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OCTOBER 2002

Since issued in print (October 2002), this booklet has been amended, latest in April 2005. See the reference to Amendments and Corrections on the next page.

FOREWORD

DET NORSKE VERITAS (DNV) is an autonomous and independent foundation with the objectives of safeguarding life, property and the environment, at sea and onshore. DNV undertakes classification, certification, and other verification and consultancy services relating to quality of ships, offshore units and installations, and onshore industries worldwide, and carries out research in relation to these functions. DNV Offshore Codes consist of a three level hierarchy of documents: Offshore Service Specifications. Provide principles and procedures of DNV classification, certification, verification and consultancy services. Offshore Standards. Provide technical provisions and acceptance criteria for general use by the offshore industry as well as the technical basis for DNV offshore services. Recommended Practices. Provide proven technology and sound engineering practice as well as guidance for the higher level Offshore Service Specifications and Offshore Standards. DNV Offshore Codes are offered within the following areas: A) Qualification, Quality and Safety Methodology B) Materials Technology C) Structures D) Systems E) Special Facilities F) Pipelines and Risers G) Asset Operation

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This Recommended Practice is developed in close co-operation with the offshore industry, research institutes and universities. All contribution are highly appreciated. CHANGES Editorial changes have been made. This DNV Offshore Code is valid until superseded by a revised version. Possible amendments between reprints will be published in DNV Offshore Codes Amendments and Corrections available at http://www.dnv.com. Amendments and Corrections is normally revised in April and October each year. When reprinted, revised Offshore Codes will be forwarded to all subscribers.

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CONTENTS

1. 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 2. 2.1 2.2 3. 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.10 4. 4.1 4.2 4.3 Introduction .............................................................4 Buckling strength of shells ........................................4 Working Stress Design ..............................................4 Symbols and Definitions............................................4 Buckling modes .........................................................6 Stresses in Closed Cylinders ...................................8 General.......................................................................8 Stresses ......................................................................8 Buckling Resistance of Cylindrical Shells............10 Stability requirement................................................10 Characteristic buckling strength of shells ................10 Elastic buckling strength of unstiffened curved panels .......................................................................10 Elastic buckling strength of unstiffened circular cylinders...................................................................11 Ring stiffened shells ................................................12 Longitudinally stiffened shells.................................14 Orthogonally stiffened shells ...................................15 Column buckling .....................................................15 Torsional buckling ...................................................16 Local buckling of longitudinal stiffeners and ring stiffeners ..................................................................17 Unstiffened Conical Shells.....................................19 Introduction .............................................................19 Stresses in conical shells..........................................19 Shell buckling ..........................................................20

Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C202 October 2002 The recommended methods for buckling analyses may be substituted by more refined analyses or model tests taking into account the real boundary conditions, the pre-buckling edge disturbances, the actual geometric imperfections, the non-linear material behaviour, and the residual welding stresses. Chapter 4 treats the buckling of unstiffened conical shells.

1. Introduction

1.1 Buckling strength of shells

This RP treats the buckling stability of shell structures based on the load and resistance factor design format (LRFD). Chapter 2 gives the stress in closed cylinders. Chapter 3 treats the buckling of circular cylindrical steel shells, see Figure 1.1-1. The shell cylinder may be stiffened by longitudinal stiffeners and/or ring frames.

X 1 N M1 r l Q2 L l 2 x h s LONGITUDINAL STIFFENER RING FRAME T M2 P

This Recommended Practice is written in the load and resistance factor design format (LRFD format) to suit the DNV Offshore Standard DNV-OS-C101. This standard makes use of material- (resistance) and loadfactors as safety factors. DNV-RP-C202 may be used in combination with working stress design format (WSD) by the following method: For the formulas used in DNV-RP-C202, including eq. 3.1.3, use a material factor M=1.15. The utilisation checks should be made using a modified permissible usage factor p=1.150, see DNV-OS-C201 Sec. 2 Table E1 for 0 and Sec. 5 Table C1 for .

Q1

1.3.1 Symbols The following symbols are used and may not have a specific definition in the text where they appear: A Ac cross-sectional area of a longitudinal stiffener (exclusive of shell flange) cross sectional area of complete cylinder section; including longitudinal stiffeners/internal bulkheads if any cross sectional area of flange (=btf) cross-sectional area of a ring frame (exclusive of shell flange) required cross sectional area (exclusive of effective plate flange) of ring frame to avoid panel ring buckling cross sectional area of web (=htw) reduced buckling coefficient coefficient coefficient Young's modulus = 2.1105 N/mm2 shear modulus, G =

E 2(1 + )

Figure 1.1-1 Stiffened cylindrical shell It is assumed that the edges are effectively supported by ring frames, bulkheads or end closures. Stiffened circular cylindrical shells have to be dimensioned against several buckling failure modes. The relevant modes are defined in Section 1.3. To exclude local buckling of longitudinal stiffeners and rings, explicit requirements are given in Section 3.10 In Table 1.3-1 reference is made to recommended methods for buckling analysis with respect to different buckling modes. The methods are to be considered as semi-empirical. The reason for basing the design on semi-empirical methods is that the agreement between theoretical and experimental buckling loads for some cases has been found to be nonexistent. This discrepancy is due to the effect of geometric imperfections and residual stresses in fabricated structures. Actual geometric imperfections and residual stresses do not in general appear as explicit parameters in the expressions for buckling resistance. This means that the methods for buckling analysis are based on an assumed level of imperfections. This level is reflected by the tolerance requirements given in DNV OS-C401; Fabrication and Testing of Offshore Structures.

Af AR AReq

Aw C C1 C2 E G I Ic

moment of inertia of a longitudinal stiffener (exclusive of shell flange) moment of inertia of the complete cylinder section (about weakest axis), including longitudinal stiffeners/internal bulkheads if any

Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C202 October 2002 Ipo IR Isef It Iz Ih polar moment of inertia effective moment of inertia of a ring frame moment of inertia of longitudinal stiffener including effective shell width se stiffener torsional moment of inertia (St. Venant torsion). moment of inertia of a stiffeners neutral axis normal to the plane of the plate minimum required moment of inertia of ringframes inclusive effective shell flange in a cylindrical shell subjected to external lateral or hydrostatic pressure minimum required moment of inertia of ringframes inclusive effective shell flange in a cylindrical shell subjected to axial and/or bending minimum required moment of inertia of ringframes inclusive effective shell flange in a cylindrical shell subjected to torsion and/or shear distance between effective supports of the ring stiffened cylinder total cylinder length equivalent cylinder length for heavy ring frame design bending moment design bending moment about principal axis 1 design bending moment about principal axis 2 design axial force design shear force design shear force in direction of principal axis 1 design shear force in direction of principal axis 2 design torsional moment i ic ih k l le lef leo lT pSd r re rf rr r0 s se t tb te tf fE fEa fEh fEm fET fE fk fkc fkcd fks fksd fr fT fy h hs

elastic buckling strength elastic buckling strength for axial force. elastic buckling strength for hydrostatic pressure, lateral pressure and circumferential compression. elastic buckling strength for bending moment. elastic buckling strength for torsion. elastic buckling strength for shear force. characteristic buckling strength characteristic column buckling strength design column buckling strength characteristic buckling strength of a shell design buckling strength of a shell characteristic material strength torsional buckling strength yield strength of the material web height distance from stiffener toe (connection between stiffener and plate) to the shear centre of the stiffener. radius of gyration radius of gyration of cylinder section effective radius of gyration of ring frame inclusive affective shell flange effective length factor, column buckling distance between ring frames equivalent length effective width of shell plating equivalent length torsional buckling length design lateral pressure shell radius equivalent radius radius of the shell measured to the ring flange radius (variable) radius of the shell measured to the neutral axis of ring frame with effective shell flange, leo distance between longitudinal stiffeners effective shell width shell thickness thickness of bulkhead equivalent thickness thickness of flange

Ix

Ixh

L2 ZL = 1 2 , curvature parameter rt

Zl = l2 1 - 2 , curvature parameter rt

s2 1 2 , curvature parameter Zs = rt

a b bf c e ef fak fakd

Factor flange width, factor flange outstand Factor distance from shell to centroid of ring frame exclusive of any shell flange flange eccentricity reduced characteristic buckling strength design local buckling strength

tw w zt , A B, C 0 M s T

thickness of web initial out-of roundness distance from outer edge of ring flange to centroid of stiffener inclusive effective shell plating coefficients coefficients coefficient initial out-of-roundness parameter material factor coefficient reduced column slenderness reduced shell slenderness reduced torsional slenderness Coefficient circumferential co-ordinate measured from axis 1 Coefficient Poisson's ratio = 0.3 design membrane stress in the longitudinal direction due to uniform axial force design membrane stress in the circumferential direction design membrane stress in a ring frame design circumferential bending stress in a shell at a bulkhead or a ringframe design equivalent von Mises stress design membrane stress in the longitudinal direction due to global bending design membrane stress in the longitudinal direction design longitudinal bending stress in a shell at a bulkhead or a ringframe design shear stress tangential to the shell surface (in sections x = constant and = constant) design shear stress tangential to the shell surface due to torsional moment design shear stress tangential to the shell surface due to overall shear forces coefficient coefficient coefficient

A B C

Centroid of ring frame with effective shell flange, leo Centroid of ring frame exclusive any shell flange Centroid of free flange

l eo

e h B ef b

tw A bf tf zt r0 rf r

a,Sd h,Sd hR,Sd hm,Sd j,Sd m,Sd x,Sd xm,Sd Sd T,Sd Q,Sd

The buckling modes for stiffened cylindrical shells are categorised as follows: a) Shell buckling: Buckling of shell plating between rings/ longitudinal stiffeners. b) Panel stiffener buckling: Buckling of shell plating including longitudinal stiffeners. Rings are nodal lines. c) Panel ring buckling: Buckling of shell plating including rings. Longitudinal stiffeners act as nodal lines. d) General buckling: Buckling of shell plating including longitudinal stiffeners and rings. e) Column buckling: Buckling of the cylinder as a column. For long cylindrical shells it is possible that interaction between local buckling and overall column buckling may occur because second order effects of axial compression alter the stress distribution calculated from linear theory. It is then necessary to take this effect into account in the column buckling analysis. This is done by basing the column buckling on a reduced yield strength, fkc, as given for the relevant type of structure. f) Local buckling of longitudinal stiffeners and rings. Section 3.10

The buckling modes and their relevance for the different cylinder geometries are illustrated in Table 1.3-1

1.3.2 Definitions A general ring frame cross section is shown Figure 1.2-1,

Buckling mode Type of structure geometry Ring stiffened (unstiffened circular) Longitudinal stiffened Orthogonally stiffened

a) Shell buckling

Section 3.3

Section 3.3

Section 3.6

Section 3.7

Section 3.7

Section 3.8

Section 3.8

Section 3.8

Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C202 October 2002 For a cylindrical shell with longitudinal stiffeners it is usually permissible to replace the shell thickness by the equivalent thickness for calculation of longitudinal membrane stress only:

te = t + A s

2.1 General

The stress resultants governing the stresses in a cylindrical shell is normally defined by the following quantities: NSd MSd TSd QSd pSd = = = = = Design axial force Design bending moments Design torsional moment Design shear force Design lateral pressure

(2.2.4)

2.2.3 Shear stresses If simple beam theory is applicable, the membrane shear stress may be taken as:

Sd = T, Sd + Q, Sd

(2.2.5)

Any of the above quantities may be a function of the axial co-ordinate x. In addition pSd may be a function of the circumferential co-ordinate , measured from axis 1. pSd is always to be taken as the difference between internal and external pressures, i.e. pSd is taken positive outwards. Actual combinations of the above actions are to be considered in the buckling strength assessments.

where T,Sd is due to the torsional moment and Q,Sd is due to the overall shear forces.

T,Sd = TSd 2 r2 t

(2.2.6)

Q, Sd

2.2 Stresses

2.2.1 General The membrane stresses at an arbitrary point of the shell plating, due to any or all of the above five actions, are completely defined by the following three stress components: x,Sd h,Sd Sd = design membrane stress in the longitudinal direction (tension is positive) = design membrane stress in the circumferential direction (tension is positive) = design shear stress tangential to the shell surface (in sections x = constant and = constant)

Q Q 1, Sd 2, Sd sin + cos rt rt

(2.2.7)

where the signs of the torsional moment and the shear forces must be reflected. Circumferential and longitudinal stiffeners are normally not considered to affect Sd. 2.2.4 Circumferential membrane stress For an unstiffened cylinder the circumferential membrane stress may be taken as:

p r h, Sd = Sd t

(2.2.8)

provided pSd is constant (gas pressure) or a sine or cosine function of (liquid pressure). For a ringstiffened cylinder (without longitudinal stiffeners) the circumferential membrane stress midway between two ring frames may be taken as:

2.2.2 Longitudinal membrane stress If the simple beam theory is applicable, the design longitudinal membrane stress may be taken as:

x,Sd = a,Sd + m,Sd

(2.2.1) where

p r pSd r x, Sd h, Sd = Sd t t +1

(2.2.9)

where a,Sd is due to uniform axial force and m,Sd is due to bending. For a cylindrical shell without longitudinal stiffeners:

a,Sd =

M1,Sd r 2 t

=2

(2.2.10)

N Sd 2rt

M 2,Sd r 2 t cos

(2.2.2)

=

l 1.56 r t

(2.2.11)

m,Sd =

sin

(2.2.3)

= AR l eo t

(2.2.12)

l Cosh 2 cos 2 Sinh 2 + sin 2

l eo =

(2.2.13)

2.2.6 Stresses in shells at bulkheads and ring stiffeners 2.2.6.1 General The below stresses may be applied in a check for local yielding in the material based on a von Mises equivalent stress criterion. The bending stresses should also be accounted for in the fatigue check, but may be neglected in the evaluation of buckling stability. 2.2.6.2 Circumferential membrane stress The circumferential membrane stress at a ring frame for a ring stiffened cylinder (without longitudinal stiffeners) may be taken as:

p r 1 h,Sd = Sd x,Sd t 1 + + x,Sd

and leo may also be obtained from Figure 2.2-1. For simplification of the analysis the following approximation may be made:

For the particular case when pSd is constant and x,Sd is due to the end pressure alone, the above formula may be written as:

1 p Sd r 2 1 = t +1

(2.2.14) (2.2.17)

h,Sd

1.2

In the case of a bulkhead instead of a ring, AR is taken as r tb , where tb is the thickness of the bulkhead. For the

(1 - )

1.0

particular case when pSd is constant and x,Sd is due to the end pressure alone, the above formula can be written as:

1 p Sd r 2 + = t 1+ 2

0.8

(2.2.18)

0.6

0.4 0.2

h,Sd

le0 1.56 rt

1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0

Bending stresses and associated shear stresses will occur in the vicinity of discontinuities such as bulkheads and frames. The longitudinal bending stress in the shell at a bulkhead or a ring frame may be taken as:

p r 3 xm,Sd = Sd h,Sd t 1 2

2.2.5 Circumferential stress in a ring frame For ring stiffened shells the circumferential stress in a ring frame at the distance rr (rr is variable, rr = rf at ring flange position and rr = r at shell) from the cylinder axis may be taken as:

1 r p r hR,Sd = Sd x,Sd 1+ r t r

where h,Sd is given in (2.2.17) or (2.2.18). The circumferential bending stress in the shell at a bulkhead or a ring frame is:

h m,Sd = xm,Sd

(2.2.20)

(2.2.15)

For the particular case when pSd is constant and x,Sd is due to the end pressure alone, the above formula can be written as:

1 p Sd r 2 r = t 1 + rr

(2.2.16)

hR,Sd

For longitudinally stiffened shells should be replaced by A R in eq. (2.2.15) and (2.2.16).

lt

10

0 if a,Sd 0 a0,Sd = a,Sd if a,Sd < 0

3.1 Stability requirement

The stability requirement for shells subjected to one or more of the following components:

(3.2.4)

(3.2.5)

- axial compression or tension - bending - circumferential compression or tension - torsion - shear is given by:

if h,Sd 0, internal net pressure 0 h0,Sd = h,Sd if h,Sd < 0, ext. net pressure

(3.2.6)

a,Sd

= design axial stress in the shell due to axial forces (tension positive), see eq. (2.2.2)

j,Sd f ksd

(3.1.1)

m,Sd = design bending stress in the shell due to global bending moment (tension positive), see eq. (2.2.3). h,Sd = design circumferential stress in the shell due to external pressure (tension positive), see eq (2.2.8), (2.2.9), or (2.2.14). For ring stiffened cylinders shall only stresses midway between rings be used. = design shear stress in the shell due to torsional moments and shear force, see eq. (2.2.5).

j,Sd is defined in Section 3.2, and the design shell buckling strength is defined as:

f ksd

f = ks M

(3.1.2)

Sd

The characteristic buckling strength, fks, is calculated in accordance with Section 3.2. The material factor, M, is given as:

M = 1.15 M = 0.85 + 0.60 s M = 1.45 for s < 0.5 for 0.5 s 1.0 for s > 1.0

fEa, fEm, fEh and fE are the elastic buckling strengths of curved panels or circular cylindrical shells subjected to axial compression forces, global bending moments, lateral pressure, and torsional moments and/or shear forces respectively, where: fEa fEm fEh = elastic buckling strength for axial force. = elastic buckling strength for bending moment. = elastic buckling strength for hydrostatic pressure, lateral pressure and circumferential compression.

(3.1.3)

fE

Shell structures may be subjected to global column buckling. Evaluation of global column buckling is found in Section 3.8.

= elastic buckling strength for torsion and shear force. These may be calculated in accordance with Section 3.3 to 3.7 taking the appropriate buckling coefficients into account.

The characteristic buckling strength of shells is defined as:

f ks = fy 1+ s

4

3.3.1 General This section deals with buckling of shell plate between stiffeners. The buckling mode to be checked is: a) Shell buckling, see Section 3.3.2.

(3.2.1)

where

s =

j,Sd =

2

(3.2.2) 3.3.2 Shell buckling (3.2.3) The characteristic buckling strength is calculated from Section 3.2. The elastic buckling strength of curved panels with aspect ratio l/s > 1 is given by:

2

+ 3 Sd

2E t 12(1 - 2 ) s

2

11

fE = C

(3.3.1)

C = 1+ 2

(3.4.2)

A curved panel with aspect ratio l/s < 1 may be considered as an unstiffened circular cylindrical shell with length equal to l, see Section 3.4.2. The reduced buckling coefficient may be calculated as:

The values for , and are given in Table 3.4-1 for the most important load cases. The curvature parameter Z is defined as:

C = 1+

(3.3.2)

Zl =

The values for , and are given in Table 3.3-1 for the most important load cases.

l2 1- 2 rt

(3.4.3)

For long cylinders the solutions in Table 3.4-1 will be pessimistic. Alternative solutions are:

Table 3.3-1 Buckling coefficient for unstiffened curved panels, mode a) Shell buckling

Axial stress Shear stress

Circumferential compression

t

0.5

0.702 Zs

2

r 0.51 + 150t

calculated as:

t f E = 0,25 E r

32

s 5.34 + 4 l

0.856

s 3/4 Zs l

0.6 0.6

(3.4.4)

s 2 1 + l

1.04

s Zs l

Lateral/hydrostatic pressure

If l > 2,25 r then the elastic buckling strength may be The curvature parameter Zs is defined as:

r t

calculated as:

(3.3.3)

t f Eh = 0,25 E r

2

Zs =

s2 1- 2 rt

(3.4.5)

3.4.1 General

Table 3.4-1 Buckling coefficients for unstiffened cylindrical shells, mode a) Shell buckling

Axial stress Bending Torsion and shear force Lateral pressure1) Hydrostatic pressure2) 1 1 5.34 4 2 0.702 Z l 0.702 Z l

0.856 Z l3 / 4

r 0.51 + 150t

0.5

The buckling modes to be checked are: a) Shell buckling, see Section 3.4.2. b) Column buckling, see Section 3.8.

r 0.51 + 300t

0.5

The characteristic buckling strength of unstiffened circular cylinders is calculated from Section 3.2. The elastic buckling strength of an unstiffened circular cylindrical shell is given by:

t 12(1 - 2 ) l 2E 2

1.04 Z l 1.04 Z l

NOTE 1: Lateral pressure is used when the capped end axial force due to hydrostatic pressure is not included in the axial force. NOTE 2:Hydrostatic pressure is used when the capped end axial force due to hydrostatic pressure is included in the axial force.

fE = C

(3.4.1)

12

3.5.1 General

Ix =

x, Sd t 1 + A r04 500 E l

(3.5.5)

The buckling modes to be checked are: a) Shell buckling, see Section 3.4.2. b) Panel ring buckling, see Section 3.5.2. e) Column buckling, see Section 3.8.

3.5.2 Panel ring buckling

where

A = A st

(3.5.6)

The rings will normally be proportioned to avoid the panel ring buckling mode. This is ensured if the following requirements are satisfied.

3.5.2.1 Cross sectional area.

The cross sectional area of a ring frame (exclusive of effective shell plate flange) should not be less than AReq, which is defined by:

2 A Req 2 + 0.06 l t Z l

The moment of inertia of ring frames inclusive effective width of shell plate in a cylindrical shell subjected to torsion and/or shear should not be less than Ixh, which is defined by:

I xh = Sd

8/5

(3.5.1)

r0 L

1/ 5

Lr0 t l

(3.5.7)

The moment of inertia of ring frames inclusive effective width of shell plate in a cylindrical shell subjected to external lateral pressure should not be less than Ih, which is conservatively defined by:

2 p Sd r r0 l 3 E z t 0 1.5 + Ih = 3E fr 2 r0 h R,Sd 2

The effective moment of inertia of a ring frame (inclusive effective shell plate flange) should not be less than IR, which is defined by:

I R = I x + I xh + I h

(3.5.2)

(3.5.8)

Ix, Ixh and Ih are defined in eq.(3.5.5), (3.5.7) and (3.5.8), (see also Sec. 3.5.2.7), the effective width of the shell plate flange is defined in Sec. 3.5.2.3.

3.5.2.3 Effective width

and

fr > hR,Sd 2

The effective width of the shell plating to be included in the actual moment of inertia of a ring frame shall be taken as the smaller of:

1.56 rt l ef = t 1 + 12 r

The characteristic material resistance, fr, shall be taken as: For fabricated ring frames: fr = fT For cold-formed ring frames: fr = 0.9fT

(3.5.3)

and

l ef = l

(3.5.4)

The torsional buckling strength, fT, may be taken equal to the yield strength, fy, if the following requirements are satisfied:

3.5.2.4 Calculation of Ix

The moment of inertia of ring frames inclusive effective width of shell plate in a cylindrical shell subjected to axial compression and/or bending should not be less than Ix, which is defined by:

h 0.4 t W

E fy

(3.5.9)

13

=

h 1.35 t W E fy

(3.5.10)

fr fE

(3.5.16)

The values for the parameters fr, fE and may be taken as:

(3.5.11)

7h E h 10 + fy r

The characteristic material strength, fr, may be taken equal to the yield strength, fy, if the following requirements are satisfied: Flat bar ring frames:

h 0.4 t W E fy

Otherwise fT may be obtained from section 3.9. zt is defined in Figure 1.3-1. For hR,Sd see section 2.2.5 and for pSd see section 2.1. The assumed mode of deformation of the ring frame corresponds to ovalization, and the initial out-of-roundness is defined by:

w = 0 cos 2

(3.5.17)

h 1.35 t W E fy

(3.5.18)

(3.5.12) (3.5.13)

0 = 0.005 r

7h 10 + E h fy r

(3.5.19)

Alternatively the capacity of the ring frame may be assessed from 3.5.2.7.

3.5.2.7 Refined calculation of Ih for external pressure

If a ring stiffened cylinder, or a part of a ring stiffened cylinder, is effectively supported at the ends, the following procedure may be used to calculate required moment of inertia Ih. For design it might be recommended to start with equation (3.5.8) to arrive at an initial geometry. (The reason is that Ih is implicit in the present procedure in equations (3.5.23) and (3.5.27)). When a ring stiffened cylinder is subjected to external pressure the ring stiffeners should satisfy:

A t rf 1 + R leo t 2 r 1 2

f E = C1 t 2 12(1 - ) L

2E

(3.5.20)

where

B 2 1 + B 0.27 Z L 1+ 1+ 1 + B 1 + B

C1 =

(3.5.21)

pSd 0.75

fk

(3.5.14)

ZL =

L2 1 2 rt

12 1 2 Ih l t3

AR leo t

(3.5.22)

where pSd t rf r leo AR = design external pressure = shell thickness = radius of the shell measured to the ring flange, see Figure 1.2-1. = shell radius = smaller of 1.56 rt and l = cross sectional area of ring stiffener (exclusive shell flange)

B =

(3.5.23)

(3.5.24)

z t 0 rf l C 1 1 2 2 C1 i h r l eo 1 2

0 = 0.005r

i2 = h Ih A R + leo t

(3.5.25)

1 + + 2 1 + + 2 2 4 2 = 2 fr 2

(3.5.26) (3.5.27)

fk

(3.5.15)

where

14

zt

= distance from outer edge of ring flange to centroid of stiffener inclusive effective shell plating, see Figure 1.2-1.

C 2 = 2 1 + 0.27 Z L

3.6.1 General

(3.5.28)

t t

L = distance between effective supports of the ring stiffened cylinder. Effective supports may be: End closures, see Figure 3.5-1a. Bulkheads, see Figure 3.5-1b. Heavy ring frames, see Figure 3.5-1c.

as an unstiffened shell and shall be calculated as an unstiffened shell according to the requirements in Section 3.3.2. Shells with a greater number of stiffeners such that s/t 3 r/t may be designed according to the requirements given below or as an equivalent flat plate taking into account the design transverse stress, normally equal to pSd r/t. The buckling modes to be checked are: a) Shell buckling, see Section 3.6.2 b) Panel stiffener buckling, see Section 3.6.3 e) Column buckling, see Section 3.8.

The moment of inertia of a heavy ring frame has to comply with the requirement given in section 3.5.2.2 with Ix, Ixh and Ih defined in eq. (3.5.5), (3.5.7) and (3.5.8) and with l substituted by LH, which is defined in Figure 3.5-1d.

The characteristic buckling strength is found from Section 3.2 and the elastic buckling strengths are given in 3.3.2.

a.

b.

The characteristic buckling strength is found from Section 3.2. It is necessary to base the strength assessment on effective shell area. The axial stress a,Sd and bending stress m,Sd are per effective shell width, se is calculated from 3.6.3.3. Torsional buckling of longitudinal stiffeners may be excluded as a possible failure mode if the following requirements are fulfilled:

h 0.4 t W E fy

(3.6.1)

T 0.6

d.

(3.6.2)

If the above requirements are not fulfilled for the longitudinal stiffeners, an alternative design procedure is to replace the yield strength, fy, with the torsional buckling strength, fT, in all equations.

T and fT may be found in section 3.9.

15

x,Sd fy

The elastic buckling strength of longitudinally stiffened cylindrical shells is given by:

t 12(1 - ) l

2

= design membrane stress from axial force and bending moment, see eq. (2.2.1) = yield strength

fE = C

2E

(3.6.3)

3.7.1 General

C = 1+

2

(3.6.4)

a)

The values for , and are given in Table 3.6-1 for the most important load cases.

Shell buckling (unstiffened curved panels), see Sec. 3.7.2 b) Panel stiffener buckling, see Sec. 3.6. c) Panel ring buckling, see Sec. 3.7.3 d) General buckling, see Sec. 3.7.4 e) Column buckling, see Sec. 3.8

3.7.2 Shell buckling Table 3.6-1 Buckling coefficients for stiffened cylindrical shells, mode b) Panel stiffener buckling

Axial stress

1 + C A 1+ se t

l 5.34 + 1.82 s

4/3

The characteristic buckling strength is found from Section 3.2 and the elastic buckling strengths are given in Section 3.3.2.

3.7.3 Panel ring buckling

0.702 Z l

0.5

3.7.4 General buckling

1/3 C

0.856 Z 3/4 l

0.6

The rings will normally be proportioned to avoid the general buckling mode. Applicable criteria are given in Section 3.5.

2 1 + 1 + C

1.04 Z l

0.6

where

Zl = l2 1 2 rt

(3.6.5) 3.8.1 Stability requirement

(3.6.6)

2 kL c 2,5 E i fy c

C =

12 1 2 Isef st

3

(3.8.1)

A Isef

= area of one stiffener, exclusive shell plate = moment of inertia of longitudinal stiffener including effective shell width se, see eq. (3.6.7).

where k LC iC IC = effective length factor = total cylinder length = IC /A C = radius of gyration of cylinder section = moment of inertia of the complete cylinder section (about weakest axis), including longitudinal stiffeners/internal bulkheads if any. = cross sectional area of complete cylinder section; including longitudinal stiffeners/internal bulkheads if any.

se s f ks

AC

x, Sd

fy

(3.6.7)

j, Sd

where: fks j,sd = characteristic buckling strength from Section 3.3.2 / 3.4.2. = design equivalent von Mises stress, see eq. (3.2.3).

The stability requirement for a shell-column subjected to axial compression, bending, circumferential compression is given by:

16

2 + m2, Sd a0, Sd 1 f E2

0.5

(3.8.2)

2 2f y b= 1 h,Sd f Ea f Eh

(3.8.10)

c = 2 Sd + h,

2 f y 2 sd h, 2 f Eh

2 fy

(3.8.11)

where a0,Sd m,Sd fakd fkcd fE1,fE2 = design axial compression stress, see eq. (3.2.4) = maximum design bending stress about given axis, see eq. (2.2.3) = design local buckling strength, see Section 3.8.2 = design column buckling strength, see eq. (3.8.4) = Euler buckling strength found from eq. (3.8.3):

2EIc, i 2 k L A i c, i c

f akd =

f ak M

(3.8.12)

= design circumferential membrane stress, see eq. (2.2.8) or (2.2.9), tension positive. fy = yield strength. M = material factor, see eq. (3.1.3). fEa, fEh = elastic buckling strengths, see Section 3.4.

h,Sd

(3.8.3)

, i = 1,2

f Ei =

The torsional buckling strength may be found from:

(3.8.4)

f kcd

f = kc M

if T 0.6 :

fT = 1.0 fy

M fkc

= material factor, see eq. (3.1.3) = characteristic column buckling strength, see eq. (3.8.5) or (3.8.6).

(3.9.1)

The characteristic buckling strength, fkc, for column buckling may be defined as:

f kc = [1.0 0.28 2 ] f ak

f kc = 0.9 f ak

if T > 0.6 :

2 fT 1 + + T = fy

for 1.34

for > 1.34

(3.8.5) (3.8.6)

(1 + + )

2 T 2 2 T

2 4 T

(3.9.2)

where:

= 0.35 ( T 0.6

where

= f ak fE = kLc ic f ak E

(3.9.3) (3.9.4)

(3.8.7)

T =

fy f ET

In the general case eq. (3.1.1) shall be satisfied. Hence fak may be determined (by iteration of equations (3.1.1) to (3.2.6)) as maximum allowable a0,Sd (a,Sd) where the actual design values for m,Sd, h,Sd and Sd have been applied. For the special case when the shell is an unstiffened shell the following method may be used to calculate fak.

f ak = b + b 2 4ac 2a

2 fy 2 f Ea

f ET =

2 Eh s I z GI t + 2 2 I po I po lT

(3.9.5)

(3.8.8)

For L and T stiffeners fET may, when eqs. (3.10.4) and (3.10.5) are satisfied, be found from:

t AW + f Af 2 2 EI z t tW G W + = A W + 3A f 2 AW h + A f lT 3

2

a =1+

(3.8.9)

f ET

(3.9.6)

1 A f b 2 + e f2 12 Af A 1+ f AW

17

Iz =

(3.9.7)

h t C= s tw

(1 )

h t f ET = + 0.2 G w r h

2

(3.9.8)

h t C= le0 t w

and

=

(1 )

j,Sd f ks

(3.9.11)

h = + 2 l T

2

f ET

t G w h

(3.9.9)

j,Sd may be found from eq. (3.2.3) and fks may be calculated from eq. (3.2.1) using the elastic buckling strengths from Sections 3.3.2 or 3.4.2. Ring frames in a cylindrical shell which is not designed for external lateral pressure shall be so proportioned that the reduced slenderness with respect to torsional buckling, T , is not greater than 0.6.

Af AW G Ipo It Iz lT

= 1.0, or may alternatively be calculated as per eq. (3.9.10) = cross sectional area of flange = cross sectional area of web = shear modulus = = = =

r dA polar moment of inertia = where r is

2

3.10.1 Ring stiffeners

b ef h hs t tf tW

= = = = = = =

measured from the connection between the stiffener and the plate stiffener torsional moment of inertia (St. Venant torsion) moment of inertia about centroid axis of stiffener normal to the plane of the plate for ring stiffeners: distance (arc length) between tripping brackets. lT need not be taken greater than rh for the analysis; for longitudinal stiffeners: distance between ring frames flange width flange eccentricity, see Figure 1.3-1 web height distance from stiffener toe (connection between stiffener and plate) to the shear centre of the stiffener shell thickness thickness of flange thickness of web

= 3C + 0.2 C + 0.2

The geometric proportions of ring stiffeners should comply with the requirements given below (see Figure 1.2-1 for definitions): Flat bar ring frames:

h 0.4t w E fy

(3.10.1)

h 1.35 t W E fy

(3.10.2)

If the requirements in eqs. (3.10.1) and (3.10.2) are not satisfied, the characteristic material resistance fr shall be taken as fT (where fT is calculated in accordance with Section 3.9).

b f 0.4t f E fy

(3.10.3)

(3.9.10)

h 2 tw 3 rf A w E h Af f y

(3.10.4)

18

e f 1 rf A w t w 3 h Af

(3.10.5)

The geometric proportions of longitudinal stiffeners should comply with the requirements given below (see Figure 1.3-1 for definitions): Flat bar longitudinal stiffeners:

h 0.4t w E fy

(3.10.6)

h 1.35 t W E fy

(3.10.7)

If the requirements in eqs. (3.10.6) and (3.10.7) are not satisfied, the characteristic material resistance fr shall be taken as fT (where fT is calculated in accordance with Section 3.9).

h 1.35 t W E fy

(3.10.8)

b f 0.4t f

E fy

(3.10.9)

19

x,Sd

4.1 Introduction

This chapter treats the buckling of unstiffened conical shells, see Figure 4.1-1. Buckling of conical shells is treated like buckling of an equivalent circular cylindrical shell.

h,Sd Sd

= design membrane stress in the longitudinal direction = design membrane stress in the circumferential direction = design shear stress tangential to the shell surface (in sections x = constant and = constant)

The loading condition and axes are similar as defined for cylindrical shells in Figure 1.1-1.

4.2.2 Longitudinal membrane stress

N Sd pSd

If simple beam theory is applicable, the longitudinal membrane stress may be taken as:

(4.2.1)

r2

r1

where a,Sd is due to uniform axial compression and m,Sd is due to bending. For a conical shell without stiffeners along the generator:

a,Sd = p Sd r N Sd + 2 t e 2 r t e

sin M 2,Sd cos

(4.2.2)

m,Sd =

M1,Sd

(4.2.3)

r2 te

r2 te

where te = t cos

4.2.1 General

The loading condition governing the stresses in a truncated conical shell, Figure 4.1-1, is normally defined by the following quantities: NSd M1,Sd M2,Sd TSd Q1,Sd Q2,Sd pSd = design overall axial force exclusive of end pressure = design overall bending moment acting about principal axis 1 = design overall bending moment acting about principal axis 2 = design overall torsional moment = design overall shear force acting parallel to principal axis 1 = design overall shear force acting parallel to principal axis 2 = design lateral pressure

h,Sd = p Sd r te

(4.2.4)

where te = t cos

If simple beam theory is applicable, the membrane shear stress may be taken as:

Sd = T,Sd + Q,Sd

Any of the above quantities may be a function of the coordinate x along the shell generator. In addition pSd may be a function of the circumferential co-ordinate , measured from axis 1. pSd is always to be taken as the difference between internal and external pressures, i.e. pSd is taken positive outwards. The membrane stresses at an arbitrary point of the shell plating, due to any or all of the above seven actions, are completely defined by the following three stress components:

(4.2.5)

where T,Sd is due to the torsional moment and Q,Sd is due to the overall shear forces.

T,Sd = TSd 2 r2 t

(4.2.6)

20

Q,Sd =

Q1,Sd r t

cos +

Q 2,Sd rt

(4.2.7)

sin

where the signs of the torsional moment and the shear forces must be reflected.

4.3.1 Buckling strength

The characteristic buckling strength of a conical shell may be determined according to the procedure given for unstiffened cylindrical shells, Section 3.4. The elastic buckling strength of a conical shell may be taken equal to the elastic buckling resistance of an equivalent unstiffened cylindrical shell defined by:

re = r1 + r2 2 cos

(4.3.1)

le =

l cos

(4.3.2)

The buckling strength of conical shells has to comply with the requirements given in Section 3.4 for cylindrical shells. In lieu of more accurate analyses, the requirements are to be satisfied at any point of the conical shell, based on a membrane stress distribution according to Section 4.2.

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