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Conversion of units

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2011)

Conversion of units refers to conversion factors between different units of measurement for the same quantity.
Contents

1 Techniques

o o o

1.1 Process 1.2 Multiplication factors 1.3 Table ordering

2 Tables of conversion factors

o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o

2.1 Length 2.2 Area 2.3 Volume 2.4 Plane angle 2.5 Solid angle 2.6 Mass 2.7 Density 2.8 Time 2.9 Frequency 2.10 Speed or velocity 2.11 Flow (volume) 2.12 Acceleration 2.13 Force 2.14 Pressure or mechanical stress 2.15 Torque or moment of force 2.16 Energy 2.17 Power or heat flow rate 2.18 Action 2.19 Dynamic viscosity

o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o

2.20 Kinematic viscosity 2.21 Electric current 2.22 Electric charge 2.23 Electric dipole 2.24 Electromotive force, electric potential difference 2.25 Electrical resistance 2.26 Capacitance 2.27 Magnetic flux 2.28 Magnetic flux density 2.29 Inductance 2.30 Temperature 2.31 Information entropy 2.32 Luminous intensity 2.33 Luminance 2.34 Luminous flux 2.35 Illuminance 2.36 Radiation - source activity 2.37 Radiation - exposure 2.38 Radiation - absorbed dose 2.39 Radiation - equivalent dose

3 Software tools

3.1 General commercial sources of converters

4 See also 5 References 6 External links

Techniques
Process
The process of conversion depends on the specific situation and the intended purpose. This may be governed by regulation, contract, Technical specifications or other published standards. Engineering judgment may include such factors as:

The precision and accuracy of measurement and the associated uncertainty of measurement

The statistical confidence interval or tolerance interval of the initial measurement

The number of significant figures of the measurement The intended use of the measurement including the engineering tolerances

Some conversions from one system of units to another need to be exact, without increasing or decreasing the precision of the first measurement. This is sometimes called soft conversion. It does not involve changing the physical configuration of the item being measured. By contrast, a hard conversion or an adaptive conversion may not be exactly equivalent. It changes the measurement to convenient and workable numbers and units in the new system. It sometimes involves a slightly different configuration, or size substitution, of the item. Nominal values are sometimes allowed and used.

Multiplication factors
Conversion between units in the metric system can be discerned by their prefixes (for example, 1 kilogram = 1000 grams, 1 milligram = 0.001 grams) and are thus not listed in this article. Exceptions are made if the unit is commonly known by another name (for example, 1 micron = 106 metre).

Table ordering
Within each table, the units are listed alphabetically, and the SI units (base or derived) are highlighted.

Tables of conversion factors


This article gives lists of conversion factors for each of a number of physical quantities, which are listed in the index. For each physical quantity, a number of different units (some only of historical interest) are shown and expressed in terms of the corresponding SI unit.

Legend

Symbol

Definition

exactly equal to

approximately equal to

digits indicates that digits repeat infinitely (e.g. 8.294369 corresponds to 8.294369369369369)

(H)

of chiefly historical interest

Length
Length

Name of unit

Symbol

Definition

Relation to SI units

angstrom

11010 m

0.1 nm

astronomical unit

AU

Distance from Earth to Sun

149597871464 m

[1]

barleycorn (H)
bohr, atomic

= in (see note above about rounding)

8.46103 m

unit of

length
cable length (imperial)

a0

Bohr 608 ft

radius of hydrogen

5.29177208591011 3.61020 m 185.3184 m 185.2 m = 219.456 m

[2]

cable length (International)


cable length (US)

1/10 nmi 720 ft ch 66 ft(US) 4 rods


[3]

chain (Gunter's;
Surveyor's)

20.11684 m

cubit (H) ell (H) fathom fermi


finger finger (cloth) ell fm fm

Distance from fingers to elbow 0.5 m 18 in 45 in 6 ft


[4]

(In England usually)

= 1.143 m = 1.8288 m

[4] [4]

11015 m 7/8 in 4 in

11015 m = 0.022225 m = 0.1143 m 0.304799735 m 0.3047972654 m 0.304799514 m

foot (Benot) (H)


foot (Indian) (H)

ft (Ben)

foot (Clarke's; Cape) (H) ft (Cla) ft Ind

foot (International) foot (Sear's) (H) foot (US Survey)

ft ft (Sear) ft (US) F fur

1/3 yd 0.3048 m 12 inches


1200

0.3048 m 0.30479947 m 0.304800610 m = 0.3 103 m

3937 m

[5]

french; charriere furlong hand inch (International) league (land) light-day light-hour light-minute light-second light-year
line link (Gunter's; Surveyor's) link (Ramsden's; Engineer's)

13 mm 10 chains = 660 ft = 220 yd 4 in


[4] [4]

= 201.168 m 0.1016 m 0.0254 m

in lea

1/36 yd 1/12 ft 3 US Statute miles 24 light-hours 60 light-minutes 60 light-seconds Distance light travels in one second in vacuum
[3]

= 4828.032 m 2.590206837121013 m 1.07925284881012 m 1.7987547481010 m 299792458 m

ly ln lnk lnk

Distance light travels in vacuum = 9.46073047258081015 m [6] in 365.25 days 1/12 in


[7] [4]

= 0.002116 m 0.66 ft 7.92in = 0.201168 m = 0.3048 m

1/100 ch 1 ft
[4]

metre (SI base unit)

Distance light travels in 1299792458 of a second in [8] vacuum. 110000000 of the distance from equator to pole. 1200 in

1m

mickey

= 1.27104 m 1106 m

micron
mil; thou

mil mil 1103 in 10 km 6082 ft mi 80 chains 5280 ft 1760 yd 6000 ft mi mi 6087 ft 5280 US Survey feet (5280 12003937) m 2 in
[4]

2.54105 m = 10000 m = 1853.7936 m 1609.344 m 1828.8 m = 1855.3176 m 1609.347219 m = 0.057 15 m

mil (Sweden and


Norway)

mile (geographical) (H) mile (international) mile (tactical or data)


mile (telegraph) (H) mile (US Survey) nail (cloth)

nanometer nautical league nautical mile (Admiralty)

nm NL; nl

1109 m 3 nmi
[4]

1109 m = 5556 m = 1853.184 m

NM (Adm); = 6080 ft nmi (Adm) NM; nmi 1852 m


[9]

nautical mile (international)


nautical mile (US pre 1954) pace

1852 m 1853.248 m = 0.762 m = 0.0762 m

1853.248 m 2.5 ft 3 in pc
[4]

palm parsec pica point (American,


English)
[11][12]

[4]

Distance of star with parallax shift [10] of one arc second from a base of 3.085 677 821016 6106 m one astronomical unit 12 points Dependent on point measures. 0.000 351 450 m

pt

1/72.272 in 1/12 1/72 of pied

du roi;

0.000 375 97 m; After 1878: 0.000 375 939 85 m = 0.000 352 7 m = 0.000 351 4598 m = 0.2286 m = 5.0292 m = 6.096 m = 0.2286 m 11012 m

point (Didot; [12][13] European) point (PostScript) point (TeX) quarter


[11] [11]

pt

After 1878: 5/133 cm 1/72 in 1/72.27 in yd 16 ft 20 ft 9 in


[4]

pt pt

rod; pole; perch (H)


rope (H) span (H)

rd rope

[4]

spat [14]
stick (H) stigma; bicron (picometre) pm twp xu yd 0.9144 m
[5]

2 in

= 0.0508 m 11012 m

twip x unit; siegbahn yard (International)

1/1440 in

= 1.7638105 m 1.00211013 m 3 ft 36 in 0.9144 m


[4]

Area
Area

Name of unit

Symbol

Definition

Relation to SI units

acre (international)

ac

1 ch 10 ch = 4840 sq yd

4 046.856 4224 m2

acre (U. S. survey)

ac

10 sq ch = 4840 sq yd, also 43560 sq ft.

4 046.873 m2

[15]

are

100 m2

= 100 m2

barn

1028 m2

= 1028 m2

barony board boiler horsepower equivalent direct radiation circular inch circular mil; circular thou cord bd bhp EDR circ in circ mil

4000 ac 1 in 1 ft (1 ft2) (1 bhp) / (240 BTUIT/h) /4 sq in /4 mil2 192 bd 1 000 m2 121 sq yd ha 10 000 m2 120 ac (variable) ro ac 1 mi 1 mi 1052 m2 10 ft 10 ft sq ch sq ch sq ft sq ft sq in km2 66 ft 66 ft = 1/10 ac 66 ft(US) 66 ft(US) = 1/10 ac 1 ft 1 ft 1 ft (US) 1 ft (US) 1 in 1 in 1 km 1 km

1.618 742107 m2 = 7.741 92103 m2 12.958 174 m2 5.067 075104 m2 5.067 0751010 m2 = 1.486 448 64 m2 = 1 000 m2 101.17 m2 10 000 m2 5105 m2 = 1 011.714 1056 m2 = 2.589 988 110 336106 m2 = 1052 m2 = 9.290 304 m2 404.685 642 24 m2 404.687 3 m2 9.290 304102 m2 9.290 341 161 327 49102 m2 6.4516104 m2 = 106 m2

dunam guntha hectare hide


rood section

shed
square (roofing) square chain (international) square chain (US Survey)

square foot
square foot (US Survey)

square inch square kilometre

square link (Gunter's)(International) square link (Gunter's)(US Survey) square link (Ramsden's)

sq lnk sq lnk sq lnk m2 sq mil sq mi sq mi sq rd sq yd

1 lnk 1 lnk 0.66 ft 0.66 ft 1 lnk 1 lnk 0.66 ft(US) 0.66 ft(US) 1 lnk 1 lnk 1 ft 1 ft 1m1m 1 mil 1 mil 1 mi 1 mi 1 mi (US) 1 mi (US) 1 rd 1 rd 1 yd 1 yd 1 000 m2 36 sq mi (US) 30 ac

= 4.046 856 4224102 m2 4.046 872102 m2 = 0.09290304 m2 = 1 m2 = 6.45161010 m2 = 2.589 988 110 336106 m2 2.589 998 47106 m2 = 25.292 852 64 m2 0.836 127 36 m2 = 1 000 m2 9.323 994107 m2 1.2105 m2

square metre (SI unit)


square mil; square thou square mile square mile (US Survey) square rod/pole/perch

square yard (International) stremma township yardland

Volume
Volume

Name of unit

Symbol

Definition

Relation to SI units

acre-foot

ac ft

1 ac x 1 ft = 43 560 ft3

= 1 233.481 837 547 52 m3

acre-inch

1 ac 1 in

= 102.790 153 128 96 m3

barrel (imperial)

bl (imp)

36 gal (imp)

= 0.163 659 24 m3

barrel (petroleum)

bl; bbl

42 gal (US)

= 0.158 987 294 928 m3

barrel (US dry)

bl (US)

105 qt (US) = 105/32 bu (US lvl)

= 0.115 628 198 985 075 m3

barrel (US fluid)

fl bl (US)

31 gal (US)

= 0.119 240 471 196 m3

board-foot

fbm

144 cu in

2.359 737 216103 m3

bucket (imperial) bushel (imperial)


bushel (US dry heaped) bushel (US dry level)

bkt bu (imp) bu (US)

4 gal (imp) 8 gal (imp) 1 bu (US lvl) 126 gal (wine) 4 bu (imp) 8 ft 4 ft 4 ft 16 cu ft

= 0.018 184 36 m3 = 0.036 368 72 m3 = 0.044 048 837 7086 m3 = 0.035 239 070 166 88 m3 = 0.476 961 884 784 m3 = 0.145 474 88 m3 = 3.624 556 363 776 m3 = 0.453 069 545 472 m3 = 6.116 438 863 872 m3 0.028 316 846 592 m3 16.387 064106 m3 1 m3 4 168 181 825.440 579 584 m3 0.764 554 857 984 m3 = 284.130 625106 m3 = 227.3045106 m3 = 250.0106 m3 = 236.588 2365106 m3 = 2.4104 m3 = 369.961 751 302 08 3109 m3

bu (US lvl) 2 150.42 cu in

butt, pipe coomb


cord (firewood) cord-foot cubic fathom cu fm cu ft cu in m3 cu mi cu yd

1 fm 1 fm 1 fm 1 ft 1 ft 1 ft 1 in 1 in 1 in 1m1m1m 1 mi 1 mi 1 mi 27 cu ft 10 fl oz (imp)

cubic foot
cubic inch

cubic metre (SI unit)


cubic mile cubic yard

cup (breakfast)
cup (Canadian) cup (metric) cup (US customary) cup (US food nutrition labeling) dash (imperial) dash (US) c (CA) c c (US) c (US)

8 fl oz (imp) 250.0106 m3 8 US fl oz 1/16 gal (US) 240 mL


[16]

1/384 gi (imp) = pinch (imp) 1/12 gi (imp) gtt gtt 1/288 fl oz (imp) 1/1 824 gi (imp) 1/12 ml 1/20 mL gtt gtt 1/360 US fl oz 1/456 US fl oz 1/5 US gal 9 gal (US) fl dr fl dr fl s beer gal fl oz (imp) US fl oz 1/24 fl oz (imp) 282 cu in

1/96 US fl oz = US pinch = 308.057 599 609 375109 m3 = 11.838 776 0416106 m3 = 98.656 467 013 8109 m3 77.886 684109 m3 = 83.03109 m3 = 50.0109 m3 = 82.148 693 22916109 m3 64.854 231109 m3 = 757.082 3568106 m3 = 0.034 068 706 056 m3 = 3.551 632 8125106 m3 = 3.696 691 195 3125106 m3 = 1.183 877 60416106 m3 = 4.621 152 048103 m3

dessertspoon (imperial) drop (imperial)


drop (imperial) (alt) drop (medical) drop (metric) drop (US) drop (US) (alt) fifth

firkin fluid drachm (imperial) fluid dram (US); US fluidram fluid scruple (imperial) gallon (beer)

gallon (imperial) gallon (US dry) gallon (US fluid; Wine)

gal (imp) gal (US) gal (US) gi (imp); nog gi (US) hhd (imp) hhd (US)

4.546 09 L bu (US lvl) 231 cu in 5 fl oz (imp) 4 US fl oz 2 bl (imp) 2 fl bl (US) 1 US fl oz 18 gal (imp)

4.546 09103 m3 = 4.404 883 770 86103 m3 3.785 411 784103 m3 = 142.065 3125106 m3 = 118.294 118 25106 m3 = 0.327 318 48 m3 = 0.238 480 942 392 m3 44.36106 m3 = 0.081 829 62 m3 = 1109 m3 = 2.909 4976 m3 0.001 m3 = 1.415 842 3296 m3 = 59.193 880 208 3109 m3

gill (imperial); Noggin


gill (US)

hogshead (imperial)
hogshead (US)

jigger (bartending) kilderkin lambda last litre


load L

1 mm3 80 bu (imp) 1 dm3


[17]

50 cu ft min min 1/480 fl oz (imp) = 1/60 fl dr (imp)

minim (imperial)
minim (US)

1/480 US fl oz = 1/60 US fl = 61.611 519 921 875109 m3 dr 28.413 0625106 m3 29.573 529 5625106 m3 3105 m3 = 9.092 18103 m3 = 8.809 767 541 72103 m3 = 0.700 841 953 152 m3 = 739.923 502 60416109 m3 = 616.115 199 218 75109 m3 = 568.261 25106 m3 = 550.610 471 3575106 m3 = 473.176 473106 m3 = 22.180 147 171 [Converter 1] 875106 m3 = 1.136 5225103 m3 = 1.101 220 942 715103 m3

ounce (fluid imperial) ounce (fluid US customary)


ounce (fluid US food nutrition labeling)

fl oz (imp) 1/160 gal (imp) US fl oz US fl oz pk pk per 1/128 gal (US) 30 mL


[16]

peck (imperial)
peck (US dry)

2 gal (imp) US lvl bu 16 ft 1 ft 1 ft 1/192 gi (imp) = tsp (imp) 1/48 US fl oz = US tsp gal (imp) 1/64 bu (US lvl) gal (US dry) gal (US) 3/4 US fl oz

perch
pinch (imperial) pinch (US)

pint (imperial)
pint (US dry) pint (US fluid) pony pottle; quartern

pt (imp) pt (US dry) pt (US fl)

gal (imp) = 80 fl oz (imp) = 2.273 045103 m3 qt (imp) qt (US) gal (imp) 1/32 bu (US lvl) = gal (US dry)

quart (imperial)
quart (US dry)

quart (US fluid) quarter; pail register ton sack (imperial); bag sack (US) seam shot strike (imperial) strike (US)

qt (US)

gal (US fl) 8 bu (imp) 100 cu ft 3 bu (imp) 3 bu (US lvl) 8 bu (US lvl) 1 US fl oz 2 bu (imp) 2 bu (US lvl)

= 946.352 946106 m3 = 0.290 949 76 m3 = 2.831 684 6592 m3 = 0.109 106 16 m3[
citation needed]

= 0.105 717 210 500 64 m3 = 0.281 912 561 335 04 m3[


needed] citation

29.57106 m3 = 0.072 737 44 m3 = 0.070 478 140 333 76 m3 20.0106 m3 = 14.206 531 25106 m3 = 17.758 164 0625106 m3 15.0106 m3 = 14.786 764 7825106 m3 = 1.5105 m3 = 4.735 510 416106 m3 = 5.919 388 02083106 m3 = 5.0106 m3 = 4.928 921 595106 m3 = 5106 m3 = 0.028 316 846 592 m3 = 0.991 089 630 72 m3 = 1.132 673 863 68 m3 = 1.018 324 16 m3 = 0.953 923 769 568 m3 = 1.409 562 806 6752 m3

tablespoon (Australian metric)


tablespoon (Canadian) tablespoon (imperial) tablespoon (metric) tablespoon (US customary) tablespoon (US food nutrition labeling) tbsp tbsp tsp tsp US fl oz 15 mL
[16]

tbsp tbsp

fl oz (imp) 5/8 fl oz (imp)

teaspoon (Canadian)
teaspoon (imperial) teaspoon (metric) teaspoon (US customary) teaspoon (US food nutrition labeling)

1/6 fl oz (imp) 1/24 gi (imp) 5.0106 m3 1/6 US fl oz 5 mL


[16]

tsp tsp

timber foot ton (displacement)


ton (freight) ton (water)

1 cu ft 35 cu ft 40 cu ft 28 bu (imp) 252 gal (wine) 40 bu (US lvl)

tun wey (US)

Plane angle
Plane angle

Name of unit

Symbol

Definition

Relation to SI units

angular mil arcminute; MOA arcsecond centesimal minute of arc centesimal second of arc degree (of arc) grad; gradian; gon octant quadrant radian (SI unit)
sextant sign

2/6400 rad 1/60 1/3600 1 grad/100 1 grad/(10 000) 1/360 of a revolution /180 rad 1/400 of a revolution 2/400 rad 0.9 45 90

0.981 748103 rad 0.290 888103 rad 4.848 137106 rad 0.157 080103 rad 1.570 796106 rad 17.453 293103 rad 15.707 963103 rad 0.785 398 rad 1.570 796 rad = 1 rad 1.047 198 rad 0.523 599 rad

' " ' " grad

rad

The angle subtended at the center of a circle by an arc whose length is equal to the circle's radius. One full revolution encompasses 2 radians. 60 30

Solid angle
Solid angle

Name of unit

Symbol

Definition

Relation to SI units

steradian (SI
unit)

sr

The solid angle subtended at the center of a sphere of radius r by a portion of the surface of the sphere having an area r2. A sphere encompasses 4 = 1 sr [14] sr.

Mass
Notes:

See Weight for detail of mass/weight distinction and conversion. In this table, the unit gee is used to denote standard gravity in order to avoid confusion with the "g" symbol for grams.

In physics, the pound of mass is sometimes written lbm to distinguish it from the pound-force (lbf). It should not be read as the mongrel unit "pound metre".

Mass

Name of unit

Symbol

Definition

Relation to SI units 1.660 538 731027 1.31036 kg 9.109 382 151031 [18] 451039 kg

atomic mass unit, unified atomic unit of mass, electron rest mass
bag (coffee) bag (Portland barge

u; AMU

me 60 kg

= 60 kg = 42.637 682 78 kg = 20 411.656 65 kg 205.196 548 333 mg = 200 mg = 3.628 738 96 kg 89.9349 mg

cement)
kt ct

94 lb av 22 sh tn 3 1/6 gr 200 mg 8 lb av

carat carat (metric) clove crith dalton dram (apothecary; troy) dram (avoirdupois) electronvolt gamma grain grave hundredweight (long) hundredweight (short); cental kilogram kip mark mite mite (metric)

Da dr t dr av eV gr G 60 gr 27 11/32 gr 1 eV (energy unit) / c2 1 g 1/7000 lb av grave was the original name of the kilogram

1.660 902 101027 1.31036 kg = 3.887 9346 g = 1.771 845 195 3125 g = 1.78261036 kg = 1 g 64.798 91 mg 1 kg = 50.802 345 44 kg = 45.359 237 kg

long cwt or 112 lb av cwt sh cwt kg kip 100 lb av

mass of the prototype near Paris ( [8] 1 kg (SI base unit) mass of 1L of water) 1000 lb av 8 oz t 1/20 gr 1/20 g = 453.592 37 kg = 248.827 8144 g = 3.239 9455 mg = 50 mg

ounce (apothecary; troy) ounce (avoirdupois) pennyweight point pound pound (avoirdupois) pound (metric) pound (troy)
quarter (imperial) quarter (informal) quarter, long (informal)

oz t oz av

1/12 lb t 1/16 lb 28 g
[16]

= 31.103 4768 g = 28.349 523 125 g = 28 g = 1.555 173 84 g = 2 mg = 0.45359237 kg 0.453 592 37 kg = 500 g = 0.373 241 7216 kg = 12.700 586 36 kg = 226.796 185 kg = 254.011 7272 kg = 100 kg = 1.295 9782 g = 647.9891 mg 14.593 903 kg = 6.350 293 18 kg 32.666 667 g 29.166 667 g = 1 016.046 9088 kg = 907.184 74 kg = 1 000 kg = 114.305 277 24 kg (variants exist)
[19]

ounce (US food nutrition labeling) oz dwt; pwt

1/20 oz t 1/100 ct

lb lb av

slugft/s2 0.453 592 37 kg = 7000 grains 500 g

lb t

5 760 grains 1/4 long cwt = 2 st = 28 lb av short tn long tn 100 kg 20 gr 1/700 lb av

quintal (metric) scruple (apothecary) sheet slug; geepound; hyl stone ton, assay (long) ton, assay (short) ton, long ton, short tonne (mts unit) wey
Zentner

q s ap

slug st AT AT long tn or ton sh tn t

1 gee 1 lb av 1 s2/ft 14 lb av 1 mg 1 long tn 1 oz t 1 mg 1 sh tn 1 oz t 2 240 lb 2 000 lb 1 000 kg 252 lb = 18 st

Ztr.

Definitions vary; see

and.

[14]

Density
Density

Name of unit

Symbol Definition

Relation to SI units

gram per millilitre

g/mL

g/mL

= 1,000 kg/m3

kilogram per cubic metre (SI unit)

kg/m3

kg/m3

= 1 kg/m3

kilogram per litre

kg/L

kg/L

= 1,000 kg/m3

ounce (avoirdupois) per cubic foot

oz/ft3

oz/ft3

1.001153961 kg/m3

ounce (avoirdupois) per cubic inch

oz/in3

oz/in3

1.729994044103 kg/m3

ounce (avoirdupois) per gallon (imperial) oz/gal

oz/gal

6.236023291 kg/m3

ounce (avoirdupois) per gallon (US fluid) oz/gal

oz/gal

7.489151707 kg/m3

pound (avoirdupois) per cubic foot

lb/ft3

lb/ft3

16.01846337 kg/m3

pound (avoirdupois) per cubic inch

lb/in3

lb/in3

2.767990471104 kg/m3

pound (avoirdupois) per gallon (imperial) lb/gal

lb/gal

99.77637266 kg/m3

pound (avoirdupois) per gallon (US fluid) lb/gal

lb/gal

119.8264273 kg/m3

slug per cubic foot

slug/ft3 slug/ft3

515.3788184 kg/m3

Time
Time, t

Name of unit

Symbol

Definition

Relation to SI units

atomic unit of time Callippic cycle

au

a0/(c)

2.418 884 2541017 s

441 mo (hollow) + 499 mo (full) = 76 a of 365.25 d

= 2.398 3776109 s

century day day (sidereal) decade fortnight helek Hipparchic cycle hour jiffy
jiffy (alternate)

c d

100 a (see below for definition of year length) = 24 h Time needed for the Earth to rotate once around its axis, determined from successive transits of a very distant astronomical object across an observer's meridian (International Celestial Reference Frame) 10 a (see below for definition of year length) 2 wk 1/1 080 h 4 Callippic cycles - 1 d

= 100 year = 86400 s

86 164.1 s

dec fn

= 10 year = 1 209 600 s = 3.3 s = 9.593 424109 s = 3 600 s = .016 s = 10 ms = 60 60 / 4 s = 900 s = 60 / 4 min = 15 min = 24 60 60 / 100 s = 864 s = 24 * 60 / 100 min = 14.4 min = 1.5768108 s = 5.996 16108 s = 1000 year = 24 60 60 / 1 000 s = 86.4 s

h j ja

60 min 1/60 s 1/100 s h = 1/96 d 1/100 d 5 a of 365 d 110 mo (hollow) + 125 mo (full) = 6940 d 19 a 1 000 a (see below for definition of year length)

ke (quarter of an
hour)

ke (traditional)
lustre; lustrum

Metonic cycle;
enneadecaeteris

millennium milliday minute moment month (full) month (Greg. av.) month (hollow) month (synodic) octaeteris Planck time second shake
s mo mo mo mo md min

1/1 000 d 60 s, due to leap 90 s 30 d


[20]

seconds sometimes 59 s or 61 s,

= 60 s = 90 s = 2 592 000 s

Average Gregorian month = 365.2425/12 d = 30.436875 d 2.6297106 s 29 d


[20]

= 2 505 600 s 2.551106 s = 2.524 608108 s 1.351 211 8681043 s

Cycle time of moon phases 29.530589 days (Average) = 48 mo (full) + 48 mo (hollow) + 3 mo (full) of 365.25 d = 2922 d (G/c5) time of 9 192 631 770 periods of the radiation corresponding to the transition between the 2 hyperfine levels of the ground state of the caesium 133 atom at 0 [8] K (but other seconds are sometimes used in astronomy) 108 s
[21][22]

=8a

(SI base unit)

= 10 ns

sigma

106 s 1 461 a of 365 d S wk a, y, oryr a, y, oryr a, y, oryr a, y, oryr 1013 s 7d

= 1 s = 4.607 40961010 s = 100 fs = 604 800 s

Sothic cycle svedberg week year (Gregorian)


year (Julian)

= 365.2425 d average, calculated from common years (365 d) plus leap years (366 d) on most years divisible by 4. = 31 556 952 s See leap yearfor details. = 365.25 d average, calculated from common years (365 d) = 31 557 600 s plus one leap year (366 d) every four years time taken for Sun to return to the same position with respect to the stars of the celestial sphere Length of time it takes for the Sun to return to the same position in the cycle of seasons 365.256 363 d 31 558 149.7632 s 365.242 190 d 31 556 925 s

year (sidereal) year (tropical)

Where UTC is observed, the length of time units longer than 1 s may increase or decrease by 1 s if a second occurs during the time interval of interest.

leap

Frequency
Frequency

Name of unit

Symbol

Definition

Relation to SI units

hertz (SI unit)

Hz

Number of cycles per second

= 1 Hz = 1/s

revolutions per minute

rpm

One unit rpm equals one rotation completed around a fixed 0.104719755 rad/s axis in one minute of time.

Speed or velocity
Speed

Name of unit

Symbol

Definition

Relation to SI units

foot per hour foot per minute

fph fpm

1 ft/h 1 ft/min

8.466 667105 m/s = 5.08103 m/s

foot per second furlong perfortnight inch per hour inch per minute inch per second kilometre per hour knot knot (Admiralty) mach number

fps

1 ft/s furlong/fortnight

= 3.048101 m/s 1.663 095104 m/s 7.05 556106 m/s 4.23 333104 m/s = 2.54102 m/s 2.777 778101 m/s 0.514 444 m/s
citation needed]

iph ipm ips km/h kn, kt kn

1 in/hr 1 in/min 1 in/s 1 km/h 1 NM/h = 1.852 km/h 1 NM (Adm)/h = 1.853 184 km/h[

= 0.514 773 m/s

Ratio of the speed to the speed of sound in the medium. Varies especially with temperature. About 1225 km/h 340 to 295 m/s for (761 mph) in air at sea level to about 1062 km/h (660 mph) aircraft at jet altitudes. Unitless 1 m/s 1 mi/h 1 mi/min 1 mi/s 299 792 458 m/s = 1 m/s = 0.447 04 m/s = 26.8224 m/s = 1 609.344 m/s = 299 792 458 m/s

metre per second(SI m/s


unit)

mile per hour mile per minute mile per second speed of light in
vacuum

mph mpm mps c

speed of sound in air s

Varies especially with temperature. About 1225 km/h 340 to 295 m/s at (761 mph) in air at sea level to about 1062 km/h (660 mph) aircraft altitudes at jet altitudes.

A velocity consists of a speed combined with a direction; the speed part of the velocity takes units of speed.

Flow (volume)
Flow

Name of unit

Symbol

Definition

Relation to SI units

cubic foot per minute

CFM[

citation needed]

1 ft3/min = 4.719474432104 m3/s

cubic foot per second

ft3/s

1 ft3/s

= 0.028316846592 m3/s

cubic inch per minute cubic inch per second

in3/min in3/s GPD[ GPH[


citation needed] citation needed] citation needed]

1 in3/min = 2.7311773107 m3/s 1 in3/s 1 m3/s 1 gal/d 1 gal/h = 1.6387064105 m3/s = 1 m3/s = 4.381263638108 m3/s = 1.051503273106 m3/s

cubic metre per second (SI unit) m3/s gallon (US fluid) per day gallon (US fluid) per hour gallon (US fluid) per minute litre per minute

GPM[ LPM[

1 gal/min = 6.30901964105 m3/s 1 L/min = 1.6105 m3/s

citation needed]

Acceleration
Acceleration

Name of unit

Symbol

Definition

Relation to SI units

foot per hour per second foot per minute per second foot per second squared gal; galileo inch per minute per second inch per second squared knot per second mile per hour per second mile per minute per second mile per second squared standard gravity

fph/s fpm/s fps2 Gal ipm/s ips2 kn/s

1 ft/(hs) 1 ft/(mins) 1 ft/s2 1 cm/s2 1 in/(mins) 1 in/s2 1 kn/s 1 m/s2 1 mi/(hs)

8.466 667105 m/s2 = 5.08103 m/s2 = 3.048101 m/s2 = 102 m/s2 4.233 333104 m/s2 = 2.54102 m/s2 5.144 444101 m/s2 = 1 m/s2 = 4.4704101 m/s2

metre per second squared (SI unit) m/s2


mph/s

mpm/s 1 mi/(mins) = 26.8224 m/s2 mps2 g 1 mi/s2 = 1.609 344103 m/s2

9.806 65 m/s2 = 9.806 65 m/s2

Force
Force

Name of unit

Symbol

Definition

Relation to SI units

atomic unit of force dyne (cgs unit) kilogram-force; kilopond; grave-force kip; kip-force milligrave-force, gravetforce dyn kgf; kp; Gf kip; kipf; klbf mGf; gf

me2c2/a0 gcm/s2 g 1 kg g 1 000 lb g1g A force capable of giving a mass of one kg an acceleration of one metre per second, per [24] second. g 1 oz g 1 lb 1 lbft/s2 1 tm/s2 g 1 sh tn

8.238 722 [23] 06108 N = 105 N = 9.806 65 N = 4.448 221 615 2605103 N = 9.806 65 mN

newton (SI unit) ounce-force pound-force poundal


sthene (mts unit)

= 1 N = 1 kgm/s2 = 0.278 013 850 953 7812 N = 4.448 221 615 2605 N = 0.138 254 954 376 N = 1103 N = 8.896 443 230 521103 N

ozf

lbf
pdl sn tnf

ton-force

See also: Conversion between weight (force) and mass

Pressure or mechanical stress


Pressure

Name of unit

Symbol

Definition

Relation to SI units

atmosphere (standard)

atm

101 325 Pa

[25]

atmosphere (technical) bar


barye (cgs

at bar

1 kgf/cm2

= 9.806 65104 Pa 105 Pa

[25]

unit)
cmHg cmH2O

1 dyn/cm2 13 595.1 kg/m3 1 cm g 999.972 kg/m3 1 cm g

= 0.1 Pa 1.333 22103 Pa 98.063 8 Pa


[25] [25]

centimetre of mercury centimetre of water (4 C)

foot of mercury (conventional) foot of water (39.2 F) inch of mercury (conventional) inch of water (39.2 F)
kilogram-force per square millimetre

ftHg ftH2O inHg inH2O

13 595.1 kg/m3 1 ft g 999.972 kg/m3 1 ft g 13 595.1 kg/m3 1 in g 999.972 kg/m3 1 in g

40.636 [25] 66103 Pa 2.988 98103 Pa 3.386 [25] 389103 Pa 249.082 Pa


[25] [25] [25]

kgf/mm2 1 kgf/mm2 ksi 1 kipf/sq in 13 595.1 kg/m3 1 m g 0.001 torr

= 9.806 65106 Pa 6.894 [25] 757106 Pa 0.133 322 4 Pa 133.3224 Pa = 9.806 38 Pa = 1 Pa


[26]

kip per square inch


micron (micrometre) of mercury

mHg

[25]

millimetre of mercury
millimetre of water (3.98 C)

mmHg 13 595.1 kg/m3 1 mm g 1 torr


mmH2O Pa pz psf psi 999.972 kg/m3 1 mm g = 0.999 972 kgf/m2 N/m2 = kg/(ms2) 1 000 kg/ms2 1 lbf/ft2 1 lbf/in2

[25]

pascal (SI unit)


pize (mts unit)

= 1103 Pa = 1 kPa 47.880 26 Pa 6.894 [25] 757103 Pa 1.488 164 Pa


[25] [25]

pound per square foot pound per square inch poundal per square foot
short ton per square foot

pdl/sq ft 1 pdl/sq ft 1 sh tn g / 1 sq ft torr 101 325/760 Pa

95.760 518103 Pa 133.322 4 Pa


[25]

torr

Torque or moment of force


Torque

Name of unit

Symbol

Definition

Relation to SI units

foot-pound force

ft lbf

g 1 lb 1 ft

= 1.355 817 948 331 4004 Nm

foot-poundal inch-pound force metre kilogram

ft pdl in lbf m kg

1 lbft2/s2 g 1 lb 1 in Nm/g

= 4.214 011 009 380 48102 Nm = 0.112 984 829 027 6167 Nm 0.101 971 621 Nm

Newton metre (SI unit) Nm

N m = kgm2/s2 = 1 Nm

Energy

Energy

Name of unit

Symbol

Definition

Relation to SI units

barrel of oil equivalent British thermal unit (ISO)


British thermal unit (International Table) British thermal unit (mean) British thermal unit (thermochemical) British thermal unit (39 F) British thermal unit (59 F) British thermal unit (60 F) British thermal unit (63 F)

bboe BTUISO BTUIT BTUmean BTUth BTU39 F BTU59 F BTU60 F BTU63 F calIT calmean calth cal3.98 C cal15 C cal20 C

5.8106 BTU59 F 1.0545103 J

6.12109 J = 1.0545103 J = 1.055 055 852 62103 J 1.055 87103 J 1.054 350103 J 1.059 67103 J

1.054 804103 J

= 1.054 804103 J 1.054 68103 J 1.0546103 J

calorie (International Table)


calorie (mean) calorie (thermochemical) calorie (3.98 C) calorie (15 C) calorie (20 C) Table)

4.1868 J
1

= 4.1868 J

100 of the energy required to warm one gram 4.190 02 J of air-free water from 0 C to 100 C @ 1 atm 4.184 J 4.1855 J = 4.184 J 4.2045 J = 4.1855 J 4.1819 J 1 BTUIT 1 K/R = 1.899 100 534 716103 J = 0.101 325 J = 2.869 204 480 9344103 J = 1.055 055 852 62106 J = 77.468 520 985 2288103 J 1.602 177 331019 4.91026 J = 107 J = 1.355 817 948 331 4004 J

Celsius heat unit (International CHU IT

cubic centimetre 3 of atmosphere; standard cubic cc atm; scc 1 atm 1 cm centimetre cubic foot of atmosphere; standard cubic foot cubic foot of natural gas cubic yard of atmosphere; standard cubic yard cu ft atm; scf 1 atm 1 ft3 1 000 BTUIT cu yd atm; 1 atm 1 yd3 scy eV erg ft lbf e1V 1 gcm2/s2 g 1 lb 1 ft

electronvolt erg (cgs unit) foot-pound force

foot-poundal

ft pdl imp gal atm US gal atm Eh hph in lbf

1 lbft2/s2 1 atm 1 gal (imp) 1 atm 1 gal (US) me2c2 (= 2 Ry) 1 hp 1 h g 1 lb 1 in The work done when a force of one newton moves the point of its application a distance [24] of one metre in the direction of the force. 1 000 calIT 1 kW 1 h 1 atm 1 L 1015 BTUIT

= 4.214 011 009 380 48102 J = 460.632 569 25 J = 383.556 849 0138 J 4.359 7441018 J = 2.684 519 537 696 172 792106J = 0.112 984 829 027 6167 J = 1 J = 1 mN = 1 kgm2/s2 = 1 CV = 1 Ws = 4.1868103 J = 3.6106 J = 101.325 J = 1.055 055 852 621018 J 2.179 8721018 J = 105.505 585 262106 J = 105.4804106 J = 4.1868106 J = 29.3076109 J = 41.868109 J = 4.184109 J

gallon-atmosphere (imperial)
gallon-atmosphere (US)

hartree, atomic unit of energy horsepower-hour inch-pound force joule (SI unit)
kilocalorie; large calorie

J kcal; Cal kWh; B.O.T.U. l atm; sl

kilowatt-hour; Board of
Trade Unit

litre-atmosphere quad rydberg therm (E.C.) therm (US)


thermie

Ry

Rc 100 000 BTUIT 100 000 BTU59 F

th TCE TOE tTNT

1 McalIT 7 Gcalth 10 Gcalth 1 Gcalth

ton of coal equivalent ton of oil equivalent ton of TNT

Power or heat flow rate


Power

Name of unit

Symbol

Definition

Relation to SI units

atmosphere-cubic centimetre atm ccm per minute


atmosphere-cubic centimetre atm ccs

1 atm 1 cm3/min

= 1.688 75103 W

1 atm 1 cm3/s

= 0.101 325 W

per second atmospherecubic foot per hour atmosphere-cubic foot per minute atmosphere-cubic foot per second hour atm cfh atmcfm atm cfs 1 atm 1 cu ft/h 1 atm 1 cu ft/min 1 atm 1 cu ft/s 1 BTUIT/h = 0.797 001 244 704 W = 47.820 074 682 24 W = 2.869 204 480 9344103 W 0.293 071 W 17.584 264 W = 1.055 055 852 62103 W = 4.1868 W 3.766 161104 W = 2.259 696 580 552 334102 W = 1.355 817 948 331 4004 W 9.810 657103 W = 736 W = 746 W = 745.699 871 582 270 22 W = 735.498 75 W = 1.688 75 W = 101.325 W 1.333104 W = 980.665 W 70.337 057 W 3 504 W 3.938 875103 W 3.516 853103 W = 1 W = 1 J/s = 1 Nm/s = 1 kgm2/s3

BTU (International Table) per BTU /h IT


BTU (International Table) per minute BTU (International Table) per second

BTUIT/min 1 BTUIT/min BTUIT/s calIT/s ft lbf/h ft lbf/min ft lbf/s bhp hp 1 BTUIT/s 1 calIT/s 1 ft lbf/h 1 ft lbf/min 1 ft lbf/s 34.5 lb/h 970.3 BTUIT/lb 75 kpm/s 746 W 550 ft lbf/s 75 m kgf/s

calorie (International Table)


per second foot-pound-force per hour foot-pound-force per minute foot-pound-force per second

horsepower (boiler)
horsepower (European electrical)

horsepower (imperial electrical) hp horsepower (imperial mechanical) horsepower (metric) hp hp

litre-atmosphere per minute


litre-atmosphere per second lusec

Latm/min 1 atm 1 L/min Latm/s lusec p 1 atm 1 L/s 1 LmHg/s 100 m kgf/s
[14]

poncelet
square foot equivalent direct radiation

sq ft EDR 240 BTUIT/h 1 t ice melted / 24 h 1 BTUIT 1 lng tn/lb 10 min/s 1 BTUIT 1 sh tn/lb 10 min/s W The power which in one second of time [24] gives rise to one joule of energy.

ton of air conditioning


ton of refrigeration (imperial) ton of refrigeration (IT)

watt (SI unit)

Action

Action

Name of unit

Symbol Definition

Relation to SI units

atomic unit of action au

/2 1.054 571 681034 Js

[27]

Dynamic viscosity
Dynamic viscosity

Name of unit

Symbol

Definition

Relation to SI units

pascal second (SI unit)

Pas

Ns/m2, kg/(ms) = 1 Pas

poise (cgs unit)

1 baryes

= 0.1 Pas

pound per foot hour pound per foot second

lb/(fth) 1 lb/(fth) lb/(fts) 1 lb/(fts)


2 2 2 2

4.133 789104 Pas 1.488164 Pas 47.88026 Pas 6,894.757 Pas

pound-force second per square foot lbfs/ft 1 lbfs/ft

pound-force second per square inch lbfs/in 1 lbfs/in

Kinematic viscosity
Kinematic viscosity

Name of unit

Symbol Definition Relation to SI units

square foot per second

ft2/s

1 ft2/s

= 0.09290304 m2/s

square metre per second (SI unit) m2/s

1 m2/s

= 1 m2/s

stokes (cgs unit)

St

104 m2/s = 104 m2/s

Electric current
Electric current

Name of unit

Symbol

Definition The constant current needed to produce a force of 2 107 newton per metre between two straight parallel conductors of infinite length and negligible circular cross[8] section placed one metre apart in a vacuum.

Relation to SI units

ampere (SI base unit) A

=1A

electromagnetic unit; abamp 10 A abampere (cgs unit) esu per second; statampere (cgs unit)
esu/s (0.1 Am/s) / c

= 10 A 3.3356411010 A

Electric charge
Electric charge

Name of unit

Symbol

Definition

Relation to SI units

abcoulomb; electromagnetic unit (cgs unit)

abC; emu 10 C

= 10 C

atomic unit of charge coulomb (SI unit) faraday

au

1.602 176 4621019 C

C F

The amount of electricity carried in one [24] = 1 C = 1 As second of time by one ampere of current. 1 mol NAe 96 485.3383 C 3.335 6411010 C

statcoulomb; franklin; electrostatic statC; Fr; (0.1 Am) / c esu unit (cgs unit)

Electric dipole
Electric dipole

Name of unit

Symbol

Definition

Relation to SI units

atomic unit of electric dipole moment coulomb meter

ea0
Cm D

8.478 352 811030 Cm =1C1m

[28]

debye

= 1010 esu = 3.335640951030 Cm [29]

Electromotive force, electric potential difference


Voltage, electromotive force

Name of unit

Symbol

Definition

Relation to SI units

abvolt (cgs unit) statvolt (cgs unit) volt (SI unit)

abV

1108 V

= 1108 V

statV

c (1 J/Am) The difference in electric potential across two points along a conducting wire carrying one ampere of constant current when the [24] power dissipated between the points equals one watt.

= 299.792 458 V = 1 V = 1 W/A =1 kgm2/(As3)

Electrical resistance
Electrical resistance

Name of Symbol unit

Definition

Relation to SI units

ohm (SI
unit)

The resistance between two points in a conductor when one volt of electric potential difference, applied to these points, produces one [24] ampere of current in the conductor.

= 1 = 1 V/A =1 kgm2/(A2s3)

Capacitance
Capacitor's ability to store charge

Name of unit

Symbol

Definition

Relation to SI units

farad (SI
unit)

The capacitance between two parallel plates that results in one volt of [24] potential difference when charged by one coulomb of electricity.

= 1 F = 1 C/V = 1 A2s4/(kgm2)

Magnetic flux
magnetic flux

Name of unit

Symbol

Definition

Relation to SI units

maxwell (CGS
unit)

Mx

108 Wb

[30]

= 1108 Wb

weber (SI unit)

Wb

Magnetic flux which, linking a circuit of one turn, would produce in it an electromotive force of 1 volt if it were reduced to zero at a = 1 Wb = 12Vs =1 kgm2/(As ) [24] uniform rate in 1 second.

Magnetic flux density


What physicists call Magnetic field is called Magnetic flux density by electrical engineers and magnetic induction by applied mathematicians and electrical engineers.

Name of unit

Symbol

Definition

Relation to SI units

gauss (CGS unit) tesla (SI unit)

G T

Mx/cm2 = 104 T Wb/m


2

= 1104 T

[31]

= 1 T = 1 Wb/m2 = 1 kg/(As2)

Inductance
Inductance

Name of unit

Symbol

Definition

Relation to SI units

henry (SI
unit)

The inductance of a closed circuit that produces one volt of electromotive force when the current in the circuit varies at a uniform [24] rate of one ampere per second.

= 1 H = 1 Wb/A =1 kgm2/(As)2

Temperature
For more details on this topic, see Conversion of units of temperature.

Temperature

Name of unit

Symbol

Definition

Conversion to kelvin

degree Celsius

C K 273.15

[K] [C] + 273.15

degree Delisle

De

[K] = 373.15 [De] 2/3

degree Fahrenheit F

F C 9/5 + 32

[K] ([F] + 459.67) 5/9

degree Newton

[K] = [N] 100/33 + 273.15

degree Rankine

R;

R K 9/5

[K] [R] 5/9

degree Raumur

[K] = [R] 5/4 + 273.15

degree Rmer

[K] = ([R] 7.5) 40/21 + 273.15

kelvin (SI base


unit)

1/273.16 of the thermodynamic temperature of [8] the triple point of water.

1K

Information entropy
Information entropy

Name of unit

Symbol

Definition

Relation to SI units

Relation to bits

SI unit

J/K

J/K

= 1 J/K

nat; nip; nepit bit; shannon ban; hartley nibble byte kilobyte (decimal)

nat

kB

= 1.380 650 5(23)1023 J/K

bit; b; Sh ln(2) kB = 9.569 940 (16)1024 J/K = 1 bit ban; Hart ln(10) kB = 3.179 065 3(53)1023 J/K 4 bits B kB 8 bits 1 000 B = 3.827 976 0(64)1023 J/K = 22 bit = 7.655 952 (13)1023 J/K = 23 bit = 7.655 952 (13)1020 J/K = 8103 bit = 8000 bit = 7.839 695 (13)1020 J/K = 213 bit = 8192 bit

kilobyte (kibibyte) KB; KiB 1 024 B

Often, information entropy is measured in shannons, whereas the (discrete) storage space of digital devices is measured in bits. Thus, uncompressed redundant data occupy more than one bit of storage per shannon of information entropy. The multiples of a bit listed above are usually used with this meaning. Other times the bit is used as a measure of information entropy and is thus a synonym of shannon.

Luminous intensity
The candela is the preferred nomenclature for the SI unit.

Luminous intensity

Name of unit

Symbol

Definition

Relation to SI units

candela (SI base


unit); candle

cd

The luminous intensity, in a given direction, of a source that emits monochromatic radiation of frequency 5401012 hertz and that has a [8] radiant intensity in that direction of 1/683 watt per steradian. cd The use of candlepower as a unit is discouraged due to its ambiguity. Varies and is poorly reproducible.
[32]

= 1 cd

candlepower (new) candlepower (old,


pre-1948)

cp cp

= 1 cd
[14]

Approximately 0.981 cd.

0.981 cd

Luminance
Luminance

Name of unit

Symbol

Definition

Relation to SI units

candela per square foot

cd/ft2

cd/ft2

10.763910417 cd/m2

candela per square inch

cd/in2

cd/in2

1,550.0031 cd/m2

candela per square metre (SI unit); nit (deprecated[14]) cd/m2

cd/m2

= 1 cd/m2

footlambert

fL

(1/) cd/ft2

3.4262590996 cd/m2

lambert

(104/) cd/m2 3,183.0988618 cd/m2

stilb (CGS unit)

sb

104 cd/m2

1104 cd/m2

Luminous flux
Luminous flux

Name of unit

Symbol Definition Relation to SI units

lumen (SI unit) lm

cdsr

= 1 lm = 1 cdsr

Illuminance
Illuminance

Name of unit

Symbol Definition Relation to SI units

footcandle; lumen per square foot fc


lm/in2

lm/ft2

= 10.763910417 lx

lumen per square inch

lm/in2

1,550.0031 lx

lux (SI unit)

lx

lm/m2

= 1 lx = 1 lm/m2

phot (CGS unit)

ph

lm/cm2

= 1104 lx

Radiation - source activity


Radioactivity

Name of unit

Symbol

Definition

Relation to SI units

becquerel (SI unit) Bq

Number of disintegrations per second = 1 Bq = 1/s

curie rutherford (H)

Ci rd

3.71010 Bq 1 MBq

= 3.71010 Bq = 1106 Bq

[33]

Please note that although becquerel (Bq) and hertz (Hz) both ultimately refer to the same SI base unit (s 1), Hz is used only for periodic phenomena, and Bq is only used for stochastic processes associated with radioactivity.[34]

Radiation - exposure
Radiation - exposure

Name of unit Symbol

Definition

Relation to SI units

roentgen

1 R 2.58104 C/kg

[30]

= 2.58104 C/kg

The roentgen is not a SI unit and the NIST strongly discourages its continued use.[35]

Radiation - absorbed dose


Radiation - absorbed

dose

Name of unit Symbol

Definition

Relation to SI units

gray (SI unit) Gy

1 J/kg = 1 m2/s2

[36]

= 1 Gy

rad

rad

0.01 Gy

[30]

= 0.01 Gy

Radiation - equivalent dose


Radiation - equivalent

dose

Name of unit

Symbol Definition Relation to SI units

Rntgen equivalent man rem

0.01 Sv

= 0.01 Sv

sievert (SI unit)

Sv

1 J/kg

[34]

= 1 Sv

Although the definitions for sievert (Sv) and gray (Gy) would seem to indicate that they measure the same quantities, this is not the case. The effect of receiving a certain dose of radiation (given as Gy) is variable and depends on many factors, thus a new unit was needed to denote the biological effectiveness of that dose on the body; this is known as the equivalent dose and is shown in Sv. The general relationship between absorbed dose and equivalent dose can be represented as H=QD where H is the equivalent dose, D is the absorbed dose, and Q is a dimensionless quality factor. Thus, for any quantity of D measured in Gy, the numerical value for H measured in Sv may be different.[37]

Software tools
Home and office computers come with converters in bundled spreadsheet applications or can access free converters via the Internet. Units and measurements can be easily converted using these tools, but only if the units are explicitly defined and the conversion is compatible (e.g., cmHg to kPa).

General commercial sources of converters



Advanced electronic calculators have unit-conversion functionality. Spreadsheet programs usually provide conversion functions or formulas or the user can write their own.

Commercial mathematical, scientific and technical applications often include converters.

See also

Accuracy and precision English units False precision Imperial units International System of Units Mesures usuelles Metric system Natural units

Rounding Significant figures SI prefix (e.g. "kilo-" prefix) Conversion of units of temperature United States customary units Units (software) Units conversion by factor-label Units of measurement

References
1. ^ United States Naval Observatory. (2009). Selected Astronomical Constants, 2009. Accessed May 10, 2009 2. ^ "NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty."(2006). National Institute of Standards and Technology. Retrieved February 22, 2008. 3. ^
a b

National Institute of Standards and Technology General Tables of

Units of Measurement 4. ^
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n

Lide, D. (Ed.). (1990). Handbook of Chemistry and

Physics (71st ed). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. Section 1. 5. ^


a b

National Bureau of Standards. (June 30, 1959).Refinement of

values for the yard and the pound. Federal Register, viewed September 20, 2006 at National Geodetic Survey web site. 6. 7. ^ The International Astronomical Union and Astronomical Units ^ Klein, Herbert Arthur. (1988). The Science of Measurement: a Historical Survey. Mineola, NY: Dover Publications 0-4862-5839-4. 8. ^
a b c d e f

The International System of Units, Section 2.1 (8 ed.), Bureau

International des Poids et Mesures, 2006, retrieved August 26, 2009 9. ^ International System of Units, 8th ed. (2006), Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, Section 4.1 Table 8.

10. ^ P. Kenneth Seidelmann, Ed. (1992). Explanatory Supplement to the Astronomical Almanac. Sausalito, CA: University Science Books. p. 716 and s.v. parsec in Glossary. 11. ^
a b c

Whitelaw, Ian. (2007). A Measure of All Things: The Story of Man

and Measurement. New York: Macmillan 0-312-37026-1. p. 152. 12. ^


a b

De Vinne, Theodore Low (1900). The practice of typography: a

treatise on the processes of type-making, the point system, the names, sizes, styles and prices of plain printing types 2nd ed. New York: The Century Co. p. 142150. 13. ^ Pasko, Wesley Washington (1894). American dictionary of printing and bookmaking. (1894). New York: Howard Lockwood. p. 521. 14. ^
a b c d e f

Rowlett, Russ (2005), How Many? A Dictionary of Units of

Measurement 15. ^ Thompson, A. and Taylor, B.N. (2008). Guide for the Use of the International System of Units (SI). National Institute of Standards and Technology Special Publication 811. p. 57. 16. ^
a b c d e

US Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21, Section 101.9,

Paragraph (b)(5)(viii), retrieved August 29, 2009 17. ^ Barry N. Taylor, Ed.,NIST Special Publication 330: The International System of Units (SI) (2001 Edition), Washington: US Government Printing Office, 43,"The 12th Conference Generale des Poids et Mesures (CGPM)declares that the word litre may be employed as a special name for the cubic decimetre". 18. ^ CODATA Value: atomic uint of mass. (2006). National Institute of Standards and Technology. Retrieved 16 September 2008. 19. ^ The Swiss Federal Office for Metrology gives Zentner on a German language web page [1] and quintal on the English translation of that page [2]; the unit is marked "spcifiquement suisse !" 20. ^
a b

Pedersen O. (1983). "Glossary" in Coyne, G., Hoskin, M., and

Pedersen, O. Gregorian Reform of the Calendar: Proceedings of the Vatican Conference to Commemorate its 400th Anniversary. Vatican Observatory. Available fromAstrophysics Data System. 21. ^ Richards, E.G. (1998), Mapping Time, Oxford University Press, pp. 9495, ISBN 0-19-850413-6

22. ^ Steel, Duncan (2000), Marking Time, John Wiley & Sons, p. 46, ISBN 0-471-29827-1 23. ^ CODATA Value: atomic unit of force. (2006). National Institute of Standards and Technology. Retrieved September 14, 2008. 24. ^
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1946,http://www.bipm.org/en/CIPM/db/1946/2/, retrieved August 26, 2009 25. ^


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Barry N. Taylor, (April 1 995), Guide for the Use

of the International System of Units (SI) (NIST Special Publication 811), Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, pp. 5768. 26. ^ Barry N. Taylor, (April 1995), Guide for the Use of the International System of Units (SI) (NIST Special Publication 811), Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, p. 5. 27. ^ International System of Units, 8th ed. (2006), Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, Section 4.1 Table 7. 28. ^ The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty, 2006, retrieved August 26, 2009 29. ^ Robert G. Mortimer Physical chemistry,Academic Press, 2000 ISBN 0125083459, page 677 30. ^
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NIST Guide to SI Units, Appendix B.9, retrieved August 27, 2009

31. ^ Standard for the Use of the International System of Units (SI): The Modern Metric System IEEE/ASTM SI 10-1997. (1997). New York and West Conshohocken, PA: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers and American Society for Testing and Materials. Tables A.1 through A.5. 32. ^ The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty, retrieved August 28, 2009 33. ^ Ambler Thompson & Barry N. Taylor. (2008). Guide for the Use of the International System of Units (SI). Special Publication 811. Gaithersburg, MD: National Institute of Standards and Technology. p. 10. 34. ^
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ed.), Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, 2006, retrieved August 27, 2009 35. ^ The NIST Guide to the SI (Special Publication 811), section 5.2, 2008, retrieved August 27, 2009

36. ^ Ambler Thompson & Barry N. Taylor. (2008). Guide for the Use of the International System of Units (SI). Special Publication 811. Gaithersburg, MD: National Institute of Standards and Technology. p. 5. 37. ^ Comit international des poids et mesures, 2002, Recommendation 2,http://www.bipm.org/en/CIPM/db/2002/2/, retrieved August 27, 2009

1.

^ "Unit Converter / Unit Conversions 101". Program. Keisarian Applications. Retrieved 24 May 2011.

External links
Wikibooks has a book on the topic of FHSST Physics Units:How to Change Units

Official text of the Units of measurement regulations 1995 as created/made within the United Kingdom, from the UK Statute Law Database

How Many? A dictionary of units of measurement NIST: Fundamental physical constants Non-SI unitsPDF (35.7 KB) NIST Guide to SI Units Many conversion factors listed. The Unified Code for Units of Measure Units, Symbols, and Conversions XML Dictionary Units of Measurement Software at the Open Directory Project Units of Measurement Online Conversion at the Open Directory Project

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