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installation instruction

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Table of contents
1. 2. The danger of electricity ......................................................................................... 3 Grounding of work piece ........................................................................................ 4
Example........................................................................................................................................... 4

Avoid branch grounded current....................................................................................................... 5 Avoid series connection .................................................................................................................. 6

3. 4. 5.

Hot welding sparks.................................................................................................. 7 Noise.......................................................................................................................... 8 How to treat the welding equipment ................................................................... 10

Protect yourself and the environment.............................................................................................. 7

Arc and gas arch welding equipment ............................................................................................ 10 Siting and cabling.......................................................................................................................... 10 Welding machines ......................................................................................................................... 10

6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Welding methods ................................................................................................... 10 Welders................................................................................................................... 11 Welding examples at site ...................................................................................... 11 Selection and use of welding consumables .......................................................... 15 Welding requirements........................................................................................... 18

Storage and drying of welding consumables................................................................................. 16

Compliance with next tables ......................................................................................................... 18 Acceptance levels for surface and internal defects and imperfect shape and defective geometry of butt joints............................................................................................................................ 19

11.

End preparation and cleaning.............................................................................. 23

11.1. Cleaning ...............................................................................................................23 11.2. Pipes .....................................................................................................................23

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Bevelling ....................................................................................................................................... 23 Fitting 23 11.3. Elbows, reducers, caps, tees and valves with weld ends ...............................23 11.4. Flanges .................................................................................................................23 Flanges for welding ....................................................................................................................... 24 11.5. Joint preparations for butt welds ......................................................................26 Butt welds welded from one side .................................................................................................. 27 Butt welds welded from both sides ............................................................................................... 30 11.6. Branches ..............................................................................................................33 Edge preparation............................................................................................................................ 33 Fitting 33

12.

Inspection of welds ................................................................................................ 33

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t c e y li f o r g n a d h T

WARNING! Electricity can be mortal!

The intensity and effective time of the current as well as its frequency and path contribute to the dangerousness of the electricity when leading through the human body. Alternating current is more dangerous than direct current and the most dangerous range is 15..100 Hz. The current intensity depends on voltage and resistance in the circuit. U I=R where I= current U=voltage R=resistance The total resistance of the human skin depends on voltage, the humidity of the skin, wounds, etc. and there are a lot of individual variations in the total resistance. For example, when the resistance of skin from one hand to the other, or from hand to foot, is 1,400 W at a voltage of 230 V in 50% of the cases, it is even less than 1,000 W for 5%. Mans entire resistance, skin resistance not included, is only some 500 W. In general, 500 W is regarded as calculated value for each limb (refer to figure 1).

Figure 1.

Resistance sketch

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Example

When arc welding, the electrode and the work piece can be touched simultaneously and if that happens, the open circuit voltage will cause danger. If the open circuit voltage of the welding power supply is 80 V and the current passage goes from the left hand to the right foot, the circuit will be:

This is definitely a dangerous circuit. Safety can be improved by increasing resistance, and sufficient insulation is the best protection for the welder:

G n w fe ig d u o r c p k

Dry rubber-souled boots without holes. Dry and not worn out leather gloves. Dry workplace. Insulating protective carpet under the welder, if necessary.

When grounding the work piece:


The welding return current cable must always be attached directly to the work piece or to the jointing point especially designed for the grounding clamp in the work piece treatment device. Paint and rust must always be removed from the fastening surface of the earthing press. The cable cross-sections of the two working cables and the earthing press must be sufficient for the current intensity used. The heating of the cable connections is an indication of a defective joint and they must be repaired at the earliest possible convenience. The welding circuit must not be grounded (Suomen shkturvalisuusmrykset). Do not place a grounded welding device or any other electrical equipment on a work piece.

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Avoid branch grounded current

The use of construction and equipment parts as return or current cable is definitely prohibited. If welding current flows along the false path it may cause overheating and fire in most unexpected places. Do not place the welding machine or the return current clamp upon the welding power supply nor any other electrical device.

Figure 2.

Incorrectly grounded work piece

Welding current can flow through the device protection cable. Net cables and their grounding wires can be damaged, as they are not dimensioned for welding current. This type of damages may also occur if, for instance, the work piece is in contact with a grounded object during welding and if there is a defective electrical connection in the welding return current circuit. If the work piece is hanging in a hoisting device, the welding current may flow along the hoisting conveyors or other parts transmitting electricity. The welding current may cause fire or defects to the hoisting conveyors and lifting hooks. Damages also occur in the hoists bearings and in grounded cables, when welding current is transmitted through them. A defective hoist may on the other hand cause fatal injuries to person. If the wire feed unit hangs in the boom, it must always be electrically insulated from the transport carriage. The wire end pushed forward from the filler wire winding may feed welding current into the wire feed unit, thus causing dangerous situations as described above.

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Figure 3.
Avoid series connection

Incorrectly grounded work piece

When having several power supplies connected to one work piece you must be aware of the risk of a possible series connection. Never treat two welding machines simultaneously.
WARNING! There is voltage between two welding machines which is equivalent to the total open circuit voltage of these power supplies.

NOTE! As for welding transformers, the corresponding risk of series connection also occurs as a result of the connecting order of the transformers primary circuit.

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H w td o n k r a p s lig e

WARNING! Welding sparks, hot waste metal and hot work pieces are always a risk of fire and burn injuries.
Protect yourself and the environment

use fireproof dressing remember that the work piece is always hot clear the nearness from all flammable objects keep a foam extinguisher in the nearness

Figure 4.

NEVER attempt to weld on or in a tank without to check for explosive gases first.

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N s ie o

Noise is produced from the welding arc during pulse MIG welding and at larger current intensity when MIG welding. The major sources of noise are the welding peripheral functions: slag-outs, straightening and assembling hammering, disk cutting & bobbing and carbon arc forming. Always use hearing protectors in such situations. The A-noise level caused by the MMA and TIG welding is generally lower than 85 dB. MAG/MIG causes an A-noise level which exceeds 85 dB. The total A equivalent level of the welding place often exceeds the limit of 85 dBA, therefore hearing protectors are recommended. The noise level caused by plasma cutting is generally 80-120 dB, therefore the use of hearing protectors is always necessary. According to regulation 191/82 set by Finnish authorities (Suomen Tysuojeluhallitus), 8 hours daily exposure to noise may cause permanently impaired hearing. The exposure will, as A equivalent (LAeq) level, when measured according to SFS 4578 standards, exceed 85 dB. If the daily exposure is less than eight hours, the time limits are the following:

Daily exposure to noise at different noise levels that is hazardous to hearing Constant A-noise level 85 dB 88 dB 91 dB 94 dB 97 dB 100 dB 103 dB 106 dB 109 dB 112 dB 115 dB Hazardous exposure to noise 8 hours 4 hours 2 hours 1 hours 30 minutes 15 minutes 8 minutes 4 minutes 2 minutes 1 minutes < 1 minutes

Table 1.

Noise levels

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Safer working environment is granted by a) use of approved hearing protectors b) use of protective carpet under the welder c) eliminating direct sources of noise. The overall noise level can be lowered if the product itself, the methods and working order are planned in such a way that noise generating stages are as few as possible or fully omitted.

Figure 5.

Incorrect working method

Figure 6.

Correct working method

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He w on h a e rt td p n m u q lig

Arc and gas arch welding equipment

Read and follow the operating instructions.


Siting and cabling

Follow the instructions given regarding the permitted siting and work places. Note especially the limitations as to outdoor use. Never use other cables than those recommended.
Welding machines

Never connect welding machines when current is on. Never use defective welding machines. They may cause fire and danger of life. Electrode holders, MIG pistols and Tig and plasma torches are designed to endure hard industrial use. They are, however, not designed to be used as slag hammers and their construction do not stand throwing or continuous dropping. Do not place welding apparatus upon power supplies or other electrical devices.

Figure 7.
W n d m lig e s d o h t e

Incorrect way of treating the welding machine

Electric welding or TIG-welding are recommended to used in welding of pipes, if these are not available also MIG- or gas welding can used.

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W d s lr e

All welders that will be doing any kind of welding work at site must be qualified and have valid welding certificates. Likewise, welders employed by local subcontractors for erection and construction work must be qualified and have valid welding certificates.
W n d m a x lig e t e i a ls p

Figure 8-9 illustrates typical welding situations at site that must be avoided. Figure 10-11 illustrates how the welding should be performed.

Figure 8.

The welding current return cable is placed on the wrong side of the steel bellows.

Figure 9.

There is no protection against welding sparks.

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Figure 10.

Use steel sheets or leathers to protect the steel/rubber bellows against welding sparks.

Figure 11.

Use steel sheets or leathers to protect the flexible hose against welding sparks

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The figures below illustrate typical welding situations during installation of equipment in the power plant.

Figure 12.

Unit example under construction (wrong way)

Figure 13.

Unit example under construction (wrong way)

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Figure 14.

Unit example under construction (right way)

Figure 15.

Unit example under construction (right way)

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S e o w fm sa u d a in tg lce ls b

As a rule, the filler metal for hot-rolled steel is chosen with a chemical composition corresponding to that of the base metal. For steels of high strength and toughness, the filler metal must be alloyed to a higher degree than the base metal in order to produce a weld metal with strength and notch toughness equal to those of the base material. In practice, the type of filler metal is dictated by the required strength level and impact strength class. Silicon + manganese alloyed filler metals are suitable for the steel grades JR, J0, J2, KR, K0, K2, LR, L0 and L2 (EN 10025), up to approx. 400 N/mm2 yield strength, giving an acceptable level of weld metal impact strength at temperatures down to -20 C (quality classes J2, K2 and L2). Weld metal produced by silicon + manganese alloyed MIG/MAG wires generally remains tough at testing temperatures as low as -40 C. For steels of higher strength and for structures requiring greater notch toughness, filler metals of higher alloy content, for example Ni, Ni + Cu, Mo or Ni + Mo, must be used. For hot-rolled steel, filler metals of equal or only slightly (5 to 10 %) higher strength than the base material are recommended. Filler metals for pressure vessels are, however, required to produce a weld metal that meets the required strength factor. The use of highly overmatching filler metals results in increased residual stresses and a greater danger of distortion and cracking. In welding steels of the highest strength levels, such as RAEX 560 HSF, RAEX 640 HSF and RAEX 700 HSF, it is advisable to avoid welded joints in locations where the structure is under greatest stress so that under matching filler metals that are softer than the base material can be used. For welding pressure vessel steels, the consumables must be chosen from among those approved by the proper authority or classification society. Welding consumables for weathering steels must obviously be selected to ensure that the welds will also be weather resistant. Consequently, the filler metal composition must be similar to that of the base material. Nickel and copper are the most common alloy elements in filler metals for welding weathering steels. Unalloyed filler metal can be used where the form of joint preparation (square groove, fillet weld) and the degree of penetration (submerged arc welding) are such that the base material amply mixes with the weld metal. In that case the filler metal takes up the necessary alloying elements from molten base material. In the multi-run welding of weathering steels, the final runs should always be made with weather resistant filler metal. The choice of filler metal for RAEX B boron steel depends on whether the welding is carried out prior to heat treatments or only after hardening and, possibly, tempering. The general idea is that non-alloy or low-alloy low-strength filler metals (e.g. OK 48.00, OK Autrod 12.51) should be preferred even for boron steels. Low-strength filler metals make welds that are less sensitive to cracking and require less preheating. Higher-alloyed filler metals (e.g. OK 75.75, OK Autrod 13.12) can be used if the weld metal must be easily hard enable and hardening is not followed by

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tempering, or if weld metal is required with high strength (hardness) in the as-welded condition. Normally, the use of such high-alloy filler metals can be limited to the surface passes. With low-strength filler metals, the surface of the weld metal becomes as hard as with high-alloy materials, only the hardening depth remains smaller.
Storage and drying of welding consumables

The proper storage and handling of welding electrodes, fluxes and wires is important specially if these are meant for high-strength steels. Thus the hydrogen content of the filler metal can be kept low and hydrogen cracking prevented. Welding consumables must be stored in a dry and heated space so that the rate of moisture absorption by electrodes and fluxes is kept to a minimum. The risk of corrosion is clearly reduced for wires that are stored in dry space. Rust layers bind up moisture causing the release of hydrogen into the molten weld pool. Welding consumables are best kept in their unopened, original packages. Coated electrodes and fluxes must be re-dried (preferably immediately before use) if they have been exposed to moisture during storage or in transit, or if relevant welding regulations provide for the special treatment of the filler materials to be used. In the storage and drying of filler materials, the specific instructions provided by their manufacturer should always be observed. A re-drying system for basic covered electrodes is presented in figure below. Table 2 summarizes the general recommendations for the storage and drying of filler materials.

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Figure 16.

The re-drying system for basic covered electrodes(ESAB recommendation)

Main store, original package:


Temperature in store 15 C and relative humidity max. 60 %. Maximum storage time 3 years Welding consumables of group 4 need no controlled climate, only a shelter against rain and snow.

Type of welding consumable

Predrying 1)

1. Unalloyed rutile electrode

Not recommended

Unopened package in main store or sealed electrode container (unheated) Storage cupboard 150 25 C max. 3 months Storage cupboard 150 25 C max. 6 months

Intermediate store, package has been opened and materials taken 3)

Storage on site 4)

Re-drying 5)

In package or electrode container (unheated) max. 1 week In heated electrode container: 70-120 C, max 4 h

80-100 C, ca, 2 h Do not over-dry

2. Basic covered unalloyed and low-alloy electrodes. Normal coating 3. Basic covered unalloyed and low-alloy electrodes. LMA coating 4. Basic covered unalloyed and low-alloy electrodes. Hermetic packaging (DRYPACK) 5. MIG / MAG solid wire. Metal-cored wire

drying 350 25 C 2-3 h 2) Normally not, unless prescribed. Time and temperature as 2 Not required

In drying oven 350 25 C 2 h max. 5 times Same as 2

In heated electrode container: 70-120 C, max 8 h

Not suitable. Package only to be opened on site before use.

In original package max. 8 h or Same as 2 same as 3

Not suitable

May be left sheltered against In main store or sheltered against moisture and fouling in dust, etc. In case of lengthy breaks, return to store. site store. Inspect the surface of wire In main store or under similar conditions or in ageing oven: 40-50 C, max. 3 months In the welding unit, preferably as covered. For breaks to last over 8 h, return to store.

Not suitable

6. Flux-cored wire

Not recommended

Not recommended

7. Submerged arc welding flux. Agglomerated 100 % basic fluxes

When used for high-strength steel: 300 25 C 2-3 h 2)

In closed bag in main store or in flux container: 100-150 C, max. 1 months

During welding, in flux In drying cupboard container. If the break is to last 300 25 C, 2-3 h over 4 h, return to heated flux Thinly layered hopper.

8. Submerged arc welding flux. Agglomerated LMA basic fluxes, acid and neutral fluxes 9. Metal flux for submerged arc welding

Not required

In closed bag in main store or in flux container: 100-150 C, max. 3 months

Same as 7 During welding, in flux container. If the break is to last over 8 h, return to heated flux hopper. In flux container during welding. For breaks of over 8 h, return into ageing oven, max. 3 months Not recommended

Not recommended

In closed bag in main store or in ageing oven: 40-50 C

1)

Predrying refers to the drying of filler material after removal from the original package. For example, when extra reliability is needed in welding critical structures or hardenable steels. The need for predrying must be determined in each case se

2)

Table 2.

General recommendations consumables (ESAB).

for

the

storage and

drying

of

welding

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W re n d m u q lig e s t n

Next tables shows usual acceptance levels for different defects in cooling water, starting air, lube- and fuel oil pipes. Welding of district heating, steam and gas pipes shall be done according to local and national pressure vessel requirements.
Compliance with next tables

With the aid of the detailed requirements specified in next tables for welding defects, both with regard to their nature and extent, the description of a generally applicable quality level for each quality class is attempted. However, a danger of such a system is that it may be implemented too pedantically. The dimensions in Tables refer to: s Nominal thickness of parent metal. Where the weld going together materials of different thicknesses, this refers to the smaller nominal thickness. Shortest distance between defects. Length of individual defect. Largest height or depth of defect in weld thickness direction. Width of (weld face) reinforcement.

d l h b

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Acceptance levels for surface and internal defects and imperfect shape and defective geometry of butt joints.

Welding defect Water and air

Flow media Oil

Crack (100)

1)

Cracks that can be detected by conventional non destructive testing methods are not permitted.

Surface pores (2017)

Extent of individual defect 0.2 s, in no case above 2 mm. Total surface area of 2 pores 50 mm .

Extent of individual defect 0.2 s, in no case above 2 mm. Total surface area of 2 pores 25 mm .

Crater pipe (2024)

Permitted when H 0.3 s, in no Permitted when H 0.2 s, in no case above 4 mm. case above 3 mm.

Lack of fusion (401)

Incomplete fusion defect that can be detected by conventional non destructive testing are not permitted.

Incomplete penetration (402)

When H 0.2 s, in no case above 2 mm.

When H 0.1 s, in no case above 1 mm.

1)

Figures within brackets are according to ISO 6520.

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Welding defect Water and air

Flow media Oil

Undercut (501)

Permitted locally when H 0.2, s, in no case above 2 mm.

Permitted locally when H 0.1, s, in no case above 1 mm.

Excess weld metal on face side (502)

H 1.5 + 0.15 B Minor toe overlap permitted.

H 1.5 + 0.1 B Toe overlap not permitted.

Excess weld metal on root side

H 1.5 + 0.3 C

H 1.5 + 0.2 C

Excessive penetration (504)

Permitted locally.

Permitted in isolation, if root reinforement otherwise joins parent metal gradually.

Misalignment, welding from one side (507)

The misalignment H on the outside of pipes must not exceed 0.5 s, and in no case be above 1 mm when the material thickness is less than 5 mm. At a thickness of 5 mm s 10 mm, 0.2 s is permitted and if the thickness is more than 10 mm 0.1 s + 1 is permitted, but maximum 4 mm. The misalignment H on the inside of the pipes must not exceed 0.5 s, and in no case be above 1 mm when the material thickness is less than 5 mm. When the thickness is 5 mm or more, 0.05 (s-5) + 1 is permitted, but maximum 2 mm.

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Welding defect Water and air

Flow media Oil

Incompletely filled groove (511)

Permitted locally when H 0.2 s, in no case above 2 mm.

Permitted locally when H 0.1 s, in no case above 1 mm.

Root concavity (515)

Permitted locally when H 0.2 s, in no case above 2 mm.

Permitted locally when H 0.1 s, in no case above 1 mm.

Stray flash and spatter (601) (602)

Isolated stray flash damage, if Stray flash is not permitted. Isolated adhering spatter drops without cracks, permitted. are permitted. Adhering spatter permitted. Stray flash and spatter, possibly occurring, may be removed by grinding. Internal crack permitted, when Cracks that can be detected by H 0.2 s, in no case above 4 conventional non destructive mm and when L s. Cracks in testing methods are not permitted. heat affected zone are not permitted.

Crack (100)

Gas pores

1) 2)

(2011)

Extent of individual pore 0.3 s, in no case above 5 mm. Maximum porosity permitted 4 %.

Extent of individual pore 0.25 s, in no case above 4 mm. Maximum porosity permitted 2 %.

1) 2)

Elongated pores are assessed as slag inclusions. Linear porosity may indicate incomplete fusion, incomplete penetration or a combination of these.

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Welding defect Water and air

Flow media Oil

Clustered porosity

1)

(2013)

Maximum porosity permitted 12 %. Extent of individual pore 0.3 s, in no case above 4 mm.

Maximum porosity permitted 8 %. Extent of individual pore 0.25 s, in no case above 3 mm.

Shrinkage cavity (2021)

Permitted

Isolated cavities permitted if without cracks.

Slag inclusion (301) (601) (602)

Permitted

Scattered slag inclusions permitted.

Tungsten inclusion (3041)

Permitted

Scattered slag inclusions permitted.

Incomplete fusion (401)

Permitted when H 0.2 s, in no Lack of fusion defects that can case above 4 mm and when L be detected by conventional NDT methods are not s. permitted.

1)

With regard to spacing of pores, see information for guidance.

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E n e o lg ic t a r p d

Cleaning

Parts to be welded shall be properly cleaned on both sides of welding groove. Grease, oil and rust shall be removed.
Pipes Bevelling

1. Bevelling of pipes shall be done as follows: if walls thickness of pipe is 3 mm or less I-groove shall be used if wall thickness is more than 3 mm V-groove shall be used

Pipe wall thickness (s)


3

Groove

Welding method

0
b
a

2 - 3 mm 0 - 2 mm

E TIG

50 - 70 70 - 80
b c

2 - 4 mm 0 - 3 mm

0 - 2 mm 0 - 2 mm

E TIG

Table 3.

Measures of grooves

E = Electric welding TIG = TIG-welding


Fitting

Pipes to be welded shall be fitted so that no step exists inside the pipe.

Figure 17.
Elbows, reducers, caps, tees and valves with weld ends

Edge preparation and fitting as with pipes, valves with weld ends shall, after tackwelding, be dismantled before final welding is done.
Flanges

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Edge preparation of pipe


Flanges for welding

Pipe shall be straight cut with saw cutting machine and fitted with flange according to next table.
C A B

Figure 18.

Welding of plate flanges

DN 25 32 40 50 65 80 100 125 150 200 250 300

D (Fe) 33.7 42.4 48.3 60.3 76.1 88.9 114.3 139.7 168.3 219.1 273 323

A 6 6 6 6 6 8 8 8 8 8 8 8

B 2 2 2 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 3 3 4 5 5

C 3 3 3 3 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 6.5 6.5 7

Table 4.

Welding of plate flanges

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Figure 19.

Welding neck flanges

Figure 20.

Weld height

Figure 21.

Incomplete weld

Pipes shall be prepared according to next table.


Preparation
slope 1:4

Butt weld

Asymmetry: e < 0.15 S1,

s1

e
1 slope :4

s2

s1

s2

but less than 3 mm

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Joint preparations for butt welds

The tables on the next pages specify the joint preparations and recommended welding processes for butt welds. All dimensions are given in millimetres. Explanation of notes: 1) Angles are also larger and/or asymmetric for welding in position PC according to ISO 6947 (horizontal position). 2) Dimensions given apply to the tacked condition. 3) The indication of the welding process does not mean that it is applicable for the whole range of work piece thicknesses. 4) Applicable for 111, 131, 135, 141. 5) Symbol not yet standardized in ISO 2553.

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Butt welds welded from one side

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Butt welds welded from both sides

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Branches Edge preparation

Fitting

Head of branch pipe shall be shaped to fit with main pipe. Angle of groove shall be 50 . Branch pipe shall be fitted so that no step exists inside the pipe. Air gap (g) shall be 1 - 3 mm. Angle () shall be less than 90 .

Figure 22.

o w if tl c e p s n Id

1. Visual examination shall be done to all welds before pressure tests. 2. In inspection special attention shall be paid to: Evenness of weld face. Height and width of reinforcement of weld. Pores in welds. Undercuts in welds. Stray flashes in welds. Complete penetration shall be checked where possible.