both. Hence the order of essence, energy, and power; also of essence, transition (genesiz), nature (fusiz). Pan, o pan. Pan, perhaps Phan, a god of the Arkadians introduced into Athens after the Persian war; said to be the same as Amun; perhaps Phonax or Bacchus. Makrolios calls him lord of ulh; Orpheus names him Zeus, the lord of all, the Horned one with a flute; and Sophokles, the leader of the Choral dance. He was worshiped in caves and like Bacchus, whom he appears to resemble. Sokrates also invokes him in the last paragraph of the Phaidros. Pascho, pasgw. To be subject to action from without, one's self being passive; to be passive; to be affected; to experience; to have affection for; to undergo; to suffer. Perhaps few words in the Platonic literature require more attention than this verb and its derivations. Peirastikos, peirasticoz, h, on. Tentative; a method much employed by Plato and Sokrates to excite philosophical curiosity; nothing was asserted, but irony and ingenious questioning employed to lead to doubt and confusion in regard to received dogma. Periphero, periferw. To carry round; to make known; to bring back to recollection; to bring to the same point. Periphora, h perifora. Going about; Carrying or leading about; a revolution of a planet; an orbit; a journey; wandering; error; distraction. Peritrope, h peritroph. A turning round; a regular succession;

a revolution; a change. Petra, h petra. A rock; the bema at the Puyx at Athens; a rocktemple where secret rites were performed. "Mithras was born in a rocktemple." - Porphyrios Jacob Bryant derives this from the Semitic Peter, to expound; to interpret. The oracular terms of Patara; Patrai, Pethor, all seem to have had this etymology. Godfrey Higgins suggests that the Chaldaic term Peter was the designation of the Heirophant of the arcane worship, giving us to infer that it was the designation of the Roman Pontipex, and that his throne was the red chair of St. Peter, to which the Pope has succeeded. Petroma, to petrwma. A stone; the stone receptacle in which certain sacred symbols were kept in the temples; the tablet of stone which the hierophant at Eleusis expounded at the autopsia; Semitice, Petrun. Phantasia, h fa ntasia. A show; an appearance; an apparition; an abstract form or idea; an image in the mind; a perception; an imagination; a fantasy. Philosophia, h filosofia. Love of the highest truth; desire for the knowledge of actual fact; ardor for knowing the real and permanent; love for the truth; the exercise of the art and faculty which lead to the knowledge of things human and divine; a withdrawing of the attention from external things, in order to attain to what is perceived by the interior mind; knowledge of divine and eternal actuality; divine wisdom; transcendent learning; metaphysical knowledge; philosophy; knowledge of causes and laws; noumenal science; the doctrines of a philosopher; now applied erroneously to physical sciences. The Platonic philosophy was in a predominating sense the outgrowth of the Orphic doctrines, as represented in the Mysteries; and indeed many of the discourses were affirmed to be dithyrambic at the time, as resembling the Estlocit Bacchic chants. Phren, h frhn. The midriff or diaphragm; whence, by figure of speech, the mind, the understanding, reason, sense, prudence. Plural, frenez: the parts about the heart; the powers of life; the faculties of the mind; the mind. Used as the synonym of frunhsiz. Phronema, to fronhma. Sense; purpose; will; intelligence; prudence; bent of inclination; desire; propensity; tendency; pride; high spirit. "The will of the flesh is death, but the will of the spirit is life and peace." - Epistle to the Romans, viii: 6. Phronesis, h fronhsiz. Thoughtfulness; sagacity; right intention; right direction of the energy; guidance by reason; prudence; discretion; acuteness of intellect; ability to conjecture readily in regard to what is necessary. Phthora, h fQora. Mortality; corruption; disease; contagion;

motion from phenomenal existence toward dissolution, but not to actual annihilation; corruptible m atter; the earthly condition; that which is corruptible. "So is the anastasis of the dead: the seed is sown in corruptible condition, it is raised in the state beyond change; a psychical body is sown, a spiritual body is raised." - Epistle to the Korinthians, xv: 42-44. Physiologia, h fusiologia. Study of arcane knowledge of causes; noumenal science; inquiry into the laws of nature; philosophy; physiology. "The ancient physiology, both among the Greeks and other peoples, was an exposition of nature, veiled in allegorical representations, hidden in enigmas and undermeanings, and a theology like that of the Mysteries - the things which were spoken having a more intelligible meaning for the common multitude than those signified in the silence, and those denoted by the silence requiring investigation, rather than those which had been uttered. This is evident from the Orphic, the Egyptian, and Phrygian discourses. But most of all the orgies celebrated at the Mysteries, and the symbolical observances at the sacrifices, exhibit the interior meaning conveyed by the ancients." Ploutarchos Physis, h fusiz. That which is produced; hence nature, character, disposition, kind or species, sexual distinctions, figure, stature, constitution, general custom, substance. The term was also employed by the philosophers to denote the physical world as distinguished alike from the world of cause, and even the sphere of transition; the principle of motion and rest; phenomenal existence; temporal manifestation; maya, or the illusion of the senses. Hence the word nature, as philosophically employed, denoted the passive principle of the universe, and was typified by the Great Mother. It signified no principle of causation, no energy or active agency, but only the evolution and outcome of what had been superinduced. The modern phrase laws of nature is therefore a paradox; and the notion which gave birth to it is closely allied to the androgynous religion of Phrygia. Pleroma, to plhrwma. What is filled up; fulness; abundance; perfection; completeness; sum; consummation; the populace. Also the effluence and potency imparted by the superior orders of beings. This word was much used by the Gnostics and Alexandrian Plalonists. Pneuma, to pneuma. Breath; a blast of wind; a tempest; the breath of life; the spirit; the nouz or interior mind; a spiritual being; an inspiration; the interior tendency toward goodness; the Supreme Being; Divine Wisdom. Little used by philosophical writers, and then in the sense of mind or faculty of thought rather than as the superior principle. It is in no proper sense identical with the soul or psychical essence. It is the nouz or to logicun, whereas the soul is to Qumoeidz, and the sarx or

corporal nature, to eciQnmhticon. Psyche, h Yugh. The Soul; the principle of identity; self; the principle of life; the personality; a person; the temper; the animating principle; the ruling inclination; the part of man that is the seat of emotions, passions and affections; a butterfly; therefore by a press the symbol of the human soul. Psychikos, yugicoz, h, on. Psychical; relating to the soul; unspiritual; passional; sensual; intellectual. "This is not the wisdom coming from above, but the earthly, psychical, daemon-like." - Epistle of James, iii, 15. Radamanthos, o 'RadamanQoz. Radamanthos; the judge of human souls. From Rot-Amenti, the judge of Amenti, a name of Osiris. Rea, h 'Rea. Rea; the Great Mother; the consort of Kronos; the same as Ri or Sar-Rai, the consort of Assur in Nineveh. Soma, to swma. A body; perhaps from shma, a sign, token, emblem. "A body is that being which hath these three dimensions: breadth, depth, and length; or a bulk which makes a forcible resistance; or whatsoever of its own nature possesseth a place." - Ploutarchos Sophia, h sufia. Wisdom; expertness; skill; sagacity; learning; acquired ability; the doctrines of the philosophers; arcane knowledge; philosophy; the knowledge of things human and divine; the science of principles, as distinguished from accidents; the knowledge of ideas; the understanding of causes; religion as distinguished from worship; knowledge which pertains to the interior mind; that knowledge which embraces the actual truth and is beneficial to man; divine revelation; science relating to theology, medicine, divination, moral duty, eternity. Theos, o Qeoz. A god; a spiritual being; he who creates or sets in order, as, from the Aryan deva, a divinity, a demon, a devil, perhaps also a priest. In the Theogonies there were many orders of gods, subordinate to whom were demons and heroes. The philosophers afterward classified them into orders, placing one Supreme Being over all, and subordinating the others in discrete degrees. Theosophia, h Qeusofia. Divine wisdom; knowledge relating to divine things; philosophy. Theourgios, o Qeourgioz. A priest who officiates at the initiations; an adept at sacred rites; a diviner or theologist; a therurgist; perhaps a magician or enchanter. The science of Iamblichos is sometimes styled Therurgy.

Thesmos, o Qesmoz. Anything established; social regulation; divine law; usage; custom; a religious chant. Thesmophoria, ta Qesmufuria. The Thesmophoria; secret rites in honor of Demeter, the institutor of social life. This festival was not only observed in the Hellenic and Ionian cities, but there appear to have been analogous assemblages of women in Egypt and Syria. That the rites of Umura, the Bona Dea, were of the same character, is not improbable. By ancient law, women who had been married by Usus were protected from absolute subjection to their husbands by separation three nights in the year. Hence, the Thesmophoria was not only a festival of social order, but also of uxorial freedom and household equality. Titan, o Titan. Titan; the sun; one of the older gods worshiped before the time of Zeus. The name is Semitic, and probably belongs to the ruling classes of Assyria. The word Tit signifies a spot; also mire, clay; so that the Titans or Giants were chthonians, or rather autochthons. This seems to indicate them as the aboriginal Pelargian or Ethiopic population of Greece, who endeavored to resist the innovation of Hellenic worship. The slaughter of the boy Zagreas would imply a like idea. Zeus, o Zeuz. Zeus: from the Sanskrit Dyans, or India, god of the sky - the chief God in the later Grecian pantheon; the archaic divinity of the Pelargians, afterward represented as son of Kronos. Zoon, to zwun. A living creature; an animal; a heavenly being.

(From The Platonist, vol. 1, pp. 30-32, 100-102, 159-60, 188-94.) -------------