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MANUAL FOR UNDERGROUND INSTALLATION OF GRP PIPES IN THE TRENCHES

BALAJI FIBER REINFORCE PVT. LTD.

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INDEX
INTRODUCTION Section contains the details of procedures to imply in handling and installation of underground GRP Helical winding piping in trenches. PURPOSE Section contains easy to follow directions to help the customer/contractor to understand the requirement for the successful GRP pipes handling and installation. In case of any problem, please contact BALAJI FIBER REINFORCE PVT. LTD., SURVEY 293-1 & 2, SAKARDA BHADARVA ROAD, Nr. POICHA CROSSING, VILL. :POICHA, TA: SAVLI, DIST.: VADODARA 391780, GUJARAT (INDIA) TELEFAX : +91-2667-244795, FAX: +91-265-2250333, Email: balajiuasb@yahoo.co.in, bfrpl@yahoo.co.in SCOPE Section contains details for underground pipe installation in soil conditions as prevalent in the project area. The type of installation based on the site conditions and terrain in the project area.

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1. General Instruction
1.1 Transportation and handling of GRP Pipes
From the lay-down area to the trench site, the pipes shall be transported through trailers.

Prior to unloading of pipes from trailers, all items shall be inspected for any visual/transportation damages. Single pipes must be unloaded and handled separately (one at a time). Use pliable straps, slings or ropes to lift single pipes.

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Do not use steel cables or chains to lift or transport the pipe. Care shall be taken to prevent pipes from rolling or falling from flat bed trailer and this shall be attained by using proper supports. If at any time during handling or installation of the pipe, any damage such as cracks, de-lamination or fracture occurs, the pipe should be repaired before the section is installed. Contact BFRPL for inspection of damage and for recommendation for repair method or the replacement. The rubber gaskets received along with the pipes and fittings shall be stored in shelter with original packing until it is used at site. The gaskets must be protected from exposures to grease or oils, which are petroleum derivatives, and from solvents and other deleterious substances.
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Always use only special vegetable soap (which is free from grease/petroleum products). The lubricant paste shall be mixed with equal ratio of water (1:1) while using it.

1.2 Handling of nested pipes:


We propose to nest various diameter pipes during transportation. Always lift nested bundles using at least two pliable ropes. Always keep nested pipes on site in the original transporting package only. Stacking of these pipes is not advisable. De-nesting of pipes should be done carefully at pre allocated station. Inside pipe may be removed by lifting slightly with an inserted padded boom to suspend the section & carefully move it out without damaging the outer pipe.

1.3 Pipes Preparation at site storage area:


It is convenient and more practical to fix one coupling on each pipe end prior to lower into the trench. Following is the method to join the coupling: Clean the coupling thoroughly from inside, specially the internal groove, from dirt, grease or any material deposition.

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Insert the gasket into the grooves, leaving two or more uniform loops of rubber (depending on pipe diameter) extending out of the groove. Do not put any lubricant in the coupling grooves or on the gasket at this stage. There should be a minimum of one loop for each 450 mm of gasket ring circumference. With uniform pressure, push each loop of the rubber gasket into the gasket groove. When installed, pull carefully on the gasket in the radial direction around the whole circumference to check for well distributed compression of the gasket. Apply lubricant on gasket that will facilitate easily fixing of coupling to the pipe. Also, apply a thin film of lubricant on pipe spigot & align the coupling with pipe. Never use a petroleum based lubricant for GRP pipe jointing. Fix a cross bar on the coupling face. Use two nylon slings & fix the come-along jacks (pullers) at each side of the pipe spring line. Ensure that the coupling & pipe is aligned. Start tightening the puller from both ends same time. The coupling will insert the pipe spigot gradually. Make sure that the black home line marked on the pipe is matching equally in circumference. Loose the pullers & move to other coupling.

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1.4 Angular Deflection of Double Bell Couplings:


Maximum angular deflection (turn) at each coupling joint must not exceed the amounts given in Table A Table A Nominal Pipe Diameter (mm) 350 DN 600 1100 DN 1300 1400 DN 1800 Above 1800 mm dia Angular Deflection (Degrees) 2 1 0.5 0.25

The pipes should be joined in straight alignment and thereafter deflected angularly as required (see figure below)
Pipe - A GRP Coupling Pipe - B

Offset

Deflection Angle Radial Curvature

Figure

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2. UNDERGROUND TRENCHES

INSTALLATIONIN

2.1 Trench excavation trench dewatering


In stable soil condition, the trench excavation shall be made as shown in the below figure:

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In unstable soil condition, the trench width shall be extended to minimum half of pipe diameter at each side. Minimum cover depth above pipe crown should be as below 1.25 mtr or one diameter, whichever is more to take care of buoyancy & full vacuum. In case of high ground water table, adequate dewatering shall be requiring through suction pumps or through well-point system depending on the ground water condition.

2.2 BED & pipe Zone Backfill Materials


Most coarse-grained soils (gravel, crushed stone, good clean murrum and sand) are the recommended bedding & pipe zone backfill materials. Gravel is easier to compact than sand and allows the pipe to be installed deeper, if required. Maximum Particle Size

Table B Pipe Diameter Maximum Gravel or Stone Size More than 600 mm 25 mm Below 600 mm 19 mm
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2.3 Use of Native Soils


Where native soil is used as backfill above the pipe zone, the following conditions apply: a) No rocks greater than maximum gravel size. b) No soil clumps greater than 2 times the maximum gravel size c) No organic material d) No debris like tires, bottles, metals, etc.

2.4 Burial Limitation Minimum cover on pipe crown


The minimum backfill requirement above pipe crown as given above take care of anti buoyancy of empty pipe in high water table area, allow AA class vehicular load (AASHTO-HS20) vehicular traffic on pipe & full vacuum condition.

2.5 Pipe Bedding


Pipe bedding material shall be sand or gravel in accordance to the requirements. The bedding shall be placed after the trench bottom is compacted to provide proper support. Minimum compaction of the bed shall be 90% Standard Proctor Density (70% of maximum relative
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density for crushed rock, crushed stone or gravels) Please note the maximum particle size as given in Table B. The bed must be over-excavated (manual digging is enough) at each coupling joint location to ensure that the pipe will have a continuous support and does not rest on the couplings. However, this area must be properly bedded and backfilled after the joint assembly is completed.

2.6 Pipe Jointing in the Trench


Position the crane near the trench at a safe distance. Unload the pipe and place into the trench. Make sure that the bedding is mechanically compacted prior to pipe laying as per the required specification. After placing the first pipe bring the second pipe near the pipe placed and install it with clamps, chain blocks/pullers as shown in next page.

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2.7 Backfilling Pipe:


When gravel or crushed stone is used as backfill, immediate backfilling after joining is always advisable, to prevent floating of pipe in case of unforeseen monsoon or sudden water flow in the trench. Floating of pipe can damage the pipe and create unnecessary reinstallation costs. Proper selection, placement and compaction of pipe zone backfill are important for controlling the vertical deflection and are critical for pipe performance. Attention must be paid so that the backfill material is not contaminated with debris or other foreign materials that could damage the pipe or cause loss of side support. During backfilling, the granular material should flow completely under the pipe to provide full support. A blunt tool may be used to push and compact the backfill under the pipe.

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Proper backfilling should be done in 150 mm to 300 mm lifts depending on backfill material and compaction material, 300 mm lifts will be adequate since gravel is relatively easy to compact. Sand needs more compaction efforts. The compaction of sandy backfill is most easily accomplished when the material is at or near its optimum moisture content. When backfilling reaches pipe spring-line, all compaction shall be done first near the trench sides and proceeds towards the pipe. It is recommended that placing and compacting of the pipe zone backfill is done in such a way as to cause the pipe ovalize slightly in the vertical direction.

3. Thrust Blocks

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RCC thrust block will be constructed at the places of bends, tees, reducer or at he places of blinds. It is always recommended to use coupling at both the edges of thrust blocks where pipe comes out of the thrust block. We advise to wrap a band of rubber around the coupling prior to placement of any concrete. Rubber should protrude (25mm) from the thrust block edge, Rubber thickness 10 mm & of 50 Durometer. It is always recommended to cast thrust blocks as laying progresses. Before the hydro test all thrust blocks should be completed. We always recommend to fix a short pipe piece of 1 to 2 mtr length on each side of thrust block (immediately after block) with coupling joint. This acts as a rocker pipe to provide additional flexibility to the system in case of uneven settlement if any.

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10 mm 20 mm 300 mm Rubber Wrap Configuration Rubber shall be 50 Durometer

Immediately after thrust blocks we should provide one small pipe piece (1 to 2 mtr length) with coupling on each side of block to take care of uneven settlement.

4. Buoyancy
Minimum cover required on pipe crown to avoid upliftment of empty pipes in high water table areas is one meter or one diameter which ever is more. If sufficient cover is not available and the area has the possibility of high water table RCC precast blocks or institution blocks of required weight are to be used to counteract unbalanced uplift forces.

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4.1 River/Nalah crossing/Road crossing


We need to encase the pipe min 300 mm all around with M20 grade concrete & balance portion of the trench should be backfilled with crushed rock/gravel up to the top of trench. The minimum back fill cover on the pipe should be 1.5 mtr.

4.2 Concrete Encasement:


When pipes (or fittings) must be encased in concrete such as for thrust blocks, stress blocks, or to carry unusual loads, specific additions to the installation procedures as given in 4.3 must be observed.

4.3 Concrete Pouring


The concrete must be place in stages allowing sufficient time between layers for the cement to set and no longer exert buoyant forces. Maximum lift (500 mm) is the maximum depth of concrete that can be poured at one time for a given nominal stiffness class.

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4.4 Flooded trench


When the ground water table is above trench bottom, the water level must be lowered to at least the trench bottom (preferably about 200 mm below) prior to preparation of the bed. Different techniques may be used depending on the nature of the native material for sandy and silty soils a system of well point to a header pipe and a pump is recommended. The spacing between individual well point and the depth at which they will be driven depends on the ground water table and the permeability of the soil. It is important to use a filter around the suction point (coarse sand or gravel) to prevent clogging of the well-point will not work. Dewatering is more difficult to achieve in this case. The use of sumps and pumps is recommended. If the water cannot be maintained below the top of the bedding, sub-drain must be provided. The sub-drain should be made using single size aggregate (20-25 mm) totally embedded in filter cloth. The depth of the sub-drain under the bed depends on the amount of water in the trench. If the groundwater can still not be maintained below the bed, filter cloth should be used to surround the bed (and if necessary the pipe zone area as well) to prevent it from being contaminated by the native material. Gravel or crushed stone should be used for bed and backfill. The following cautions should be noted when dewatering:
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Avoid pumping long distance through the backfill material or native soil, which could cause loss of support to previously installed pipes due to removal of material or migration of the soil. Do not turn of the dewatering system until sufficient cover depth has been reached to prevent pipe floatation.

5. Post installation checks 5.1 Checking the installed pipes


Requirement: Maximum installed diametrical deflection must not exceed the value in the Table initially or long term. Bulges, Flat areas or other abrupt changes of pipe wall curvature are not permitted. Pipes installed outside of these limitations may not perform as intended.

Deflection % of Diameter Large Diameter 3.0 (DN300)

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Checking to ensure that the initial deflection requirements have been met is easy to do and should be done for each pipe immediately after completion of installation (typically within 24 hours after reaching maximum cover). The expected initial pipe deflection after backfilling to gravel level is less than 2% for most installation. A value exceeding the amount indicates that the desired quality of the installation has not been achieved and should be improved for the next pipe (i.e. increased pipe zone backfill compaction, coarser grained pipe zone backfill material or wider trench, etc.) Deflection measurements in each pipe installed area recommended as good check on pipe installation quality. Never let pipe-laying get too far ahead before verifying the installation quality. This will permit early correction of inadequate installation methods. Pipes installed with initial deflection exceeding the value in table must be reinstalled so the initial deflection is less than those values. See next section, correcting OverDeflected pipe, for limitations applicable to this work. Procedure for checking the initial diametrical deflection for installed pipes: 1. 2. 3. Complete backfilling to grade. Complete removal of temporary sheeting (if used) Turn of the dewatering system (if used).

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4. Measure and record the pipes vertical diameter. Note: For smaller diameter pipes, a deflection testing device (commonly called a pig) may be pulled through the pipes to measure the vertical diameter. 5. Calculate vertical deflection: (Actual I.D. Installed Vertical I.D.) % Deflection = ------------------------------------------- x 100 Actual I.D. Actual I.D. may be verified or determined by measuring the diameters of a pipe not yet installed laying loose (no pipes stacked above) on a reasonable plane surface. Calculate as follows: Actual I.D. = (vertical I.D. + Horizontal I.D.)/2.

I.D.

I.D.

Determining Actual Pipe ID on pipe not yet installed

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5.2 Correction Over-Deflected Pipes


Pipes installed with diametrical deflection exceeding the value in the above table must be corrected to ensure the long-term performance on the pipe.

Procedure
For pipe deflected up to 8% of diameter. 1. Excavate down to the haunch area, which is approximately 85% of the pipe diameter. Excavation just above at the sides of the pipe should be done utilizing hand tools avoid impacting the pipe with heavy equipment. 2. Inspect the pipe for damage. Damaged pipe should be repaired or replaced. 3. Re-compact haunch backfilling, insuring it is not contaminated with unacceptable back fill material soil. 4. Re-back fill the pipe zone in lifts with the appropriate material, compacting each layer top required relative compaction density. 5. Back fill to grade and check the pipe deflection to verify they have not exceeded the initial values in Table 5.1.
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6. For pipe deflected greater than 8% pipe diameter. Pipes with over 8% deflection should be replaced completely. Caution: Do not attempt to jack or wedge the installed over-deflected pipe in to a round condition. This may cause damage to the pipe. If excavating multiple pipes, care must be taken to not mound the cover from one pipe over the adjacent one. The extra cover and reduction of side support could magnify an over-deflected situation.

Important note:
For any further details please refer installation manual given by us. Please note that it is always recommended to use that as the basic guideline for GRP pipes, in above method statement we have added only those points related to this project, however, it is always recommended to get familiar with our manual, which represents our experience for last 30 years. For further assistance, contact: Balaji Fiber Reinforce Pvt. Ltd.
Survey No. 293-1 & 2, Sakarda Bhadarva Road, Near Poicha Crossing, Village: poicha (Khandi), Ta: Savli, Dist.: Vadodara 391 780 Gujarat, INDIA Telefax: +91-2667-244795, FAX: +91-2667-2250333 Email: balajiuasb@yahoo.co.in, bfrpl@yahoo.co.in
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FIELD HYDROTEST STATEMENT FOR UNDERGROUND INSTALLATION OF GRP PIPES

Balaji Fiber Reinforce Pvt. Ltd. Survey 293-1 & 2, Sakarda Bhadarva Road, Near Poicha Crossing, Vill. :Poicha, Ta: Savli, Dist.: Vadodara 391780 Gujarat(India) TELEFAX : +91-2667-244795, FAX: +91-265-2250333 Email: balajiuasb@yahoo.co.in, bfrpl@yahoo.co.in

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FIELD HYDROTEST GRP PIPING UNDER GROUND PIPING SYSTEM-COUPLING JOINTS.


Field hydro test could be conducted in segments or as complete piping system.

Segment Hydro testing:


Distances of 500 mtrs to 1 KM (min length) will be decided by BFRPL installation engineer according to site conditions to test the installed piping system in segments. A clearance (undisturbed original soil) of 10 meters minimum shall be maintained between the segments which will take care of end thrust to be transmitted through end caps. In this gap will be later installed as Make-Up pipe piece with double spigot calibrated piece to facilitate the jointing on existing segment.

FIXING TEST PLUGS


1. USING BLIND CAPS: Blind end cap is MS/GRP coupling with one end closed through lamination, while
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the other end is with groove for rubber gasket to work as sealing the end. MS end caps having one end machined same as dia of spigot OD can also work. Fix the end cap on the last pipe end to be tested after placing the rubber gasket into end cap groove. Join with the spigot pipe end through pullers/ come-along jacks. Necessary openings could be provided to the end caps for ventilation/pressure gauge. Pressure gauges can be fixed on these opening (there is a screw type connection). After segment test, these end caps could be removed through pullers & upon rubber gasket replacement, could be reused for other segments.

END CAPS ARE AVAILABLE ON SEPARATE PURCHASE ORDER OR INSTALLATION CONTRACTOR CAN ALSO GET THEM FABRICATED. WE WILL PROVIDE SPIGOT OD FOR MACHINING. Drawings and end cap can be supplied by Balaji Fiber Reinforce Pvt. Ltd.
2. Hydrotest using flange & blind flange Flange will be of GRP & Blind flange can be metallic. Adequate concrete block supports shall be provided to the end cap to prevent the pipe movement during hydro test. After removal of the end caps after the hydro-test, there will no movement of the pipe.
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NOTE: CONCRETE BLOCK SUPPORT TO THE BOTH ENDS IS MUST TO TAKE CARE OF END THRUST. PREPARATION PRIOR TO HYDROTEST: Make sure that the test method statement is available with full understanding of implementation to the testing team. Fixing ventilation at highest points, minimum two pressure gauges and filling points with valves or all the ventilation, fill points with valves can be fabricated on end cap.

Drawings and end cap can be supplied by Balaji Fiber Reinforce Pvt. Ltd.
The values and reading at the pressure shall be calculated taking into account the static head between the lowest pipe invert level along the complete line and the level of the pressure gauge. All flanges are tightened to the specified torque bolt sequence. The method is as follows. Thoroughly clean the flange face and the O-ring groove. Ensure the sealing gasket is clean and undamaged. Position sealing gasket in groove. Align flanges to be joined.

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Insert bolts, washers and nuts. All hardware must be clean and lubricated to avoid incorrect tightening. Washers must be used on all GRP flanges. Tighten all bolts by a torque wrench, following standard flange bolt tightening sequences. Repeat this procedure, raising the bolt torque until the flanges touch at their inside edges. Do not exceed this torque. To do so may cause permanent damage to GRP flanges.

FLANGED JOINT

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Make sure that the valves are anchored and the above ground piping, if any is supported as specified.

FOR 600 OR ABOVE DIA PIPES, SINGLE PERSON SHOULD NOT BE ALLOWED TO GET INSIDE OF PIPING FOR INSPECTION
Wooden ladder shall be available at each manhole/opening during the inspection of more than 1200 mm dia GRP pipe. Pipe fittings like valves should be closed, gauges should be fit properly. Upon verification of the inspection, when the findings are all judged acceptable & recorded, manhole covers shall be closed. Prior to start water filling, temporary piping & blinds shall be installed, checked & verified by the clients/ consultant/ contractor representatives.

WATER FILLING & PRESSURIZING THE SYSTEM:


(It shall be confirmed that all vent points are fully opened to atmosphere, prior to start of water filling to allow the release of air from the pipeline as the water is filled)

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Start water filling through temporary hosing & pump at lowest point. Pump capacity shall be chosen according to the pipe diameter and segment/system linear length. The sign of complete water filling when the water starts coming through higher point ventilation opened valves ensure that no air entrapment is left. Stop water pumps at this stage & check the flanges, valves and connected accessories for any seepage/ leakage while keeping the vents open.

PRESSURIZING:
Start pressurizing the segment/ system through pump. Once the water starts coming out through vent opening, close the valves at low elevation. Later, on the high elevation end the vent. Valves shall be closed as well after water starts coming. The pressure increment shall be maintained at 0.5 Bar/10 minutes at this stage. When the pressure reaches up to working pressure then the pump shall be stopped. Keep this stoppage for 15-20 minutes. During this time, following checks shall be made: A) Pressure at each test gauge shall be checked & recorded on inspection sheet. B) Watch the pressure at the water feed point for any decrease in pressure.
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C) Walk through along with the underground lines to observe any traces of wet soil and any unusual at every interval of 30-45 minutes. The length of test section as already stated is between 500 mtrs. to 1 Km. Continue this till the required pressure is achieved. The inspection sheet shall be maintained for the observations & find. ANY PRESSURE DROP, VALVE LEAKAGES SHALL BE IMMEDIATELY REPORTED TO THE TEAM LEADER. 1. Unless there are no findings which prevent the test from continuing, the segment/ system shall be further pressurized. 2. Connect the hose with the pressure pump and start pressurizing the line. At this stage, slightly open the vent. Valve fixed at higher elevation to ensure that no entrapped air is present. 3. Upon confirmation of water coming out, the vent. Valve shall be closed. The system is now totally closed and under pressure. 4. Continue the pressure pump until it reaches to filled test pressure. During this operation, the pump shall be constantly attended for pressure control.
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5. Stop the pressure pump once it reaches to filled test pressure and let it to stabilize. 6. There could be a drop in pressure due thermal expansion, which could either be make-up by re starting the pump or keep it as is & record on the inspection sheet. 7. Keep this stoppage for about 30 minutes. During this period, repeat the same sequence of inspection as described earlier. 8. The findings & observations shall be recorded on inspection sheets. ANY PRESSURE DROP, VALVE LEAKAGES SHALL BE IMMEDIATELY REPORTED TO THE TEAM LEADER. Unless there are no findings which prevent the test from continuing, the segment/system shall be further pressurized to a field test pressure as per THIS TEST PRESSURE SHALL BE MAINTAINED FOR PERIOD OF MAXIMUM THIRTY MINUTES AFTER PRESSURE STABILZATION. Through inspection shall be made as FINAL INSPECTION. After the test pressure is reached then check for any drop in pressure. Fill up the inspection sheets accordingly.

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The test shall be considered as PASS if no signs of leakage are observed, the inspection sheet(s) shall be signed by the authorities.

POST HYDROTEST:
After completion of the test, open all vent valves. Drain or flush out the filled water from the pipe segment/system through drain valves. This pressure release shall be made slowly at 2 Bar/ 5 minutes. Remove the end cap from the segment as per procedure and close the same with temporary cover to avoid any particles from entering inside the line. BFRPL installation/site engineer will advice you in this process. Prepare the pipe end to be ready for next installation. Connect the adjacent segment ends with closure pipe piece. Continue the installation for the segments & conduct the hydro test in the similar manner as described earlier, keep connecting the segments through closure spools. The clearance maintained between the two segments can be later installed as Make-Up pipe piece with double spigot calibration to facilitate the jointing on existing pipe
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segment. The test of this Make-Up pipe piece can be done during the time of commissioning.

THIS PROCEDURE IN MANDATORY TO THE INSTALLER ANY DEVIATION SHALL BE CONSULTED WITH BALAJI FIBER REINFORCE PVT. LTD. SITE SUPERVISOR

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