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PVT Express Delivering early fluid analysis data

PVT Express

PVT Express Delivering early fluid analysis data

Delivering early fluid analysis data

Applications

Pressure-volume-temperature (PVT) data collection for proj- ects in which early delivery of results is critical

Projects in locations in which access to PVT laboratories is limited by geographical location and/or local shipping regulations

Validation of sample quality dur- ing wireline formation testing, drillstem testing, or production testing operations

Compositional monitoring of separator gas or reservoir fluid samples, providing information to optimize gas condensate fluid sampling

Benefits

Eliminates risks associated with operation and transportation of mercury PVT laboratory equip- ment

Allows rapid mobilization to any geographic location

Delivers PVT results within 8 hours

Enables informed decisions during logging and well-testing operations

Delivers high-quality PVT data on a complete range of hydrocarbon fluids (heavy oil to gas conden- sate)

Reduces sample shipping and storage costs

Features

Measurement techniques based on proven PVT laboratory proce- dures

Very small volume of sample required for full PVT study (less than 50 cm 3 )

Included fiber-optic sensor to measure saturation pressure of gas condensates and volatile oils

Modular, rugged construction for transportation by road, sea, or air.

Patented helium ionization detector used in dual gas chromatograph (GC) [gas C 12+ , liquid C 36+ ]

Advanced hardware and soft- ware technology that provides accurate measured and pre- dicted PVT data

Accurate testing for oil-base mud contamination in samples collected with wireline forma- tion test tools

Advanced mobile fluid analysis service

The Schlumberger PVT Express* service is based on a revolutionary hardware and soft- ware platform that can deliver comprehen- sive fluid analysis data in a matter of hours. This system has many advantages over traditional PVT equipment and services. The utilization of mercury-free technology elimi- nates the inherent health, safety, and envi- ronmental (HSE) risks associated with the use and transportation of mercury. Modular, rugged construction facilitates transporta- tion by road, sea, and air to any geographic location, including a local operations base or the wellsite itself. The mobility and flexi- bility of the PVT Express system allow results to be delivered in hours rather than weeks or months, in part because of the elimination of long sample transportation wait times. This system has applications in explo- ration, development, and production envi- ronments. Acquiring sample quality data and measuring reservoir fluid properties during wireline formation testing operations mean our customers do not have to wait weeks or months to determine if the objec- tives of the sampling operation were achieved. Analysis at the wellsite enables decisions about additional wireline forma- tion testing or drillstem testing operations. Similarly, during drillstem testing operations the PVT Express service can be used to ensure that representative samples have been collected before leaving the well.

Fluid properties generated by the service can be used to set up the PhaseWatcher* multiphase well production monitoring equipment and to generate data for produc- tion optimization strategies. With the current emphasis on fast-track field development, having swift results is critical. Utilizing the PVT Express service at the wellsite or a local support base can overcome the problem of data delivery delays.

Hardware

Using a conventional or single-phase sample collected by the MDT* Modular Formation Dynamics Tester or the CHDT* Cased Hole Dynamics Tester, the PVT Express system employs advanced technology to measure some properties and predict others.

The PVT Express system features a high- pressure PVT cell that measures the satura- tion pressure of the reservoir fluid at reservoir temperature. Accurate measure- ment of bubblepoint and dewpoint pressure is made possible by optical signal technol- ogy that measures the first bubble of gas lib- erated from oil and the first traces of condensable liquid in a gas during constant temperature expansion from reservoir pres- sure. An additional advantage of the PVT Express high-pressure cell is the ability to produce a comprehensive fluid analysis report with less than 50 cm 3 of single-phase

A PVT Express specialist completes a reservoir fluid flash analysis. Laboratory equipment shown includes a PVT
A PVT Express specialist completes a reservoir fluid flash analysis. Laboratory equipment shown includes a PVT cell,
a temperature-controlled gas/oil ratio (GOR) liquid trap, an atmospheric liquid densitometer, and a viscometer.
PVT Express delivers early fluid property results from openhole, cased hole, or surface samples. Data quality
PVT Express delivers early fluid property results from openhole, cased hole, or surface samples. Data quality
is assured by a global network of fluid analysis centers.

reservoir fluid. This is significantly less volume than traditional mercury PVT equipment requires.

A proprietary dual chromatograph (oil and gas), featuring patented helium ion- ization detectors, is used to deliver com- positional data. Flame ionization detectors typically utilize hydrogen gas. Helium ionization technology eliminates the requirement to use hydrogen, thus enhancing the safety and mobility of the service. All data measured by the high-pressure cell are displayed and stored in real time by a digital interface module. In addition to interpreting and reporting the meas- ured data, this interface module also links to the Schlumberger PVT Expert* predic- tion model.

Software

The PVT Expert system is an operator- independent, multidimensional prediction model that delivers instant and reliable volumetric phase behavior fluid proper- ties from a specific set of measured data. In contrast to equation-of-state prediction models, the PVT Expert system is ideally suited to wellsite operations, requiring no time-consuming tuning operations. In addition to providing rapid fluid analysis data, this prediction model includes a quality assurance tool that provides instant evaluation of the quality of the fluid property predictions.

Data quality management process

To ensure the quality of the data reported by the PVT Express service, it will be sup- ported by Schlumberger fluid analysis experts strategically located in a global network of fluid analysis centers and lab- oratories. An integral and key feature of the PVT Express service is the data qual- ity-control service provided by our analy- sis experts. Customized to suit the specific needs of the project, the quality control service will range from real-time support of wellsite operations to review of the report before delivery to the cus- tomer.

Graph comparing PVT Express-predicted oil viscosities with measured laboratory oil viscosities. PVT Express Viscosity Prediction versus
Graph comparing PVT Express-predicted oil viscosities with measured laboratory oil viscosities.
PVT Express Viscosity Prediction versus Measured Laboratory Viscosity Data
Laboratory measured viscosities
PVT Express viscosities
Viscosity
Pressure
Graph comparing PVT Express-predicted formation volume factors (FvF) with measured laboratory formation volume factors. PVT Express
Graph comparing PVT Express-predicted formation volume factors (FvF) with measured laboratory formation
volume factors.
PVT Express FvF Prediction versus Measured Laboratory FvF Data
Oil formation
volume factor
Laboratory FvF
PVT Express FvF
Pressure

Case history

The PVT Express system has been tested in the world’s harshest environments, from the Middle East deserts to offshore Newfoundland, providing early PVT data for critical wellsite decisions. In a well offshore Newfoundland, hydrocarbon samples were vital in char- acterizing the reservoir fluid and as input for the formulation of field development plans. It was critical that uncontaminated samples be recovered without undergoing phase changes. In addition, the measured fluid properties of the recovered MDT samples were to be compared with known properties of samples collected from the exploratory well. If the fluid properties were similar, a costly well-test- ing program could be avoided. The PVT Express system delivered two complete PVT studies within hours of recovering the MDT samples at the sur- face. These results matched the known PVT properties from the exploratory well. Running a full well test was deemed unnecessary, which saved a significant

amount of money. In another well in Oman, the objectives were to ensure representative gas conden- sate bottomhole samples were collected during a well test and to monitor surface gas and liquid composition to achieve sta- bilized flow. The first set of bottomhole gas conden- sate samples analyzed in the PVT Express laboratory exhibited a measured dew- point close to the flowing bottomhole pressure, indicating the samples were nonrepresentative. Consequently, the well was produced on a lower choke, and a second set of bottomhole samples was collected. The dewpoint measured on this set of bottomhole samples was well below the flowing bottomhole pressure, indicating the well was producing monophasically into the wellbore and rep- resentative bottomhole samples were being recovered. Two gas condensate con- stant-volume-depletion PVT studies were completed at the wellsite using the PVT Express system in addition to 15 surface sample compositional studies.

PVT Express analytical flow diagram. Monophasic sample Saturation pressure determination at bottomhole temperature Flash to atmospheric
PVT Express analytical flow diagram.
Monophasic sample
Saturation pressure determination at
bottomhole temperature
Flash to
atmospheric conditions
Gas
Liquid
GOR
GC analysis
GC analysis
Density
Molecular
Molecular
Reservoir fluid
Viscosity
composition
composition
molecular composition
PVT Expert
prediction
Physical sample
Physical properties
Physical measurement
predictions
Calculated data
REPORT

Measured Fluid Properties

Black Oil

Gas Condensate

Bubblepoint pressure Live oil compressibility Fluid density at bubblepoint pressure Flash GOR

Dewpoint pressure Fluid density at dewpoint pressure Flash gas molecular mass (specific gravity) Flash GOR

Stock tank oil density (API gravity)

Condensate density (API gravity)

Flash gas composition (C 12+ )

Flash gas composition (C 12+ )

Stock tank oil composition (C 36+ )

Stock tank oil composition (C 36+ )

Reservoir fluid composition (C 36+ )

Reservoir fluid composition (C 36+ )

Flash gas molecular mass (specific gravity)

Z factor at dewpoint pressure

Stock tank oil molecular mass

Stock tank liquid molecular mass

Reservoir oil molecular mass

Reservoir fluid molecular mass

Reservoir oil viscosity (not standard equipment—optional)

Predicted PVT Properties

Constant composition expansion at reservoir temperature -Oil compressibility -Oil relative volume

Constant composition expansion at reservoir temperature -Single- and two-phase relative volume -Single- and two-phase fluid compressibility -Retrograde liquid deposit

Differential liberation at reservoir temperature -Oil formation volume factor -Solution GOR -Oil density -Oil viscosity -Produced gas gravity (molar mass) -Produced gas Z factor

Constant volume depletion at reservoir temperature -Cumulative produced fluid to depletion -Single- and two-phase fluid Z factor -Retrograde liquid deposit -Produced gas gravity (molar mass)

Separator test at specified separator pressure and temperature -Oil formation volume factor -Separator shrinkage factor -Tank, separator, and total GOR -Separator oil density -Stock tank oil density (API gravity)

†Based on industry standards

www.slb.com/oilfield

SMP-5916

©Schlumberger

June 2003

*Mark of Schlumberger

PVT Express analytical flow diagram. Monophasic sample Saturation pressure determination at bottomhole temperature Flash to atmospheric