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8

13

1.
1.
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1.1. ''
1.2.
1.3.
1.4. , : 'langue' 'parole'; ''
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1.5. :
1.6. ; ,
1.7.

17
17
19
22
26
32
38
47
55

2.
2.
2.0.
2.1.
2.2. ;

2.3.
2.4.
2.5.
3.
3.0.
3.1.
3.2.
3.3. ( )
3.4.

63
63
65
71
76
82
87
91
91
93
98
104
111

4.
4.0.
4.1.
4.2.
4.3.
4.4.
4.5.

117
117
118
122
129
132
139

3.
5.
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5.2.
5.3.
5.4.
5.5.
5.6.
5.7.
5.8.

147
147
148
150
154
156
157
160
162
165

6.
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6.7.
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168
168
169
172

7.
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7.3.
7.4.
7.5.
7.6.

177
182
185
191
197
208
214
214
215
218
224
230
236
241

7
4.

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251

8.0.
8.1.
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251
252
257
264
269

9. ; -
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275
275
276

10.
10.0.
10.1.
10.2.
10.3.
10.4.
10.5. ,
10.6.

309
309
310
318
328
336
343
352

360
363
373

279
282
288
293
306



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26

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33

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35

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( , , (salient)
), . ,
,
( )
, .


() ,
. ,
: , 'solei'
'sole2' ( , :
),
, () "
", " ". ,
,
, ,
.

.
,
,
.
, ,
, ,
'bank | ' ' 2 , 'sole1' 'solei'.
,
, ''
. ''
, , (
).
, ,
, ( ), ( -
).
, .
, : (i) (
- )
( ) -

1.5. :

45

; (ii)
. '' (
'')
, (.
Lyons 1968: 135137).
, ''
.
,
,
, ( ) ,
(not only form, but a form). ,
(
) , ,

. ,
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.
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, (

), ,
( ''),
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, .
(
,

.)

. , ,

; , ,
.
.

:
( ).

46

1.

, ( )
,
( , , ): . soul
sole [soul]2, great grate [greit], red read [red] (
). , (
)
,
: . read ( have read [red] will read [ri:d]), blessed ( The
bishop blessed [blest] the congregation '
' Blessed [blesid] are the peacemakers '
'). ,
,
. ,
, .
, ,
,
, ,
.
,
, ,
, ()
,
: . man ( , ),
man's ( , ), (
, ), men's ( ,
). , 'man',
,
( )
().
,
(, , )
. ,
'come' '' (they come), ,

{they have come).


. . .

1.6. ; ,

47

? : ,
. they come ,
they have come, ,
( , ).
they come they have

'come'. , ,
,
,
( ) have learned, ( ) have
learnt ( ),
learned learnt
( ).
, , (
) ,
,
'learn' ', ' (
) .

. ,


,
,
. ,
'' , . ,
,
,
, ,
.

1.6. ; ,
( ) ,
,
(1.5).
: (i) ,
, , ; () -

48

1.

, , ,
.
- .
. ,
,
.
,
, .
,
( ,
) . ,
(22) (23), (
), .
,
,
:
(22) 'It was raining yesterday' ' '

(23) 'Was it raining yesterday?' ' ?'.


(24) (25). ,
, ,

:
(24) 'John admires Mary' ' '

(25) 'Mary admires John' ' '.


,
( ,
),
,
. ,
,
.
, ,
,
.


(, , )

1.6. ; ,

49

,
. ,


.
,

. , , ,
, , , ,
.

.

,
.
,
.
.
.
'' ('utterance')
( '' '
' '(', 'conversation')). '', ,
. '
' ''
.
,
,
.
.
, '' '',
'', '' ''
.
, .
,
,
. ,
,
, ,
,
. .

4 3113

50

1.

. ,
, ,
,
. ,
-, .
,
.
( )
, (conversation)
.
, , '', ''
'' ( '')
, :
, ,

(1.4). , ;
;
.
: , '
'
,
,
,
. , ,
, (inscriptions, , ''), . .
, ,
. , (
'') ;
-
, .
, ,
,
,
, -
. (. . - -)
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), ,
. ,
, (

1.6. ; ,

51

-) .
,
,
-
.

.
,
, , .
,
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,
(1.3). ,
,
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,
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,

, .

, ,
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.

.
, ,
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.
. ,
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,
.
Mary won't ' ', ,
,
, , , . .
4*

52

1.

,
,

.
,
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, . .
, . , , ,
- ,
, ,
,
; , , ,
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,
.
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,
(5.2).

,
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' (utter a sentence), ,
,
,
. ,
-.

.
. -,
( ) ,
:
( )
, . -,
(
) , ,
,

1.6. ; ,

53

. ,
, :
() ,
,
()
, (make statements), :
(26) 'Exercise is good for you' ' '

(27) 'I prefer mine with ice' ' '.



,
: ,

, ,
, :
(28) 'What time is lunch?' ' ?'
. , (22)
'It was raining yesterday' ' ' (23) 'Was it raining
yesterday?' ' ?'
,
,
.
'
' ' '.

, ,

.
, (
)
,
. ,

,
,
; , ,

( ,

, . .). , , , -

54

1.

,

, .
,
,
.

- ,
.
,
. ,
,
. , ,
.
, ,


.
, (29)
(26)
,
(
, . .), :
(29) Exercise is good for you? ' ?'


(, , )
.
,
,
,
, .

.
.
, 3 4,


,
.

1.7.

55

1.7.
,
?
:
(I) ( ) ("
, ", , () ''
() ; ''
, , );
(II) , , ("
, , ,
");
(III) ("
, , ,
, ");
(IV) ("
, , ");
(V) (" ,
,
, , ");
(VI) - ("
, ").
,
,
.

, ,
.
, . ,
,
,
, .
, ,
, ,
, . ,

.
,
? :

56

1.

. , ,
(Wittgenstein 1953);
. ,
, ,
, . ,
'meaning' '' 'mean' ''
. ,
, ,
'' '';
,
, , , ,
, . ,
'meaning' 'mean'

, , , ,
. , :
(30) 'What is the meaning of concept"?' ' 'concept'?'

(31) 'What do you mean by the word 'concept'?' '


'concept'?'

(30) 'Quel est le sens de 'concept' [en anglais]?'

(31a) 'Qu'est-ce que tu veux dire par le mot [anglais] 'concept'?'


( ) ;

(30b) 'Was ist die Bedeutung von 'concept' [auf Englisch]?'

(31b) 'Was meinst du mit dem [englischen] Wort 'concept'?';



(30c) ' [ ] 'concept'?'

(31) ' [] 'concept'?'


.
, 'concept',
,
. , -

1.7.

57

, (31).
, , -
,
.
.
,
(31) ,
, ,
'to mean' (utterer's meaning),
,
( 'vouloir dire' ' ',
'meinen'), (. '
'). ,
, , .
, , ,

'meaning'
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, (
,
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.
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), ,
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.
.
,
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58

1.

,
.
, ,
,
,
,
.
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, .
?
?

(, , ),
,
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-
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' ('attitudinal') '
'.) , . .
, , -

1.7.

59

, , ,
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.

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,
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60

1.

.
, ,
,
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,
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.

, ,
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2

2.0.
, ,
, 1
, ( ),
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.
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, ''
,
.
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.
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.
(phrases) . . .

64

2.


, ,
(, ,
). , ''
, .
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2
,
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.
,
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, 1.2)
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, -
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,

, .
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,

2.1.

65


. , ,
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,

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2.1.
,
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, (1.6).
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, (1.5). ,
'' ,
.
,
.
5 3113

66

2.

. ,
. . (18391914)
( ,
tokens) .
. :
(1) ' who laughs last laughs longest' ' ,
', . ', , '.
, ,
: . ,
,
(laughs) :
( (instances)) .

. ,
, ''
.
, , ,
,
.
. :
(2) 'If he is right and 1 am wrong, we are both in trouble' ' ,
, '?

.

(
).

. ,
(, )
-. is, am are
.
'' (2)
; , ,
11 .
'', ,
- () . -, ,
. ,
,

2.1.

67

,
(1.5).
, ,
,
() ,
.

. ,
(3) 'They have found it impossible to found hospitals or charitable institutions
of any kind without breaking the law' ' ,
,
'
{found)
, .
,
,
, ''.
,
, '' '', '-'.
, ,
. ,
; , ,
,
. , 'pass muster' ' '
, pass muster, passes
muster, passed muster . .
(tokens) .
.
, ,
. ,
:
, (. .
) ,
. 'pass muster'
, 'pass the examination' '
' . , ,
. (
) , 5*

68

2.

, -
.
, 'politeness' ''
'polite' ''
.
'politeness'
(. .
), ,
( )
.
, -,
. ,
, ,
. ,
,
,

.
(. . ) ,
'pass muster' (
,
), , 'red
herring' ' ',
'red herring' ' '
", ".
, ( 'red herring1')
'pass muster' , , -
'red herring2' 'pass the examination',
.

()
,
. ,
, .

( ),
,

.

.

2.1.

69


. ,
,
.
, ,
: ,
. , 'girl*
'' 'girls' '' (
), :
(
), (
),
,
,
, :
. ,
, (. . ),
, .
,
: ,
() ,
() .
, ,
(
, , ,
).
.
, , ,
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(4) 'That sheep over there belongs to the farmer next door' '
'
(5) 'Those sheep over there belong to the farmer next door' '
'.
(4) ,
(5)? ,
,
. ,
(

70

2.

) (
), .
. ,
(4) ,
(5), ,

,
.
(4) (5) ,
. , , ,
.
, .
,
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,
,
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,

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,
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, , -

2.2.

71


,
(
) ,
, ,
.
,
,
.

2.2. ;

, ,

'bank1' 'bank2', "
", " ".
. ,
, .

.
, ,
'' ''.
, ,
, .
.
, , .

(
):
(i) ;
() ;
(iii) .
: . 'bank 1 '
'b2'; 'sole1' (" ") 'sole 2 ' ("
"); . .

72

2.

,
. ,
() () , ()
,
. , 'find' ', ' 'found' '
, ' found,
finds, finding founds, founding
. ., a found 'find'
found 'found'. ,
, ()
(iii).
, ,

,
.

, . found
'find'
found 'found',
. , , found

'found', 'find'.
(. (3) 2.1),
(6) They found hospitals and charitable institutions ' /
'
'found'

'find'. , 'found' 'find'
( )
, ,
, , , 'hospi
tals and charitable institutions'. 'hospitals and charitable insti
tutions' ,
, (6)
.
(6)
.
,
'found'
'find'. ,
( ) -

2.2.

73

found, 'found',
found, 'find'.
,
,
, ,
.
have found
(7) They have found hospitals and charitable institutions '
',
. have
found
:
(7), found
.
'find'
( ).
'found', ,
founded. (
'found'
; , 'find' ,
, .)
, (6),
they he she:
(8) He/she found hospitals and charitable institutions ' /

'.
,

( 'be') ,


( , , , 'may'
''), . finds .find founds -.found. ,
(8) found
'find' .
(6) , ,
(9) He/she founds hospitals and other charitable institutions '/
'
, ,
(10) He/she foundedhospitals and other charitable institutions ' /
'.

74

2.

,
,
. ,

: ,

. ,
'last 1 ' '' ( 'last week' ' ')
'Iast2' ', ' ( 'Bricks last a long time'
' ') .
, last,

, .

. ,
( ),
,
.
,
, ,
,
,
.

,

. , 'rung' '
' 'ring' ''
:
(11) A rung of the ladder was broken ' ';
(12) The hell was rung at midnight ' '.
,
,
,
,
.
,
.
,
. ,

2.2.

75

, ,
.
, - .
. (
) ,
, ("
") .
. ,
, ,
.
,
,
.
,
.

?
, ,
: ( )
. ,
,
, .
, , ,
'bat|' ' ' ("
") 'bat 2 ' '' (",
") ,
:
'bat|'
'bakke', a 'bat 2 ' 'butt' "".
,
, ,
. ,
, .
'solei' (" ") 'sole 2 ' (" "),
,
;
. ,

,
.
, ,

76

2.

,
. ,
. ,
, , 'shock1'
'shock of corn' ' ' 'shock2' 'shock of hair'
' ' .
.
, .
, , , :

.
, ,
. ,
, , ,
, 'foot' " "
" ".

. , ,
. (
'')
. ,


,
,
.
, , ,
.

2.3.
, , .
. -,

,
, . , ,
.
, ,
,

2.3.

77

.
,
( (Roget 1852)
), , : ,
, . -,
, ,
,
,
, .
-
'mist' ' ' 'fog' ' ', 'stream' ',
, ' 'brook' '', 'dive' ' , '
'plunge' ' , '.
,
-,
, ,
(. . ) .
,

,
. (,
.) ( )
,
:
(i) ;
() ;
(iii) (. .
) ,
.

, ,
,
, ,
-.
,
() -
() ,

78

2.

.
.
'big'
'' 'large' '' (
).
,
(13) 'They live in a big/large house' ' '.
.
, 'big' 'large'
( (i))
, . :
(14) 'I will tell my big sister' ' [] /
'
-
'big',
(15) 'I will tell my large sister' ' [] (= )
'
.
. , 'big'
, 'large'.
,
, .
(ii).
,
. ,
,
. .
'big' 'large'. 'large'
'big' ( ,
'big' 'large'),
. , 'large' 'big'

(16) 'You are making a big mistake' ' '.

(17) 'You are making a large mistake',


-, ,
. ,
, . ,
, 'big' (16) ,

2.3.

79

, 'a big house', 'big' ,


, 'large'.
,
,
, , ,
, -. ,

.
. ,
. ,
, ,
. , ,
,
.

.

( ) (.
1.7).
,
.
, ,
, .
,
(. . ),
, ,
,
,
, .
(
) 'big' 'large'
(
). , ,
, ,
(big) , , (large) .

, (, ,
)
'bachelor' '' ( 'bachelor') 'unmarried
man' ' '. (
, -

80

2.

, , , ,
. , ,

, . ,
, .)

, , ,
, ,
, . ,
,
, . (,
, 'unmarried' " ",
" ",
, , ,
, 'bachelor', 'unmarried'
, 'bachelor' 'unmarried'
.)
( )
,
,
. ,
,

. , ,
, 'huge' ', ', 'enormous'
', ', 'gigantic' '' 'colossal' '
' ,
, , 'very big' ' '
'very large' ' ', , ,
. 'huge',
'enormous', 'gigantic' 'colossal'
.
, , ,

.
,
,

.
, , 'statesman' ' (-

2.3.

81

) ' 'politician' ', ',


'thrifty' '' 'mean' '', 'stingy' '
' 'economical '', 'stink' ''
'stench' ', ' 'fragrance' ''
'smell' '', 'crafty' ', '
'cunning' ', ' 'skilful' '
' 'clever' '', .
,
, ,
( ). , ,
, 'bitch' '' 'swine' '',
, - , , ,
.
,
.
, , ,
.

, . ,

,
.
, ( )
,
.
, ,


.

. ,
,
, .
, ,
,
, -.
,
.

.
6 3113

82

2.
2.4.

,
, .
(full forms), , man '', came
'', green '', badly '',
(, empty) , , the, of, and '', to '', //''.
.
, ,
. ,

.
,

, 1950-
. (Fries 1952).

,
1960- .
, ,
, , (
)
.
,
,
.
()
(
).
, '',
. ,
.
, . . , ,
.
, , , ;
( , )
, ,
,
, -

2.4.

83

(
)
, .
' '
,
' ' (form word), ' ()
' (function word), ' ' (grammatical word),
' ' (structural word).
,
.

( ), ,

.
,
. ,
,
,
, , ,
.
' ' ' ',

.
,

, , . .
. , , to John '',

'give' , ,
, , ,
( ,
), ,
( ) ,
/

( ),
, , . . ,
.
the. ,

.
6*

84

2.

,
, ,
. , (
,
) ,
,

. ,
, (Russell 1905),
, ,

, ,
. ,
.
, () .
, ,
, ,
( dog '' 'dog' '', ran
'' 'run' '' ).
, , the to (

),
. ,
.
, ,
, , ,
( ,

), ,
, the, of and, to if ,
. '',
.

, .
,
.
,
. ,
, 'dog' ''
,

2.4.

85

,
'dog' .
the, of and, to if
, ,
, .

, ( )

, ,
,
, ,
, . .


, .

,
,
, ,
.

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,
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.
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,
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1.6:
?
- ,
, :
(i) , , if to
and, , ,
,
(clauses)" ,
2

. 2 . 176. . .

86

2.

. ,
, (. . )
, .
(ii)
, . , , , ( )
,
,
, .
(iii)
, .
(iv) , if to and,
, ,
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,
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,
: , , if, to and,
.
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, : ,


. ''

.

2.5.

87

-
' '. ,
' ' ,
' '.
.
,
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,

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.
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.
2.5.
,
, ,
, . ,
( , -

88

2.

)
,
, .


, , . . ,

(syn-)
. '' (
''), ,

. ( '' ,
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.) ,
:
( ),
- , (
, , , ,
).

.
, .
:
,
.

, , (
) (, ),
( ) (clauses)
( ) .
,
. . ,
, (ungrammatical).
,

, , ( )
(meaningfulness). .

, -

2.5.

89

,
.
( ), ,
( ).

(clauses) ( ''
, ).

, , ,
, .

.
.
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.

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90

2.

,

),
.

, ,
(. . ) .
,
.
, ,

( - ).
, , ,
, . , child ''
children '', ('child'),
( "child").

(
), -
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,
. (
, )
.

.
(
) , , ,
.
.

3

3.0.
? ,
. ,
.
, ,
, 'table' '' 'chair' '',

, : ,
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,
.
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,
,
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,
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,

?
'' (stand for)?
, ,
(denote), , (refer to):
.
( )

.
, ( )
. ,
, '' '', -

92

3.

(sense),
.
, ,

, . ,

. , ''
, '':
'', , '
',
'', ,
" ".
'' (puppy) ,
( , '
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3.2.
, 3.3,
, ,
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) ,
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,
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, '' '' (

3.1.

93

'', '' . .), . . , ( , . .),



, (
),
, .

,
3.4.
,
,

.
, ,

(, , ),
.
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.
3.1.

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(. 1.2).
.
,
,
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(the, ): ,
,
,
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, ,
).

, , -

94

3.

, ( ) 'dog' (
) , ( ) 'chien'.
(
, ).
, ,
. ,
'dog' '' ( )
, ,
, ,
. .
. ,

( , 'dog') ,
.
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,
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.

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,
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.

,

3.1.

95

. ,
'
' '', -
''.
,
:
,
.
, .
, 'dog'
( ),
'the dog' '[] ', 'my dog' ' ', 'the dog that
bit the postman' ', '

. , ,
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, , ,
,
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.
, 'dog'
.
, 'animal'
'', 'hound' '', 'terrier' '', 'spaniel' ''
. , 'dog'
,
(sense-relations)
. ,
,
.
'dog' .
,
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.
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,
.
.
:
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-

96

3.

. ,
, .
,
.


, (. 1.2).
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. , 'domesticated canine mammal' '
'
,
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3.1.

97

:
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7 3113

98

3.

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(Russell 1940: 6263).

,
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.

3.2.

99

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100

3.

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(- tabula rasa),
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3.2.

101

'',
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,
. '
'
, ,
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. ( ,
'man' '', 'dog' '', 'yellow'
'', 'hard' '', 'sweet' '', 'walk' '', 'run' '
', 'eat' '', 'drink' '', 'up' '', 'down' '', 'in' '',
'out' '', 'before' '', 'after' ''.

, , ,
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.)
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(Basic English), . . 1930- ,
.
850 , , ,
. -

102

3.

,
, ,
,
, (Roget),
1852
(Thesaurus of English Words and Phrases). ,
,
- ,
, ,
, , ,
.

,
.
,

'dog' ''
: ' ' (domesticated
canine mammal) '
' (common four-legged flesh-eating animal).
Collins Dictionary of the English Language (1979),
Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English (1978).
,
,
2000 ,

, ,

, , (p. viii-iv),
,
, ,

,
(p. vx). ,
, ,
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, 'dog' (
), , .
,
'' (basic) ( '' (simple)),

3.2.

103

( ),
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.

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3.3. ( )

105

( )
, (, 'shrine' ',
', 'boomerang' '', 'monsoon' '', 'willow' ''
. .). ;
,
. , ,
, , , ,
, ,
, . , ,
.
,
.
, ,

, 'brown' '', 'monkey' '',
'chair' '', 'jug' '', 'carpet' ''
,
. 'brown'
'brun', ',
', 'matron' '', 'beige'
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'yellow' ''.
.
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, ):
,

106

3.

. ,


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.
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)
(natural kinds), ,
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,
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('man' '
', 'tiger' '', 'oak tree' '') ,
, ('water' ''.

3.3. ( )

107

'gold' '', 'salt' '').



'language' '' (. 1.4).
,
,
(. 1.3). , -
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,
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,
.
,
(Kripke 1972) (Putnam
1975), .
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, .

,
; ,
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;
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, (save the
appearances)".
, , :

. 7.2. . .

108

3.

,
( , ,
)
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'dog' ''
,
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,
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. , .
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3.3. ( )

109

'dog' , :
'animal' '' (
) , .
,
,
.
,
.
'whale' '' , ,
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4

. atomos ''. . .

110

3.

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.

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:

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(Berlin, Kay 1969), .
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'fruit' '' 'vegetable'
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3.4.

111

) , ,
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) ,
, .

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,
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112

3.

,
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'dog' (
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;


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3.4.

113

,
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, 8 3113

114

3.

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3.4.

115

, ,
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116

3.

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118

4.

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4.1.

119

, . .
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120

4.

' '.

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4.1.

121

,
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.

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4.

122

(3.2)).
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"" ( 'human'). (

, . 1.5).
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"" "" "
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4.2.

123

, ""
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:
(1)
(2)
(3)
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124

4.

" " (. . 'male').


(
) ,
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'male' ' ', 'human' '' 'adult' ''.
.
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) MALE '
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.
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', 'secretary' '' . . ,
; 'goose' '', 'duck' ''
'cow' '' ,
. HUMAN ', ',
,

4.2.

125


'CANINE', 'FELINE',
'BOVINE' . .
,
(. 3.3).
,
, .
: '&'.
"", "",
"", "" :
(1) "" = & &
(2) "" = & ~ &
() "" = & & ~
(4) "" = & ~ & ~

:
(5)

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. ~
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', '', '', '', ''

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126

4.

= ""), '
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, , (i)
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-
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4.2.

127

.
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),

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, = 2 + 4
' ',
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, .

, .
,
, ,
,
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'boy' '' (
, 'be' ''
) boy
( 'boy'
a boy 'be'),
,
, "John is a boy"
" ". ( ,
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: ,
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(6) "" = &


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( )

128

4.

.
:
(7) "" = (.x, y) & () ,
, ( )
(, ) (
,
)
, .
(
). , .x, a
v.
.

,

. , "give" ''
(, z) HAVE
'', (x,*) CAUSE
'', ,
:
(8)

(.x,(y, z) HAVE) CAUSE '( x,(y, z) ) '.

(
) : ' ",
, "kill" ''
,
:
(9)

(.x,(y) DIE) CAUSE '(.x,(y) ) ',

" ".

, ,
,
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, ,
.

4.3.

129

4.3.
, ,
; ,

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,

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"" (. . 'boy', 'girl' 'child'),
, ,
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(10) John is a boy and Jane is a girl , '
,
(11) John and Jane are children ' '
( , '') .
, '',
5

hoy girl, ,
: hoy ', -

9 3113

130

4.

,
- ,
. 'male child' '
' 'female child' ' '
'boy' 'girl'.
, , - ,
. 'boy'
'girl' 'man' '' 'woman'
''? HE- .
, "That boy is now an adult" '
', "That girl is now an adult" '
' ( "That child is now an adult" '
') .

"" (
'adult')? .
-, ,
'girl' '' 'woman' ''
, 'boy' '' 'man' '
',
,
, 'girl' 'woman'. ,

,
, . .
, ,
'man', 'boy', 'woman', a
He'girP. , ,
'child' ''
'lamb' '' 'foal' ''
'boy' 'girl' 'colt' '' 'filly'
''.
, HUMAN '
' 'man'
'woman',
'boy' , , 'girl'. (,
) (boys) (
, ,
, '; girl ', , '. .
.

4.3.

131

(maidens)),
. , 'boy'
'girl' .
,
.
, ,
.

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132

4.

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4.4.
,
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, ):
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(13) " " (q)
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(statements).
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4.4.

133


. . ,
" q". ,
,
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(1646
1716), . ,
(15) " "

(16) " "



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) , .

134

4.

. ,

.
, : . (
.)
( '
')
(17241804). ,
(
) ,

. , , "female" (
'female' ' ') FEMALE (
, "female")
"girl",
(18) "All girls are female" ' '

'all girls' ' ', 'girl' ''.
'girl' (. . "girl") "human" x
"female" x "non-adult" ("" " " "
"), . (4) 4.2.
:
(19) "All human, female, non-adults are female" ' -
',
"female" .

''
.
:
()
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() .
.
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(20) " ",
. (
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4.4.

135

, '' '',
.) ,
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() (
-) ,
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a priori, .
.
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, :
(21) "Every person that is female is female" '
'.
' '
.

. ,
, , ' '

, ,
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(22) "All female persons are female" '
'.
(23) "All red books are red" ' ',
. . .
(. .
) .
,
. ,
,
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,
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,
. ,
- ,
- .

136

4.

''
'' .
,

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). , ,
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,
,
(24) "All human beings are mortal" ' '.
, , ,
(,
,
). .
'human' '' (
'mortal' ''), , ,
,

.

4.4.

137

,

, ,
, ,
, , (25):
(25) "Jackie is pregnant" => "Jackie is female" ' =>
'.
, , (25)
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,
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),
.
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,
, "female" ' '
'pregnant' ''.
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female" ' x ' ( "" ,
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138

4.

. .), , "x is married


to " ' ' " is married to x" '
x'; " is male" '.x ' "
is married to y" 'x ' " is female"
' ' . .
. ,
( ),
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. .) ,

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.

,

. "x
is married to y" ' '
" is married to x" ' '.
'married'? ,
.
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,
(Quine 1953),
. , , ,
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(26) 'My uncle is pregnant again' ' ',
,
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. .

4.5.

139

4.5.

.

, .
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.
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.
.
,
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:
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).
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(,
, . .),

( ). ,
( )
'bachelor' '' 'spinster' ' ',
,
'unmarried' '/' 'man'
'' 'woman' '', .
'unmarried man' 'unmarried woman'
;
, ,
,
()
.
, ,

,
( ) . , 'foal'
''
'baby horse' '-'.

140

4.


,
. ,

,
.
'rancid' '
, ' 'addled' ''. ,
, 'rancid'
'butter' ' ', a 'addled' 'egg' '' (
'brain' ''). ,
, , ,
,
, .

.
.

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: ''
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.
, , ,/
, g, g
:
(27)

, 'dog' '' 'animal' '


'. , "dog", "dog"
"animal" q,
.
(28) "I saw a dog" (p) ' '

(29) "I saw an animal" i i ' '.



.
( ).

4.5.

141

, , 'dog'
'animal',
. .
?
,
(Catnap 1956)
. ,
, .
,

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.
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(30) 'dog' => 'animal'
, ,
.
,
,
. ,
(31) 'bachelor' '' => 'unmarried' ''
( 'bachelor')
,
(32) 'bachelor' => 'adult' ''
, ,
(33) 'bachelor' => 'man' ''.
, ,
- -

142

4.

. ,
'bachelor' ''
. 'bachelor'
. ,
'bachelor' '' => 'unmarried' ''
-
'bachelor',
'unmarried'. ,
, ,
- - ,
.


.
,
,
. , , ,

. ''
( ,
/ g, g /: 'dog' => 'animal' ,
'animal' => 'dog' ),
, .
,
(34)
( ,
) / g
(, 'puppy' '' 'baby dog' '-').
,
:
,
.

,
:
(35)

, '' ''
: () ,
( ) , .
,

4.5.

143

, , (35),
:
(36) ~=>g ~g=>
, (i) 'married' ''
'unmarried' '' (ii) 'unmarried'
'married', (iii)
'married' 'unmarried' (iv)
'unmarried' 'married'.
(" ").

( ).
,
. , '' ''
, " , "
, , " "
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, ') :
(37)(x,y)=>g (,x),
,
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,
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, " "
" " .

('kill' '': 'be killed' ' '),
, 'husband' '': 'wife' '' (
).
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() :
(38) 'buy'(x , z) => 'sell'(z, , ) ''( . z) => ''(z, , ).
, " () () ()" "
(z) () ()", . , ,
(
,

144

4.

''), .

, ,
, ,
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(40) " " => " ",
(41) " " => " ",
.
!
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. ,
,
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:
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, .

5

5.0.

, . , ,
.

(. 1.6).
, (5.1).

.
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? ?
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,
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,
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: (1.7).
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.
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), (
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(
*

148

5.

, ,
) .
,
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), ,
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. -,
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),
.
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.

5.1. ,
,
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() (1.6).
, (, )
, , (,
(token))
, ,
.

. , -
'die' '
' (
, , 'pass away' '')

5.1. ,

149

.

(1) His father died last night' '
,
( '
')
(2) My father died last night ' '.

, ,
, ,
,

(
).
,

.
. ,
, .

,
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.
,

. ,
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. ,
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). , (3)
, , , , ,
,
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.

150

5.

,
,

.
(
)
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) : ,
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,
.
5.2.

.
.
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). , ,
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,
.
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.
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,
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, .

5.2.

151

, . , ,
,
,
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.
,
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,
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(6) / want him to come ' , '.
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.
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, .
, , ,

(7) Colourless green ideas sleep furiously (Noam Chomsky) '


' ( )
(8) Ouadruplicity drinks procrastination (Bertrand Russel) ' ' ( )
(9) Thursday is in bed with Friday (Gilbert Ryle) '
' ( ).
, ,

152

5.

, ,

, , ( .
,
, .
(9), ,
, , '' ''
( . . ,
). ,
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,
.
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.

(. ). ,
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.
,
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(7) 'Colourless green ideas sleep furiously' '
'
(8) 'Quadruplicity drinks procrastination' '
'
(9) 'Thursday is in bed with Friday' ' '.
, , ,
( - )
, ,
, ,
.
(7) (9)

(7b) *Green ideas sleeps furiously ' ',

5.2.

153

(8b) *Drinks quadniplicity procrastination '


',
(9b) *Thursday am on bed when Friday '
'.
(7b) (9b)
. (7b)
; (8b)
, ,
; (9b), (7b),
,
(*
bed, in bed, ),
,
(when, since, ).
,

. , ,
. ,
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,
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',
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,
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154

5.

,
. ,
'
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. '
' ('well-formed') ' ' ('ill-formed')
:

. ,
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.
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, , ,
) , , ,
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.
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.
5.3.
,
();

, ,

. ,
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5.3.

155

,
, (5.2).

(5)

/ want that he come ' , '


(6)

/ want him to come ' , ',

, ,
(6)

/ want for him to come

- ,

(7)

Colourless green ideas sleep furiously '


'

. ,

, , .
, ,
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. ,
(2) My father died last night ' '
, ,
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( , 5.1),
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156

5.

, .
,
.


5.4.

. ,
.
,
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.

,
.
,

, , ,
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,

,
, . (Ryle 1951:
250) , " ,
".
.


, ,
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: "
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, (purports) "
( 1946: 35). , ,
. . , , (
) .

5.5.

157


.
.
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,
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()
(iii)
(iv)

;
, ;
, ;

.

, ,
: (ii) (iii)

; (iv)
.

158

5.

,
,
,
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. , ,

(11) 'Napoleon was defeated at Waterloo in 1815' '


1815 ',

. ,
.
, .

, , .
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.) , ,
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.
,
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, (11),
. ,

.
.
, ,
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, ('',
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5.5.

159

('', '', '', ''),


,
.
,
,
.

, ,
,
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.

? ,
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160

5.

()
(face-value), ,

, .
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,
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) .
,
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- ,
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,
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5.6.

161

,
". .

,
, ,

(12) 'Everything must have a cause' ' '

(13) 'God is good' ' '.


,
(, , )
,
,
,,
(14) 'Cannibalism is wrong' ' '

(15) "Monet was a better painter than Manet' '


, '.
, , ,
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.
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113113

162

5.
5.7.

- , , ,
.
:
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.


. :
(16) 'John Smith is unmarried' ' '.
,

, , ' ',
.
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( ,
) , ,
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, , , ,
( )
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, -
,
,

(17) 'John Smith is not married' ' '



(18) 'John Smith is a bachelor' ' '

5.7.

163

, (16). (
) , ,
.
, , (18)
.
. ,
(unmarried) (,
, ,
, ' ':

). , ' ',
, , ,
, ,
' ',
(17), (18). (16) (17)
. (
),
(), ( )
(),
( ) ( ). ,
, ,
(19) 'That racehorse is unmarried' ' '

(20) 'That square-rigged schooner is unmarried' '


'
, . ,
(19) (20) , ,
( ) ,
, ,
( , . 5.8).

(19) (20); ,

( , , ),
, ,
( ,
)
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164

5.

(
),
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,
-

, .
-
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,
:
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, , .
,
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:
(16) 'That man is unmarried' ' '

(17) 'That man is not married' ' '.


( , , (16) (17) ,
' ' '
'.)
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) , ,
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-
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; . -

5.8.

165

-
.
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.

5.8.
,
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'') . ,
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.

(22) "Either it is raining or it is not raining" ' , '.
,
. :
(23) "It is raining and it is not raining" ' , '.
, ' ' ,

, .

("not"
''), ("both ... and" ' ... ') ("either
...or ..." ' ..., . . . ' ) .

166

5.

, ,

,
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.)
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(24) 'Either it is raining or it is not (raining)' ' , '

(25) "It is raining and it is not raining" ' , ',


, ,
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,
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, . 5.5).
, ,
,
(
, ,
).

5.8.

167

, ,
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6

6.0.
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,
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.
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,
.

6.1.

169


, .
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-
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,

.
6.1.

, .
,
.

, , ,
.
,
,
, . ,
,
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, :
(1) 'I have not read this book' ' ',
(2) 'This book I have not read' ' ',
(3) 'It is this book (that) I have not read' . ' ,
',
(4) 'This book has not been read by me' '
'.
:
(5) 'A man is standing under the apple-tree' ' ',
(6) 'There is a man standing under the apple-tree' . ' ,
'.
,
, ,
( ), -

6.

170

. ( ,
'' '' .
,
,
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,

,
.
, ( 1 ) (4),
, (5) (6), , .
,

(la) / have not read this hook,
(2a) This hook I have not read,
(3a) It is this hook (that) I have not read
(4a) This hook has not been read by me

,

, (1). , (2) (4)
,
, ,
, ,
.
(),
, , ,
(clauses).
(5) A man is standing under the apple-tree,
(6a)

There is a man standing under the apple-tree.

(6a), (5), , ,
,
, .
.
, ,
, , , (1) (4)
,
,
,
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6.1.

171

, (1) (2)
( ,
):
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,
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.
(
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.

. , ,
(1) (4) ,
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4, ,
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.
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(2),

172

6.

this book ' ' (1).


, (2), (1), -
, -
.
,

.
, , .

,
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.

,
.
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:
(i)


;
(ii) .
(i),
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(ii). , (ii),
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,
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, , ,
.
6.2.

,
(clause). To, (composite)
-
, : (compound,
) (complex, ) -

6.2.

173

.
(, co-ordinate) ;
(
) .

,
.
,
,

(). (, (composite)
, (complex)
(compound) .

,
. 'composite' , , ,
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''.)

, -

. ,
(7)

'If he passed hisidriving test, I am a Dutchman' . '


, '

,
(8)

'Either he did not pass his driving test or I am a Dutchman' . '


, '

.
, ,

:
(9)

" <q",

,
(10) " -, q",
. , (9) (10)
, , ' (7), (8) '
, '=
, . . .

174

6.

.
.
, " q" " -/q, q"
,

, (7) (8),
,
.
, .
:
(11) ' was poor and he was honest' ' '
(12) ' was poor but he was honest' ' , '
(13) 'Although he was poor, he was honest' ' ,
'.
, , ,
, ,
, ,
,
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,
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(11) (13), (
)
. (,
, (11) (13),
, 6.3.)


. ,


(

). ,
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, -

6.2.

175

, . ., , .
-
,
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,
,
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, ,


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.

.
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.

7,
.

,
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); , ,
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)
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,
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,
.
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,

.

176

6.


, ,
. ,
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,
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( )
.
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7,
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(
) .

,
(clauses) .
,

.
,
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,
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( )

clause, ,
. Clause
, ,
,
,
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(, , . .). .
.

6.3. - (1)

177

(embedding) ( )
( )
. ( '', '' '
' , 7,
, ,
.)
,
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( 6.6) ,
. , ,

,
, '' (
)' ['sentence (or clause)'] '' ('sentence') ,
6.6, ' (
)' ['sentence-type (or clause-type)'] '
' ['sentence-type'].
,
' '
( );
''
''. , ,
, '
' (underlying)
(
,

, . 7.3).
, .
6.3. - (1):

,
, ,
, (11) (12), .
, ,
, 12 3113

178

6.

. ,

( '',
4)
.

, , .
(&) ( & q: "-q"), , , , , q .
(V), ,
( V q: "p--q"), , , ,
, q ( , q).
(~) (~) ();
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(->) ( > q: "--/",
, , : (i) , q ;
(ii) up,nq ; (iii) p , q ).
, ,
,
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,

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- .
, ,
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and '' but '' (
).
, nd-
: and.
,
,
, (&). and-
- .
, , ,

6.3. - (1)

179

,
, . ,
(14) 'John arrived late and missed the train' '
'

(15) 'John missed the train and arrived late' '


'
.
, : , and "
" " ". , and
,
, &, 8 q
, q 8 .
, and ,
and
" " " "?
, " " ""
,
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'John arrived late and
missed the train',
, ,
, ,
,
,
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, , , (14)
(15)
.

. ,
, (14) (15),
, -

.
12*

180

6.

. 9
.
, , ,
and,
. ,
,
, ,

.
,
.
-

, ,
, but '' although '',
(12) (13), , ,
and. ,
,
and, ,
, (11), ,
. ,
,

, , (11), (
), ,
.
, (11) was poor and he was honest
' ',
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(11), , ,
, & q,
, q
.
, ,
(11), (12) (13).

, -
, .
, but, and, -

6.3. - (1)

181


.

. ,
either-or:
... vel... vel... ... aut... aut ... .
, vel
, aut .
, V q, ,
, , q ,
, , , q .
, p q , q
;
q. ,
, :
(16) Students who do not arrive in time or have not completed all their assign
ments will he refused admission to the examination ',
,
'.

(
) , ,
, ,
, ;
, ,
, , ,
.
, :
(17) For the main course you may have meat or fish '
'.
, ''
,
.
. ,
, vel
, a aut , ,
, .
, , , , //-
, vel-, ,
but- ,
and-. ,
aut, vel, .

182

6.

, ,
' ', ,
aut- () (either) ...
or ... .

bi
() ... ...
.

; , ,
, q

.

- ;
.
6.4. - (2):
( , ,
)
, :
(18) 'If Ann has passed her driving test, her parents have bought her a Porsche'
' ,
'.
6.2, > q ("p-q ")
q (,
), , a q . (
, > q , q .)
, (18)
" q " , (i)
( &
q), (ii) , /
(~ & q), (iii)
(~ & ~ q).
(iii), (ii) .
, , (
) ,
.

6.4. - (2):

183

(
) , "p
q", "p q",
- ,
-. , ,

(19) 'If Lady Godiva had blue eyes, Ann's parents have bought her a Porsche'
' ,
',
( ),
, 'Ann' 'she' '' (
her ''),
.
. , ,
-
-
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,
,
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9. , ,
. ,

?
,
,
(7) 'If he passed his driving test, I am a Dutchman' . '
, ',
( ) .
( )
q ("1 am a Dutchman")
-
, ( , "
") q. ,
( > q), ,
, 'Either he did not
pass his driving test or I am a Dutchman' . '
, ' (~ V q), ,
q . ,

184

6.

q
, . ,
,

(" ")
"p q".
,
, "I am a Dutchman"
. ,

(" , "
. .).
, ,
, , ,
.
,
. ,

( ), :
(entailment) . ,
, 4.4
. ,
q, , q
( ) (
).
, ,
(
). , ,
,
, (implication ',
, , ') ,
:
q, q
,
-
. ,
, ,
,
. 4.

6.5. - (3):

185

6.5. - (3):
6.2, (
'-') ,
(~ ) . , ,
-
: ,
, ~ , , , ~ . ,
, , , ~
, (
), ~ ~ ~ , ~ ,
. :

? ,

?

.
, ,

, , .
,
(clause-structure), ,

,
. , (
) (
) ,
not, ,
. :
().
, , ,
.

(20) 'John is unfriendly' ' ',
,
(21) 'John is not friendly' ' ',
,
,
(22) 'John is friendly' ' ',

186

6.

. "John is unfriendly"
"John is friendly" "John is
hostile" ' ( )'. (

,
. ,
, .)
, ,
( ).
'John is not friendly' ' '
,
, 'John is unfriendly' ' '. (
(21),
not friendly .
not friendly
, unfriendly.)
. ,
, , ,
, 'John is not friendly',
, ,
,
. ,
,

. ,
, .
,
.
,
, 'John is not friendly'
,
, ,
,
'John is unfriendly'.
.

. ,
(23) 'Non-students pay the full entrance fee' 'He-
'
, ,

6.5. - (3):

187

(24) 'Students do not pay the full entrance fee' '


',
(
).
('non-students'),
('do not pay' ' '),
, ,
- ,

.
(
'non-students')
, , 'no-one' ' , ',
'nothing' '',
'' '' (, 'no man' '
', . 'aucun homme', 'kein
Mensch' . .). ,
(25) 'No-one telephoned' ' '
, ,

(26) 'Someone telephoned' '- ',

(27) 'Someone did not telephone' '- ',
,
(26), (26),

(28) "Someone telephoned and someone did not telephone" "-
- ".
,
, , ,
(25), (26) (27),
, , ,
(29) 'John telephoned' ' '

(29)'John did not telephone' ' '.



(25), (26) (27) ,
, (25) (27)
.

188

6.


(25) (29) ,
( ,
) .
, ,
,
'John'.
'nobody' '', 'nothing' '' . .
. (25)
(29).

.
, ,
,

. ,
'some' ', - . .' ( 'someone' '-',
'somewhere' '-, -'),
, 'any' '
-, . .' ( 'anyone' '-, -,
', 'anywhere' '-, -, -,
. .')? (, , ' saw someone' '
-' ' did not see anyone' ' ', .
' -'?)
, 'some"? (
' saw no-one' ' ' , ' did
not see anyone' ' -'?) , ,
,
, ( ),
.
,
,
- .

,
.
, . . ~ , ,

6.5. - (3):

189

, ,
, ~ ( & q) . ,
,
, ;

.
~ (p & q) ~ & q, ,
(30) " was not (both) well-and-cheerful" ' -'

(31) "Mary was (both) not-well and cheerful" ' -


'
( ).

.
,
(32) 'John did not kiss Mary because she was his sister'
:
(33) "It was because she was his sister that John did not kiss Mary" '
, ',

(34) "It was not because she was his sister that John kissed Mary" '
, '.
(33)
,
("John kissed Mary");
(34) ,
("because
she was his sister" ' '), ( ,
, ) "John
kissed Mary because she was his sister" '
, '. , (33) (34)

- ~p & q ~(p & q).
,
.
, (33) (34), ,
.
.

190

6.


,
(/V)
().
(35) " , " (~ Np)
-
(36) ", " (N ~ ).
,
(37) " "

(38) ", ".
4, ,

,
.
.
,
(39) may not come
(

) , not
,
'may' '':
(40) ", " (~)

(41) " / , " (~ ).


, ,
("I
say that it is not raining" ' , ')
("I deny that it is raining" '
, '),
("I say that it is raining" ' ,
') ("I deny that
it is not raining" ' , '). ,
,
. , ,
, , ,
. -

6.6. ,

191


;
. ,
,
,
(face-value) ,
, ,
.
6.6. , (clausetype)

(
) ,
,
,
, .
, (
) '
', '' '', ,
'' '', .
,
. ( ''
, ,
(token). 4,
, , /
, ,
, .)
'' ''
'', '',
'', '' . .
( , clauses)
. , '',
,
; ''
,

.

192

6.

,

( )
, , , , ,

(clauses),
(. 6.2).
'' ('sentence') ' '
('sentence-type') ,
' ' ('clause') ' '
('clause-type'). ,
'' '
',
(, ,
).
-
, , 3 4 ,
-
. (

,
, ,
, ,
. ,
, ,
.)
,
' ' ('clause-type')
'
' ('clause') ' ' ('clause-type').
(
) .

( ),
.
'' '' (''),
.
,

( ),

6.6. ,

193



.

. ,
(42) "Quid faceret?',

,
(43) 'Quid facebat?',
.
(42), (43)
, ,
(42)'What was he/she to do?' ' / ?'

(43) 'What was he/she doing?' ' / ()?'.


, (42) (43)

(42b)'Quid faciam?' ('What am 1 to do?' ' ?')

(43b)'Quid facio?' ('What am I doing?' ' ?'),




. (42) (42)
,
(43) (43) , , ,
-
, ,
(. 10.6). (42) (42), ,
,

,

,
(clause) .


.
,
-,
13 3113

194

6.

, .
(, ,
),
,
. ,
, ,



, , -
, . ( '' '
', 8.4 10.5.)
,
( ),
, .
(
),
(
) (
, . .). ,
, ,
. ,
, (presuppose) , (
),
.
( )
( )
() ,
, (
) ( )
(), ()
, .
( )
(,
,
) , ,
( ). -

6.6. ,

195


.
. ,
,

,
,
(8.3).
,

,
( ) ( ).

,
,
. , ,
, ,
,
.


. 4,

,
,
.
, ,
,
(
), .
, , , '
',
(,
),
( ,
),
, ,
, (. 6.4).
, ,

13*

196

6.

. , ,

: ,
, ,

( ,
, , ); ,
,
. ,

,

, ,

, (
, ).
,
'',
'' '',

'' , ,
, . ,
'
' ( '') '
'.

. , , ,
-
.

. ( )
( )
, ,
. , ,

,
,
, (. 1.3).

, , ,
. , -

6.7.

197


, , ,
,
(, That's a clever thing to do! ' !');

, (
) (,
Who could possibly think that such negotiations would bring lasting peace to
the region! ' ,
!').

4.
,
( )

.
(, ,

, ,
) .
, ,
, ,
. ,
( )
,
( )
( , ),

() .

6.7.
, , ,
-
. , ,
. , ,
, -
. , ,
, -

198

6.


- .
, ,

, (

(face-value) ) : -
, -.
,
- , ,
(44) 'Is the door open?' ' ?'


(45) 'The door is open' ' '.

, ,
.
? ,

, , ,
.

(44),
(45). ,
,
(46) 'I ask whether the door is open' ' , '.
, .
, , (44)
. ,

(47) Is the door open? that is the question that I refuse to ask '
? , '.
, (44) (46)
.
-, ,
, (46)
, (44).
, ,
( 4
7.2). ,

6.7.

199

, ,
, ,
, 'ask' ', ' (46),
that, 'say' '
'
(48) 'I say that the door is open' ' , ',
whether the door is open ' ' ,
, (44) , that the
door is open ' ' (45).
, (48)
(45).
,
, (i)
,
(directdiscourse) (indirect-discourse),
(ii) ,
, , , ,
.

,
.
, , ,
, (44) (46) (45) (48) , , ,

- (46) (48). ,
8, (46) (48)
(44) (45) ,
(46) (48) (
).
(
),

1970- ,
, .

, , (44), -

, 'The door is open' ' ',

200

6.


.

.
, ,
, -
,
- .

, ,

.
, 'Is the door
open?' ' ?'
.
"The door is open" " "
, 'The door is open' ' ';
,
,
. 'The door is open' ' '

,
.
, , ,
, ,
, (clauses) ('Satz'
).


, .
,
,
(saves the appearances).

,
, ,
'The door is open' ' ' 'Is the door
open?' ' ?' ,
. , ,

6.7.

201

: ,

. ,
.


, . ,
(, , ,

),
- .
-
.
,

(
),
,
. (
, , . .
,
,
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,

, ,
, , .


. 7,
, ,
(Chomsky 1957) (
) (Katz, Postal 1964),
.
,
, - , ,
, ,
. -,
,
, . ,

6.

202


,
, ,
(49) 'The door is open, isn't it?' ' , ?''

(50) 'The door isn't open, is it?' ' , ?'


,
. ,
,

,
-, ()
( ),
, () (tag)

. , (49)
,
" " ,
, (50)
,
(" ") ,
, , ,
(" ") ,
( ) .
( ) ,
, - , ,
, (49) (50).
-.
,
, who/whom ', /
', what ', ', which ', ', when '', where
'' how ''. ( , how,
wh-, , ,
wh;- (wh-questions). 'wh' V/z-'
, .)
3


.
. .

6.7.

203

, , .
,

(x), ,
,
. 'who' who whom
(persons) (
). ,
(51) 'Who has been eaten my porridge?' ' ?',
, ,
, ,
,
, , '',
', ', ',
', '
, , , '. ,
-: ,
,
,
,
,
,
.
.v-.
(51)?
, .- (51)
(52) 'Someone has been eating my porridge' '- ',
(51) ,
'someone' '-',
'who' '' .
, 'someone' (
) ,
'who'. ,
, , ,
,
() : ,
, ( ,
, ) , ,
{x: x }. , -

204

6.

, , ,

(, )
- .
, ,
, :

, ,
( ).



, .
,
. ,
,
(10.1).

(51) (52). ,
(44) (45), (52) - . , :
(53) 'Has someone been eating my porridge?' '- ?'
(536)'Has anyone been eating my porridge?' '- ?'
(53) (536)
: some any
,
.
.
, (536) - ,
(52)
, (44) (45). , (536)
, (52), ,
, (51).
(536) (51) , ,
- .v-
, , ,
,
( ) . (536), (44),
, -

6.7.

205

, ,
( - ,
, )
, ( ,
). (536) (44),
,
. (51), ,

. (51) , ,
,
(presupposes) ,
(52) ,
'who' '' , , ,
'someone' '-'.

, ,
.
4. ,
( ),
.
x-,
( ), ,
.
,

x- ,
, ,
x- ,
, .
, ,


. , ,
,
.


. , (

206

6.

-),
,
( , -),
,
, ,
, . ,

(
, , ,
), ,
.

, (,
. .), ,
.

.

.
.

(
)
.
( ,
), ;
'' ,
, , ,
,
.

, ,
( , )
, ,
.
, ,

( ), ,
,
( -

6.7.

207

).
'wonder' ( ),
() ,
, () 1
, ( )
.

(54) ' wondered whether the door was open' lx ,
'
(55) 'Is the door open, I wonder?' ' (, ),
?'
. - (55)
(54) .

'Is the door open?' ' ?'
'I wonder', (
),
.
(54) (55)
(56) 'I wonder whether the door is open' ' , '.
(54) , ,
, .
, (55), ,
.
, (56),
(54)
(57) ' asked whether the door was open' 'x , '.
, y-a , ,
(55), , ,
, (57).

(55)
(56) : ,
- , ,
,
. , -, ,
, , , , -

208

6.

,

. ,
,
,
. , , ( ), -.
6.8. -: , , . .

() ,
-, ,
,
.
-,
.


. ,

:
, ( ,

)
.


,
,
. .,
,
. .
, ,

(clauses). ,
(58) 'How tall he is' ' '

6.8. -

209

, ,

(59) 'I wonder how tall he is' . ' , '.
'How tall he is' '
' .

,
, 'How
tall he is'
(60) ' is very tall' ' ',
,
.

,
. . 'How tall he is' ( )
.
, (
) .
,
,
.
,
, . .
, (
) ( )
() ,
, ,
(), , (6.6).
, ,
, ,
.

() , () ,
, , (44) (45),
(61) (62)
.
(61) 4s the door open?' ' ?'
(62) 'The door is open' ' '.
143113

210

6.

,
. (61)
, (62), ,
(63) 'Open the door!' '() !'
,

(64) 'You open the door' ' ',


()
() ,
(64), .
() ,

''
. ,
, ( ,
), , , ,
,
(10.4). ,
,
(, 'x is/was opening the door' '.x
/ ' - (\ opens/opened the door' 'x
/ '). ,
'open' ''

(
)
. ,
, (
) ,
(63), , ,
, (
)
, ,
; .
, ,
, .
,
( ), ,

6.8. -

211

'now' '' 'at this very moment' '


, ',
,
.

(65) / am telling you to open the door now '
'

(66) / am now telling you to open the door '
'

(67) / am now telling you to open the door now '


'.
. , (65) (66) (67). -, (67)
'now' '' ,

.
, ,

, .
, , , , .
,
, ,
, .
4.
()
, ().
, ,
.
, ,
, , ,
,
,
.
. ,
,

, .
14*

212

6.

,
(
), ,
.
,

,
.

; ,
,
. ,
( )
( ) ,
.
,
.
,
,
(, , . .). , (63)
- , -
( )
. -

, , , ,
, ,
(62),

(68) y has opened the door' ' '


(69) 'The door has been opened by " ' -'.
,
,

, . ,

- ,
. , , ,
.

6.8. -

213

"
" (saving the appearances) ,

,
, ,
. ,
, (63)
,
(64), , (64) ,
.
, 'open' '/',
,
,

4.
, ,
.


.
. .
,
, , ,
. ,
.

7

7.0.


, 60-

.
,
,
-
.
,
60- ,
,


.

.
,
.
,
,
, .

,
. , , ,
,
,
, ,
.

7.1.

215


,
.
, , ,
,
,
.
( ,
). ,
,
.
, ,
, ,
.


. ,
,
.

,
1, ( )
,
.
,
.

7.1.
' '
. "
( )" ,
, (
), ,
. .
.
, ,
,
.

216

7.


, ,
.
' '
, , ,

.
,
- (. . ,
) .
,
, ,
"
"
"
".
, . ,
, '
', ,
,
( )
.
, ,
,
.

,


. 6, ,
, ,
,
.

,
, ,
. , ,
,
,

: , -

7.1.

217

() , . . ,
. ,
,
-
,
.
-
.
,
, ,
, ,

(saving the
appearances). ,

. ,
,
.
, ,
, ,
.
. :


'some' 'any' ( : 'someone', 'anyone', 'something',
'anything' . .).
-

, ,
. , ,
'some' 'any'
,
. ,
.

,

.
,
.

218

7.

, 6, ,

,
, , ,
,
, .
, -
(
), .

, ,
. ,
, -
,
, (,
,
-).
, ,
(
'', )
( , '
'
, ,
),
, , .
,
, , , ;
, , .

7.2. ,

,
. ,
,
.
.

. ( ''
' (complex)' '

7.2.

219

(compound)') :
,
.
: '', '' ''.
, -,
, -,
, , .
(i) , ''
. ,
,
(, sense)
(. 3.1).
(
'Sinn' 'Bedeutung'),
,
. (,
,
,
. 3.1.
.)

().
, ,
,
.
(ii) , '',
.

.
. ,
, ,
, , ,
,
, . ,
,
,
, .
, ,

, , ,
, (

220

7.

, ). ,
( ), ,
,
(sentence-radical);
,
.
(sentence-kernel), (kernel),
, . (

' ' ('kernel-string')
- .)
, ( , clause)
, ( ,
) ( )
.
(iii) ''
. ,
, , -
(value)
(domain). ( --
- , D,
, V: D V.) ,
,
= 2 ,
2
. ,
,

{
, }, {1, 0J.
, , ,
-.
,
, ,
.
,
, ,
,
,
,
.

7.2.

221

,
,
? , ,
( )
,
.

, , ,
, ,
, ,
. -,
,
,
.
,
,
.
()

,
, .
, .
, ,
- .

.

. , - ,
, ,


. ,
, :
(1) old men and women ' ',
,

(2) "men who are old and women" ", ,
"

(3) "old men and old women" " "

222

7.

,
. ,
(2), 'old' ('') 'men' ('
') ( )
'old men' ('
') 'women' ('') (
and ''), ,
, 'old' 'men', 'women',
'men', 'women'
'old'. (
, . 6.5,
6.7.) , (3),
, 'ld'('')
'men and women' (' '),
'men and women'
'old'.

,
,

,

( )
.
, , ,
,
.
,
,
(rule-to-rule hypothesis).

: (i)
( , )
,
,
, (ii)
. ,
, (1),

. ,

7.2.

223

,
.
,
,

,
(saving the
appearances)
,
.
(Russell 1905)
( )
, ,
,,
(4) 'The King of France is bald' ' ',
, ,
( ) ,
()
(
) .

, (
)

.


(
),
.
, ,
. ,
,
,
. .
.

,
, ,
.
-

224

7.

, ( )
,
,
: (1)
? (2)
?
,
,
.
7.3.
,
,
, .
. . . .
, 1963 .

, ,
, .
,
- .
,
: ,
,
.
, , ,
, , ,
,
.

.
,
- ,

(Chomsky 1965).
, ,
, , 1963 ,
,

7.3.

225

(Chomsky 1957),
- .
,


.
.
,
, ,
.
,
, ,
.
, -
, (
),

. ,

, ,
.
,

1960- 1970- ,
. ,
, .
.

, , ,
-, -
. ,
. ,
,


. ,


, , (
)
(sentence-kernel),
15 3113

226

7.

( ),
(. 7.2).
.


, ,
.
.
, .
,
,
. , ,
, .
,
,
, . 7.1. ,
, (
) ,
, ,
()
(). , ,
,
, .
,
, , ,

.
.
; ,
( )
( ,
) ; ,
( ) ,
,
; ,
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,
.
( -), .
-

7.3.

227

, , ,

(, ,
, ), ;
,
, ,
, ,
. '
' , ,
. 7.1
.

. 7.1. .

;

. '' '
'; '' ' '
,
, . ,
-,
, ,
, .
,
, ,
15*

228

7.


.
,
.
,
, .
. 7.1 ,
. ,
, , ,
; ,
,
,
.
, . 7.1 ,
,
,
.

, ''
; ,
(i) ,
, ,
, (ii) ,
,
,
(. 7).
, , ,
,
, . ,
(
), ,
(5) 'The dog bit the postman' ' '

(6) 'The postman was bitten by the dog' ' ',



, . . 7.2. (
, .)
(
, ,
- ) -

7.3.

229

, ,
.
, , I have not read
this book' ' ' 'This book I have not read' '
', . 6, ( 1 ) (4) ( 5 ) (6).
, ,
'I have not read this book', 'This book I
have not read' . .

. 7.2.
'The dog bit the postman' 'The postman was bitten by the dog'
,
.
, ,



.
,
,
, ,
.

230

7.

, , ,

.
7.4.

, -
(Katz, Fodor 1963).

.
,
.
: (i)
(ii)
.
.
, (
) ()
, (. 5.2).
,

.
() .
, , ,
, ,
. ,
,
,
( ,

- ).
, ,
.

-
. ,

. , , -

7.4.

231

'buxom' ', '


, 'girl' ', ', 'woman' '', Mass' ',
', 'boy' ', ', 'man' '', 'lad '
' . . (, ,
), 'sleep' '' , , 'boy', 'girl', 'cat' ', ',
'idea' '', 'quadruplicity' '' . .
,
. ,

.
( , )
,
.
,
,


. ,
'housewife' :
("housewifei") ,
, ("housewife2")
. ,
'housewife' ('good ()
housewife' 'beautiful () housewife'),
. 'buxom (, ) housewife' ,
, ,
"housewife;", "housewifei",
'buxom'. ,
,
.
- ,
,
.
, ()
, .

(. 4.2). , ,
'buxom'
, ,
-

232

7.

. ( ),
'buxom'
,
, , .
,
,
, , .
, ,
, .

.

. ,

.
, ,
, 5; ,
,
. ' '
,
, , ,
.
:
(7) 'My friend existed a whole new village' '
'

(8) 'My friend frightened that it was raining' ' ,


'.
, ,
,
.
, 'exist' '' (
) 'frighten' '()',
'think' '', 'say' '' . .,
that '' . (
,
.) ,
,
, 'exist' ,

7.4.

233

, 'frighten'
,
, .

( - )?
.

, ,
,
( ),
(
)
, , , , .
,

, ,
,
. ,
, , ,
()
() ,
.
,
. ,

,
,
.

.
( ,
,
'Colourless green ideas sleep furiously" '
' , . 5.3).
.
,
.
.
,
,
, . -

234

7.


.
.
, , ,
,
(
;
).
,
.
: - ,
,
. ,
(. 2.3)
. , ,
.

? ? ,
, ( ). , ,
.
. 4.3,

- .
,
.

( , ),
, ,
. ,

(5) 'The dog bit the postman' ' '

(6) 'The postman was bitten by the dog' ' ',


(5)
(9) 'The postman bit the the dog' ' '
( )
.
, . -

7.4.

235

,
.
, , ,

, -
.
.
,

. ,
,

.
, ,

, ,
, ,
.
, ,
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, (
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236

7.
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, ,
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60- . 70-
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7.5.

237

,
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1960- 1970-.

238

7.


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7.5.

239

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.
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.)
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, '
' ('intensional') (
'intentional' '')
.
,
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. ( , ,
, ,

, -

240

7.

, ,
.)
, (),
, ,
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/
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7.6.

241

7.6.

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),
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.
,
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.
, ,
,
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? , , 'those
cows' ' '
(10) 'Those cows are pedigree Guernseys?' ' ?'
, , ,
"" ,
( ) 'cow' '', 16 3113

242

7.

. (
'that'
.
, 'that' ,
,
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,
(. 1.7).
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.

7.6.

243

, ,

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, 1940- . ,

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(entity-category) (e),
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,

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244

7.

,
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.) ''
.
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'congruitas')
(
).
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.
10.
,

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.
, ,
;
,
(saving the appearances) (. 7.2).

7.6.

245

,

. ,
( )

, (
salva veritate
). ,
(11) 'I wanted to meet the first woman Prime Minister of Great Britain' '
, -
'

(12) 'I wanted to meet Margaret Thatcher' '


'
, 'the first woman
Prime Minister of Great Britain' ' ,
- '
, , ,
, -
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'', 'hope' '' . .
( )
.
( )
(11)

ck re de dicta .
, ,
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()
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-

246

7.

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(of the world),
; ,
(in a world),

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, .
, ,

242

7.

. (
'that'
.
, 'that' ,
,
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,
(. 1.7).
, (
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.

7.6.

243

, ,

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(entity-category) (e),
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244

7.

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10.
,

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.
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;
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(saving the appearances) (. 7.2).

7.6.

245

,

. ,
( )

, (
salva veritate
). ,
(11) 'I wanted to meet the first woman Prime Minister of Great Britain' '
, -
'

(12) 'I wanted to meet Margaret Thatcher' '


'
, 'the first woman
Prime Minister of Great Britain' ' ,
- '
, , ,
, -
, ,
, . 'want' '', 'believe'
'', 'hope' '' . .
( )
.
( )
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ck re de dicta .
, ,
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246

7.

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7.6.

247


.
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8

8.0.
-
'' '
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Mangue' ('') 'parole' ('')
'competence' ('') 'performance' ('
') , , 1,

,
,
.
, (
,
), ,

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.

(. . ) .
, (
6) .
.

. . (19111960),
,
(
).

9 10.

8.

252

8.1.
1, ''
('utterance')
, (1.6). (''
, '' ('action') '
' ('activity'): ,
; .) '
' (
)
( ).
;

(,
inscriptions). ( '', 1,
.
,
.)


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(Benveniste 1966, 1974).
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8.1.

253

. . (Searle 1969),
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(ii) '',
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,
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1955

(Austin 1962).
,
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254

8.

, ,
, ,
.
- (. 5.4).
, ,
,

,
. ,
, ,
(1) 'Cannibalism is wrong' ' '

(2) 'Monet is a better painter than Manet' ' ,


',
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(3) 'I promise to pay you 5' ' 5 '
( ,
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, ,

8.1.

255

.
.) ,
( )
, (performs an act of doing rather
than saying).
(
(Words and
deeds)) .

.
. , (saying)
, 'say' (', ')
(statements), ,
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(saying and doing).
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(primary) .
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256

8.

,
, 'promise' '',
,
1
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, ,
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,
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(4) 'I will pay you 5' ' 5 '.


,
( ) .
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5 ') ,
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to pay you 5',

.
,
6, (4)
,
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) ,

8.2.

257

.
. .
,
,
.
; ,
. ,

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.
8.2.
, ,
( -),
.
,
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. Been here long? ' ?', Nice weather for the time of
year ' ', . .);
, ; , ,

,
.


,
,
. ,
,
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,
,
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,
'say the same thing'
' ( )'. ,
17 3113

258

8.

() 'say'
', ', .
,
, 'say'
"assert" "" "utter" "":
(5)

'John and Mary said the same thing' '


(, )'.


, , ,

(6) 'John and Mary asserted the same proposition' '
(. *) '.


(7)

'Jonh and Mary produced the same utterance-inscription' '


-'.

, 'thing' ''
,
.
, ,
. -
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, , ,
,
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( )
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(8)

'It is raining' ( ),

(9)

'II pleut' ( ),

(10) 'Es regnet' ( ).


-,
,
, ,
, ,
(11) 'The dog bit the postman' ' '

(12) 'The postman was bitten by the dog' ' '.

8.2.

259

, 7,
,

. ,
(13) 'My friend is waiting for me' ' '
,
, 'my friend' '
' ' ' '', ,
. ,

.

-.
.
,
(14) I'll meet you at the bank ' (= ) /
'

(15) I'll meet you at the hank ' (= ) /
'.
, ,
(16) Flying planes can he dangerous ' /
'.
, ''
:
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) (tokens)
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'bank1' ( '
'), a bank '2'
( ' '),
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'fly' '' (
'flying planes' ", "),
a flying
17*

260

8.

'fly' ( 'flying planes'


" ( )"),
. ,
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()
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,
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I'll meet you at the bank

. ,
-
(tokens) .
,
/ -

8.2.

261

. , /

:
.

.
, I'll meet you
tit the bank .
,
.
, ,
-, ,
,
,
, .
, .
,
(17) It 's raining ' '
,

(18) It's raining

raining, ,
-,
:
(19) 'It's raining'.
it is it's
/ -.
,
.
,
.
, ,
,
.

: (i)
, (ii) - . -

262

8.

, (
) , ,
( )
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( ) (ii)
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, ' '
.
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8.2.

263

, -
, ,
.
,
. ,
(
),
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(20) Ihave,
,
() .
, (20)
,
(21) '1 have done the washing up' ' '
(22) 'I have been to California' ' (= ) '
(23) 'I have (got) a personal computer' '
'.
, ( ),
,
(24) 'I have done the washing up' ' '

(25) / have done the washing up,

(26) / have done it ' '
(27) lhave'
(28) Me''
( ,
). 9,
, ,

. ,
, , ,
, . . .

264

8.

, ,

.
8.3.
.
''. , ,
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:
(i) ;
(ii) ;
(iii) .
,
, ,


-. , ,

.

.

.
'', ,
, ,

. , - - (
-), ,
. , ( )
(29) Peter is mad ' /'
, - , ( )
(30) Your brother is mad ' /'.
, , 'Peter' 'your brother' ' '
'mad'
( , "",

8.3.

265

""). ,
, ("")
, ,
''. , Peter is mad Your
brother is mad ,
.

;
,
. ,
, ,
.
, ,
, , , , ,
, '' , ,
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, , , 'promise'
(3) 8.1 ,
:
(31) '1 promise to pay you 5' ' 5 '.
, .
, , 'implore'
'' 'beseech' ', '. ,
,
. ,
'promise' 'undertake' ,

. ,
, ,
, .

, , 'order' '', 'command'
', ', 'request' '' . .,
,
,

266

8.

, , .
(, , . .)
.


.
,
.

.
? ,
-
.
,
,
.

. , 'swear' '
', ,
'promise' '' 'undertake' '
', , 'covenant' '
', 'contract' ' ,
' 'guarantee' ', , ', ,

.
, ,
.
,
, , ,

.
,
(32) 'I promise to pay you 5' ' 5 '
,
,
(33) 'I will pay you 5' ' 5 '.

,
, -

8.3.

267

,
.
, , ( ,
- ,
-
),
. , 'by Heaven' '-'
, ,
'swear' '
'.
(34) By Heaven, I'll pay you 5 '-, 5 '
: 'by Heaven'
, ,
.
,
,
,
.
.
,

,

. ,

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268

8.

, ,
.
, , ,
'promise',
(
),
.

.
,
, , ,
.
(statements, or assertions),
. ,

, : -,
, ,
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-

. ,
, , - , .
, ,
, .

.
:
,
,
- ,
. ,
,
. (out of
turn), ,

,
, .

,
. ,

8.4. ,

269



.

, , ,
, Would you pass
the sugar? ' ?', . ' ?'
(
) Pass the
sugar ' ' ( ).
, ,
,
. ,

,
.
, ,
,
. .
,
,
.
8.4. ,
,
, ,
(issuing directives), ,
. , ,
,
. 6, ,
:
, ,
, ,
, .
,
.
,
, ,
-. -

270

8.

,
,
(35) 'The door is open' ' '
, ,
(The door is open),
, ,
,
, . .

, .
, , ,
,
, , ,
, .
? ,
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.

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, , ,
,
(epistemic commitment). ( '',
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,
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,

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(36) // is raining but I don't believe it ' , '
( ).
, .
(
) ,
,
, ,
. -

8.4. ,

271

. 6, Is the door open? that is the


question that I refuse to ask ' ? ,
'
. , .
,

-
, -
, ,
, ,
. ,
,
( ).
, ,
(
) ,
(deontic commitment).
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: ,
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, -.
(
), ,
-, , ,
( ) .
,
, ,
,
(37) The door is open, isn 7 it? ' , ?',


"The door is open" ' ',
(. 6.7).
,

"--" "--"
.

272

8.

, , ,
, ,

: (
component of commitment) (" ")
(non-commitment), , ,
(" "),
(" "), .
'' ( ,
) . -,
,
,
, , '' '' (10.5). -,

. , ,

(commitment) .

, (mood)
,
(commitment).
,
, , 10,
. ,

(commitment) ,
(). ,
,

,
().
10, ,

.

,
. , ,

, -

8.4. ,

273


.

. , ,

,
. ,

,
, .
, -

,
(authority)
(commitment).
,
, ;
, , , ,
, , ,
.
, ,
. ,
,
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, ,
.
, ,
,
(persons) (individuals),
, ,
.
, (person, or the self)

,

.
(10.6).
.
,
- .
, , 18 3113

274

8.

, . - , ,

,
; ,
,
.
, , ,
, I promise to pay you 5 '
5 ', , ,
, ,
( ) ().
, , ,
, , ,
, ,
, .
, , ,
, , // is
raining ' ',
- .
. .

9
; -
9.0.
,
. ,
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.
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.
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18*

276

9. ; -

.
'
' ' ',
. ,
,

''.
,


. , ,
(
,
), .
9.1.

,
.
,
.

: Good heavens! ' !', Least said, soonest mended, .
' , '(= '
, ') . .
. ,
, ,

,

. ,

.
, ,
-,
, ,
.
- -

9.1.

277

. ,
,

-,
( ) .
(
, ,
,
), - ,

.
(
)

( ) . , ,
( ),
,
.
.

-.
,
.
,
''.

, ,

. , -
(
-),
, .

;

(
, ,
). ,
(
) .

278

9. ; -

,
,
- ,
, ( , )
. ,
, ,
(1) 'I have not seen Mary' ' ',

, ,
(2) / have not seen Mary
( have not haven V
).

. .
,
.
'I have not seen Mary'. ,
, :
(3) Have you seen Mary? I haven't. Peter hasn 't either. She is never here when
she should be. ' () ? . .
, '.
, ,
()
.
,
. / haven't
(1),
(2). (
, / haven't
,
.)
,
,
,
/ haven V. To , ,
Peter hasn't either 'Peter has not seen Mary'
' ' (, , She is never here when
she should be ' is never here when she should
be here' ' , '.

9.2. () (a text)?

279

,
,
,
.
, / haven't 'I have not
seen Mary' ' ' , have not been to
Switserland' ' ' 'I have not got any
money' ' ' , . . ,
/ haven 7 . / haven't
,
,
( )
.
''
,
, ,
. , ,

,
,
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. ,
, ,
.
. , ( )
, ,
( )
.
9.2. () (a text)?
() (text)?
( ),
.
( ) ?
, ( ) .
: ?
,
.
'' ,

280

9. ; -

, " ". ,
,
.

,
.

, , ,
, ,
,
.

( )
().
, () ()
, ,

,
. ,
(3): , 'I have not seen Mary'
/ haven't, / have not seen Mary,
. either ',
' Peter hasn't either 'she' '', ''
She is never here when she should he. ,
,
:
(4) Peter hasn't either. I haven't. Have you seen Mary? ' . .
() ?'
,
:
(5) Have you seen Mary? I haven 7 seen Mary. Peter hasn V seen Mary (either)
Maty is never here when she should he here. ' () ?
. . ,
'.
, (5) ,
(3). ,
, ,
( ) .
,
(therefore '', so ''

9.2. () (a text)?

281

. .), ,
, ''.
,

.
()
, . -
, , ,
,
. , (3)

(6) She is never here when she should he

. , she' ''
'' ( ,
), ,
,
,
. ,

(7) The whole family went to town last Saturday. Veronica bought a dress,
while John kept the children occupied in the toy-shop '
. ,
',
,
,
.
, ,
,
,
.
.
.
-, , (
, ) ?
()?. , ,
,
.
, (3) (7),

282

9. ; -

, ( )
() . ,
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( , ,
),

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,

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.
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.

( ,
, ).
,
. ,
. ?
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.

9.3.

. -, ,
, , ,
. -,
,
, . -,
,
.

9.3.

283

, ,
'',
.
,
: , (
).
.
,
.
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'

. ,
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,
, , . ,

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.

.
, , ,
. , 'the vintage port' ', -

284

9. ; -

' ,
'the busy port' ' ' .
, ,

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9.3.

285

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286

9. ; -

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(12) 'I will give you 5' ' 5 '
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; ,
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j

9.3.

287

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, 'Sit down'
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,
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288

9. ; -
9.4.

'imply' ', , '


,
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'.
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1967
1968 (. Grice 1975, 1989),
(conversational).
, ,
-

9.4.

289

, , ,
,
.
.
, but ''
and '' . , ,
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:
(15) ' is poor and he is honest' ' , ',
(16) ' is poor but he is honest' ' , '.

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19 3113

290

9. ; -

, but,

.
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,
(
6.3).
but and
'say' ' / ' 'true' ''.
, , ,
,
:
(17) / did not say that he was poor but honest, I said that he was poor and hon
est. And that's a very different thing. Personally, I don't find it surprising
that anyone should he both. Let its recapitulate then. It is true that he is
poor and honest; it is not true in my view at least that he is poor but
honest. We both subscribe to the truth of the proposition that he is poor and
he is honest. We appear to disagree as to the truth of the proposition that he
is poor but he is honest.
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, , but,

9.4.

291

'say' 'assert' '


' ( 'assert').
, but
and.
, , , ,
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,
,
. .
10
.
19671968 .

'therefore' ', '. ,
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, even, well just
, :
(18) Even Horace likes caviare ' ',
(19) You may well be right ' , ',

(20) It was just one of those things ' '.


, ,
,
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.
,
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,
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. 2, 19*

292

9. ; -

,
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(21) Christ tells us to love our neighbour ' ,
'

(22) Christ has told us to love our neighbour ' ,


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9.5.

293

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, (conversational),
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, , conversational
implicatures ' ';
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,
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. . .

294

9. ; -

, 'conversational'
, ,
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,

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(25) Have you done the washing-up and put everything away? '
?',
v :
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9.5.

295

,
, . , , ,
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296

9. ; -

(28) :
(29) x: The clock is slow ' '.
(30) v: There was a power cut this morning '
'.
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9.5.

297

.


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(32) 'John is a tiger' ' ',
,
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, (7)
(9), 5.2, .

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'tiger' ( , ,
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298

9. ; -

,

.
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,
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.
'John is a tiger' ' '
,

, "John is ferocious"
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,
: ,

9.5.

299


.
,
;
.
, ,
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.
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(33) Mary is beautiful ' '

(34) John is aggressive ' /'

(35) John is dynamic ' '.


,


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. , 'John is a tiger' '
', :
(36) // . ,
. . , () . () .
, () ,
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300

9. ; -
(
- ).

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.

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.
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9.5.

301

, ,


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.
.
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:
(38) x" / want to watch TV now ' '.
v: You have not put your toys away ' '.
, , (
,
).
, , ,
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302

9. ; -

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(39) John arrived late and missed the train '
',

9.5.

303

/
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, (39),
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,
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:
(40) John arrived late and missed the train, but it was not because he arrived
late that he missed the train [the train was delayed and did not leave until
ten minutes after he got there. So, why did he miss the train? Maybe he did
so deliberately].
,
, [
, .
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' ,

(. 6.3). , ,

304

9. ; -


"" (as biconditional):
" , q" " , q". ,

(41) If Ann passes her driving test, her parents will buy her a Porsche '

, '
,
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9.5.

305

( , ),
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,
, . , 20 3113

306

9. ; -

( )
.

:
(44) 'It is possible that p' ', p,

(45) 'It is not impossible that p' 'He , p.


,
(45) . .

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.

.

9.6. ?
, .
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9.6. ?

307



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308

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(mood) (
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, 10.5 ,

10.

310

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6.
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10.1.
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10.1.

311

,
3 .

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312

10.

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.

. , , ,
,

10.1.

313

,
.


. ,
, :
,

.
'the man' '[] '
'John's father' ' '. '
',
, .
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).
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.
'entity' '',

,

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. .
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, ; 'person' ',
' , -

314

10.

( ) .
, , . .:
, ,

( ). , 'exist' ''
'occur' ', ' (
'happen' ', '); 'think' '' (
) 'swim' '
'; 'circular' '' 'clever' '' . .
( )

, , . . (

, ) ,

(. 7.4).

:
( ).
, , 'the woman' '[] '
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,
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(,
Qiiadniplicity drinks procrastination '
' Thursday is in bed with Friday ' ',
. 5.2) -
, .
:

(1) 'The (present) king of France is bald' '() '.


, ( ,
) , ,
.
,
. , ,
, , , ,

10.1.

315


, ,
- . ,


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.

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,
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, -

316

10.

- ,
.
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z-a. z-a
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,
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.

,
. -

10.1.

317

, , (
,
, ): 'a man' '', 'a certain girl'
' () ' . . ,
,
: 'all men'
' ', 'every girl' ' ' . .


, .
,

, .
,


,
. (
.

.)
7.6. , , ,
(2) 'I wanted to meet Margaret Thatcher' '
'

(3) 'I wanted to meet the first woman Prime Minister of Great Britain' '
, '
.
. , , , '
' ( ''
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; ()
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318

10.

- '
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de dicto (" , "),
de re (" "),

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, ,
.
, .
10.2.
, ,
,
, .
( '').
(,
: 'who' ', ', 'which' ',
' 'that' '' )
,

10.2.

319

,
. , ,
. ( '' ''
9; 7
-
''.
.)

( '', 'you' '', 'we' '' . .), ,
('this' '', 'that' ''), .
'' ''

, ('here' '', 'there'
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'come' ' ' vs 'go' '
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' vs 'take' ' - ,
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, '' ''

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2), ;

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. (18791963).

.

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320

10.

. , ,
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.
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.
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Happy ''; ,
That's beautiful ' ',
: Beautiful ''. ,

,

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,
( ,
, 3)
. (ostension) ,
,
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, ,
''.
'
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,
.

- , ,
, --.

10.2.

321

--
? ,
'here' '' 'now'
'' ( ),
(i) , ()

. , , , ,

, . (
,
( -
) .)
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, ( ), a 'now'
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() 'there' '' 'then'
'' 'here' 'now':
'there' 'not-here' '-', a 'then' 'not-now' '
'.
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21 3113

322

10.

. -
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, ,
(. 7.6).
-
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,

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(4) It is raining ' '.
,
(, ,
),
(
)
(5) // is raining here and now ' '.
, , ( )
,
. It is raining
, (, -

10.2.

323

), -
,
, : "",
"" ( "", )
.
,

- . , ,
(
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. ,
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'there', 'kommen' 'bringen'
'come' 'bring'.
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'', 'here' '' vs 'there' '' :
( )
.
'he' '', 'she'
'', 'it' '' :
21*

10.

324

,
' ', ' ' ' '.
,
-
, .
( )
, .
,
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,
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,
(6) What's that? ' ?'

(7) What's that thing? ' ?'.
'that' ', ' (6) ,
. 'that thing' '/ '
(7), , :
'that' (
) 'thing' '' (

, 'person' '' 'animal' '',
, ,
).

(8)

Who's that? ' ?'

(9) Who's that person? ' ?'.


'that' ( (8)) ,
'that person' . ,
,
'who' '' 'what' '',
"" "".
(6) (7) , (8) (9), .

- ,
,
, ,
, -

10.2.

325


.
.
, ,
,
,
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:
(i)


'who' '' 'what' '',
(6) (8)
,
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. :
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'he' '' 'she' ''.
() (8) , (6)
( )
() : " ()
?" vs " ?"
(iii) - What person is that? '
?', . ' ?' What is that
person? ' ?', . '
? ' : , (8) (9),
,
; What animal is that? '
?', . ' ?'
, What is that animal? '
?', . ' ?'
.
, ,
,
, ,
:
.
,
. ,

326

10.


( ) . ,
, ,
, , , . / ,
'tu' vs 'vous' , 'du' vs 'Sie'
, 'tu' vs 'usted' . .,

,
, .
, / , ,
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.

: 'this' ', , ' 'here' ''
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, '',
. ,
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: '' -

10.2.

327

, ' ' ' ', ''


' ' ' '. (
, ''
). , ,
, .
,
,
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,
( ).
- ,
'this' '', 'that' '' (
- ).
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, :
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.
10.5, ,
,
. ,
, , ,
,
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, ,

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,
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328

10.

,
,
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(. 10.6).
-
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. ,
.
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). -
, ,
, ,
. .
10.3.
'' ('tense')
,
, .
, (
) 'tempus',
"".
,
.
.
, , , ,
(, )

. ,
, . ,


(10) 'It be raining (now/yesterday/tomorrow)' ' (//)',

(10) 'It is raining (now)' ' ()'
(10b) 'It was 'raining (yesterday)' ' ()'
(10c) It will be raining (tomorrow)' ' ()'

10.3.

329

, , ,
.
(
) ( ). ,
, ,
, ,
.
.

(
,
), , .
, , ,
'' ,
. - . ,
, , ,


( ),
,
.
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.
,
,
,
,
. ( ,
), ,
,
(
-- ), , ,
, , .
,
,
,
.
.
, , ,
, (,

330

10.

, ) .
, ,
, , ,
,
. , ,
, .: is/was '/', sing(s)/sang '
/'. ,

, ,

.
, ,
- . ,
,
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, )
.

,

,
.
, , ,
,
(
) . ,
, ,
, .

.
, .
vs -. (
, )
-. ( )
- (.
'' '') -
-. , -

10.3.

331

-,
-
,
.
, ,
( )
, .
( )

,
. , ,
, ,
( ):
(11) 'John's uncle died (last week)' ' ( )'
(12) 'John's uncle had died (the previous week)' ' (
)'.
died '' (
'') (
) , .
( ) had
died '' ,

,
; ,
( )
. , ''
'' ,
,
. (
'' '',
,
, .)
, ,
.

;
.
,

, . , -

332

10.

,
/ (, ,
- / ). ,
, (
) ,
,
. ,
"John's uncle die" "
" ( 'John's uncle' ' '
) Past ''
, (11) (12)
( , Past
):
(11) Past ()

(12) Past (Past ()).


(11) (12), ,
,
,
.

(. 7.6).
, () ,
(
),
( ),

(/= ""), (12) , p;
( ),
,
,
t0- ,
(, ,
)

.
,


, ,

10.3.

333


(, . .)
- .
() (12), ,
(11)
(12). , 'last week' '
' 'the previous week' ' ',

, ,
,
,
. ,
, ,
. (11) (12) ,
, ,
.
,
.
, ,
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. ,
,
("
/ , "),
.
,


.
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,

.
,
.
, ,
,

.

334

10.


, -
,
, ,
. (
) ,
(incidental)
. , (11)
, , , .
, " "

' '. , ,

;
, (
, ),
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) ( , ) ,
, ,
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( ) . ,

. ,
.
,
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,
() .
'' , ,
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, ,
- -

10.3.

335

(
'' '', 10.2).

.
, , ,

,
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,
,
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,
.
,
,
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,
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,

,
, (
).

- .
,
,
.
'-' (, , )
.
- (
) ,

'will' 'shall'. 'will'
'shall' 'may' '
', 'must' '' '' ''. ,

336

10.


,

.
, ,


, ( 'will' 'shall')
. ,
, :
, , ,
, , , , ,
.
, ,

,
, .
, ,
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,
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.
10.5. ,
, -
, , ,

, .

10.4.
'' (''), '',
, ,
. ,
'',
'' -

10.4.

337

, ( )
.
, .
, (
), . ,
, cantabat, chantait, was
singing '' ,
,
, ,
, , ,
.
, ,
.
,


(Comrie 1976: 1).
,
.
.
, , ,
. ,
(,
, )
. , was
singing '' is singing '' () ,
; , was singing '' sang ',
' , . ,
was singing is singing ,

, .
, was singing
sang, cantabat ''
cantavit '' chantait '' chanta ''
, ,

- ;
cantabat cantavit ( ), ,
chantait chanta, , , .

:
22 3113

338

10.

cantat chante
,
is singing sings.
. ( ,
),
, ( ).
,
.

. , ,
.
,
( '' '
',
).
( ),
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.
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.
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?
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: ,
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) (, , . .). ,
, ,
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,
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, .

, ( )

10.4.

339

, .
''
.
,
, ,

.
, , .
, , ,
, , . ,
, ,
, ,
( ,
),
. , ' is singing' ' ' '
was singing' ' '
(
);
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)' ' is singing' ' (, )'
,
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.

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,
22*

340

10.

. ,
.


.
,
.

, ,
, ,
(completeness),
.
, ,
.
,
. ,
, ''
' '. '
' ('completeness') '
' ('completion'). ,
.
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.
() , , ,
:
? ?. ,
: ,
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( -).
, (
),
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. . .

10.4.

341

( ). (
), ,
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.
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)
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.
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,
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,
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.
,

, .
(
);
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.
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),
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( ),
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.
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, () ,
, ;
.

342

10.


,
,
.
, , ,
,
, .
, ,
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,
, ,

('', '', '', '' . .),
('', ' ', ''
. .) ('', '' / '
', '' . .),

.
,
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,
;
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himself ', , , ',
'the initial phase of this continuing process' '
' . .)

'' ''. , ,

.
,

,
,
.

. ,
(
)

10.5. ,

343

, , ,
,

. ,

, .
, , , ,
,
,


.
,
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, -,
, .
,
,
, , , () .

. : () , () , .
, ,
. ,
, .
,
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10.5. ,

'', '' '' ('mood').
, ,
-

344

10.

,
, . ,
, , '' ('mood')
,
.

, '' ('mood')
,
.
,
,
, ,
. 6, ,
;
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, .
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, ;
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'.)
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4. 6.5
, N ( 0),
, -.
,
:
(
) .
6.5:
(13) " , "

(14) " , "

10.5. ,

345

( (Np = ~ ~), ( = ~ 0 ~);

(15) ", "



(16) " , "
( ( = ~ N ~ ), (0 - ~ ~ )).
,
, ,
, .
,
, ,
((), ,
, (VJC) ""; () () ""),
: () fx = ~ ((Ex) ~ fx),
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)
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) ( )
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, .
.
, ,
, .
?
, 6.5,

(17) ' may not come' ' / '.

10.

346

,
(
: ~ N ~ ).
not '', 'may' '
'
.
(
)
, .
( '' ''
8.4. ,
.)
.
- ,
:
(18) " , , , ";
,
(19):
(19) " , ".

( , ),
(18) (19) :
(18)" ,
"4
(19) " ,
" .
,
,
, ,
. , ,
( ) 4

: "There is some epistemically possible world in which he


comes". , . , (18)
: " ,
". . .
5
: "There is some deontically possible world in which he
comes". , . , (19)
: " ,
". . .

10.5. ,

347

. ,

.
, , (17) , , 'may' '',
, ; ,
(, , ),
,

,
.
,
, ;
.
(17)
, :
(20) "---, "
( "---"
);
, - "
".
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' ,
, ,
, (commit
ment) . ,
. ,
,
.
, , ,
, ,
, ,
, . .

.


. ,
,
, , , ,

348

10.

('may'
'', 'must' '' . .),
('possible' '' . .), ('possibly' '
' . .) ('perhaps' ' ' . .).
(assertion), ,
,
.
, ,
.
,
.
, , ,


"--"
.
. ,
8,
(, statements)
, ,
,
(assertions).
,
(,
- ).
, ,
, -
,
, , ()
, ,
(
) . ,
,
, .
, ,
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,
6.6.
'' '' , ,
( )
.

10.5. ,

349


. ,
, , , ,
, (
) .
, ,
,
. ,
6.6 ,
, , ,
.

.
,
,
, ,
,
, . ,
(21) That will he a postman ' , ', . '
1,
, ,
,
;
(22) / wanted to ask you whether you needed the car today '
, ',
, ,
,
.
, , .
, 10.2,
.
, ,
,

, ,
, .
, , , (i)
, , ()
,
. , -

350

10.



, ,
,


.


. ,
, .
: ,
,
, - ,
( '')?
: ,
,
, -
, ,
, ?
. .
, ,
, '';
,

,
'',
(. 3.2). ,
, ,
, ,
.
.
, ,
, ,
,
.
, ,
, ,
, ,
,

10.5. ,

351

, ,
.
, , , (i)

() ,
,

(. 'must' '' 'have (to)' ''
, You must/have to be joking ', ,
'). ,

, ,
,
''.
,
, , (
) , ,
,
'
' .
, (, ,
), . ,
,
, , ,
, ,
, ,
- ,
, ,

.
,
- .
,

, , ,
.
,
(certainty),
.

352

10.

- . ,
:

. ( N 0,
() () ,
.) ,
,
. 'all'
'' 'some' '',
, 'many' '', 'several' '' . .;
'some'
(" ").
: , .

(, . .)

. ,
,

. ,
( ) ( )


,
.
10.6.
,
, ,
. ,
. ,
'subjective' ''
.
,
, ,
, -.

10.6.

353

, , ,
,

, , ,
,
. , ,
,

, , ,
, .



,
( , )

,
.

, ,
, ,

.
,
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,
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), .
(
)?
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, ,
, ,
.
, ,
().
.
,
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. (
23 3113

354

10.

,
( ).)

,
.
,
''. ''

; ''
(
). , ,
, ''
, (
) ( , ,
) ().
, " " (
- 'res cogitans'),
(the self)) (). ,
,
,
.
,
.
.
(
) ()
, , () -, -,

( )
. ,
, , .


. ,
,
. ,
, X Y
, ,
,
( ) .

10.6.

355

,
, ,
.
,
, , (the self), ,

, .
, ,
, , , ,
, .

,
, ,
, () ,
- 'Cogito, ergo sum' (
- 'I think, therefore I am' ' (
), , ',
'I am thinking,
therefore I am' (, ),
, '), ,
-
( ,
, , . .).

(

).
, , ,
.

,

, ,
, ,
, (
/)
() .
.
-
,
23*

356

10.

.
.
, ,
, , ,
, ( )
,
, ( ) .
8
,
.
,
, ,
.
, ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
,

, , , ( ,
),
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, , .
, -,
.
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, ,
( )

, ,
. ,
, ,
,
.
,

. , ,
,
.
,
.

10.6.

357

.

.
(
). ,
, , .
, ,
,
, ,
- ( -),
.
,
, (
) '' ('language'); ,
, (,
),
.
, 10.5,
( ),
,
(23) ' may not come'6 ' / ',
.
,

. ,
,
, 'he' '' ,
, (
, )
'he' '' .
,
,

,
,
6

! , . ,
, (23) : ' may come'
' '. . .

358

10.

, ,
. ,
,
,
, , .
, , ,

,
, - .
,
,
-.
, , ,

. ,
, ,
, , ,
,
.
, ,
,
, ,
, . , ,
6.6 10.5,
,
, ,
(
) .
7
. ,
, ,
, .
, ,
, ,
, . ,
,
,

, .
,
. -

10.6.

359

, 7, ,
- . , ,
, ,

. , ,

, . .
,
. ,
, ,
( )
,
, ,
-
.


, ,
,
( ), , ,
, ,
.
, , .

. , 1,
.
, , ,
, .
5 Lyons 1981
, ,
;
, , ,
. ,
, , Leach 1974, Nilsen,
Nilsen 1975, Hurford, Heasley 1983 Palmer 1981
. ,
,
, , Frawley 1992 Hoffmann 1993:

;
( ). Allan I986
, ,
. Lyons 1977

,
.
( ),
Asher 1994.
Bright 1992, Collinge 1990 Newmeyer
1988, 1988b, 1988c, 1988d.
, ,
, Cruse 1986:

361

,
, .
Ullmann 1962,

. Baldinger 1980
, Ullmann 1962,
. Aitchison 1987
;
, 2 ,
;
.
,

Hudson 1995.
Lehrer, Kittay 1992.
, :
. Nida 1975, Dowty 1979; . Lehrer 1974;
. Lakoff 1987, Taylor 1989.

, Jackendoff 1983, 1990 Wierzbicka 1980,
1992. . Clark 1993.
,
( ) .
2
() ;
1993 Chierchia, McConnell-Ginet 1990.

(Chomsky 1965)
,
, . Fodor 1977; .
Lyons 1991a; Radford 1988.
Montague
1974, .
Hughes, Cresswell 1968.
( , ,
. .) . Allwood . 1977.

Huddleston 1984.
,
Quirk . 1985.
. Craig 1986.
. Comrie 1985, 1986, Dahl 1985, (
) Palmer 1986, Coates 1983, R. Matthews 1991, Horn
1989.

362


. P. H. Mat
thews 1992, Bybee 1985, Lipka 1995.
. Hopper, Traugott 1993.
. Brown 1990,
Crystal 1976.
( ),
4, . Leech 1983, Levinson 1983, Horn 1988.
: . Austin 1962/1975,
Searle 1969, 1979, Katz 1972, Recanati 1987;
. Grice 1989; . Sperber, Wilson 1986, Smith 1982, Blakemore 1987,
Huang 1994, Levinson (forthcoming). . Jarvella, Klein 1982;
Cornish 1986, Reinhart 1983, Huang 1994;
( ) . Lakoff, Johnson 1980, Ortony 1979.
(
,
) . Brown, Yule 1983, Halliday, Hassan 1976, Beaugrande,
Dressier 1981, Seuren 1985.
,
, ,
: Alston 1964, Lehrer, Lehrer 1970, Olshevsky 1969, Parkinson
1968, Potts 1994, Rorty 1967, Strawson 1971b, Zabeeh . 1974.
(, , , , )
Martinich 1985.

. , ,
.
, , ,
,

.


,
, ,
.

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, 74, 283
, 11, 79,
100,113117,119122,147
, 361, 362
,
6768,76,96,221
,
6768, 76, 9697, 221
, 117

, 104105
, 48,64,69
, 48
49,58,192
, 48
, 11,
120


, 118

, 64, 69,70, 85

(19671968), 253
, , 27

() , 32
, 21,
218,328,359
, 362

, 1718, 22, 26,31


, 10,
11,215
, 9, 18, 27


1930 1950-
, 31
, 21, 27
, 218
, 284
, 81, 118
, 9,119
( ),
90
(self), 354
, 319, 320
322, 323324, 325
, 10,118

, 168
, 311
, 21, 236,
318,334,344
, 135,165,223
,
168,175176
, 177

, 135
, 148, 156,
161,165,254
, 102
, 240,
315316
, 343

, 352359

,
354357
, 257265, 283
, 262
, 321,327
, Longman Dictionary of
Contemporary English, 102

383
, 323, 328
, 46
, 182

, 38
, 110
, 95
, 60
, 60
, 93
(), 206
,
55
, 89
, 246
, 89,115
, 312

, 187,188
, 318
, 1760
, 353, 354
, 152,297301
, 362
,
297298,300
, 297,300
, 76
, 2225, 35, 37, 49, 64,
93
, 22

, 341343
, 26, 96
, 152

, 133,246
( ),
133,246
, 133, 190, 270,
271,318,351352
, 361
, 270, 272, 309, 310,
344
, 361
, 247

384

, 345,352
, 291
, 336

, 343352

, 335336
,
, 343352
, 73, 195, 209,
304, 348

, 291
, 272
,
, 272
, 29,261
, 29,196
, , 214, 216, 223,
236, 243244
, 223,
236240,244245,311

, 237238
, 236

-
, 238239
,
175,
238240, 345
, 361

, 46,330
, 119,120
, 362

, 73

, 70
, 105,106,129

()
,271
, 106,113,341

, 90,191,272,309
, 361
, 206,208
, 195
, 191196,
269


, 272
, ,
210,309
,

,
343352
,

, 191196,348

, 211,292,309

, 191196
, 343
, 76
, 73,329, 330
()
, 35
,
28
,
, 63


, 29,51

,
324326

,
200,256
, 58
(


), 95

, 46
- ,
193,239


, 89
- ,
28
, 11,120
, 17,
18,22,2631
, 22, 23, 35, 40,
56, 200, 219, 258, 291, 312,
323, 326, 355

, 133134
,
, 136
, 344345, 350
351
, 345
,
294,296,308
, 362
, 11,12,33

,
222

, 222
(
, ),
12,111,165
, 317

,305
(, empty)
, 8285, 90, 93
,
,
8285

(ill-formedness),
88,138,153,154,230235
, 291
, 327
-,
, 210
, 245
-, 2830
25 3113

385
,
9,11,24,58,59,193,196,201


, 353
, 340
, 140,142
, 160161
, 83
- , 323324
, 107
(,

), 57, 7576, 80, 111, 150,
163,165,166,325
,

, 164

, 25

, 7576
, 254, 256, 265, 267, 268,
274, 286
(), 220,242
(denotes), 94
,
( ), 107
, 353

, 346
, 346
347,350351

, 346

, 9899
, 35, 39, 70,
341

(commitment),
272273, 347
, . ., 101
, 203
, 127

386
- ,
50, 56,158,220,243
, 64,7175
, 75
, 74, 75
, 75, 76

, 7273
, 4244
(
) , 29

(), 20, 136,


158,164,203,298,324
,
, 340,341
, 13, 124,
187,189,344
, 332
,
332
,
332
, 253, 266
(,
) , 91116

,
101
,
, 114
, 94
,
, 84
, 158,
313316
, 191,
194
,
45,70
, 70,306
(), 40,41
, 99,
320
(ostension), 320
. ., 251


, 253
, 255

, 253
, 161,
251,253,257
(persons),

(individuals), 273
, 82
/ (of
the world) (

), 246
, 331
, ,
(refer to), 91, 94,
311
( ),
294,295
, 116

() , 116
(
D V), 220
, 165,178,185191
, 361

, 178

, 187
, 94, 213
, 342

, 139
, 182
183
,
2930,31,272,357

, 51

, 107
, , 107,108,136


, 335
, 326, 327,
349

, 173

, 334, 341

, 291
-


'meaning' 'mean', 56
, 155156
, 155156
(
), 288
, 128, 132, 137, 203
204, 220
,76
(

), 23,
24
,

, 114
,
254, 255, 265, 266
, 256,
265267
. , 66, 319
/ (
) (type /
token), 6667
,
50,275,278,281
, 25, 30, 47, 49,
196,197, 209, 252253, 294
, 25,30,38,47,49,
196,197,209,252253,294
()
, 272
, 226
229, 237
25*

387


, 139, 140,142
(
),
41,44
, 174
, 254
,
, 30
, 64,75
, 75
, 82
87

,
, 8488, 90
(authority), 273

,
329
, 188, 202,209
, , 157
, 37
()
, 199,225
, 171, 172, 179
, . ., 201

, 82
, 294296, 300,
301,307,316
, 117, 118,
132, 139140, 141, 142144,
235
, 235

,
139144
(truthfulness), 295

, 235
, 268
, 224,230
,
224,230
(well-formedness), 154
, 24, 37, 59, 217, 247,
255,269, 293, 323, 359

388

, 360, 362
, 9, 299,
306, 325
(clause)

, ,
176177, 192
(clauses)
, 89

, 8889, 176, 191192


, 89
, 185, 187
,311
, 82, 85, 93, 127, 153,
342343

, 260


, 275277

,
, 52

(),
147167
, 5253
,
5059, 252257
-,262263
,
277

(clauses), 176177
,
157160

, 9
,
,
(purporting)
(
), 159


, 134
, 170, 201, 204,
205, 293, 297, 302,314315
,
188,314
(), 52
,
, 148
150
( ), 341
,
, 114
, 191, 265
266, 271
(instances),
66

,
156157,160161
, 293, 294
306

,

, 291
,
-, 210
, (
'', '
' ''), 50,252
, 6768
, 33, 34, 35
37
, 28
, 58,118,132,157
-, 258

, 157160, 283

, 344346

, 157
,
157160


, 291, 348,
353
,
24,58
,
163,229
, 339
, 118,
168213,251
, 281282
, 157160, 283
, 172,
186,190, 196197,269,278

,
, 362
, 29
, 51
, 51, 59,
180,286287,357

, 196197

,


, 342343
-
, 322323, 326327
(primary) ,
255
() ,
13,48,39,50,152,279
, 172

,
172177
, 165167, 232
233,246,296,302303,314
, 165167

(), 110,131
, 109,111, 112
, 30, 37, 50, 251252
(
'', ''
''), 50, 252

389
, 40, 69, 7273,
159, 193, 315, 322, 330333,
335, 338, 349
- , 330
331,335
(direct-discourse), 26,
199, 207
, 112, 115
, 9, 21,
27
, 89
(
), 29,196
,
, 245
(conversation),
, 4750
, 202
/ (
, tokens),
6667, 259260
, 98, , 111,
141
, , 151,156, 161
, , 84, 98103, 121,
151,223


, 23
,353

, 106, 113, 341


, 106, 113

(
),
23

(

), 23
, 342
, , 156
, 185
, 183, 302
, 281,300

390
(

), 133
, 262

, 317

, 55,91,94,108
, 58
, 310
, 285
, 24, 91, 9495, 309,
310318,351
, 219, 239240
, 315

, 243245
, 91,
243244
,
285
, 23
, 252
, 251
274
,25,186
, 81
, 197
(gender), 92,104
, . ., , 77,102
, 35, 195
, 5657, 83, 182,
291,312,326
() ,
336337, 339340
, 354, 356, 357
, 303

, 203
, 280281, 287,296
, 204
, 204
, 75
, 224,
230

, 224, 230

( ),
24
,
, 9, 299, 306, 325
,
, 340341
,
, 24
, 214,
240
, 11
, 11,140
, 361
, 348
(
), 52

( ), 43
(
), 234
, 117118
, 230
, 93,
111116
,
224,226,234235, 247
, 224
230

,
235
, 136
138
, 27
, 319
, 119
, 194, 196
(
), 306
, . ., 253
(), 206
, 50
, 19
,
, 13


, 142
, 152
,
88
, 76
81
, 64,7681, 305

, 139
, 119120
, 171, 176
, 69

(), 225

,
134135
, 33,3537
, 276,
277
, 51
, 340
, 287

, 338
, 304
, 83
, 337340
, 140,184,288,298
, 132138
, 132
, 136
(), 132

,
91116
,
6390
, 3847
(), 255
, 63
(,
), 66
, 4143, 64, 6667, 89,
9394,101103
, 115,
116

391

, 77
, 64, 98
, 9899
(), 64, 85, 88,
227
, 85, 8890
, 69,120, 210,236
, 40,
47

(complex)
, 172
(compound)
, 172
, 172
, 172

()
, 83,93
( )
, 133
, 24,92, 9598
, 9495, 219,
239240
, 24,
9598
, 122,
234, 237
, 95, 117,
139
, 139
144
, -

, 158
, 328, 334, 338, 340341
, 340
, 139

, 177
,
, 354355
, , 206207
(incidental), 334
, , 34, 36,
105,251
-, 287

392
, 275308

(saving the appearances), 107,
213,217,223,244
, 273
, 255, 308
, 60,155

, 273, 292293, 326

, 148
, 269

,
64, 8081, 326
, 7879

, 178, 222
( ,
), 294,296
,
76
, 25,49
,

, 51
,
,
49
( ,
), 271
, 23,
47, 151
, 195
, 59, 81
, 184, 298
, 117

( ), 224, 235
, 105106, 117
120

, 117
, 117,
120122

, 119
, 117

, 117-122
, 119120
, 120
, 83
, 117144
, (), 232

, 347
, 195
196, 327, 346351

, 347348,351, 358
, 273
,
338,341
,
352359
, 291
, 272273
, 328
, 352
356
,
309,310359
, 193

, 31,352
- ,
355
, 194196
, , 82
( ), 341,
343

, 204
, 189
,
189190
, , 105, 112,121
/ , 326
, 165, 296
, 165167

, 275308
()
(a text), 279281
()
(text), 281282
,
, 362
, (conversation)
, 4754
, 49
, 278
, 276
277,278279
, 169
, 169
172
,

,
342343

() , 335
, 335336
,

, 339343
-
, 126
, 218
, 261
, 323
, 83,
9798, 222, 253, 264
,

, 147148
,
, 262

, 160
, 125128, 220,
245
, 239240, 242,
310,359

393
(),
57,161,251274,282,308,356
-
, 273
274

(clause-type), 192

(clause-type),
, 191
197
, 191
, 195
196,348
, 191
196,270

(clause-type) ,
191197
(), 66,260,262
()

(), 4547

()
, 7679
(
), 171
/ ,
260261

()

, 70
, 306
( ),
320,321
(point of
reference), 241,310,322
, 71, 83,
90,106,176
, 177
, 226

, 228
-
, , . 7.1,

394
171, 175, 177, 201, 214, 220,
224, 227 . 7.1
,

, 236237

()
, 143

, 37, 251
, 196
-
, 330, 332
, 25,171172
, , 102
(indication), 30

,
319321
(),
322, 326, 327, 343
, 322,
343
(indicates), 30
, 36

,

, 352
,
268269

, 121, 123, 129131,
134, 141
, , 105,112,121
(, perfor
mance), 9, 32, 34, 36, 37, 252,
253
(use) ,
160
(use),
, 9, 5657
, 30, 82, 87
, 112
, 273

, 36

, 101
, 100,105
, 59, 147,
162165

, 81
, 147
- ,
8587, 168169, 180, 289,
293,316

, 273274
, 241247
, 238
240
, 11,355,359
-
, 55, 58, 148, 160, 162
165,197,199,212,217,359
-

, 164
()
, 2526,3941


, 3839
(),
13
(
), 191, 195196,
304
,
275
, 25, 30, 38, 47, 49,
196, 197, 209, 252253
, 25, 30,
3839,47, 49,196197, 253
(assertions), 190
191,211,264265,268,348
(statements), 53,191,
255,268
,
, 269274
,
102,103


, 160161,
271
, 157, 165
, 262
(
, ), 100, 104,
110
. ., ,
306
''- , 94
, 246247
, 362
, 98104
, 57,
156,253
, 10, 21, 31, 168,
200,238,288,319
, 9, 21, 22,
27, 91, 98, 147, 156, 196, 245,
317
, 362
, 185
, 40, 83,330
, . .
, 224, 235,
. ,
,
, 25, 264
(
), 4546, 260
, 262
, 45,
70
, 38, 69

(), 38,226,227,236
, 117,120, 122,226,227
, 38
, 3847
, 195196
, 120
, 45, 47,
63

, 47, 73
, 253

395

, 24

, 216218, 221, 223,
224
, 175
, 361
, 1011,
37,68,175,213,251,333
,
214218
, 361

, 214215

, 70
, 83

( ), 334
, 63,66
, 65
71,219220
, 278
, 306
, 67,68
, 67

, 252
, 22, 3335,
5657, 182,291,312,355
tu/vous , 326
, 158
, 337
, 196
, , 200,243, 274
(Sinn
Bedeutung), 219,239
, , 218
, ., 82
, 253
-
, 177191
-
, 177182, 220,
345

396

, 100,
104,110
, 127,178,242
, 195196
, 201
202
()
, 5253,198,256
(), 206
, , 31, 57, 151, 153,
201, 225, 233, 237, 242, 353
,
224, 225, 228, 232, 237
,
34,36,251
,
225
- ,
171,175,177,201,214,220,
224, 227
, , ,
110,114
(
, ), , 112,
131
() (), 51, 171,
260

, 153
, 39
, 82, 85
, 329, 330
, 7275
, 7779,81
. ., 152
(
), 90
() ,
334
, 323
, 107,114

,
, 360362
, 191,
196
, 148
, 354355
, 321, 328
(
, tokens), 66,260, 263


, 352
, 208213

,
181182

,
255256, 265, 271
, 5860,
8081

, 58, 81
, 97, 107,239,240

, 318
, 241

, 31, 35
, 161
,
160161
,
58
, 98, 99, 102, 104, 298,
327, 335, 350, 353354
, 129
132
,
, 115116
, 241
, 244,
346348, 350352
, 347
, 356
, 194

, 270272

(commitment), 270272
, 347348
, 136
, 43
, 7576
, 307
, 284
, 326
(), 220
, 110,112,
131
, 220
(sentencekernel), 220,225
(language)
(language)

, 3234
, 27,
3235
, 29, 35
,
(), 8


, 194196

, 358

( ),
334
- , 326
, 308
.

, 33, 253, 277,


356357

, 120, 253

397
,
35,120,253
, 36

, 308
, 83
, 257,264
, 36
, 326
() ,
, 12, 70
and,
and, 178181
and/but,
,
289291,
302303
Bedeutung (), 219,239
But/and,
,
289291,
302303
'Cogito ergo sum' (), 355
dicto/de re ,
245,318
du/Sie . /
de

langage, 3435
langue, 3435, 36, 251
,37,251
(),219,239
tabula rasa , 100, 113
tu/usted . /

tu/vous . /

*- (mfr-questions), 202
'-, 202
-, 198,203208