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IRRN GUIDELINES

The International Rice Research Newsletter objective is: To expedite communication among scientists concerned with the development of improved technology for rice and for rice-based cropping systems. This publication will report what scientists are doing to increase the production of rice, inasmuch as this crop feeds the most densely populated and land-scarce nations in the world. . . IRRN is a mechanism to help rice scientists keep each other informed of current research findings. The concise reports contained in IRRN are meant to encourage rice scientists and workers to communicate with one another. In this way, readers can obtain more detailed information on the research reported. Please examine the criteria, guidelines, and research categories that follow. If you have comments or suggestions. please write the editor. IRRN, IRRI, P.O. Box 933, Manila. Philippines. We look forward to your continuing interest in IRRN. The International Rice Research Newsletter is a compilation of research briefs on topics of interest to rice scientists all over the world. Contributions to IRRN should be reports of recent work and work-inprogress that have broad interest and application. Please observe these guidelines in preparing submissions: The report should not exceed two pages of double-spaced typewritten text. No more than two figures (graphs, tables, or photos) may accompany the text. Do not cite references or include a bibliography. Items that exceed the specified length will be returned. Include a brief statement of research objectives and project design. The discussion should be brief, and should relate the results of the work to its objectives. Report appropriate statistical analysis.

Guidelines for contributors

soil nutrient When reporting to include standard studies, be sure

Criteria for IRRN research reports

Provide genetic background for new varieties or breeding lines. the environment Specify lowland, upland, (irrigated, rainfed deep

has international, or pan-national, relevance has rice advancesenvironment relevance rice knowledge appropriate research design uses data collection methodology and reports appropriate, adequate data applies appropriate analysis, using appropriate statistical techniques reaches supportable conclusions

water, tidal wetlands). If you must use local terms to specify landforms or cropping systems, explain or define them in parentheses. Specify the type of rice culture (e.g., transplanted, wet seeded, dry seeded). Specify seasons by characteristic weather (wet, dry, monsoon) and by months. Do not use national or local terms for seasons or, if used, define them. When describing the rice plant and its cultivation, use standard, internationally recognized designators for plant parts and growth stages, environments, management practices, etc. Do not use local terms.

soil profile description, classification, and relevant soil properties. Provide scientific names for diseases, insects, weeds, and crop plants; do not use common names or local names alone. Survey data should be quantified (infection percentage, degree of severity, sampling base, etc.). When evaluating susceptibility, resistance, tolerance, etc., report the actual quantification of damage due to stress used to assess level or incidence. Specify the measurements used. Use international measurements. Do not use local units of measure. Express yield data in metric tons per hectare (t/ha) for field studies and in grams per pot (g/pot) or per row (g/row) for small-scale studies. Express all economic data in terms of the US$. Do not use national monetary units. Economic information should be presented at the exchange rate $:local currency at the time data were collected. Use generic names, not trade names, for all chemicals. When using acronyms or abbreviations, write the name in full on first mention, following it with the acronym or abbreviation in parentheses. Thereafter, use the abbreviation. Define in a footnote or legend any nonstandard abbreviations or symbols used in a table or figure.

Categories of research reported

GERMPLASM IMPROVEMENT genetic resources genetics breeding methods yield potential grain quality and nutritional value disease resistance insect resistance drought tolerance excess water tolerance adverse temperature tolerance adverse soils tolerance integrated germplasm improvement seed technology research techniques data management and computer modeling

CROP AND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT soils and soil characterization soil microbiology and biological N fertilizer physiology and plant nutrition crop management soil fertility and fertilizer management disease management insect management weed management managing other pests integrated pest management water management farm machinery environmental analysis postharvest technology farming systems research methodology data management and computer modeling SOCIOECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT environment production livelihood EDUCATION AND COMMUNICATION training and technology transfer research communication research information storage and retrieval

CONTENTS
GERMPLASM IMPROVEMENT
Genetic resources 4 Screening for duplicates in the germplasm collections Breeding methods 4 Propagation of Porteresia caarctata using immature seeds 4 Performance of anther-derived rice lines 5 Oryza nivara sources of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in rice 6 Floral characters of CMS and maintainer lines in hybrid rice 6 Effect of row ratio and leaf clipping on MR365A outcrossing and seed yield 6 Somatic embryogenesis in rice cultivar IR50 7 A medium-duration. high-yielding, scented hybrid rice 7 Evaluation of some F 1 rice hybrids developed using MR365A as CMS line 8 Identification of restorers and maintainen for four CMS lines of rice 8 Media conditioning to convert nonembryogenic rice calli to embryogenic calli Yield potential 9 A path-coefficient analysis of rice panicle characters 10 Heterosis and heterobeltiosis for high density grain index (HDI) and other rice panicle characters 11 Adaptability of rice varieties to low light intensity 12 Correlations between allogamic and agronomic traits in rice 12 Screening long-duration rice cultivars for ratooning ability 13 Effect of high temperature on rice spikelet fertility Grain quality and nutritional value 14 Using silica gel desiccant to dry rough rice samples Disease resistance 14 Resistance to sheath blight (ShB) in China 15 A new inoculation technique for rice blast (Bl) 15 Rice sheath blotch incidence in Haryana Insect resistance 16 Registration of brown planthopper (BPH)-resistant germplasm lines in Japan 16 Rice resistance to whitebacked planthopper (WBPH) Sogatella furcifera in Bangladesh 17 A potential donor for resistance to the gall midge (GM) population of Srikakulam District, Andhra Pradesh 17 Screening for resistance to rice gall midge (GM) 18 Resistance of rice varieties to brown planthopper (BPH), whitebacked planthopper (WBPH), and gall midge (GM) in India Excess water tolerance 19 Heritability of stem elongation ability in rice Integrated germplasm improvement 20 IET9783: a salt-tolerant rice for coastal saline soil 20 Performance of upland and rainfed lowland rice varieties in farmers fields in Mali 21 Ranbir Basmati--an early-maturing aromatic rice 21 RAU4045-10, a new variety for rainfed areas 21 CN705-18--a promising rice variety for deepwater rice areas 22 SiPi 692033: a promising rainfed lowland rice variety Seed technology 23 Influence of Acrocylindriun oryzae Sawada on rice seed germination and seedling vigor

CROP AND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT


Soil microbiology and biological N fertilizer 23 Boiling water treatment to improve germination of Sesbania rostrata Crop management 24 Effect of sowing and planting method on rice yield 24 Selecting rice varieties for double transplanting in flood-affected areas 25 Effect of a new abscisic acid analog on chilled rice leaves 26 Yield ability of tillers separated from standing transplanted aman rice and replanted 26 Effect of Triacontanol on rice seedling weight and grain yield Soil fertility and fertilizer management 26 Large granule urea efficiency in rice 27 Synergistic effect of organic manure and N fertilizer on irrigated rice 27 Effect of zincated diammonium phosphate (Zn-DAP) on rainfed lowland rice 28 Efficiency of prilled urea (PU) and urea supergranules (USG) in rapidly percolating soil 29 Sesbania rostrata a lowercost same of N for rice 29 Nitrogen-use efficiency with hand- and machine-applied N fertilizers in wetland rice soils 30 Effect of Zn and Cu on growth and nutrition of rice 30 Biofertilizer production of stem-cut planted and seeded Sesbania rostrata 31 Effect of sesbania green manure and wheat straw on ammonia volatilization loss in wetland soil 32 Soil test fertilizer recommendations increase economic yields of rice 33 Source and time of phosphate application in irrigated rice Disease management 34 Suitability of iodine test for detecting rice tungro virus (RTV) infection 34 Biological control of rice blast (Bl) with antagonistic bacteria Insect 35 35 36 management Effect of plant age on whitebacked planthopper (WBPH) feeding Virus diseases of some lepidopterous rice pests in the Philippines Weed hosts of rice hispa Dicladispa armigera Olivier (Coleoptera: Hispidae) 37 Effect of parasitization on food consumption of rice leaffolder (LF) Marasmia patnalis 38 White stem borer (WSB) effect on upland yield

Weed management 38 Effect of herbicides on Ischaemum rugosum 39 Weed management in rainfed rice - lentil crop sequence Managing other pests 40 Effect of bund dimensions on rodent infestation in irrigated ricefields Farming system 40 Rice-based cropping sequences for rainfed conditions in midhills of Uttar Pradesh 41 Vegetables for high return and water use efficiency in irrigated ricebased systems 42 Supplementary irrigation using shallow groundwater for soybean after wetland rice

ERRATA

GERMPLASM IMPROVEMENT
Genetic resources
Screening for duplicates in the germplasm collections
R. K. Sahu, Indira Gandhi Agricultural University, Raipur, India

Rice researchers in the tropics often have difficulty maintaining a large germplasm collection in limited storage facilities. Often the advice is to reject duplicates within a collection. Usually samples are discarded when two of them have similar names, identical grain features, identical maturity and other morphoagronomic features, and the same or neighboring places of origin.
Results from screening similarly named germplasm for BB and WBPH resistance.

We have a collection of about 19,000 indigenous rice varieties, many with identical names. We screened a small sample of accessions with similar names, maturity, grain features, and origins for resistance to bacterial blight (BB) caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. oryzae and to whitebacked planthopper (WBPH) Sogatella furcifera at IRRI. The results are presented in the table. Of the 14 accessions of Badshahbhog evaluated, B248 and B1209 were rated resistant to BB. B189 was found resistant to WBPH. Other accessions were susceptible to both. Other accessions having identical names (Bhata dudgi, Chhatri, Dubraj,

Gurmatia, and Jhilli) showed variable reactions to the pest and disease under study. This study examined a small sample against only BB and WBPH. More variable reactions might be expected if the materials were evaluated for other traits and with various pathotypes or biotypes of diseases and pests. These results suggest that land races collected from different fields or villages that have identical names and morphoagronomic features may not have the same pest resistance. They should not be discarded from a collection before thorough evaluation.

Breeding methods
Propagation of Porteresia coarctata using immature seeds
G. D. Encarnacion and F. J. Zapata, Tissue Culture Laboratory, Plant Breeding Department, IRRI

Cultivar Badshahbhog Badshahbhog Badshahbhog Badshahbhog Badshahbhog Badshahbhog Badshahbhog Badshahbhog Badshahbhog Badshahbhog Badshahbhog Badshahbhog Badshahbhog Badshahbhog Bhata dudgi Bhata dudgi Chhatri Chhatri Dubraj Dubraj Dubraj Dubraj Dubraj Gurmatia Gurmatia Gurmatia Gurmatia deshi Jhilli Jhilli Jhilli Jhilli Jhilli parag
aR

Raipur accession no. B54 B189 B220 B227 B236 B248 B466 B670 B799 B973 B1005 B1209 B1322 B1899 B1627 B2177 C90 C364 Dl2 D61 D341 D422 D1026 G123 G185 G245 G7 J107 J273 J274 J388 J105

Reaction a BB S S S S S R S S S S S R S S S R S R S R S S S S S S R S R R S S WBPH S R S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S R S S MR R R R S R R R MR R S

= resistant, MR = moderatrely resistant, S = susceptible.

P. coarctata Tateoka (n=48) (formerly Oryza coarctata Roxb.), a wild rice species native to the coastal regions of India and Bangladesh, abounds along the mouths of estuaries. Because it flourishes in highly saline water, it could be a source of genes for salt tolerance to transfer into cultivated rices. Part of the problem with hybridization is that mature seeds of P. coarctata do not germinate. At IRRI, we have been limited to using runners and cuttings for propagation. We experimented with different conditions for inducing germination of P. coarctata seeds. Mature seeds did not germinate, even after they were treated with varying concentrations of sodium chloride and the embryos excised and inoculated in Murashige and Skoog (MS) culture medium. However,

immature seeds (soft dough stage) germinated (average 90%) in both distilled water and 1/4 concentration MS medium. Some germinated seeds failed to develop fully. Some lacked shoots or roots. Others dried up after emergence. Of 36 seeds that germinated, 12 plantlets survived and were transferred to Yoshidas water culture solution. Propagating P. coarctata through immature seeds could be important in germplasm exchange, since immature seeds are more easily transported from place to place than runners or cuttings.

Performance of antherderived rice lines


S. R. S. Rangasamy, S. K. Raina, W. W. Manuel, K. Natarajamoorthy, S. Palanisamy, and M. Gurunathan, Paddy Breeding Station, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University (TNAU), Coimbatore 641003, Tamil Nadu, India

Seven anther-derived cultures from the F1 s of Vaigai/Co 40 (developed in a TNAU-Indian Agricultural Research

4 IRRN 14:2 (April 1989)

Institute collaboration) were tested in seven trials against check Co 43. Cultures 433A-R5 and 433A-R6 performed better than Co 43 during kar (Jul-Oct) season (8.8 and 11.4% yield increase) (see table). Culture 433A-R6 was photoperiod

insensitive (duration 134-137 d); duration fluctuated 11-20 d in other cultures. All cultures are semidwarf (plant height 57-76 cm) and all have 6.97.7 panicles/hill. Grain in 6 cultures is short and bold; in 433A-R6, it is long and slender. Rice color is white.

Culture 433A-R1 is resistant to blast (Bl) and rice tungro virus (RTV); 433AR5 is resistant to Bl and moderately resistant to RTV and bacterial blight (BB); 433A-R6 is resistant to Bl and moderately resistant to RTV, BB, and brown spot.

Performance of anther culture-derived rice lines at Coimbatore, India, 1982-83 to 1986-87. a Culture Kar 433A-R1 433A-R2 433A-R3 433A-R4 433A-R5 433A-R6 433A-R7 Co 43 (check)
a

Mean grain yield (t/ha) Cold weather 4.5 4.5 4.1 4.2 4.9 4.6 4.8 4.9 Navarai 5.9 5.5 4.8 5.5 5.8 5.7 4.7 5.9 Overall mean 5.2 5.0 4.8 5 .0 5.4 5.3 4.9 5.22

Productivity (kg/d) 37.1 35.8 34.1 35.8 38.6 39.1 34.9 38.4

Duration (d) Kar 141 136 139 138 137 137 138 139 Cold weather 148 150 151 151 152 136 149 141 Navarai 132 132 134 132 132 134 134 130 Mean 140 139 141 140 140 136 140 136

Plant height (cm) 76 72 75 69 75 57 76 74

Panicles (no./hill) 7.1 7.3 7.7 6.9 7.5 7.3 7.1 7.2

1000-grain wt (g) 19.6 20.9 19.4 19.0 18.8 19.0 19.0 20.0

5.2 5.0 5.3 5.2 5.4 5.6 5.1 5.0

Kar = Jul-Oct, navarai = Feb-Apr.

Oryza nivara sources of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in rice


C. Yang, N. Y. Wang, and K. J. Liang, Fujian Agricultural College, Fuzhou, China

Table 1. Comparison of N-Zhen Shan 97A with W-Zhen Shan 97A. Puzhou, China, 1987. Days to 50% heading 68.5 70.0 Height (cm) 57.0 56.3 Panicle exsertion (cm) 6.1 5.8 Exserted stigma (%) 25.9 24.1 Pollen fertility (%) Typical abortive 92.1 89.3 Round abortive 7.9 10.7

CMS A-line N-Zhen Shan 97A W-Zhen Shan 97A

Cytoplasmic diversity is an important problem in hybrid rice breeding and production. Only a few CMS sources are being used in China, making hybrid rice potentially vulnerable to a disease or insect epidemic. To find new sources for hybrid rice breeding and to study the cytogenic interaction in Oryza spp., we have used O. nivara introduced from IRRI (acc. 101508 and 101466) as donors of CMS cytoplasm in crosses with one set of cultivars. So far, we have developed four CMS linesChao Yang 1A (indica), Zhen Shan 97A (indica), Nan Jin 56A (japonica), and Rei-Min A (japonica) that have the cytoplasm of O. nivara acc. 101508. Preliminary studies show no significant difference between Zhen Shan 97A (nivara cytoplasm) and Zhen Shan 97A (WA cytoplasm) in agrocharacter, floral characters, and pollen fertility (Table 1), and in cytogenic interaction (Table 2). The two

Table 2. Pollen fertility of F 1 progenies. a Hainan, China, 1988. Female parent Male parent Plants (no.) F IR22 IR24 Ming 63 Taiyin 1 Milyang 46 IR46826B IR46827B IR46828B Hong 410
a Pollen

N-Zhen Shan 97A F1 plants (no.) in pollen fertility class PF 4 0 1 1 2 0 0 0 3 PS 0 0 0 1 0 3 1 4 13 CS 0 0 0 0 0 17 19 16 4 20 20 18 20 20 20 20 20 20 Plants (no.)

W-Zhen Shan 97A F 1 plants (no.) in pollen fertility class F 17 18 18 18 19 0 0 0 0 PF 3 2 0 2 1 0 0 0 4 PS 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 2 12 CS 0 0 0 0 0 18 19 18 4

20 20 20 18 20 20 20 20 20

16 20 19 16 18 0 0 0 0

fertility classes: F = fertile, 91-100% pollen fertility; PF = partially fertile, 51-90% pollen fertility; PS = partially sterile, 6-50% pollen fertility; CS = completely sterile, 0-5% pollen fertility.

CMS sources seem to be genetically similar. In a crossing experiment based on F1 pollen fertility, IR22, IR24, Ming 63, Taiyin 1, IR1055, Yin Ni Ai He,

Milyang 23, and Milyang 46 were classified as effective restorers; Hong 410 as a partial maintainer; and IR46826B, IR46827B, and IR46828B as complete maintainers to both A-lines. IRRN 14:2 (April 1989) 5

Floral characters of CMS and maintainer lines in hybrid rice


C. R. Anandakumar, G. Soundrapandian, and M. Subramanian, Agricultural Botany Department, Agricultural College and Research Institute, Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India

Expression of floral characters in A, B, and R lines of hybrid rice. Line Stamen (mm) Filament length 2.75 3.59 2.12 3.05 2.99 3.48 2.65 3.30 1.33 1.70 0.44 Anther length 2.78 2.39 2.03 2.08 2.12 2.57 2.13 2.21 1.68 1.73 0.22 Anther breadth 0.32 0.50 0.37 0.41 0.48 0.48 0.38 0.42 0.34 0.36 0.09 Stamen length 5.53 5.98 4.15 5.13 5.11 6.05 4.78 5.51 3.01 3.43 0.45 Ovary length 0.801 0.944 0.704 0.816 0.576 0.728 1.104 1.267 0.760 0.770 0.21 Pistil (mm) Style length 0.840 1.024 0.640 0.832 0.872 0.984 0.881 1.216 0.720 0.760 0.17 Stigma length 1.280 1.240 0.816 0.936 1.112 0.992 1.080 1.320 0.826 0.880 0.17 Pistil length 2.921 3.208 2.160 2.584 2.560 2.704 3.065 3.803 2.306 2.410 0.28

We screened five male sterile lines and their maintainers for pistil and stamen length during 1986 wet season (kharif). Fifty spikelets/line were measured. Among the A lines, IR46830A had the longest pistil, V41A the shortest. Among B lines, Zhen Shan 97B had the longest stamen, IR54752B the shortest. V20A and Zhen Shan 97B had the longest filament (see table). The long Zhen Shan 97B stamen, prominently protruding from the gap

V20A V20B V41A V4 1B Zhen Shan 97A Zhen Shan 97B IR46830A IR46830B IR54752A IR54752B SE

between lemma and palea, facilitated easy transfer of pollen to the stigma of corresponding A lines in the adjoining row.

In general, all the male sterile (A) lines had smaller stamens and pistils than their respective maintainers.

Effect of row ratio and leaf clipping on MR365A outcrossing and seed yield
Satoto, Plant Breeding Department, Sukamandi Research Institute for Food Crops, Subang, Indonesia

We evaluated the effect of row ratio and leaf clipping on outcrossing rate and seed yield of MR365A (a CMS line developed at IRRI) during 1984-85 wet

season, in a split-plot design with three replications. Seedlings (21 d) were transplanted at 1 seedling/hill with 20 20-cm spacing. Among the three male-to-female ratios tested, seed yields of 1B:4A and 1B:2A were significantly higher than that of 2B:4A (Table 1). Seed set was not significantly different among the ratios. Leaf clipping increased seed set, but significantly reduced grains/ panicle,

perhaps because of lower panicle exsertion. Filled grains/panicle and seed yield/ m 2 were not affected by leaf clipping (Table 2). There was no interaction between row ratio and leaf clipping.

Somatic embryogenesis in rice cultivar IR50


M. Maheswaran and S. R. S. Rangasamy, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore 641003, Tamil Nadu, India

Table 1. Effect of row ratio on seed yield, seed set, number of grains, and number of filled grains of MR365A. Row ratio 2B:4A 1B:4A 1B:2A CV (%) Seed yield (g/m2) 67.6 b 85.4 a 88.5 a 6.5 Seed set/ panicle (%) 23.76 a 22.82 a 23.41 a 17.29 Grains/ panicle (no.) 94.16 b 98.96 ab 107.32 a 7.81 Filled grains/panicle (no.) 22.28 b 22.33 b 24.95 a 15.04

Table 2. Effect of leaf clipping on seed yield, seed set, number of grains, and number of filled grains of MR365A. Leaf clipping Clipped Unclipped CV (%) Seed yield (g/m2) 83.21 a 77.75 a 15.96 Seed set/ panicle (%) 25.14 a 21.52 b 10.15 Grains/ panicle (no.) 92.19 b 108.10 a 8.69 Filled grains/panicle (no.) 23.26 a 23.12 a 12.55

Initiation and development of embryos from somatic tissues in rice have been achieved by culturing seed-derived callus of IR50. Mature dehulled seeds were inoculated on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with varying concentrations of 2, 4dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2, 4-D) and kinetin (see table). Medium pH was adjusted to 5.8. The cultures were kept in light for 14 h daylength at 24 2 C. Calli were initiated from the hypocotyls of the seedlings within 15 d after inoculation. Callus induction increased with increasing concentrations of 2, 4-D to 2 mg/liter. Higher concentrations inhibited callus growth.

6 IRRN 14:2 (April 1989)

Effect of 2,4-D and kinetin on callus induction and plant regeneration with IR50 seeds in MS medium. Callus induction medium
2,4-D (mg/liter) 0.0 0.5 0.5 0.5 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.5 1.5 1.5 2.0 2.0 2.0 5.0 5.0 5.0
a b

Regeneration mediuma
Seeds producing calli (no.) 10 12 12 31 34 36 37 42 42 46 42 29 26 28 25 Callus production (%) 14.7 16.2 16.6 41.8 46.6 50.0 54.4 56.7 60.8 63.8 61.7 43.2 36.1 37.8 33.7 Calli transferred (no .) 36 38 42 44 44 42 40 38 42 32 44 42 32 32 36 Calli regenerated (no.) 3 4 6 8 11 7 9 8 6 2 18 + + + + Regeneration (%)

Kinetin (mg/liter) 0.0 0.0 0.5 1.0 0.0 0.5 1.0 0.0 0.5 1.0 0.0 0.5 1.0 0.0 0.5 1.0

Seeds inoculated (no.) 74 68 74 72 74 73 72 68 74 69 72 68 67 72 74 74

8.3 10.5 14.3 18.2 25.0 16.6 22.5 21.4 14.3 6.2 40.9 b

Callus pieces were transferred to regeneration medium containing kinetin and NAA at a concentration of 1 mg/ liter each. Regeneration was better from calli induced from the C medium containing 2 mg 2,4-D/liter and 0.5 mg kinetin/ liter through the process of somatic embryogenesis (established by histological studies). The somatic embryos formed had two distinct poles and were attached to the callus piece through their broader surface. Embryoids of different shapes were also traced out during early stages of embryogenesis. Other treatments did not yield somatic embryos.
Individuals, organizations, and media are invited to quote or reprint articles or excerpts from articles in the IRRN.

Regeneration medium = basal medium + 1 mg kinetin/liter + 1 mg NAA/liter. + = rhizogenesis. Formation of somatic embryos.

A medium-duration, highyielding, scented hybrid rice


J. P. Sharma and S. C. Mani, Plant Breeding Department, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, India

We have identified tall, late-maturing, scented cultivar Basmati 370 as a


Table 1. Mean performance of the hybrid IR46830A/Basmati 370, and estimates of heterosis over the better parent and check variety Pant Dhan 4. a Pantnagar, India, 1988.

complete restorer for the CMS line IR46830A. Hybrid IR46830A/ Basmati 370 was evaluated for yield and quality components (Table 1,2). The hybrid flowered earlier and was shorter than the better parent. Positive and significant heterosis over the better parent was recorded for most characters. Increase in grain yield/ plant was due

primarily to more effective tillers/ plant and higher 1,000-grain weight. Although yield of the hybrid was not significantly higher than that of check variety Pant Dhan 4, better quality attributes make it more suitable for commercial production. Its medium growth duration would make it suitable for a rice - wheat cropping pattern.

Table 2. Mean value for 5 grain quality traits in Basmati 370, hybrid IR46830A/Basmati 370, and Pant Dhan 4. a Pantnagar, India, 1988.

Character studied Length of grain (mm) Breadth of grain (mm) L/B ratio Alkali digestion value Aroma
a AV of 5

Basmati 370 7.88 1.72 4.58 2.25 Strong

Hybrid 7.38 2.04 3.61 3.00 Intermediate

Pant Dhan 4 6.34 2.10 3.11 3.50

Character

Mean for F1 Better parent

Heterosis b Check 20.16* 30.66* 23.80* 20.81* 9.83 34.50* 30.20* 17.64* 0.62 16.50

95.0 24.60* Days to 50% flowering Plant height (cm) 137.2 12.50* Effective tillers/ 20.8 44.45* plant (no.) Length of panicle 32.2 5.59 (cm) Primary branches/ 12.2 19.60* panicle (no.) Secondary branches/ 40.4 36.50* panicle (no.) Spikelets/panicle 202.6 35.25* (no.) Grains/panicle (no.) 164.0 19.80* 1000-grain weight 22.9 31.24* (g) Grain yield/plant (g) 63.0 83.89*
a Av of 5

replications.

Evaluation of some F 1 rice hybrids developed using MR365A as CMS line


B. Sutaryo, Sukamandi Research Institute for Food Crops, Subang, Indonesia

plants. b * = significant at 5% level.

We evaluated yield and heterosis of eight F 1 rice hybrids developed using MR365A (CMS line developed at IRRI)

Jan-May 1984. The hybrids, Cisadane, and IR36 were transplanted at 20- 20cm spacing in 2- 5-m plots, with 2 replications. Fertilizer was 135-45-45 kg NPK/ha. Hybrid combinations MR365A/ IR36, MR365A/IR52, and MR365A/BR10 yielded about 1 t/ha more than Cisadane and showed significant heterosis (14.63-27.65%) (see table). For 7

IRRN 14:2 (April 1989)

Yield components and standard heterosis for yield in some F 1 rice hybrids evaluated in Sukamandi, Indonesia, 1984 wet season.

Hybrid

Panicle length (cm) 23.4 22.8 23.2 23.8 22.0 21.7 23.5 22.6 23.7 22.9

Filled 1000- Growth grains/ grain duration panicle wt (d) (%) (g) 74.4 74.2 73.1 64.2 61.4 79.5 77.7 62.4 81.9 83.9 22.9 23.0 24.0 23.6 19.8 23.0 23.5 21.0 28.9 20.7 120 112 109 116 130 132 134 120 142 120

Disease or insect score a GM BLS 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 0 1 1 1 1 5 1 1 1 3

Yieldb (t/ha) 4.8 a 4.6 a 4.3 b 3.5 d 3.5 d 3.4 de 3.2 e 3.2 e 3.8 c 3.6 cd

Standard heterosis to Cisadane (%) 27.65 22.87 14.63 7.44 7.97 9.04 16.22 15.69

Indonesian conditions, MR365A could be used in developing F1 rice hybrids using IR36, JR52, and BR10 as restorer lines. However, the CMS line is not stable for pollen sterility.

MR365A/BR10 MR365A/IR36 MR365A/IR52 MR365A/IR54 MR365A/IR60 MR365A/IR46 MR365A/IR26 MR365A/IR50 Cisadanec IR36
a Scoring

based on 1980 Standard evaluation system for rice. GM = gall midge, BLS = bacterial leaf streak. b Means followed by a common letter are not significantly different at the 5% level by DMRT c Best check variety.

The International Rice Research Newsletter is published to expedite communication among scientists concerned with rice research and the development of improved technology for rice and rice-based farming systems. Readers are encouraged to write authors at their published addresses to discuss the research and obtain more details.

Identification of restorers and maintainers for four CMS lines of rice


J. P. Sharma and S. C. Mani, Plant Breeding Department, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, India

Fertility restorers, partial restorers, and maintainers for 4 CMS lines. Pantnagar, India.

CMS line IR46830A

Fertility restorer Narendra 1 Saket Basmati 370

Partial restorer IET7613 Narendra 2 Mahsuri Govind IR58 Manhar UPR82-42 Pant Dhan 6 Manhar Pant Dhan 6 UPR79-123 Govind Saket 4 Pant Dhan 4

Maintainer Ratna N22 Rasi

We crossed 17 cultivars of early, medium, and late duration (as male parents) with 4 cytoplasmic genetic male sterile lines (IR46830A, IR46831A, Zhen Shan 97A, and V20A) to identify their fertility restorers and maintainers. The F1 seeds were germinated in petri dishes, transferred to pots, and transplanted in the field 30 d after germination. Varieties were classified on the basis of spikelet fertility in their F1 hybrids: restorers = >80% spikelet fertility, partial restorers = 10-79%, and

IR46831A

Pant Dhan 4

Zhen Shan 97A V20A

maintainers = <10%. Narendra 1, Saket 4, and Basmati 370 were effective restorers for IR46830A. Ratna, N22, and Rasi were identified as maintainers for this CMS line (see table). Pant Dhan 4 was a maintainer

for the CMS line IR46831A. No fertility restorer was identified for Zhen Shan 97A, V20A, and IR46831A. There was segregation for fertility in the F1 when V20A was crossed with Pant Dhan 4.

Media conditioning to convert nonembryogenic rice calli to embryogenic calli


M. B. Sticklen, Forestry Department, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824; and M. E. Rumpho and R. A. Kennedy, Horticulture Department, Ohio State University, OH 43210, USA

We investigated the effect of media conditioning on converting rice 8 IRRN 14:2 (April 1989)

nonembryogenic (NE) callus to embryogenic (E) callus. Rice (Oryzae sativa L. cv. S201) seeds were dehulled mechanically, surface sterilized in 5% sodium hypochloride solution for 30 min, and rinsed 3 times with sterile distilled water. Seeds were sown in basal salts and vitamins of Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 200 mg myoinositol/liter, 100 mg thiamine HCl/liter, 3% (wt/vol) sucrose, and

0.7% Difco Bacto agar (pH 5.7). Cultures were incubated under complete darkness at 22 2C. Ten-day-old seedlings were cut in 2- to 3-mm pieces and cultured in a callus formation medium consisting of germination medium supplemented with 20 M 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). Five petri dishes each containing pieces of four seedlings were used per treatment. All cultures were subcultured every 4 wk.

Two weeks after the second subculture, five samples of callus from each treatment were microscopically examined to identify E and NE calli (see figure, a). The E calli were smooth and yellowish and were composed of small compact cells with dense cytoplasm. The NE calli were pale and loosely packed and were composed of larger, crescentshaped cells. To condition the medium (5 ml of MS medium supplemented with 20 M 2, 4-D), 5 g E callus were subcultured to 10 15-mm petri dishes (conditioned medium). Ten petri dishes with medium but without E callus were the control (unconditioned medium). All dishes were sealed and kept in darkness for 10 d. E calli were removed from the conditioned medium and 5 2-3 mm NE

callus pieces were transferred onto all 20 petri dishes. NE calli that produced E calli were counted after 2 wk. No NE calli cultured in unconditioned medium produced E calli; 16% of the NE calli grown in conditioned medium produced some organized cells. Those cells were subcultured onto medium containing 2.5 M 2, 4-D and incubated

under dim light (30 E/m2 per s). The nodules that were produced developed into normal-appearing embryos 2 wk after they were subcultured onto growth regulator-free differentiation media. All somatic embryos looked normal (see figure, b), germinated in 5-7 d, and produced plants (see figure, c).

Yield potential
A path-coeff icient analysis of rice panicle characters
S. Mallik, A. M. Aguilar, and B. S. Vergara, Plant Physiology Department, IRRI

The relationship between high density (HD) grains (those with specific gravity of 1.20 or higher) and other panicle characters could be an effective selection criterion, We studied 50 panicles from 9 parents, 50 panicles from 6 F1s, and 250

panicles from F2s. HD grain index (HDI) was calculated by dividing the number of HD grains by the total number of spikelets per panicle on primary and secondary branches. Pathcoefficient analysis was used to assess the direct and indirect influence of different panicle characters on HDI on primary branches (HDIPB). The number of primary branches and number of spikelets on primary branches had a strong positive association with HDIPB in all generations (see table). Those characters are probably controlled by an additive gene action. The number of secondary

Direct (underlined) and indirect effects of associated traits on high density grain index on primary branches (HDIFB). a IRRI, 1988. Trait Tiller Generation P F1 F2 P F1 F2 P F1 F2 P F1 F2 P F1 F2 P F1 F2 P F1 F2 P F1 F2 Tiller 0.19 0.26 0.04 0.03 0.07 0.01 0.01 0.07 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.13 0.14 0.01 PB SB SPB 0.01 0.03 0.01 0.28 0.07 0.10 0.24 0.01 0.05 0.34 0.11 0.15 0.24 0.05 0.09 0.01 0.03 0.08 0.01 0.01 0.14 0.05 0.03 SSB 0.01 0.01 0.03 0.01 0.13 0.06 0.03 0.01 0.18 0.07 0.06 0.01 0.05 0.06 StPB StSB HDISB 0.64 0.34 0.23 0.38 0.26 0.20 0.33 0.15 0.06 0.39 0.31 0.21 0.40 0.19 0.03 0.08 0.32 0.48 0.15 0.37 0.56 0.91 0.61 0.81 r 0.40* 0.65** 0.39** 0.44** 0.49** 0.31** 0.34* 0.07 0.17* 0.54** 0.56** 0.31** 0.43* 0.17 0.13 0.39* 0.49** 0.70** 0.13 0.56** 0.63** 0.81** 0.90** 0.89**

0.02 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.14 0.08 0.14 0.09 0.08 0.11 0.06 0.13 0.09 0.07 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.01 0.01 0.06 0.03 0.03 0.04 0.02 0.06 0.04 0.04 0.02 0.05 0.04 0.01 0.01 0.03 0.02

0.01 0.02 0.01 0.04 0.01 0.01 0.06 0.02 0.07 0.05 0.03 0.02 0.09 0.02 0.08 0.05 0.11 0.23 0.36 0.09 0.20 0.28 0.01 0.12 0.22 0.11 0.02 0.22 0.01 0.11 0.02 0.22 0.01 0.33 0.01 0.16 0.44 0.01 0.22 0.07 0.15

Primary branch (PB) Secondary branch (SB) Spikelet on PB (SPB) Spikelet on SB (SSB) Sterility on PB (StPB) Sterility on SB (StSB) Rice somatic embryogenesis: a) E callus vs NE callus formed in cultures; b) a normal somatic embryo with distinct coleoptile (CP), coleorhiza (CR), and scutellum (SC), 80; c) plants grown from somatic embryos, 0.17. HDI on SB (HDISB)
a

indicates value almost equal to zero. Residual effects: parent (P), 0.41; F1, 0.31; F2, 0.39.

IRRN 14:2 (April 1989)

branches and of spikelets on secondary branches was correlated positively with HDIPB only in parents; it was not consistent in the F1 and F2. HDI on secondary branches (HDISB) was correlated positively with and had direct effects on HDIPB in both segregating

(see figure) and nonsegregating generations. In most cases, negative correlations and direct and indirect effects were found between HDISB and sterility. Higher HDI depends on more primary branches and more spikelets on

primary branches, and not on number of spikelets on secondary branches. A plant type for increased yield should have more primary branches and spikelets on primary branches, with few secondary branches and spikelets on secondary branches.

Path diagram and coefficients of factors influencing HDIPB in F 2.

Heterosis and heterobeltiosis for high density grain index (HDI) and other rice panicle characters
S. Mallik, A. M. Aguilar, and B. S. Vergara, Plant Physiology Department, IRRI

We assessed heterosis and heterobeltiosis for 9 quantitative characters in 6 crosses, using 6 high density (HD)-grain parents (at least 30% of grains with more than 1.20 specific gravity) and 2 low density (LD)-grain parents. HDI was calculated 10 IRRN 14:2 (April 1989)

as number of HD grains divided by total number of spikelets/panicle on primary (PB) and secondary (SB) branches. Estimates of overall degree and direction of heterosis (Fmac 1-Pmac) were significantly positive for number of tillers (1.74*), PB (1.27*), SB (3.28*), spikelets on PB (8.65*), spikelets on SB (8.41*), and sterility on SB (5.37*), indicating dominance of higher values. Heterosis was negative only for number of spikelets on PB (-3.01*). Low or nonsignificant heterosis for other characters may be due to little genetic

interactions or differences among parents. The individual F1 family differed from overall estimates for different characters showing positive, negative, or no heterosis. The F 1 means deviated conspicuously from parental and midparental values, indicating involvement of nonadditive gene action in the expression of most characters. Substantial heterosis in the desirable direction was observed in PB number, spikelets on PB, and HDI on PB and SB. Three crosses among HD-grain

Heterosis and heterobeltiosis (%) of 7 quantitative characters in 6 crosses. a IRRI, 1988.

Trait Tiller (no.) Primary branch - PB (no.) Secondary branch - SB (no.) Spikelet on PB (no.) Spikelet on SB (no.) Sterility on PB (no.) Sterility on SB (no.)
aH

H or Hb H Hb H Hb H Hb H Hb H Hb H Hb H Hb

P1 /P2 (HD/HD) 25.6 28.4 28.3 29.0 1.1 45.6 45.4 28.4 4.3 28.7 35.6 18.8 9.0

P3/P4 (HD/HD) 2.1 11.1 4.1 11.0 12.9 34.3 7.4 9.6 16.3 38.5 87.9 24.3 146.7 68.7

P5/P2 (HD/HD) 11.1 7.4 30.6 27.0 57.4 42.3 56.4 43.3 49.3 21.6 12.9 22.6 25.7 15.9

P2/P6 (HD/HD) 13.7 11.1 4.2 65.4 48.5 19.1 9.7 72.5 46.8 9.9 7.9 93.1 37.2

P3/P7 (HD/LD) 11.6 25.9 5.4 8.5 10.3 18.7 2.5 7.8 0.7 22.1 25.7 27.2 15.8 25.6

P2 /P8 (HD/LD) 19.6 1.8 21.3 12.1 23.8 10.4 31.0 19.6 38.4 30.4 66.2 70.2 59.9 65.1

LSD (0.05) 7.6 6.1 7.9 9.8 16.9 18.9 14.8 13.9 18.8 19.0 30.2 18.0 43.0 27.1

= heterosis, Hb = heterobeltiosis. P 1 = IR32307-75-1-3-1, P2 = IR30, P 3 = IR34615-75-1-1, P4 = IR29725-135-2-2-3, P 5 = IR29692-117-1-2-2, P6 = IR35337-61-2-2-2, P 7 = IR32419-102-3-2-3, P 8 = IR32385-37-3-3-3.

P3/P4 and P3/P7, showed negative heterosis for almost all characters. Number of HD grains was higher on PB of parents and hybrids. Substantial heterosis for this character may lead to higher yield, since HD grains have higher test weight and higher head rice recovery. The cross P2 / P8 had positive heterosis for all desirable traits and exceeded the highest parent for HDI on both PB and SB.

Adaptability of rice varieties to low light intensity


M. S. Islam and M. Z. Haque, Plant Physiology Division, Bangladesh Rice Research Institute (BRRI), Joydebpur, Gazipur, Bangladesh

Percentage of heterosis and heterobeltiosis for HDI. IRRI, 1988.

parents (P1/P2, P5/P2, P2/P6 ) and one cross between HD- and LD-grain parents (P2/P8) exhibited positive heterosis and heterobeltiosis for number of PB and spikelets on PB (see table). Only two crosses, P5/P2 and P2/P8,

manifested positive heterosis and heterobeltiosis for HDI on PB (see figure). The cross P2/P8 showed positive heterosis for all characters except sterility on PB and SB, where negative heterosis is desirable. Two crosses,

A major cause of low yields in the aus season in Bangladesh is low light intensity at later growth stages, mostly at ripening, due to continuous cloudy weather Jul-Aug. Wide variation in grain yield is also observed. We studied varietal adaptability to low light intensity at ripening. Five modern and five traditional varieties were seeded so that the ripening stage would occur at the same time, late in the aus season to avoid cloudy weather. We transplanted 25-d-old seedlings in pots fertilized at 40-80-60 kg NPK/ ha; 80 kg N/ ha and 40 kg N/ ha were topdressed in modern varieties and traditional varieties, respectively. IRRN 14:2 (April 1989) 11

As soon as panicles began to emerge, the plants were covered with cloth screens to provide 22-26% of full sunlight for 28 d. Check plants were grown in full daylight. The experiment was in a randomized complete block

with six replications. Grain yield in all varieties decreased significantly with low light exposure (see table). Hashikalmi was least affected, followed by BR9 and Kataktara. BR9 had the highest yields at

both light intensities, and was the least affected modern variety. The highest yield reduction was in BR6, followed by BRl. Filled spikelets were more affected than 1,000-grain weight.

Effect of low light intensity at ripening on yield and 2 yield components of aus varieties.a BRRI, Bangladesh. Grain yield Variety Normal light (g/pot) 10.98 g 25.24 b 14.73 f 31.81 a 18.69 de 17.14 ef 16.37 e 21.23 cd 24.31 b 22.43 bc Low light (g/pot) 3.96 10.74 3.47 17.19 7.73 11.93 6.45 9.30 12.04 11.63 ef f Reduction (%) due to low light 64 57 76 46 58 30 61 56 51 48 e de b a de Normal light (%) 73 cd 81 abc 85 ab 77 bc 90 a 90 a 69 d 83 ab 82 ab 83 ab Filled spikelets Low light (%) 47 d 52 cd 48 d 56 bcd 65 b 80 a 32 e 54 cd 57 bc 65 b Reduction (%) due to low light 36 cd 35 cd 44 de 26 bc 28 bc 11 a 52 a 34 bcd 30 bc 22 ab Normal light (g) 19.89 e 25.64 ab 23.82 c 21.64 d 20.98 de 24.56 bc 23.65 c 26.33 a 23.50 c 21.82 d 1000-grain weight Low light (g) 16.50 21.91 20.03 20.55 17.42 23.03 21.76 23.21 21.99 19.12 g de cd fg Reduction (%) due to low light 17 cd 15 bc 19 d 5a 17 cd 6a 7a 13 b 14 bc 12 b

BR1 BR3 BR6 BR9 BR12 Hashikalmi Dharail Morichboti Dular Kataktara
a

b a

ab

c e b de bc b b

de cde bcd b

bc a ab

In a column, means followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 5% level (DMRT). Within a variety, treatment effect was significant at the % level (DMRT).

Correlations between allogamic and agronomic traits in rice


P. de C. F. Neves, E. P. Guimares, and J. Taillebois, EMBRAPA/ Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Arroz e Feijo (CNPAF), Caixa Postal 179, 74000 Goinia, Gois, Brazil

Table 1. Coefficient of heritability and average length of stigma, anther, spikelet, and panicle. Trait Stigma length (mm) Anther length (mm) Spikelet length (mm) Panicle length (cm) Coefficient of heritability 0.9163 0.9413 0.9215 0.6389 Average length 1.53 2.62 7.39 19.11 0.27 0.33 0.50 2.81

We studied the correlations between allogamic and agronomic traits in F3derived lines from the BC2 generation of the cross Oryza sativa L. / Oryza longistaminata A. Chev. The male parent possesses well-developed floral parts. The F3 lines were evaluated in a completely randomized block design with four replications at two locations in 1986-87. Allogamic traits evaluated were stigma and anther length, agronomic characters were spikelet and panicle length. Variance and covariance analyses were used. Table 1 shows the very high coefficients of heritability found for stigma, anther, and spikelet length (0.92, 0.94, and 0.92, respectively). These results indicate that visual selection can be used efficiently for these traits. 12 IRRN 14:2 (April 1989)

Table 2. Genetic (G), phenotypic (P), and environmental (E) correlations between stigma, anther, spikelet, and panicle length. Anther Stigma G P E G P E G P E 0.5548** 0.5138** 0.2980 Spikelet 0.1565 0.1393 0.1614* 0.0280 0.0076 0.2020 Panicle 0.0900 0.0349 0.2278 0.1979 0.1881 0.1231 0.3006 0.1336 0.3785

Screening long-duration rice cultivars for ratooning ability


S. Gupta and S. K. Bardhan Roy, Rice Research Station, Chinsurah, West Bengal, India We screened 210 entries from IRTP nurseries (1986 International Rice

Anther

Spikelet

Table 2 shows significant and positive genetic and phenotypic correlations between the allogamic characters, indicating that selection for one character can positively change the other. No significant correlations were found between the two allogamic traits and spikelet and panicle length.

Shallow Water Observational Nurseries [IRSWON], 1986 International Rice Deepwater Observational Nurseries [IRDWON], and 1985 International Upland Rice Yield Nurseries [IURYN]) to select semidwarf long-duration or photoperiod-sensitive rice cultivars that, when sown in November, could be harvested in April/ May with a ratoon crop flowering in late Sep. Entries were sown 28 Nov 1986 and transplanted 16 Jan 1987 in 2 rows at

20- 15-cm spacing. Plant height, flowering duration, and yield/ plant were recorded for the main crop. Ability to produce ratoon tillers and flowering behavior of the ratoon were the bases for selecting suitable varieties. Entries with plants less than 100 cm tall were favored for ratooning, since the main crop was grown under controlled conditions and at higher fertilizer rates (100-22-42 kg NPK/ha) for maximum yield. Nine entries were identified for further study (see table). RAU4057-35-20, Leuang Yai 148, and C924-9 have semidwarf plant type, high yields, and 1% ratooning ability. Their ratoons flowered the end of Oct,

Ratooning ability of semidwarf photoperiod-sensitive rice varieties. Chinsurah, India, Nov 1986.

Main crop Entry SPR7292-0-0-0-0-1 RAU4057-35-20 Leuang Yai 148 IR13149-43-2-P RTN90-4 TKM9 IR38787-26-2-1-2 NC500 C924-9 Source IRSWON IRSWON IRSWON IRSWON IRSWON Plant ht (cm) 83 4 77 2 77 2 96 4 96 3 Days to 50% flowering 155 136 144 15 3 158 123 127 161 140

Ratooning ability Yield (%) (g/plant) 20 7 84 20 7 16 4 11 4 8 4 93 64 19 6 86 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

Ratoon flowering date 25 Sep 29 Oct 29 Oct 3 Oct 26 Oct 17 Oct 18 Oct 26 Oct 31 Oct 1987 1987 1987 1987 1987 1987 1987 1987 1987

IRDWON 93 2 IRDWON 100 5 IRDWON 96 7 IURYN (M) 87 6

probably because the lines have shorter critical photoperiod. SPR7292-0-0-0-0-1 planted in late Sep, followed by

IR13 149-43-2-P in early Oct. These dates are more or less desirable for establishing the next crop in Nov.

Effect of high temperature on rice spikelet fertility


Xu Yunbi, Shen Zongtan, and Shi Chunhai, Agronomy Department, Zhejiang Agricultural University, Hangzhou, China

different heading dates. Spikelet fertility percentage (SFP) was measured on 7-41 randomly selected plants, 3 panicles/plant, for each cultivar and each planting date.

SFP differed significantly among plants with different heading dates from the same cultivar. SFP at normal temperatures 24-28 Jun was higher than at high temperatures 2-14 Jul (see table

An abnormally high percentage of Empty spikelets in first crop indica rice occurs in ricefields south of the Yangtze River when flowering takes place in the heat of July. Daily maximum temperatures of 35.5-38.9 C 1-20 Jul 1988 in Hangzhou lowered rice yields. We studied the effect of high temperature on spikelet fertility by using different seeding dates to result in
Spikelet fertility at different heading dates. a Hangzhou, China, 1988. Variety Spikelet fertility (%) at heading date 27 Jun Yuanfengzao Erjiunan 1 Zhe 85-2 Guangluai 4 Zaolian 31 Erjiufeng
a

1 Jul 84.3 b (15) 80.5 b (15) 87.2 a (15) 78.5 b (15) 74.3 b (15) 78.4 a (15)

5 Jul 76.8 c (15) 34.9 c ( 10) 76.2 b (15) 70.5 c (15) 68.5 c (15) 58.1 b (15)

93.9 a (15) 89.1 a (11) 88.2 a (15) 85.3 a (8) 85.2 a (15) 79.6 a (7)

Figures in parentheses are sample sizes. In a w, figures followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 5% level by DMRT.

Relationship between mean spikelet fertility percentage (Y ) of varieties with the same heading date and mean maximum temperature 3 d after heading ( X ) (r YX= 0.9570, Y = 73.47 0.44 X ). Cultivars: 1 = Erjiufeng, 2 = Zhefu 802, 3 = Erjiuqing, 4 = Guangluai 4, 5 = Zhong 83-49, 6 = Erjiunan 1, 7 = Yuanfengzao, 8 = Zhe 85-2, 9 = Zaolian 31, 10 = Ainanzao 39, 11 = Guiluai 8, 12 = Zhuxi 26, 13 = Guangliuzao, 14 = Qingganhuang, 15 = Zhuyunnuo, 16 = Ezao 6, 17 = IR58, 18 = IR28, 19 = IR50.

IRRN 14:2 (April 1989)

13

and figure). Yuanfengzao and Zhe 85-2 that headed at >35 C had higher SFP (76.8, and 76.2, respectively) than Erjiunan 1 and Erjiufeng (34.9 and 58.1,

respectively). There was a significantly negative correlation between SFP and mean daily maximum temperature (MMT) 3 d

after heading. SFP decreased with increasing MMT. The critical day for significantly decreased SFP was 30 Jun, when MMT was 35.9 C for 3 d.

Grain quality and nutritional value


Using silica gel desiccant to dry rough rice samples
P. A. Clarke, Overseas Development Natural Resources Institute (ODNRI), Culham, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 5PR, UK; and M. A. Quasem, Bangladesh Rice Research Institute (BRRI), Joydebpur, Gazipur, Bangladesh

Grain quality was measured as grain breakage on milling. The table compares gel-dried samples with sun- and air-dried samples. The gel technique produced

results at least as good as, and some better than, traditional methods, with higher control and resource optimization.

Moisture content and milling quality of rice dried in a contact mix with ID silica gel and by air and sun.

Drying process

Moisture content (%) Initial 19.2 19.2 19.2 24.6 24.6 24.6 27.1 27.1 27.1 28.9 28.9 28.9 Residual BR1 12.4 14.3 14.1 BR3 13.7 14.1 14.5 BR4 14.5 15.6 13.2 BR10 15.2 14.8 13.9

Milling quality (% brown rice) Degree of milling 16.1 a 15.8 a 15.9 a 13.5 a 13.0 a 12.5 a 13.2 a 13.9 b 13.0 a 14.0 a 15.1 b 14.4 a Broken grain 20.2 a 21.2 ab 21.7 b 10.4 a 10.4 a 9.1 a 5.0 a 5.3 a 5.6 a 6.2 ab 6.6 b 5.9 a

The method and rate by which rough rice is dried changes the characteristics by which grain quality is judged. We have developed a method that achieves high standardization of large numbers of small samples of grain (less than 1 kg). It is based on the sorptive capacity of a special grade of silica gel mixed directly with field-wet rice. Intermediate density (ID) grade silica gel is dried, cooled, mixed with field-wet rice in the ratio 1:2 by weight, and the mixture sealed in a moistureproof container. After 24 h, the 2 constituents are separated by screening. The figure shows the linear regression of field (input) moisture content on residual (output) moisture content within 20-30% wet basis for the model
Y = 4.17 0.38; r = 0.91, p=0.01.

Gel Air Sun Gel Air Sun Gel Air Sun Gel Air Sun

In a column for a variety, means followed by the same letter are not significantly different by DMRT at p = 0.05.

Disease resistance
Resistance to sheath blight (ShB) in China
Xue-Yan Sha and Li-Hong Zhu, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, China

Effect of contact mix with ID silica gel on rice input and output moisture content.

ShB caused by Rhizoctonia solani Thanatephorus cucumeris (Frank) [ Donk] is a major disease in the rice areas along the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River and in South China. In 1985-87, we used Tetep, IET4699, Jawa no. 14, and Yedao as resistance donors and IR9752-71-3-2 as

susceptible parent to study the inheritance of reaction to artificial ShB inoculation at booting by virulent isolate RH-9, collected in Jiangsu Province. The F1 of four combinations of moderately resistant and susceptible parents showed intermediate reaction to inoculation; the F 2 distributions tended to be continuous. That implies that resistance to ShB is controlled by multiple genes (see figure). Broad and narrow sense heritabilities estimated from the cross IR9752-71-3-2/IET4699 were h 2 B = 0.516+0.0654 (broad) and h 2 N = 0.373+0.063 (narrow). Analysis of combining abilities based on the performance of 28 diallelic F 1s

14 IRRN 14:2 (April 1989)

Analysis of variance in combining abilities of reactions to rice ShB, 1986. Source of variation General combining ability Specific combining ability Error Model 1 2
a **

DF 7 20 924 54

Sum of squares 16.0891 10.5383

Mean square 2.2984 0.5269 0.0089 0.1218

F values a Model 1 257.67** 59.07** 2 18.87** 4.33**

= significant at 0.01.

Distribution of resistance to ShB in F2 of PITetep, P2-IET4699, P3-Jawa no. 14, P4-Yedao, and P8-IR9752-71-3-2.

without reciprocals among Tetep, IET4699, Mianhuatiao, Jawa no. 14, Yedao, 84-3019, Shuidaobawang, and IR9752-71-3-2 showed that general combining abilities were more prominent than specific combining abilities. That means that additive gene effects play a more important role in inheritance of resistance to ShB (see table). It would not be possible to derive

an elite line with a resistance level similar or superior to that of moderately resistant parents through recurrent selection.
For informatton on ordering IRRI publications, write Communication and Publications Dept., Div. R, IRRI, P.O. BOX 933, Manila, Philippines.

A new inoculation technique for rice blast (BI)


Sun Guochang and Sun Shuyuan, Plant Protection Institute, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou; and Shen Zongtan, Agronomy Department, Zhejiang Agricultural University, Hangzhou, China

Table 1. Effect of smear inoculation on leaf B1. Hangzhou, China, 1987. Variety Indica Chei-Tang Nong 8506 Gui-Chao 2 Hou-Zeng-Zao Zao-Shuang 1 Zhong 83-40 Zhong 83-49 Hong-Tu 3 B40 8004 Er-Jiu-Qing Zuo 5 Japonica Pi-4 Kusabue BL 1 Dong-Nong 363 Li-Jiang-Xing-Tuan-He-Guo
a b

Bl index a Injection 0 0 0 5.6 14.8 69.6 76.4 86.9 83.0 96.9 95.1 94.8 0 18.3 87.2 71.8 100.0 Smear 0 0 0 4.9 14.3 29.4 68.6 71.2 80.4 73.9 85.8 80.4 0 24.3 52.4 68.6 100.0 Spraying 0 0 0 1.5 4.0 17.8 45.5 48.9 45.8 48.3 53.5 56.2 0 3.5 41.0 42.7 92.4 Injection 0 0 0 0.5 1.3 6.3 6.9 7.8 7.5 8.7 8.6 8.5 0 1.6 7.8 6.5 9.0

b Bl score

Smear 0 0 0 0.4 1.3 2.6 6.2 6.4 7.2 6.6 7.7 7.2 0 2.2 4.7 6.2 9.0

Spraying 0 0 0 0.1 0.4 1.6 4.1 4.4 4.1 4.4 4.8 5.1 0 0.3 3.7 3.8 8.3

We studied a smear method for inoculating with the rice Bl pathogen Pyricularia oryzae Cav. for resistance screening. Smear inoculation conditions are similar to natural infection. The method requires only a small amount of spore suspension and gives a high infection frequency. Inoculation is carried out by smearing the mixture 1-2 10 5 conidia/ ml suspended in 1-2% carboxymethyl cellulose onto the rice leaf with a brush. The method is suitable for inoculation at several stages, but especially at the 24-leaf stage. A spore suspension of 1 10 5 conidia/ml gives nearly 100% leaf infection. Smear inoculation produces a higher disease index than spray inoculation, but lower than injection inoculation (Table 1). This method also is useful as a simple and precise method for evaluating neck Bl resistance (Table 2).

Disease index =

S (number of plants with a given score value of that score) total number of plants value of the highest score

Based on Standard evaluation system for rice.

Table 2. Effect of smear inoculation on neck Bl. Hangzhou, China, 1987. Inoculation method Injection Gear Spraying Plants (no.) 10 22 10 Plants with Bl infection (no.) 10 22 6 Infection frequency (%) 100.00 100.00 60.0

Rice sheath blotch incidence in Haryana


U. Bhan and S. C. Ahuja, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, India

Sheath blotch caused by Pyrenochaeta oryzae Shirai ex Miyake is increasing in IRRN 14:2 (April 1989) 15

Resistancea of rice varieties to sheath blotch in Kaul, India. Lesion length (mm) 10-15 Group 1 Variety IET7662, IET7738, IET7753, IR13420-6-3-3-1, IR17494-321-1-3-3, RP2151-21-1, RP2151-33-4, RP2151-7752, RP2240-86-84, CN758-1-1-1, UPR80-149. Jaya, Ratna, HKR101, HAU3800-1, HAU3855-1, RP1832-23-34, RP2151-27-1. HAU101-88, RP2151-76-1. HAU47-6045-1, HAU101-60. IET7641,1R19661-23-3-2-2.

15-30

30-45 45-60 >60


a Resistant

3 4 5

= groups 1 and 2, moderately resistant = group 3, susceptible = groups 4 and 5.

ricefields in Haryana. The disease appears as irregular and brownish lesions that enlarge and become sepiacolored. The middle portion of the lesion finally turns whitish and is studded with pycnidia, the characteristic symptom of the disease. We conducted a roving survey 15-1 8 Oct 1986, when the rice crop was at the dough to maturity stage. Disease incidence was recorded on both sides of the road every 8 km. Of 52 villages, in Ambala, Jind, Karnal, and Kurukshetra districts, disease was found in 11 villages, more in Kurukshetra than in other districts. No disease was found in

Hisar and Sirsa districts. Disease incidence was higher on rice variety PR107, followed by Jaya, Basmata, and PR106. Incidence on varieties or genotypes grown under field conditions at Haryana Agricultural University Rice Research Station, Kaul, was measured during 1986 wet season. Those varieties were categorized into five groupings on the basis of lesion length on the outer leaf sheath. Entries with lesion lengths 1-30 mm were categorized as resistant; 30-45 mm, moderately resistant; and more than 45 mm, susceptible (see table).

Insect resistance
Registration of brown planthopper (BPH)-resistant germplasm lines in Japan
H. Nemoto, E. Shimura, and C. Kaneda, National Agriculture Research Center, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305, Japan

Germplasm lines with BPH resistance. Line Norin PL 3 Norin PL 4 Norin PL 7 Norin PL 10 Tsukushibare Asominori Resistance gene Bph bph bph Bph 1 2 4 3 Days to heading 128 128 127 131 130 130 Culm length (cm) 71 67 83 80 73 76

Donor parent Mudgo IR1154-243 Babawee Rathu Heenati

Breeding to introduce the BPH resistance gene from indica to japonica rice varieties started in 1968. Since then, we have developed four japonica type lines, each with one of four different resistance genes ( Bph 1, bph 2, Bph 3, and bph 4 ) (see table). Norin PL 3, with the Bph 1 gene, was selected from the cross F 6 324/ Akitsuho // Tsukushibare. F 6 324 is the donor parent, with Bph 1 from Hoyoku/ Mudgo/2/ Kochikaze/3/ IR781-1-94/4/Hoyoku. In 1984, Norin PL 3 was registered as a germplasm line by the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries (MAFF), Japan. Norin PL 4 inherited bph 2 from IRI 154-243 through the cross combination of Asominori/ IRI 1542431 / 2*Asominori. It was registered in 1985. Norin PL 7 from the cross Tsukushibare *2/ Babawee inherited bph

4 from Babawee. It was registered in 1987. Norin PL 10, selected from the cross Tsukushibare/3/Tsukushibare*3/ Rathu Heenatil /Tsukushibare, inherited Bph 3 from Rathu Heenati. It was registered in 1988. The antibiosis of these lines to BPH is similar to or slightly weaker than that of the donor indica varieties. The lines show inhibitory effect on BPH survival and population increase and different reactions to the biotypes.

Their morphological characteristics are mostly those of japonica varieties, except for a few traits, such as the amylose content of Norin PL 10. When these lines are crossed with other japonica varieties, the F 1 does not show hybrid sterility, except with Norin PL 7. Partial seed sterility was observed in F 1 plants of Norin PL 7/a Japanese line. These four lines are being used to breed BPH-resistant varieties in Japan.

Rice resistance to whitebacked planthopper (WBPH) Sogatella furcifera in Bangladesh


A. N. M. R. Karim and Q. M. A. Razzaque, Entomology Division, Bangladesh Rice Research Institute (BRRI), Gazipur, Bangladesh

WBPH incidence has increased in recent years, particularly in the irrigated boro (Dec-Mar) crop. We screened BRRI varieties BR1-BR12 and BR14-BR21 and 22 IR varieties, using the standard seedbox test. TN1 was the susceptib1e check. Seedlings (20/ 12-cm row) were infested with 2d- and 3d-instar nymphs

16 IRRN 14:2 (April 1989)

from a stock culture, at 5 nymphs/seedling. Plant damage was measured (Standard evaluation system for rice 0 to 9 scale) 10 d after infestation, when all TN1 seedlings were killed. All test varieties except IR64 were susceptible (see table). IR64, which exhibited moderate resistance, is not grown in Bangladesh. We screened 18 BRRI elite breeding lines, 41 promising exotic varieties, and 23 local germplasm collections using the same procedure. Only BR1711-7-24-2
Reaction of BR and IR varieties to WBPH in Bangladesh. BRRI, Gazipur, 1987. Variety BR1 BR2 BR3 BR4 BR5 BR6 BR7 BR8 BR9 BR10 BR11 BR12 BR14 BR15 BR16 BR17 BR18 BR19 BR20 BR21 IR5 IR8 IR20 IR22 IR24 IR26 IR28 IR29 IR30 IR32 IR34 IR36 IR38 IR40 IR42 IR44 IR45 IR46 IR50 IR52 IR56 IR64
a Average of 3 bS = susceptible,

and BR2070-15-6, exotic variety Lua Ngu (Vietnam), and local varieties Rajasail 3 and Rajasail 8 (BRRI acc. no. 2436 and 2440) were moderately resistant. While varieties with moderate resistance may be planted if WBPH incidence is low, the breeding lines identified will require further

improvement and evaluation before they can be released. Babawee, Hondarwala, Rathu Heenati, and Gangala are resistant to WBPH at IRRI, but susceptible at BRRI. Further studies are needed to determine whether the differential varietal reactions are due to differences in WBPH populations.

A potential donor for resistance to the gall midge (GM) population of Srikakulam District, Andhra Pradesh
P. Subbarami Reddy, M. A. Khader, I. N. Rao, and R. Radhakrishna, Andhra Pradesh Agricultural University, Agricultural Research Station, RA GOLU-532484, Srikakulam District, A. P., India

Plant damage score a 9.0 8.3 7.7 8.3 9.0 9.0 8.3 7.0 7.0 8.3 7.7 7.7 7.7 8.3 7.7 9.0 7.7 9.0 9.0 9.0 8.3 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 7.7 8.3 8.3 8.3 8.3 8.3 8.3 9.0 9.0 7.7 7.0 7.0 7.7 7.0 6.3 5.0

Reaction b S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S MS MR

We evaluated four donors and two derivatives against the GM population of Srikakulam during rainy season 1988. Twenty-day-old seedlings of each entry were planted in 3-m rows at 15- 15cm spacing. GM incidence was recorded

in 21 hills at 30 and 50 d after transplanting (DT). Only Banglei showed no GM (see table), and could be a donor for resistance to the GM population of Srikakulam District. The other potential donors (Eswarakora, Leaung 152, and Velluthacheera) showed no resistance. The two GM-resistant derivatives, W 1263 (MTU 15/ Eswarakora) and Phalguna (IR8/Siam 29), also did not show resistance reaction to the local GM population. In view of these reactions of proven donors and derivatives, we strongly suspect the existence of a new GM biotype in the district.

Reaction of donors and derivatives to GM. Srikakulam District, A. P., India, 1988. Variety Parentage Hill Eswarakora W1263 Phalguna Leaung 152 Velluthacheera Banglei TN1 Donor MTUlS/Eswarakora IR8/Siam 29 Donor Donor Donor Susceptible check 23.8 38.1 42.9 28.6 9.5 0 69.0 GM incidence (%) 30 DT Tiller 2.9 5.5 7.5 4.5 1.0 0 8.9 Hill 47.6 81.0 90.5 85.7 57.1 0 100.0 50 DT Tiller 3.1 9.8 24.1 13.9 6.2 0 27.2

Screening for resistance to rice gall midge (GM)


S. C. Prasad, J. B. Tomar, and S. D. Tomar, Plant Breeding and Genetics Department, Birsa Agricultural University, Kanke, Ranchi 834006, India

sets, scored on a scale of 0-9 MS = moderately susceptible, R = moderately resistant.

GM Orseolia oryzae Wood-Mason is a major pest in India. This pest attacks the

rice crop in the plateau region of Bihar, both upland and lowland. Six GM biotypes have been identified (one each in China, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and in Andhra Pradesh and Orissa in India). The biotype at Ranchi appears to be different (Table 1). In 1986 wet season, 60 rice genotypes received from the All India Coordinated Rice Improvement Project, Hyderabad,

IRRN 14:2 (April 1989)

17

Table 1. Reaction of the Ranchi GM biotype and of 6 established biotypes to 5 differential varieties.

Origin

Reactiona Eswarakora group R S S R S R R Siam 29 R R R R R S S OB677 derivative R R R R R S S PTB derivative S S R R R S MR Leaung 152

No silvershoots were found in RP1579-92-85-203. Resistance levels of cultivars are given in Table 2. Cultivars scoring 0-3 can be used as donor parents in the breeding programs.

China Indonesia Sri Lanka India (Andhra Pradesh) India (Orissa) Thailand India (Ranchi)
a

R R R R S S

For information on ordering IRRI publications, write Communication and Publications Dept., Div. R, IRRI, P.O. Box 933, Manila, Philippines.

R = resistant, MR = moderately resistant, S = susceptible.

Table 2. Evaluation of rice cultivars for field resistance to GM.

Scorea 0 1 3 5

Cultivars RP1579-92-85-203 RP2199-3-3-5-1, RP2190-104-64-18-1, RP2434-24-2-2, Phalguna RP2235-163-33-8, RP2235-48-54-6, RP2091-272-34-8, WGL 48684, R2703188, RP2431-6-62, RP2434-79-2-6 Rp1125-606-637-1, W1125-630-667~1, RP1125-638-1-1, RTN81, RP2435-501, RP2434-24-1-2, RP2434-22-3-3, RP1579-34-54, RP2235-136-65-10, RP2235-91-15-1, RP1579-43, RP157943-48, CR400-16, CR406-16,OR4473, RP2199-32-30-47-46, RP1607-162944-221, RP1606-29-232, RP2431-5-3-4 RP1125-604-1-1, RP1125-637-673-1, RP2199-84-2, WGL 44645, RP243234-3-1 ,RP2432-34-3-4, RP2434-22-3-2, RP1579-38-48, RP1579-36-33, RP2235-85-62-8, RP2235-62-33-1, RP2199-34-6-1, CR404-6, CR400-15, CR404-9-1, R278-3528,OR633-7, RP2199-3-3-3-2, RP1528-86-43-220, RP1579-59-227, RP2434-79-2-4, RP2434-22-3-3, Vikas RP2432-34-4-5, RP2432-34-5-4, OR706-4, RP2432-34-3-4, RP2432-345-1, Jaya

Resistance of rice varieties to brown planthopper (BPH), whitebacked planthopper (WBPH), and gall midge (GM) in India
R. K. Sahu and M. N. Shrivastava, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Raipur 492012, Madhya Pradesh: and M. B. Kalode, Directorate of Rice Research, Hyderabad, India

Test lines with damage scores of 5.0 or lower against BPH, WBPH, and GM at Hyderabad, India.

Accession no.

Cultivar

Damage score

a Based on Standard evaluation system for rice scale.

were screened against GM. The genotypes were sown in 4.50- 2.0-m plots at 20- l5-cm spacing with 2 replications. All recommended agronomic cultural practices were used. Maximum GM infestation was in the last week of Sep to the first week of Oct. At 50 d after transplanting, 15 randomly selected hills were scored for number of hills having silvershoot and for number of silvershoots/infested hill. Susceptible checks Jaya and Vikas had severe infestation (more than 40%).

BPH, WBPH, and GM cause substantial yield losses in Chattisgarh region (the rice bowl of Madhya Pradesh State). We screened about 400 accessions using the standard seedbox screening technique at Hyderabad 198387. For BPH and WBPH, damage was scored on the Standard evaluation system for rice scale 1-9; absence of silvershoots was rated resistant to GM. Entries with damage scores 5 or lower in replicated tests are presented in the table. Most of these varieties possess resistance to one pest; Bhakwa was resistant to both BPH and GM.

A440 A61i B2112 C62iii K2351 L289ii S644 D307i Dl061 Dl064


B2712

Brown planthopper Anjania Bainspath Bhakwa Chhatri E.B. 17 Kabari Lalbasant Safeddhanwar Whitebacked planthopper Batri Dihula Dihula Dihula Karanphool Khalasu Gall midge Bhakwa Dehradodi Gurmatia Jhitpiti Kudunjan Lalbogri Tulasimanjari Viruppu

4.1 5.0 5.0 3.8 4.7 2.0 4.1 1.9


2.9 3.0 2.8 2.7 3.0 2.0 Resistant Resistant Resistant Resistant Resistant Resistant Resistant Resistant

The International Rice Research Newsletter invites contributions of concise summaries of significant current rice research for publication. Contributions should be limited to no more than 2 pages typed double-spaced accompanied by no more than 2 figures, tables, or photographs. Contributions are reviewed by appropriate IRRI scientists and those accepted are subject to editing and abridgment to meet space limitations. Authors are identified by name and research organization. See inside front cover for more information about submissions.

18 IRRN 14:2 (April 1989)

Excess water tolerance


Heritability of stem elongation ability in rice
P. K. S. Ray, Plant Breeding Division, Bangladesh Rice Research Institute, Gazipur, Bangladesh; and D. HilleRisLambers, IRRI

Inheritance of stem elongation ability in four semidwarf rice crosses was found to be controlled by two dominant genes. Four semidwarf, nonelongating advanced lines were crossed with IR11288-B-B-69-1, which has stem elongation ability in addition to a dwarfing gene, and F1 and F2 seeds sown in 5- 5-cm plastic pots. The pots were placed in galvanized iron trays in the glasshouse. At 35 d after seeding, the trays were placed in a tank and the water level raised, at 5 cm/day, to a maximum depth of 90 cm. This depth was maintained 7 d, then the tank was drained. Stem length was measured from the root base to the uppermost node and plants categorized as elongating (stem length >20 cm) and nonelongating (stem length <20 cm). Plants of all crosses survived a water depth of 1 m (see figure). Mean stem length of the F1 and F2 of all crosses was >20 cm. Most plants tended toward the elongating parents, indicating dominance of the stem elongation genotype over the nonelongating genotype. Distributions of all F2 populations were unimodal and continuous with single peaks. The segregation ratios of all crosses in the F2 suggest that stem elongation ability was dominant. Two types of segregation ratios were observed in the F2 , 13:3 for the cross BKNFR76106-16-0-1/IR11288-B-B-69-1 and 151 for the others (see table). Such ratios can be explained by the presence of a minimum of two genes. When the two dominant genes remain together, the typical stem elongating feature develops and plants carrying the genes resist about 1-m water depth.

Distribution and means of parent, F1 and F2 plants for stem elongation ability in 4 crosses. Arrows show the mean.

Inheritance of stem elongation ability in 4 crosses. IRRI, 1987.

Cross BKNFR76106-13-2/ IR11288-B-B-69-1

F1 Elongating

F2 seedlings (no.) Elongating 78 80 154 149 Nonelongating 6 11 16 7

Total 84 91 170 156

Ratio 15:l 13:3 15:l 15:l

x2 0.11 2.60 2.90 0.83

P> 0.70 0.10 0.05 0.30

BKNFR76106-16-0-1/ Elongating IR11288-B-B69-1 IR8234-OT-9-2/ Elongating IR11288-B-B-69-1 IR42/IR11288-BB-69-1 Elongating

IRRN 14:2 (April 1989)

19

Integrated germplasm improvement


IET9783 : a salt-tolerant rice for coastal saline soil
P. N. Jagadev and D. Jena, National Agricultural Research Project, Motto, Balasore District 756132, Orissa, India

The WS crop was rainfed; the DS crop was irrigated with poor quality lift irrigation water. IET10676 yielded highest (4.0 t/ ha) in WS (see table). Soil salinity delayed crop maturity in DS 1149 d, and yields did not differ significantly.

fine clayey, mixed, hyperthermic family, Vertic Halaquept; pH of the experimental site was 7.2 in WS and 8.0 in DS. EC values were 1.2-6.8 dS/m during Jul-Nov and 2.7-13.5 dS/m during Dec-Mar.

Coastal saline soil occurs in a narrow strip along the Bay of Bengal, 375 km long and 2.25 km wide and covering 2.54 million ha. Rice is the main crop of wet season (WS), fields are fallow in dry season (DS). In a year of poor monsoon, the crop fails. The Regional Research Station, Motto, is situated on the coast 10 km away from the Bay of Bengal. Soil is

Rice Improvement Project, Hyderabad, 2 resistant checks, and local checks SR26-B in WS and CSR4 (Mohan). The experiments were in a randomized block design with three replications. Three 35-old seedlings/variety were transplanted on 25 Jul 1987 and 9 Jan 1988 at 20- 15-cm spacing in 4-m 2 plots. Fertilizer was 60-26 kg NP/ ha.

In 1987-88 DS, we evaluated 28 cultivars from the All India Coordinated

Peformance of upland and rainfed lowland rice varieties in farmers' fields in Mali
R. B. Kagbo OHV/USAID, 12411 Antoine#413, Houston, TX77067, USA

Performance of rice varieties and cultivars in coastal saline soil at Motto, Balasore, India, 1987-88 WS and DS. Cultivar Parentage Duration (d) ws IET10344 IET10345 IET10346 IET10348 IET10349 CSRl Mutant IET10354 IET10357 IET10358 IETT9783 IET10672 IET9784 IET10675 IET10683 IET10676 IET10684 IET10685 IET10689 CSR 1 Mutant IET10692 ET10693 IET10694 IET10696 IET10697 IET10698 IET10699 Pokkali (resistant check) Vikas (resistant check) SR26-B (local check) Damodar (local check) Mohan (local check) LSD (0.05) SAR41/Jaya SAR43/IR8 IR1702-74-3/IR2061464-2 CSRl/Basmati370//CSR5 M40-431-24-114/Jaya CSR 1 Rasi/IET6238 IET6238/IR36 CO 22 / Vaigai TNl/CO 29 IR13240-108-2-2-3/ IR9129-209-2-2-2-1 T22/Mahsuri TNl/CSR5 CSRl M40-431-24-114/ Basmati 370 M40-431-24-114/Jaya IR36/MR340 IET6238/MR340 IET6238/Mk340 IET6238/MR342 111 110 129 134 110 111 113 114 116 115 105 115 115 102 127 120 117 122 120 106 122 116 115 106 125 113 125 125 155 2.3 DS 123 130 156 154 143 134 133 156 150 155 153 126 137 141 166 137 166 167 137 139 154 141 139 141 139 138 136 141 140 152 10.9 Grain yield (t/ha) ws 2.1 2.0 1.7 2.2 1.8 1.3 2.3 1.3 1.2 1.6 1.3 1.1 3.0 3.1 4.0 2.0 2.2 2.9 2.6 2.4 2.9 3.2 2.9 2.8 2.3 3.1 1.9 0.8 2.7 0.5 DS 1.0 0.6 0.8 1.l 1.3 1.1 1.4 0.7 0.3 2.0 0.7 0.4 1.2 0.4 0.7 1.1 0.5 0.5 0.7 0.9 0.8 1.4 1.1 1.0 1.4 1.7 0.8 0.8 0.8 1.6 n.s.

Rice variety trials in farmers' fields of the Operation Haute Valle (OHV) were carried out in collaboration with the Multilocational Unit of the Institute of Rural Economy and USAID farming systems research (FSR/ E) project. Upland soils were sandy loam, lowland soils were hydromorphic with some standing water during some periods of the cropping season. Ammonium phosphate and urea were applied at 100 kg/ha in lowland and 50 kg/ ha in upland. Urea was applied at planting and at panicle initiation. Two farmers each for upland and lowland conditions conducted trials, with four replications. In upland conditions, the introduced varieties had almost three times the yield of the local check (see table). In lowland
Grain yield and approximate duration of selected rice varieties in farmers' fields testing in the Operation Haute Valle project, Mali, 1987-88 cropping season.
Variety Linke a IRAT144 Dourado BG90-2 IET2911 BKNLR75001 Yield (t/ha) Upland conditions 0.6 1.8 1.6 Lowland conditions 2.5 2.5 2.2 Duration (d) 100 110 103 124 127 129

a Local check; farmers in lowland conditions did not have a local variety.

20 IRRN 14:2 (April 1989)

conditions, the three varieties yielded similarly. The participating farmers were generally satisfied with the performance of the new varieties. OHV has undertaken seed multiplication of all three varieties.

RAU4045 -10, a new variety for rainfed areas


S. C. Prasad and J. B. Tomar, Plant Breeding and Genetics Department, Birsa Agricultural University, Kanke, Ranchi 834006, India

Ranbir Basmati an earlymaturing aromatic rice


J. S. Bijral, K. S. Kanwal, and Y. P. Khanna, SKUAST, Regional Agriculture Research Station (RARS), R.S. Pura, J & K, India

The quality basmati rices of India and Pakistan, characterized by late maturity, are difficult to fit into multiple farming systems, and are grown on limited hectarage. Development of earlymaturing basmati types would help bring larger areas under superfine rices. In 1982, we isolated an earlymaturing, slightly dwarf plant from farmers' fields. The strain, Ranbir Basmati, was evaluated against Basmati 370 for 2 yr at RARS, and in farmers' fields for performance, stability, and adaptability. Ranbir Basmati duration is 115-120 d from sowing to maturity, 3035 d shorter than that of Basmati 370, with comparable yields. Yield per day of Ranbir Basmati was 20-25% higher. Grain quality equaled or surpassed that of Basmati 370 (see table).
Comparative qualities of Ranbir Basmati and Basmati 370. Character Ranbir Basmati Basmati 370 170 150 Easy 7.1 1.9 3.8 9 21.5 21.3 H/I 2.03 7 .0 Strong Good Good

RAU4045-10 (IET7978), a semidwarf variety derived from Finegora/ IET2832, is moderately resistant to blast and averages 70 d to 50% flowering. Mean yield over 4 yr of experimental trials was 3.6 t/ha, significantly higher than that of check varieties Akashi (2.3 t/ha) and Brown gora (2.1 t/ha). IET7978 was tested for 3 yr in AllIndia Coordinated Rice Improvement

Project (AICRIP) experiments. In the 1984 Preliminary Varietal Trial 1 (PVT1), it yielded 5.5 t/ha at Hyderabad. In the 1985 Uniform Varietal Trial in 15 locations all over India, it yielded an average 2.6 t/ha and took 74 d to flowering under direct seeded rainfed conditions (Table 1) and 3.7 t/ha under direct seeded irrigated conditions. It ranked third in transplanted conditions in 16 locations. In 1986, IET7978 was the top yielder (3 t/ha) over all locations (Table 2). It significantly outyielded national as well as local checks under rainfed conditions in Bihar and Orissa and has been recommended for rainfed fields in Bihar and Orissa.

Table 1. Performance of RAU4045-10 in station trials at Birsa Agricultural University, Kanke, Ranchi, India. Variety RAU4045-10 (IET7978) Akashi Brown gora LSD (0.05) Yield (t/ha) 1983 4.2 2.5 1.9 0.3 1984 3.8 2.4 2.0 0.4 1985 3.0 2.1 2.2 0.4 1986 3.4 2.4 2.3 0.5 Mean 3.6 2.3 2.1 0.4

Table 2. Performance of RAU4045-10 in All India Coordinated Rice Improvement Project trials during 1986. Yield (t/ha) Variety Zone III Assam 2.6 2.1 1.4 Assam and Tripura 3.1 3.0 2.2 Zone 5 Kanke Faizabad Bihar (U.P.) 4.1 3.2 2.4 2.2 4.1 4.4 3.2 3.6 (N22) Mean Zone 8 Himachal Tamil Pradesh Nadu 3.7 5.0 2.1 4.0 1.8 4.5 2.8 4.7 (HPU741) (IR50) Transplanting condition Delhi Rajasthan 5.9 3.4 4.8 3.0 2.4 2.9

RAU4045-10 Akashi Cauvery Local checks

3.1 2.9 2.3

Plant height (cm) 155 Duration (d) 115 Threshability Easy Grain length (mm) 7.2 Grain breadth (mm) 1.8 Length/breadth ratio 3.9 Chalkiness 5 1,000-grain wt (g) 22.8 Amylose content (%) 24.0 Gelatinization temperature a I/L Average proportional elongation ratio 2.05 Protein content (%) 7.7 Aroma Strong Cooking quality Good Eating quality Good
a

CN705-18 a promising rice variety for deepwater rice areas


S. Mallik, C. Kundu, and B. K. Mandal, Rice Research Station, Chinsurah 712102, India

L = low, H = high, I = intermediate.

Based on overall performance in 198587 national trials, CN705-18 (IET9065 =

Mahsuril CN643) is a promising variety for deepwater rice areas (water accumulates up to 1 m during the wet season) in West Bengal, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh, and Assam. Photoperiod-sensitive CN705-18 flowered 28-30 Oct in West Bengal. Depending on water depth, it attained 175-210 cm height, with 10-12 tillers/ hill. It has very good submergence IRRN 14:2 (April 1989) 21

Performance of CN705-18 in multilocational trials in India, 1985-87. a Site b Grain yield (t/ha) CN705-18 Local check
c

Max water depth (cm)

Bhubaneswar CRRI Patna Chinsurah Chinsurah Malda Pusa Ranital Cuttack Patna CRRI Bhubaneswar North Lakhimpur Chinsurah Pulla Chinsurah Maruteru Mean (1 7 sites)
a na = data not available. probability. b CRRI

Preliminary Variety Trial 5, 1985 2.1* 1.0 (Khajuniachar) 3.6* 1.2 (CR1030) 2.5 2.7 (Janki) 3.3* 1.8 (NC492) Uniform Variety Trial 5, 3.3* 1.2 3.6 3.2 1.2 1.8 2.2 1.7 1986 (TCA212) (CN540) (TCA214) (CR1030)

na 40 na 55 110 62 85 65 50 50 75 50 108 85 75 65 50

Physiology screening 4.7* 3.4 (CR1018) 3.2* 2.2 (Janki) Uniform Variety Trial 5, 1987 3.5 * 1.9 (na) 2.1 2.0 (Rambha) 2.9 2.9 (Panikekau) 3.4 2.9 (NC492) 2.0* 1.1 (CN540) Physiology screening 4.0 (Jogen) 4.0 2.0* 0.7 (Marutan) 2.9 2.1
c

= Central Rice Research Institute.

* = significant at the 5% level of

tolerance, elongation ability, kneeing ability, and drought tolerance at the early vegetative stage. Panicles are about 24 cm long with good exsertion and about 215 grains/panicle. Grain is medium and bold (length-5.9 mm, breadth-2.9 mm, L/B 2.0), 1,000-grain weight is 27.3 g. It has a yellow-colored hull at maturity, red kernel, and strong (3 mo) seed dormancy. On average, CN705-18 outyielded check varieties (2.9 t/ha to 2.1 t/ha) over 17 sites (see table), with an overall yield increase of 38%. CN705-18 yield was significantly higher than check at 9 sites, superior at 4, equal at 2, and lower at 2. Yield varied from 4.7 to 1.2 t/ha. This variation under similar water depths over sites reflects the role of time, duration, and intensity of water stagnation in determining variety adaptability. CN705-18 has been recommended for large-scale demonstration trials in farmers fields.

SiPi 692033: a promising rainfed lowland rice variety


J. K. Kehinde, S. O. Fagade, and P. G. Pillai, National Cereals Research Institute, Private Mail Bag 5042, Ibadan, Nigeria

Table 1. Yield of rice lines and varieties in multilocation trials in Nigeria, 1986. a

Line or variety FAROX 228-3-1-1 FAROX 228-4-1-1 FAROX 239-3-3-2 FAROX 233-7-1-2 FAROX 239-2-1-1 FAROX 233-1-1-1 FAROX 234-3-1-1 SiPi 692033 FARO 27 (check) Mean

Parentage FARO 15/IR28 FARO 15/IR28 IR28/FARO 12 FARO 12/IR28 IR28/FARO 12 FARO 12/IR28 FARO 12/TOS103 SiPi 661044/ SiPi 651020

Grain yield (t/ha) 1 1.1 1.3 1.0 1.3 1.0 1.1 1.5 1.5 1.3 1.2 2 5.4 5.7 4.8 3.9 3.3 5.5 4.5 5.9 5.2 4.9 3 4.4 5.0 6.4 4.5 3.6 5.9 5.7 5.9 5.0 5.2 4 6.1 5.1 6.5 5.8 5.5 5.7 7.0 8.9 6.9 6.4 5 8.2 7.8 5.7 4.6 4.1 5.2 6.0 8.3 3.6 5.9 6 8.2 7.1 7.6 6.9 6.4 7.0 6.8 8.8 7.2 7.3 Mean 5.6 5.3 5.3 4.5 4.0 5.1 5.3 6.6 4.9

SiPi 692033 (introduced from Taiwan), seven FAROX rice lines (Table 1), and FARO 27 (a widely cultivated rice variety) were evaluated at six sites across the country in 1986. Sites 1, 2, and 3 lie within the rain forest and sites 4, 5, and 6 lie in the Sudan savanna vegetational zones. All cultural operations except weed control were common to all locations. Grain yield (14% moisture) was taken from the middle 6 m2 of each test plot. SiPi 692033 was the highest yielder overall and at five sites. Its yield advantage ranged from 18% over FAROX 228-3-1-1 to 65% over FAROX 239-2-1-1. In general, grain yields were higher at the Sudan savanna sites with low annual rainfall (<1,000 mm) than at the rain forest sites with high annual rainfall 22 IRRN 14:2 (April 1989)

a Locations: 1 = Ogoja, 2 = Ibadan, 3 = Bende, 4 = Wurno, 5 = Birnin-Kebbi, 6 = Kadawa.

Table 2. Agronomic characteristics of rice lines and varieties.a Nigeria, 1986.

Line or variety FAROX 228-3-1-1 FAROX 228-4-1-1 FAROX 239-3-3-2 FAROX 233-7-1-2 FAROX 239-2-1-1 FAROX 233-1-1-1 FAROX 234-3-1-1 SiPi 692033 FARO 27 (check)
a

Plant height (cm) 110 106 109 97 78 108 94 106 95

Panicles (no./m 2 ) 335 311 362 356 362 379 371 339 355

Maturity (d) 117 114 114 110 108 115 119 122 120

Grain type b MB MB MB LS LS LS LS LS MB

Mean of 6 sites. b LS = long slender, MB = medium bold.

(>1,500 mm). Rice in the savanna ripens under higher solar radiation. Panicles/m2 were similar for all varieties tested (Table 2). All varieties

were semidwarf ( 110 cm). Both SiPi 692033 and FARO 27 have high amylose content (>25%) with hard

gel consistency (26-35 mm). SiPi 692033 has long, slender grains and higher yield than FARO 27.

Seed technology
Influence of Acrocylindrium oryzae Sawada on rice seed germination and seedling vigor
R. Velazhahan, R. Ramabadran, and R. Sudhakar, Plant Pathology Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar 608002, Tamil Nadu, India

Influence of Acrocylindrium oryzae on seed germination and rice seedling vigor. Tamil Nadu, India, 1988.

Cultivar

Seed germination (%) Healthy Inoculated

Seedling vigora Shoot length (mm) Day 4 NI I 10.7 4.8 3.6 3.6 7.3 6.3 3.6 2.35 NI 32.4 19.1 25.9 15.4 26.1 33.5 9.7 Day 7 I 29.1 18.7 25.2 7.8 23.1 24.7 1.9 NI 14.6 16.2 15.0 12.0 20.3 15.7 16.8 Root length (mm) Day 4 I 13.9 14.8 13.2 10.3 17.2 13.6 15.6 NI 32.2 33.0 30.4 29.6 59.9 41.8 44.0 3.42 Day 7 I 29.1 31.3 30.3 27.2 47.2 40.4 39.3

We studied the influence of Sarocladium oryzae (Sawada) W. Gams and D. Hawksw. (syn. Acrocylindrium oryzae Sawada) on seed germination and seedling vigor of seven rice varieties. Seeds were thoroughly washed with sterile distilled water and 10 seeds were lated on moistened filter paper in a petri dish, with 10 replications. The

IET9233 95 ET8611 89 96 IET8584 IR62 90 AU1 90 J58 92 ADT37 94 LSD (P = 0.05)


a NI

93 84 92 87 86 89 91 4.34

15.3 6.6 5.3 4.8 10.5 7.6 4.3

= not inoculated, I = inoculated.

seeds were sprayed with a 4 106 spores/ml suspension of the fungus. (Control seeds were sprayed with sterile distilled water.) Seed germination and seedling vigor were assessed 4 and 7 d

after inoculation. Inoculation considerably reduced seed germination in all varieties (see table). Shoot and root lengths of all the rices also were reduced.

CROP AND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT


Soil microbiology and biological N fertilizer
Boiling water treatment to improve germination of Sesbania rostrata
M. N. Sheelavantar, S. Rao, P. S. Matiwade, and A. S. Halepyati, Agronomy Department, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad 580005, India
Germination of S. rostrata seeds treated with boiling water (98 C). Dharwad, India, 1988.

Treatment Control (no boiling water) Treatment with 98 C water 15 s 30 s 45 s 60 s 75 s 90 s 120 s 150 s 180 s
aFigures

Germination (%) at indicated period after treatment 3d 2 34 42 42 52 42 54 64 50 50 4d 4 40 52 52 66 60 62 76 60 68 5d 4 50 54 60 66 66 62 76 60 68 6d 4 62 70 72 74 78 70 76 60 68 4 62 70 76 76 78 72 (4) a 76 (8) 60 (10) 68 (10) 7d

The hard seed coat in Sesbania rostrata can be broken by treating seeds with concentrated sulfuric acid for 40 min. However, sulfuric acid is costly and requires care. Dormancy due to hard seed coat in many legumes could be

in parentheses = percent deformed seeds.

IRRN 14:2 (April 1989)

23

broken using boiling water. We studied the effect of boiling water treatment for varying times on the germinability of seeds of S. rostrata. Welldeveloped seeds were selected, 50/set, and treated with 98 C water for

15-180 s at intervals of 15 s. Treated seeds and untreated seeds were arranged on filter paper, placed in petri dishes, and moistened with distilled water. The germination test was carried out at room temperature (27-30 C).

Treatment with boiling water increased germination from 4 to 78% with 75-s treatment (see table). Boiling water treatment beyond 75 s began to deform seeds.

Crop management
Effect of sowing and planting method on rice yield
D. Rout and A. Mishra, Agronomy Department, OUAT, Bhubaneswar 751003: and T. Barik, Regional Research Station, Bhawanipatna 766001, Orissa, India

Influence of sowing and transplanting methods on yield and yield attributes of rice. Orissa, India, 1982 kharif. Panicles (no./m2) 298 265 313 344 290 295 5 16 Grains (no./panicle) 82 83 82 83 87 85 1 3 1000grain weight (g) 19.7 20.2 20.3 20.0 20.4 20.6 0.3 ns Grain yield (t/ha) 3.4 3.2 3.8 4.3 4.3 4.3 0.1 0.2 Cost of cultivation ($/ha) 156 175 185 232 202 221 Net profit ($/ha) 246 210 264 285 314 295

Sowing or planting method Broadcast seeding Broadcast seeding followed by beushaning Line sowing sprouted seeds 15 cm apart Transplanting at 15- 10-cm spacing Skip-row (3:1) transplanting with 60-30-30 kg NPK/ha Skip-row (3: 1) transplanting with 80-40-40 kg NPK/ha SE (m) LSD (0.05)

Performance of two dwarf and one tall indica varietiesOR152-2-17, Pratap, and Mahsuri, all with 135-140 d duration-was compared under different sowing and planting methods during 1982 wet season. Treatments were broadcast seeding with and without beushaning (operating narrow wooden plow in standing crop under 10-15 cm standing water 30-35 d after germination), line sowing sprouted seeds in puddled soil, line transplanting, and skip-row planting with full and 75% recommended fertilizer (80-40-40 kg NPK/ ha). The design was split plot with varieties in the main plots and sowing or transplanting method as subplots, with

three replications. Soil of the experimental site was sandy loam with pH 6.1. Total N content was 0.031%, 17.3 kg available P/ ha, and 104 kg available K/ ha. The interaction between variety and planting method was not significant. Grain yields under normal line planting, skip-row planting with 75% normal fertilizer, and skip-row planting with

normal fertilizer were not statistically different (see table). Skip-row planting with 75% normal fertilizer produced the highest net profit, followed by skip-row planting with full fertilizer. These methods saved 25% of the cost seedlings or fertilizers. Broadcast seeding followed by beushaning produced the lowest grain yield and net profit, probably because of low plant population.

Selecting rice varieties for double transplanting in floodaffected areas


B. K. Singh, Agronomy Department, Rajendra Agricultural University, Pusa 813210, Bihar (present address: National Agricultural Research Project, RAU Campus, Bihar Agricultural College, Sabour 813210, Bihar), India

Large areas on the riverbanks in northeastern India frequently become flooded two to three times during the wet season, severely damaging the rice crop. Some farmers risk transplanting 24 IRRN 14:2 (April 1989)

rice in early Jul. If flooding comes late or is mild, the transplanted crop suffers least. Most farmers, however, do not want to risk transplanting early because they cannot afford to manage seedlings for retransplanting if the Jul crop is flooded. They usually transplant in Sep, when the chance of flooding ceases. Two types of seedlings-conventional seedlings brought directly from the first nursery and kharuhan seedlings uprooted from the first nursery and transplanted closely in a second nurseryare transplanted. Seedlings of any available photoperiod-sensitive rice variety are used. The double-

transplanted crop gives yields higher than a single-transplanted crop. We conducted a field trial on siltyclay loam soil at the Rajendra Agricultural University Farm, Pusa (Bihar) during wet season using six photoperiod-sensitive rice varieties Janaki, BR8, T141, B14, C62-68, and Bakol (local check)and three dates of transplanting1 Sep, 16 Sep, and 1 Oct. The trial was in a split-plot design, with date of transplanting in the main plot and varieties in subplots, with three replications. Kharuhan seedlings (30 d in first nursery + 45 d in the second) were

transplanted at 15- 10-cm spacing with 2 seedlings/ hill. A uniform 40 kg N, 8.8 kg P/ha was applied at transplanting. The crop was irrigated as needed and harvested in the second week of Dec. The grain yield differed among varieties and with date of transplanting (see table). Variety C62-68 and Janaki gave significantly higher yields (C62-68 grain weight was lower than that of Janaki, but it had more grains/ panicle). Grain yield decreased significantly with delay in transplanting. The crop transplanted 16 Sep gave 27.6% lower grain yield than that transplanted 1 Sep; the 1 Oct crop gave 72.4% lower yield. The variety by date of transplanting interaction also significantly influenced grain yield. Reduction in yield of C62-68 and Janaki due to delay in transplanting was less than that with other varieties.

Grain yield of double-transplanted, photoperiod-sensitive rice varieties by transplanting dates in flood-affected area of Pusa (Bihar), India. Grain yield (t/ha) 1 Sep Janaki BR8 T141 BR14 C62-68 Bakol (local check) 3.6 2.2 2.5 2.8 3.8 2.3 16 Sep 2.7 2.2 1.6 1.9 3.0 1.1 2.1 0.3 0.6 0.5 0.6 1 Oct 1.2 0.9 0.3 0.4 1.5 0.5 0.8 Mean 2.5 1.8 1.5 1.7 2.8 1.3

Mean 2.9 LSD (0.05) For variety For date of transplanting For variety at same date of transplanting For date of transplanting of same variety

Panicle exsertion in the two varieties was complete even with the last transplanting date. This probably resulted in higher percentage of fertile spikelets in C62-68 and Janaki, and

consequently higher grain yields under extremely late transplanting. In other varieties, incomplete panicle exsertion occurred with delay in transplanting.

Effect of a new abscisic acid analog on chilled rice leaves


A. A. Flores and K. Drffling, Institut fr Allgemeine Botanik und Botanischer Garten, Universitat Hamburg, Federal Republic of Germany; and B. S. Vergara, Plant Physiology Department, IRRI

One factor that limits rice growth and yield in many rice-growing countries is chilling injury. One measure to minimize this problem is chemical treatment. New abscisic acid analogs developed by BASF, Ludwigshafen, FRG, and coded LAB 173711 and LAB 144143 have been reported to increase chilling tolerance in cucumber, tomato, and wheat. We investigated the effects of the analog in chilled rice leaves. Pregerminated seeds of IR42 and Fujisaka 5 were seeded directly in 1-liter pot containing Maahas soil and kept at 29/21 C, 12 h photoperiod, and 80% relative humidity. Uniform seedlings were selected and sprayed with LAB 173711 at 10 -3 mol/liter, and 10-4 mol/liter. After 24 h, plants were transferred to 5 C for 1, 2, 3, 5, and d. After chilling exposure, they were returned to 29 C for recovery.

1. Percent leaf area injury in LAB 173711-treated rice plants chilled at 5 C for 24 h and transferred to 29 C for recovery. Data are means SE of 10 measurements.

2. Differences in leaf fresh weight of LAB 173711treated plants chilled at 5 C and transferred to 29 C for recovery. Data are means SE of 10 measurements.

Damaged leaf area was observed visually (wilted and brown color) and estimated using the formula
length of Injured injured portion leaf area = = 100 length of (%) whole leaf blade

Injured leaf area was markedly lower in LAB 173711-treated plants (Fig. 1), and leaf fresh weight in control was much lower than in LAB 173711-treated plants (Fig. 2). This protective effect of the applied abscisic acid analog may be due in part to its water conserving-activity. IRRN 14:2 (April 1989) 25

Yield ability of tillers separated from standing transplanted aman rice and replanted
P. K. Biswas, S. K. Roy, and A. Quasem, Regional Agricultural Research Station, Hathazari, Chittagong, Bangladesh

To help farmers in postflood agricultural rehabilitation when new seedlings are not available, we conducted an experiment using rice tillers separated

from a standing crop. We examined the number of tillers/ hill needed for an economic yield and using old seedlings for late planting. In fields that had been planted with 45-d-old BR11 seedlings, we pulled the hill 35 d after transplanting and separated the tillers with roots. The uprooted tillers were replanted 17 Sep 1987 at 1, 3, 5, and 7 tillers/ hill. Control was 65-d-old seedlings. Soil was silty loam with pH 6.0-6.5. Plots were 5 3 m in a randomized

block design with 4 replications. All plots were fertilized with 80-60-40 kg NPK/ ha, using urea, triple superphosphate, and muriate of potash. Tiller counts were done at 2-wk intervals from 10 randomly selected hills/plot. Grain and straw yield was measured at 15% moisture. It is possible to multiply seedlings by detaching tillers from mother hills and replanting at 3 tillers/ hill (see table). Planting 65-d-old seedlings could cause heavy yield loss.

Plant development, yield components, yield, and harvest index (HI) of replanted tillers of transplanted Mukta rice in Bangladesh. a Treatment 65-d-old seedlings Retransplanted 1 tiller/hill Retransplanted 3 tillers/hill Retransplanted 5 tillers/hill Retransplanted 7 tillers/hill LSD (0.05) CV (%)
a

Days to Flowering 74 68 62 59 56 1 1.5 Maturity 104 99 96 91 87 2 1.3

Plant height (cm) 88.0 100.5 100.3 105.0 106.8 4.2 2.6

Panicles (no./m2 ) 266 218 228 230 228 10.2 2.7

Grains (no./panicle) Filled 93 149 149 147 149 10 4.7 Unfilled 21 21 22 23 24 ns 9.6

1000grain wt (g) 21.62 20.78 21.00 21.20 21.35 ns 3.2

Yield (t/ha) Grain 3.8 4.4 5.3 5.3 5.2 0.938 12.2 Straw 7.1 5.5 5.3 5.0 5.2 1.2 13.3

HI 0.35 0.44 0.48 0.51 0.50

Mean of 4 replications. ns = not significant.

Effect of Triacontanol on rice seedling weight and grain yield


M. Mahadevappa, R. A. K. Murthy, and B. B. Biradar, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore 560065, India

Triacontanol has been found to stimulate growth of several crop plants. We treated seeds of rice cultivars Jaya, IR20, and Mukthi with Triacontanol (source: Trianol-CF) at 3 concentrations: 0.01, 0.1, and 1.00 ppm.
Table 1. Dry weight 22 d after sowing of 3 rice varieties grown in pots after 1-h seed treatment withTriacontanol. Triacontanol (ppm) 0.01 0.10 1.00 0 (control) CV (%) LSD Biomass (mg dry wt/plant) IR20 248 309 216 231 11.3 19 Jaya 271 292 249 226 9.1 14 Mukthi 410 399 309 318 11.5 17

Seeds were soaked 1 h just before seeding in pots containing evenly mixed soil. Biomass weight was measured 22 d after seeding. Seedlings treated at 0.01 and 0.10 ppm were superior to those with no Triacontanol (Table 1). In a field experiment, IR54R seedlings were sprayed with the same concentrations of Triacontanol, at 3 d before transplanting (15 Mar 1988), at maximum tillering (15 Apr), and at grain ripening (3 Jun). Grain yield increased slightly with all treatments (Table 2). Tillering capacity did not

Table 2. Grain yield of IR54R treated with Triacontanol. Triacontanol (ppm) 0.01 0.10 1.00 0 (control) CV (%) LSD Grain yield (t/ha) 10.2 9.8 9.7 8.9 2.7 0.4

change, but 1,000-grain weight was higher with 0.01 ppm.

Soil fertility and fertilizer management


Large granule urea efficiency in rice
B. Rabindra, B. S. Naidu, T. G. Devi, and S. N. S. Gowda, University of Agricultural Sciences, Regional Research Station, Mandya 571405, Karnataka, India

With increasing fertilizer prices, it has become important to increase the efficiency of applied fertilizer without additional cost. One technique is to use modified large size or large granule urea (LSU/LGU). We studied the performance of LSU/LGU (6-8 mm) in

26 IRRN 14:2 (April 1989)

transplanted irrigated rice during 1987 wet season (kharif). Soil was red sandy loam (Alfisols), with pH 6.7, 0.031% available N, 10.9 kg available P/ha, 171 kg K/ha, and cation exchange capacity of 12.6 meq/100 g. Rice varieties were Rasi (120 d) and Mandya Vijaya (145 d). LGU was applied by broadcasting on drained soil. Prilled urea (PU) was applied according to recommended practice in the area (50% broadcast and incorporated 3-4 h before planting, 25% broadcast without incorporation at tillering, and 25% broadcast at panicle initiation). Ammonia volatilization loss was measured in the field by direct trapping procedure and leaching loss was measured by periodically inserting leaching tubes (with microporous ceramic base) below the rooting zone, 30 cm deep to collect leachate for determining ammoniacal and nitrate N. Cumulative loss of ammoniacal N and nitrate N was computed on the basis of

Rice yield as affected by LSU/LGU. Grain yield (t/ha) Rasi Mandya Vijaya 2.0 4.8 4.5 5.1 4.9 0.3 7.5 3.7 5.3 5.4 5.8 5.5 0.3 7.5 Total N uptake (kg/ha) in grain + straw Cumulative loss of Fertilizer N b Rasi Mandya Vijaya (kg/ha) 43 94 95 136 105 56 126 112 129 117 24 28 20 19

Treatment a Control, no N LSU/LGU, all basal PU in 3 splits (recommended practice of 50-25-25 at planting, tillering, PI) LSU/LGU in 2 splits (66-34 at planting and tillering) LSU/LGU in 3 splits (50-25-25 at planting, tillering, PI) LSD (0.05) CV (%)
aN

rate is 100 kg N/ha. All treatments received 22 kg P and 41 kg K/ha. b Through volatilization and leaching.

percolation loss of water using drum culture technique. Application of LSU/ LGU in two splits increased yield significantly in both varieties (see table). This appeared to be due mainly to better uptake of N by the plant and lower loss of fertilizer

N through volatilization and leaching. Three splits of LSU/LGU did not show any advantage over two splits. LSU/ LGU applied all basal did not show any significant reduction in yield from PU applied in three splits.

Synergistic effect of organic manure and N fertilizer on irrigated rice


T. Hussain and G. Jilani, Soil Science Department, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan

We evaluated the efficiency of N source and method of application in irrigated rice KS-282 in a field experiment. Soil was Typic Camborthids, sandy clay loam in texture having pH 7.9, ECe

0.70 dS/m and CEC 7.8 mmol (I)/ 100 g. Organic matter was 0.52%; N content 0.04%. Plot size was 16 m 2 and plant spacing 20 20 cm in a randomized complete block design with 4 replications. All plots received 40 kg PK/ha. Urea supergranules (USG) and prilled urea (PU) were compared with S. aculeata and S. rostrata as green manure and barnyard manure (BM) in combination with PU. N rate was 87 kg/ ha for each source.

USG was superior in all respects (see table). S. rostrata + PU was statistically equivalent to USG. Growth and yield of rice were low with S. aculeata + PU, and BM + PU compared to PU alone, but N recovery from PU alone was the lowest of all sources.

Effect of zincated diammonium phosphate (ZnDAP) on rainfed lowland rice


R. Ilangovan and S. Palaniappan, Agronomy Department, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University (TNAU), Coimbatore 641003, Tamil Nadu, India

Effect of organic manure and N fertilizer on growth and yield of irrigated rice. a Treatmentb Control(no N) USG PU S. aculeata + PU S. rostrata + PU Barnyard manure + PU SE
a In

Plant height (cm) 80 95 87 86 89 88 2 a b b b b c

TilIers/m2 239 d 340 a 266 cd 298 bc 307 ab 261 d 11

Grain (t/ha) 3.7 5.7 5.3 5.2 5.6 5.1 a a c b b b

Straw (t/ha) 4.4 e 7.8 a 7.0 c 6.5 d 7.3 b 7.1 bc 0.08

Agronomic efficiency (kg rice/kg N) 23.1 18.4 17.2 21.5 16.7

N recovery (%) 54 46 48 52 48

0.06

a column, any 2 means followed by the same letters are not significantly different at 5% level by LSD test. b N source applied at 40 kg N/ha.

We studied the effect of different grades of Zn-DAP on grain yield of IR50 in wet season (kharif) 1985 and summer 1986. Soils were clay loam with pH 7.5 and 7.9, low DTPA-Zn (0.7 and 1.1 ppm) and organic C (0.21 and 0.34%), low available N (234.5 and 210.6 kg/ha), and high available P (38.5 and 40 kg/ ha) and K (325.6 and 316.9 kg/ ha). IRRN 14:2 (April 1989) 27

The experiment was laid out in a split-plot design with three replications. Subplot treatments were grades of ZnDAP (1-6%) applied before transplanting; ZnSO 4 soil application (25 kg/ ha); ZnSO4 foliar application (0.5% sprayed 30 and 45 d after transplanting); seedling roots dipped in 2% ZnO suspension; and no Zn (control). Main plots were with and without green manure at 12.5 t/ha (sunn hemp Crotalaria juncea L. in wet season and pongam leaves Pongamia glabra Vent. in summer). All plots received 100-21.9-41.5 kg NPK/ha. Zn application significantly increased grain yield (see table); 6% Zn-DAP was both efficient and economical.

Effect of Zn-DAP on grain yield of rainfed lowland rice. Treatment No Zn-SSP 1% Zn-DAP 2% Zn-DAP 3% Zn-DAP 4% Zn-DAP 5% Zn-DAP 6% Zn-DAP ZnSO4 - basal ZnSO4 - foliar ZnO root dip No Z n-D AP LSD (0.05) Green manure (GM) Zn treatments GM Zn Zn GM 1985 wet season yield (t/ha) With GM 5.2 5.9 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.2 6.4 6.1 5.9 6.2 No GM 5.1 5.7 5.8 5.9 5.9 5.9 6.0 5.7 5.7 5.4 ns 0.5 ns ns 1986 summer yield (t/ha) With GM 5.3 5.7 6.4 6.7 6.6 6.8 6.7 6.5 6.1 6.2 5.6 No GM 5.1 5.6 5.5 6.0 5.7 6.2 6.5 5.7 5.9 5.6 5.1 ns 0.6 ns ns Zn added (kg/ha) 1.1 2.2 3.4 4.6 5.8 7.1 5.8

Efficiency of prilled urea (PU) and urea supergranules (USG) in rapidly percolating soil
R. S. Rekhi and M. S. Bajwa, Punjab Agricultural University (PAU), Ludhiana, India; and J. L. Starr, USDA-ARS, Beltsville, Maryland 20705, USA

Effect of N source and level on growth, yield, and N uptake of rice. Treatment Control PU 37.5 PU 75.0 PU 112.5 USG 37.5 USG 75.0 USG 112.5 LSD (0.05) Plant ht (m) 84 89 96 101 82 94 91 7 Panicles (no./m 2) 232 297 308 391 255 285 267 33 Yield (t/ha) Grain 3.7 5.0 5.7 7.0 3.7 4.4 4.8 0.7 Straw 4.5 6.0 7.3 7.4 4.1 5.5 4.7 2.1 N uptake (kg/ha) Grain 36 49 57 77 37 43 45 9 Straw 11 18 25 24 12 14 13 7 Apparent recovery (%) 55 48 48 4 14 10

We studied the fate and efficiency of PU and USG in rice grown on a rapidly percolating loamy sand at PAU farm. Soil was a Typic Ustochrept, CEC 4.5 meq/ 100 g, pH 8.2, 0.3% organic C, 0.06% total N, with an N mineralization rate of 16 mg N/ kg soil after 7 d anaerobic incubation at 40 C. N was applied at 0, 37.5, 75.0, and 112.5 kg N/ha in plots measuring 4.8 4.8 m. In the plots with 75.0 kg N/ha, 15N-labeled PU and USG with 5 atom percent excess 15N were applied in rectangular metal frame microplots (1.2 0.8 0.3 m) within the main plots. PU was applied in 3 equal splits at transplanting, active tillering, and panicle initiation; USG was placed 8-10 cm deep in the center of 4 rice hills in alternate rows. The experiment was laid out in a randomized block design with four replications. Rice variety PR106 was transplanted the last week of Jun, 35 d after seeding, and harvested the last week of Oct. Grain and straw samples were analyzed 28 IRRN 14:2 (April 1989)

Balance of 15N-labeled fertilizer in rice.

for total N content and N uptake. Soil was destructively sampled at harvest with a rectangular soil sampler (30 13.3 50 cm) for total Kjeldahl N and 15N analyses.

Plant height, number of panicles, yield, and N uptake showed that PU was significantly superior to USG (see table). Apparent recovery of N was higher with PU (48-55%) than with

USG (4-14%). Labeled N utilization was 42% with PU, 30% in grain and 12% in straw (see figure). Only 8% of the labeled N applied as USG was utilized (6% in grain and 2% in straw). Isotopic composition of rice grain and straw showed that 40% grain N and 35%

straw N were derived from PU; 13% grain N and 12% straw N were derived from USG. Soil analysis at harvest showed that 26% of the labeled N from PU and 13% from USG were retained in the soil. Total recovery of labeled N in crop and

soil was 68% for PU, 21% for USG; 32% PU N and 79% USG N was not accounted for in the N balance. The large deficit of N from USG was attributed to its rapid movement and leaching from concentrated zones at placement sites.

Sesbania rostrata a lowercost source of N for rice


B. Rabindra, B. S. Naidu, T. G. Devi, and S. N. S. Gowda, University of Agricultural Sciences, Regional Research Station, V. C. Farm, Mandya 571405, Karnataka, India

We studied the effect of stem-root nodulating S. rostrata and sunn hemp Crotalaria jancea on transplanted irrigated rice Mandya Vijaya (145-150 d duration) during summer 1988.
Effect of S. rostrata on rice yield. a Karnataka, India. Treatment Grain yield (t/ha) 4.5 Total uptake of N in grain + straw (kg/ha) 92

Soil of the experimental site was red sandy loam (Alfisols), pH 6.3, medium N (1.1% organic matter), 10.6 kg available Olsens P/ha, and 151 kg available K/ha. N content was 4.1% in S. rostrata and 3.2% in sunn hemp. At the same level of applied N, yield increased significantly (15%) over farmers practice (treatment 1), with 30% N supplied through S. rostrata (treatment 2) (see table). The cost

involved in supplying N through S. rostrata was $12, compared to urea cost of $15. Use of S. rostrata increased net profit by $125/ha. S. rostrata (treatment 4) could substitute for fertilizer N up to 70 kg N/ha (treatment 6) without significant yield reduction. S. rostrata was significantly superior to sunn hemp (treatment 5). Uptake of N was better with S. rostrata.

Nitrogen-use efficiency with hand- and machine-applied N fertilizers in wetland rice soils
N. I. Bhuiyan, M. A. Saleque, and S. K. Zaman, Soil Chemistry Division, Bangladesh Rice Research Institute (BRRI), Joydebpur, Gazipur, Bangladesh

1. 100 kg N/ha as urea in 3 splits: 1/2 at planting + 1/4 at tillering + 1/4 panicle initiation (farmers practice)

2. 30 kg N/ha through 5.2 S. rostrata + 70 kg N/ha as urea in 2 splits: 1/2 at planting + 1/2 at tillering 3. 30 kg N/ha through 4.8 sunn hemp C. juncea + 70 kg N/ha in 2 splits: 1/2 at planting + 1/2 at tillering 4. S. rostrata to supply 70 kg N/ha 5. Sunn hemp to supply 70 kg N/ha 6. 70 kg N/ha as urea in 2 splits: 1/2 at planting + l/2 at tillering 7. Control (no N) LSD (0.05) CV (%) K/ha.
a All

110

Prilled urea (PU) farmers split (F), researcher's split (R), modified split (M), applicator placed (AP); and urea

supergranules (USG) hand placed (H) and AP were compared in a field experiment during the 1986 dry season. BR3 was the test variety. Soil was clay loam (Paleudults) with pH 6.5, 1.05% organic matter, CEC 24 meq/100 g, 0.07% total N, and incubated 57 ppm NH+4 -N (incubated at 30 C for 1 wk). Two rates of N (58 and 87 kg/ ha) and 1 control treatment were used. P at 17.6 kg/ha, K at 33.2 kg/ha, and S at 20 kg/ha were applied

Effect of N fertilizer application method on yield of BR3 and agronomic efficiency of N, 1986 dry season, BRRI, Joydebpur, Bangladesh. a 97 Treatment a Control 58 PU (F) 58 PU (R) 58 PU (M) 58 PU (AP) 58 USG (H) 58 USG (AP) 87 PU (F) 87 PU (R) 87 PU (M) 87 USG (H) CV (%)
a

Plant height (cm) 86 93 91 89 94 93 94 91 92 94 94 4

Tillers (no./m2) 210 e 243 d 286 bc 267 bcd 309 a 299 a 285 abc 272 abcd 260 cd 281 abcd 293 ab 2

Panicles (no./m2) 195 c 231 b 269 ab 256 ab 295 a 283 a 269 ab 263 ab 242 b 268 ab 271 ab 2

Grain yield (t/ha) 3.6 c 4.9 ab 4.6 b 4.8 ab 5.3 a 5.3 ab 5.4 a 5.2 ab 5.0 ab 4.9 ab 5.4 a 8

Agronomic efficiency (kg grain/kg N) 23 18 20 30 29 31 19 16 15 20

3.4 3.0 3.2

76 68 71

2.4 0.3 10.8

47 6 5.3

treatments received 22 kg P and 41 kg

Within a column, means followed by a common letter do not vary significantly at the 5% level of DMRT. b F = 1/3 basal + 1/3 30 d after transplanting (DT) + 1/3 at panicle initiation (PI), R = 2/3 basal + 1/3 at PI, M = 1/3 15 DT + 30 DT + 1/3 at PI, AP = applicator-placed at 10-12 cm depth, H = hand-placed at about 10-12 cm depth.

IRRN 14:2 (April 1989)

29

during final land preparation. Regardless of method, 58 kg N/ha significantly improved panicles/m 2 and yield (see table). USG gave a grain yield advantage of 0.5 t/ha over PU. Differences among F, R, and M were

minimal. Machine application increased yield 0.4-0.7 t/ha over broadcast split with PU at 58 kg N/ha. There was no difference between hand and machine

application methods with USG. Placement of N fertilizer in the reduced zone as PU by machine or as USG by hand or machine gave higher agronomic efficiency.

Effect of Zn and Cu on growth and nutrition of rice


M. R. Gangwar, M. S. Gangwar, and P. C . Srivastava, Soil Science Department, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar 263145, India

Effect of Zn and Cu on nutrient concentration in rice. a Nutrient levels (ppm) Zn S Zn 0 Zn 5 Zn 10 Zn 20 Cu 0 Cu 1 Cu 2 Cu 5 LSD (0.05)
aS

Nutrient concentration
g/g tissue Cu R 59.0 60.8 67.6 72.8 73.6 67.6 60.5 58.6 1.8 S 27.0 25.4 24.8 20.5 21.5 21.9 26.6 27.8 1.9 R 31.6 30.7 28.1 24.1 25.1 29.7 28.6 31.1 1.9 S 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.34 0.40 0.38 0.40 0.36 0.02 Fe R 4.66 4.40 4.06 3.44 4.49 3.55 4.47 4.02 0.25 S 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.19 0.20 0.19 0.20 0.20 0.01 mg/g tissue Mn R 0.57 0.66 0.75 0.64 0.55 0.67 0.62 0.78 0.06 S 1.12 1.02 1.00 0.90 1.11 1.00 0.99 0.95 0.02 P R 1.30 1.15 1.26 1.26 1.16 1.00 1.28 1.53 0.04

We studied the effect of soil application of Zn and Cu on dry matter yield and tissue concentration of Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, and P in rice grown under submerged soil in a pot experiment in the greenhouse. Soil was silty clay loam containing 20 ppm Olsen's P and DTPA extractable 0.64 ppm Zn, 0.46 ppm Cu, 11.6 ppm Fe, and 22.5 ppm Mn. Each pot contained 4.56 kg soil. Basal nutrient application was 100 ppm N as urea, 26 ppm P as diammonium phosphate, and 25 ppm K as potassium chloride. Soil treatments were 0, 5, 10 and 20 ppm Zn and 0, 1, 2, and 5 ppm Cu as sulfates in a factorial combination with 2 replications.

50.8 56.3 69.3 73.7 73.4 62.6 62.6 51.6 5.4

= shoots, R = roots.

Five 20-d-old IR8 seedlings were transplanted in each of 32 pots, thinned to 3 plants/pot, and grown for 72 d. Additional 20 ppm N as urea was applied 40 d after transplanting. Highest increase in dry matter yield was from 10 ppm Zn + 2 ppm Cu (see figure). Application of 5 ppm Zn + 1 or 2 ppm Cu also increased yield. The highest rates of Zn (20 ppm) + Cu (5 ppm) failed to increase dry matter yield. Zn in roots and shoots increased with Zn application but decreased with Cu

application (see table). Cu in roots and shoots increased with Cu application but decreased with Zn application of 10 ppm or more. Fe in roots decreased at all Zn levels and at 1 and 5 ppm Cu. Fe in shoots decreased with 20 ppm Zn and 1 and 5 ppm Cu. Mn in roots increased with Zn and Cu; in shoots, it decreased with 20 ppm Zn and 1 ppm Cu. P in shoots decreased with Zn and Cu. In roots, it decreased at all Zn levels and at 1 ppm Cu. Application of 2 and 5 ppm Cu increased P in roots.

Biofertilizer production of stem-cut planted and seeded Sesbania rostrata


M. Becker, R. P. Pareek, and J. K. Ladha, IRRI; and J. C. G. Ottow, University of Giessen, Federal Republic of Germany

Effect of Zn and Cu on dry matter yield of rice.

Although S. rostrata is a promising green manure species for lowland rice farming systems, production of seed and scarification may be a problem for

farmers. Vegetative propagation appears attractive because nodulation sites constitute primordia of adventive roots able to grow under waterlogged conditions. We compared biofertilizer production by vegetative propagation through stem cuttings (30 and 20 cm) and broadcast seeding, at 3 plant densities. The experiment May-Jun 1988 at IRRI farm was laid out in a randomized split-plot design with four replications.

30 IRRN 14:2 (April 1989)

Influence of planting method and planting density on dry matter yield and some yield parameters of S. rostrata biofertilizer.a Treatment 5-wk-old plants Seeding Density Plant height (cm) 39 41 37 52 62 76 e e e de d c Branches/ plant (no.) l c Dead plants/ m2 (no.) b na na na 3.2 7.1 8.2 1.2 2.6 3.4 bc ab a c c b Dry weight (t/ha)

20 kg/ha 40 kg/ha 80 kg/ha 25/m 2 50/m 2 100/m 2 25 /m2 50/m 2 100/m 2 20 kg/ha 40 kg/ha 80 kg/ha 25/m 2 50/m 2 100/m 2 25/m 2 50/m 2 100/m 2

1 1

c c

0.15 d 0.41 bc 0.55 bc 0.41 bc 0.64 c 1.09 c 0.89 c 2.31 b 3.51 a 0.72 1.54 2.60 d c e

20-cm cutting

1.2 bc 1.3 bc 1.3 bc 1.9 a 1.5 b 1.3 b

30-cm cutting 7-wk-old plants Seeding 20-cm cutting 30-cm cutting

82 bc 92 ab 101 a 85 87 104 e de d

1d 1d 1d 1.1 cd 1.2 c 1.4 b 1.8 a 1.3 b 1.1 c

na na na 2.9 bc 6.2 ab 8.3 a c 1.5 2.5 c 4.6 b

cuttings. To accumulate the same amount of N/ ha, 30-cm-long cuttings require about 2 wk less growth than seeded plants. Only about 2-3 kg of seeds may be needed to produce enough plants for cuttings to plant 1 ha. Broadcast seeding rate is 25-40 kg seeds/ ha. Although additional labor is needed to make and plant cuttings, it may be economical compared to seeding because it requires less seed, water management, and land preparation. Plants for cuttings might be grown on dikes and borders.

120 c 125 c 146 b 148 b 165 a 178 a

d 1.20 d 1.64 3.48 bc 2.19 c 4.31 b 6.23 a

Duncan's multiple range test at 0.05. b na = data not available.

Effect of sesbania green manure and wheat straw on ammonia volatilization loss in wetland soil
C. S. Khind, A. Garg, and M. S. Bajwa, Soils Department, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana 141004, India

N accumulation in S. rostrata.

Plot size was 12 m 2. Stem cuttings of 8wk-old plants were pushed about 5 cm deep into newly plowed and watersaturated soil (pH [KCl] 6.3, 1.1 1% organic C, 0.121% total N, 18.5 ppm P Olsen), 1.44 meq exchangeable K/ 100 mg CEC 33.9 meq/ 100 g). Plants were harvested at 5 and 7 wk.

Increasing planting rate resulted in increased biomass and N production. Cuttings showed faster growth and more dry matter and N production than seeds (see table and figure). Highest biomass and N yield were with 30-cm-long cuttings. They exhibited lower mortality and more branching than 20-cm-long

Attempts are being made to identify short-duration leguminous green manure (LGM) crops that can be inserted into intensified cropping systems. High-yielding cultivars also leave large amounts of residue, which is either burned or incorporated into soil. Crop residues and LGM may influence transformations of applied N. We studied the effect of sesbania green manure and wheat straw on ammonia volatilization from urea, in a laboratory study using the forced-draft chamber technique. Ten pots (10 liters) containing 7 kg air-dry soil (pH 10.0, 0.35% organic C, 0.07% total N, and CEC 9.5 meq/ 100 g) were flooded, puddled, and preincubated with 1 cm standing water for 1 wk. Soil was then fertilized with 26 mg P/ kg as single superphosphate and 50 mg K/ kg as muriate of potash. Treatments were N as urea alone or in combination with Sesbania aculeata green manure or wheat straw. N was applied at 100 and 200 kg N/ha. Finely chopped 2-mo-old fresh sesbania (2.5% N dry weight) was incorporated at IRRN 14:2 (April 1989) 31

1. Effect of sesbania green manure and wheat straw on ammonia volatilization in flooded Ludhiana soil, India.

maintain 5 cm standing water. Floodwater temperatures ranged from 28.5 to 33 C. Two pots/treatment were fitted with chambers continuously flushed with NH3-free compressed air.

NH3 that evolved from incubated samples was collected at intervals using a manifold, and estimated by absorbing in 2% boric acid-mixed indicator solution. Floodwater samples also were taken to analyze NH4+-N. Rate of N loss by ammonia volatilization in flooded soil was markedly affected by type of amendment (Fig. 1). Incorporating wheat straw resulted in the greatest N loss due to volatilization. At 16 d, cumulative ammonia volatilization was 11% for wheat straw + N, 4.5% for N alone, and 1% for green manure + N. No ammonia volatilization occurred in the soil amended with green manure alone. In the soil amended with wheat straw, NH 3 volatilization could already be detected at 2 d, the first sampling. Ammoniacal N concentration in the floodwater was greatest in soil amended with wheat straw + N (Fig. 2). These results suggest that higher N losses through ammonia volatilization in straw-amended soil were probably due to the high rate of urea application. Incorporation of wheat straw may have changed the urease kinetic parameters, which seem dependent on the organic material incorporated.

Soil test fertilizer recommendations increase economic yields of rice


J. C. Sharma, S. P. S. Karwasra, A. P. Sharma, and B. S. Panwar, Haryana Agricultural University, Regional Research Station, Uchani, Karnal 132001, India

extractable). Nutrient limits used for recommendations were as follows:


Nutrient limits (kg/ha) (elemental form) N P K Zn(ppm) Low <250 <5 <125 Medium 250-500 5-10 125-300 High >500 >10 >300 <0.6

2. Effect of sesbania green manure and wheat straw on floodwater NH+ - N concentration. 4 Ludhiana, India.

30 t/ ha. Wheat straw (<2 mm) was incorporated at 7.5 t/ha. Soil was reflooded and evaporation losses were replenished daily, to 32 IRRN 14:2 (April 1989)

We compared bases for N application recommendationsstate, soil test, and farmers practice in a farmers field during 1986. Soil of the experimental field was sandy loam (Typic Ustochrept) with pH (1:2) 8.4, 0.36% organic C, EC (1:2) 0.10 dS/m, CEC 10.9 meq/100 g soil, 190 kg available N/ha (alkaline permanganate method), 8.0 kg available P/ha (NaHCO3 extract), and 305 kg available K (ammonium acetate extract)/ha. Available Zn was 0.5 ppm (DTPA

Seedlings of PR106 (30-35 d) duration were transplanted. Each treatment received the following nutrients:
Nutrients (kg/ha) (elemental form) N P K ZnSO 4 . 7H 2O 25 State recommendation 125 26.20 50 Soil test recommendation 125 17.47 Farmers practice 125 -

One-third N and all the P, K, Zn were applied at transplanting. The remaining N was applied in 2 equal splits at 3 and

Effect of basis for fertilizer application rate on yield, yield attributes, and profit in rice. a State recommendation schedule Rough rice yield (t/ha) Increase in yield (t/ha) over farmers' practice Expenditure on fertilizers ($/ha) Increase in fertilizer expenditure over farmers practice ($/ha) Yield price ($/ha) Net profit ($/ha) Increase in profit over farmers' practice ($/ha) Increase in profit over state fertilizer schedule ($/ha) Yield attributes Plant ht (cm) 1000-grain wt (g) Number of tillers
a Price

Soil test recommendation 7.2 2.2 67.90 20.40 1008.00 647.15 286.20 96.95

Farmers' practice 5.0 47.50 701.40 360.95

LSD at 5% 0.2

6.7 1.7 96.25 48.75 939.40 550.20 189.25

6 wk after transplanting. The experiment was laid out in a randomized block design with three replications. Soil test fertilizer recommendation resulted in significantly higher economic yields (see table). State fertilizer schedule resulted in significantly higher yields over farmers practice.

111.0 20.7 8.1

107.7 21.8 8.4

105.9 19.2 6.9

3.8 ns 0.9

($/kg); N, 0.38; P, 0.51; K, 0.19; Zn, 0.27; paddy, 0.14. Expenditure on all agricultural operations ($/ha) = 292.95.

The International Hybrid Rice Newsletter is published for researchers in hybrid rice development and technology. Its content focuses on discussions of current issues; it does not publish research reports. For more information, write Dr. S. S. Virmani. Hybrid Rice Newsletter editor, IRRI, P.O. Box 933, Manila, Philippines.

Source and time of phosphate application in irrigated rice


L Pradhan and L Dixit, Agronomy Department, Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar 751003, Orissa, India

Effect of source and time of phosphate application on yield and yield response, Bhubaneswar, India, 1987. Rate (kg P/ha) and time of application Basal 0 13 26 6.5 13 13 26 6.5 13 13 26 6.5 13 Tillering (21 d) 0 0 0 6.5 13 0 0 6.5 13 0 0 6.5 13 Grain yield (t/ha) 2.7 3.0 3.6 3.2 3.9 3.2 3.7 3.1 3.7 3.6 4.3 3.8 4.8 0.4 Panicles (no./m2) Panicle wt (g) Yield response (kg grain/kg p) 22.3 37.3 41.5 48.4 41.5 39.6 33.8 37.7 53.8 63.4 84.6 82.3

Source a

We studied the effect of basal and split application of phosphate through single superphosphate (6.9% P), diammonium phosphate (18-20.0), and ammonium polyphosphate (12-25.2-0) on irrigated rice in 1987 wet season, in a randomized block design with 4 replications. Soil was sandy loam with pH 6.2, 0.47% organic C, CEC 5.2 meq/ 100 g soil, 9 kg Olsen's P/ ha, 0.15 meq exchangeable K/ 100 g soil, and 1.5 ppm available Zn (DTPA extractable). Daya (125 d) was transplanted 27 Jul with 8033.3 kg NK/ha. Diammonium phosphate and ammonium polyphosphate at 80 kg N/ha were applied in 50-25-25 splits. Phosphate was mixed with double the weight of soil, wet to less than field capacity, and broadcast over 5 cm water in the field. Significantly higher yields were obtained with 26 kg P/ ha, irrespective of source and time of application (see table). Highest yield (4.82 t/ ha) was with split application of ammonium

Control DAP DAP DAP DAP SSP SSP SSP SSP APP APP APP APP LSD (0.05)
a

170 213 270 228 282 222 275 226 268 25 1 303 277 308 24

1.33 1.61 1.86 1.67 1.85 1.54 1.65 1.61 1.80 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.19 0.15

DAP = diammonium phosphate, SSP = single superphosphate, APP = ammonium polyphosphate.

polyphosphate at 26 kg P/ha. Grain yields in general were low because of continuous rain, coupled with strong wind at flowering.

Panicle number/m2 and panicle weight were highest on split application of 26 kg P/ha as ammonium polyphosphate.

The International Azolla Newsletter is published for researchers in the development and application of azolla in rice production. Its content focuses on discussions of current issues; it does not publish research reports. For more information, write Dr. I. Watanabe, Azolla Newsletter editor, IRRI, P. O. Box 933, Manila, Philippines.

IRRN 14:2 (April 1989)

33

Disease management
Suitability of iodine test for detecting rice tungro virus (RTV) infection
P. Narayanasamy, Plant Pathology Department, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore 641003, India

Table 1. Rice plant response to RTV inoculation.

Variety TN1 TKM9 ADT31 Total

Leaf discoloration + stunting No. 15 13 11 39 % 75 65 55 No. 3 4 6 13

Stunting % 15 20 30

No symptoms No. 2 3 3 8 % 10 15 15

Table 2. Reaction of tungro-inoculated rice plants in the iodine test.

Sets of 20 20-d-old plants each of TN1, TKM9, and ADT31 rice varieties were inoculated by confining viruliferous green leafhopper Nephotettix virescens Distant at 2 insects/plant. Plants showing typical leaf discoloration and stunting, stunting alone, and no visible symptom were grouped separately, by variety (Table 1). In iodine tests, most plants showing both leaf discoloration and stunting gave positive reactions (Table 2). No plants showing stunting alone reacted positively with the stain. In ADT3 1, one of three plants showing no visible symptoms of RTV infection reacted

Leaf discoloration + stunting Variety Tested TN1 TKM9 ADT31 Total


a None

Stunting % Plants tested a (no.) 3 3 6 12

No symptoms Plants (no.) Tested 2 4 3 9 With positive reaction 0 0 1 1

Plants (no.) With positive reaction 10 11 9 30

15 13 11 39

66.1 84.6 81.8

showed positive reaction.

positively. These results suggest that interpretation of iodine test results

should be done cautiously, since 23% of plants showing typical tungro symptoms did not give positive reactions.

Biological control of rice blast (BI) with antagonistic bacteria


S. S. Gnanamanickam, R. C. Reyes, and T. W. Mew, Plant Pathology Department, IRRI

B1 caused by Pyricularia oryzae Cav. is found in most rice-growing areas of the world. It is common in irrigated and rainfed bunded rice culture, but is more serious in upland rice. Because of the instability of the Bl fungus and the marked variability in its pathogenicity, which results in different races of the organism, control and management are difficult. Use of fungicides is limited by cost and development of host resistance has been only partially successful. In developing alternate strategies for disease management, we screened strains of bacteria isolated from IRRI ricefields for their antagonism toward P. oryzae. More than 100 bacterial strains were initially screened in the laboratory. Four 34 IRRN 14:2 (April 1989)

strains (2 fluorescent and 2 nonfluorescent) that caused maximum inhibition of P. oryzae were chosen for testing. The average diameter of the inhibition zones was 38.5 mm for strain 7-14 (fluorescent), 30.4 mm for strain 415 (fluorescent), 26.3 mm for strain 33, and 21.1 mm for strain 4-03. Using standard procedures, mutant strains were generated by incorporating resistance to rifampicin (R) or rifampicin and nalidixic acid (RN) (100 ppm). The mutant strains retained their ability to inhibit P. oryzae (see figure). The field experiment in a randomized complete block design with four replications was conducted at the IRRI site for upland rice research for acid soils in Mahipon, Cavinti, the Philippines. Seeds of UPLRi-5 rice were coated with bacteria as follows. Bacterial cells from 24 h grown cultures of test strains were scraped into a 1% carboxymethylcellulose buffer. Seeds (1.3 kg per treatment) were mixed

Inhibition of Pyricularia oryzae in PDA by fluorescent pseudomonad strain 7-14 and by its mutant 7-14 RN.

with the bacterial suspension and incubated overnight in polythene bags at 25 C. Excess buffer-bacteria mixture was drained and seeds were dried in sterile air for 12 h before sowing in 4 5 m field plots. At sowing, seeds had 109 colonyforming units (CFU)/g. Seeds coated with fungarin (CGA 49104; 8 g/kg seed)

and untreated seeds were sown as checks. The crop also received 3 additional sprays with bacteria (l08 CFU/ml) or fungarin when plants were 20, 30, and 40 d old. Bacterial multiplication was monitored from root and shoot samples removed at 10-d intervals on NBY-R or NBY-RN agar. Fluorescent pseudomonad strains 7-14RN and 4-15R had low levels of 0.5 l0 5 CFU/g tissue up to 40 d, and were not detected in subsequent samplings. Nonfluorescent strains 33R and 4-03R had high levels of 0.9 l0 6 CFU/g tissue at 30 d, and 1.0 l0 5 CFU/g tissue at 60 d and 110 d. Leaf Bl and neck Bl were assessed (see table). It appears that the fluorescent

Effect of seed bacterization and sprays with antagonistic bacteria on B1 incidence in rice UPLRi-5. Cavinti, Philippines, 1988 wet season.

Treatment Bacterial strain 4-03R 33R 4-15R 7-14RN Fungarin Check LSD (0.05)
a Number

Severity Leaf Bl 3.32 3.49 2.57 3.29 1.95 6.27 2.22


b Severity a

Neck Bl 2.96 3.70 2.95 2.75 3.68 3.77 1.79

Grain yield c (g) 100.4 95.5 92.5 102.6 106.7 96.3 43.6

index = n (l) + n (2) + n (3) ....... n (9) 100, where total n n (l), n (2), etc. are number of tillers with disease score 1, 2, or 9. c From 100 panicles/plot.

of lesions/cm 2 leaf area.

pseudomonad bacteria strains, in spite of lower population dynamics, were

more effective in reducing leaf and neck B1 severity.

Insect management
Effect of plant age on whitebacked planthopper (WBPH) feeding
G. Liu and R. M. Wilkins, Agricultural and Environmental Science Department, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU, UK; and R. C. Saxena, Entomology Department, IRRI

Five newly emerged macropterous females, starved but water-satiated for 34 h, were introduced into the feeding chamber, and the hole plugged with cotton wool. The females were allowed to feed for 24 h. The filter paper discs were removed, briefly immersed in a solution of 0.1% ninhydrin in acetone, and dried at room temperature. Purple or violet honeydew spots were cut off the disk and eluted in a solution of 0.8 ml of 1.2% aqueous

WBPH is a phloem feeder, with the amount of honeydew excreted regarded as an index of feeding. We studied WBPH feeding and rate of honeydew excretion on potted plants of susceptible and resistant varieties of different ages. The secondary tillers of 4-, 6-, and 8wk-old resistant Rathu Heenati and susceptible TNl plants were removed and each main tiller with soil placed in an 8- 9-cm plastic pot. Each pot was covered with a medially perforated 8cm-diameter plastic dish through which the tiller emerged. A medially perforated 7-cm-diameter filter paper disc was placed over the dish around the base of the tiller and covered by an inverted perforated plastic cup for a feeding chamber. The feeding chamber was fastened to the dish with Sellotape.

copper sulfate and 4.2 ml of 85% ethanol. Color intensity of the eluent was measured on a spectrophotometer at 475 nm. The quantity of amino acids in honeydew was expressed in glutamic acid standard. Regardless of plant age, two to four times less honeydew was excreted by WBPH on resistant Rathu Heenati plants than on susceptible TN1 (see figure). The differences possibly are due to the presence of repellents, toxins, or a feeding inhibitor in Rathu Heenati. WBPH feeding on both varieties decreased with plant age, possibly because of a decrease in the nutrient value of the rice plants.

Virus diseases of some lepidopterous rice pests in the Philippines


D. J. Im, R. M. Aguda, and B. M. Shepard, IRRI

Dry weight of honeydew excreted by Sogatella furcifera females on plants of different ages of resistant Rathu Heenati and susceptible TN1. Columns with the same letter are not significantly different at the 5% level by DMRT. Bars indicate standard deviation.

Dead and infected larvae of various lepidopterous pests were collected from ricefields at IRRI and in Laguna, Batangas, Palawan, and South Cotabato Provinces in the Philippines. Live larvae were reared on host plants IRRN 14:2 (April 1989) 35

Insect viruses found in the Philippines. IRRI. Host Mythimna separata (Walker) Spodoptera litura (Fab.) Herpetogramma licarsisalis (Walker) Mocis frugalis (Fab.) c Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guene)
a NPV b

Common name Armyworm Common cutworm Grass webworm Rice brown semilooper Rice leaffolder

Virus disease a NPV NPV NPV GV GV

Shape of inclusion bodies Tetragonal Tetragonal Hexagonal Ellipsoidal Ellipsoidal

Host plant found Rice Rice, taro Rice Rice Rice

Collection data Date Aug 1985 Jul 1985 Sep 1984 Jul 1985 Oct 1985 Place IRRI IRRI South Cotabato Palawan IRRI

= nuclear polyhedrosis virus, GV = granulosis virus. b New species found in the Philippines. c New recorded virus disease of the host insect.

Light and electron micrographs showing the following: nuclear polyhedra isolated from M. separata (1a), S. litura (1b), and H. licarsisalis (1c); granular capsules of C. medinalis (1d) and M. frugalis (1e), with some abnormal forms (arrow); and virions of S. litura polyhedra after treatment with weak alkali for 30 min (1f).

larvae slowly darkened, but the integument remained tough and leathery. Shape and size of polyhedra in different insect hosts varied (see figure). Polyhedra in Mythimna separata Walker and Spodoptera litura (Fab.) were tetragon mixed with triangular shapes. Polyhedra from Herpetogramma licarsisalis (Walker) were hexagonal. Capsules of GV of Mocis frugalis (Fab.) and Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guene) were ellipsoidal. Some capsules in M. frugalis were irregular and sickle-shaped. The rod-shaped virion of M. frugalis granulosis were embedded singly in capsules, but polyhedra of S. litura were multi-embedded. Size of polyhedra were 2.12 0.51 m from S. litura; 1.87 0.24 m from M. separata, and 1.37 0.17 m from H. licarsisalis. Capsule size was 433 15.4 nm long and 242.7 17.4 nm wide in M. frugalis, and 412.9 31.4 nm long and 234.1 17.4 nm wide in C. medinalis.

or artificial diets to determine incidence of virus diseases. Specimens were examined under the light and phase contrast microscope. Virus particles were examined with the electron microscope. Three species of nuclear polyhedrosis viruses (NPV) and two species of granulosis viruses (GV) were found (see table). The behavior of infected larvae was characteristic of most virus-infected insects: they become sluggish and cease 36 IRRN 14:2 (April 1989)

feeding a few days after infection. As the diseases progressed, a watery fluid exuding from the mouth of the larvae S. fitura changed from colorless to a pale tint to pink. Most larvae infected with NPV hung from their host plant by attaching the second abdominal legs to the plants. In late stages of the disease, the cuticle ruptured, releasing a milky white fluid. Mocis frugalis larvae infected with GV were yellow with shrunken abdominal segments. The

Weed hosts of rice hispa Dicladispa armigera Olivier (Coleoptera: Hispidae)


Q. M. A. Razzaque and A. N. M. R. Karim, Entomology Division, Bangladesh Rice Research Institute (BRRI), Gazipur, Bangladesh

Rice hispa beetles sometimes infest weeds and wheat. We studied the suitability of some common weeds as hosts of rice hispa in 1985-86.

Table 1. Rice hispa beetle feeding and development on some common weeds. BRRI, Gazipur, Bangladesh, 1985. Host Cyperus rotundus Digitaria ciliaris Digitaria setigera Echinochloa colona Echinochloa crus-galli Eleusine indica Leersia hexandra Rice (BR3)
a

Feeding damagea 3 9 9 9 9 9 9 9

Eggs deposited Few Few Few Few Few Few Few Many

Grub development (%) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 >50%

Table 2. Preference of rice hispa beetles for rice, wheat, maize, and some common weeds. BRRI, Gazipur, Bangladesh, 1986. Beetles settling on plants (%) 24.2 a 19.2 ab 14.2 bc cd 9.0 d 8.3 d 8.0 d 7.2 e 2.7 e 2.7 e 2.4 e 1.3 e 0.7

Host

0 to 9 scale: 0 = no damage, 9 = more than 50% leaves damaged.

Seven weed species and rice variety BR3 (30-d-old plants) were grown in 15cm clay pots. Each pot was infested with 4 greenhouse-reared, mated, hispa females and enclosed in mylar film cages for 7 d. Exposed plants were sprinkled with water daily for grub development. Feeding damage was graded on a 0 to 9 scale. The beetles laid numerous eggs on rice, but few on weeds (Table 1). Grubs died at the 1st- or 2d-instar stage on weeds, but more than 50% developed into pupae on rice. Feeding damage on

Cyperus rotundus was minimal (damage grade 3) and no grubs developed. All other weeds and rice were heavily damaged. It appears that, while rice hispa may use weeds as alternate food sources, it cannot complete its life cycle on them. In a separate experiment, 30-d-old plants of rice (BR3), wheat (Barkat), maize (JC-2), and 9 species of weeds were grown separately in 15-cm clay pots enclosed in fine mesh wire net rectangular cages, with 4 replications. Greenhouse-reared hispa beetles were

Rice (BR3) Echinochloa colona Eleusine indica Scirpus maritimus Digitaria ciliaris Leersia hexandra Paspalum distichum Monochoria vaginalis Maize (JC-2) Commelina benghalensis Cyperus rotundus Wheat (Barkat)

starved for 3 h and released at 100 beetles/cage. Beetles that settled on plants were counted 48 h after infestation. Rice was the most preferred site (24% beetles settled), followed by Echinochloa colona (19%) and Eleusine indica (14%) (Table 2). Wheat was least preferred. Hispa beetles probably disperse to other plants when the available rice canopy is inadequate to support their numbers.

Effect of parasitization on food consumption of rice leaffolder (LF) Marasmia patnalis


G. S. Arida, B. M. Shepard, and L. P. Almazan, IRRI

The amount of food the LF, an important defoliator of the rice plant, consumes during feeding affects yields. But when LF is parasitized, the amount of leaf tissue consumed changes. LF parasitoids are abundant in ricefields. Copidomopsis nacoleiae, a parasitoid of egg and larvae, and Goniozus triangulifer, a parasitoid of LF larvae, are important mortality factors for LF in the Philippines. We studied the influence of parasitism by C. nacoleiae on LF food consumption. Ten newly laid LF eggs were exposed for 24 h in tubes containing colonies of the parasitoid.

The hatch was reared individually in tubes with cut leaves from 60-d-old rice variety IR64. Leaves were changed every 24 h until LF larvae ceased feeding and mummified. The area of leaf consumed was measured on graph paper. In another experiment, 20 newly hatched LF larvae were reared individually in tubes with cut leaves of rice variety IR64. Leaves were changed daily. When the larvae reached the 4th instar, 10 were placed individually in tubes containing pairs of G. triangulifer. After parasitization, the larvae were returned to their original tube containing cut rice leaf until they stopped feeding. The leaf area consumed was measured on graph paper. LF parasitized by C. nacoleiae consumed more food than unparasitized LF. The lowest food consumption was by larvae parasitized by G. triangulifer (see figure). C. nacoleiae-parasitized larvae fed for 16.4

d; G. triangulifer-parasitized larvae fed 13.9 d; and unparasitized larvae fed 15.2 d. The number of live larvae and the percentage of damaged leaves are the bases for deciding to spray LF with insecticide. Presence or absence of either parasitoid might influence an integrated control program.

Influence of parasitization by C. nacoleiae and G. triangulifer on leaf consumption by LF.

IRRN 14:2 (April 1989)

37

White stem borer (WSB) effect on upland yield


M. S. Pabbage, Entomology Department, Maros Research Institute for Food Crops, P. O. Box 173, Ujung Pandang, South Sulawesi, Indonesia

Yield loss caused by WSB S. innotata under upland conditions. Makariki, Seram Island, Indonesia, 1982. Treatment a 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Complete protection Complete protection minus Complete protection minus Complete protection minus Complete protection minus Recommended d protection No protection (control) LSD (0.05) CV (%)
a

WSB damage b (%) 3 WP a b c d 7.2 11.4 21.9 24.2 14.4 12.5 39.2 2.7 9.7 5 WP 1.2 1.5 7.9 8.9 2.1 2.2 15.5 1.2 14.6 7 WP 1.5 2.0 4.4 2.7 3.4 2.3 8.6 0.6 11.2 9 WP 1.9 2.3 3.3 3.3 3.3 2.6 9.7 0.6 9.9

Grain yield (t/ha) 2.4 2.4 1.8 1.8 2.3 2.2 1.8 0.4 14.6

Yield loss c (%) 1.7 25.6 25.6 5.8 9.1 26.9

We studied the effect of WSB Scirpophaga innotata on upland rice with seven levels of protection in an experiment at the Makariki Experimental Farm, Seram Island, May-Aug 1982. IR36 was planted in a 5 5 m plot at 25 25 cm plant spacing in a randomized complete block design with 4 replications. Fertilizers as urea, TSP, and KCl were applied at 120 kg N, 40 kg P, and 50 kg K/ha. Half the N and all the P and K were applied in the row at the side of the plants 7 d after planting (DP). Half the N was applied 40 DP.

a = seed treatment with carbaryl 85 S, b = carbofuran 3G (10 DP) + diazinon 60 EC (21 DP), c = carbofuran 3G (42 DP) + diazinon 60 EC (63 DP), d = monocrotophos 15 WSC. b WP = weeks after planting. c Compared with complete protection. Carbofuran 3G (10 DP) + diazinon 60 EC (when deadhearts exceeded 10%).

WSB damage at active tillering 3 wk after planting was high, an average 39.2% in control (see table). As plants grew, damage decreased. Complete protection yielded 2.4 t/ha,

significantly higher than control, no protection during active tillering (treatment 3), and no protection at booting (treatment 4).

Weed management
Effect of herbicides on Ischaemum rugosum
R. T. Lubigan and K. Moody, IRRI Effect of different herbicide treatments on shoot dry weight and height of I. rugosum 6 wk after seeding under simulated dry seeded and wetland conditions.a Herbicide and application rate (kg ai/ha) Butachlor (2.0) Time of application Dry seeded Shoot weight (mg/plant) Plant height (mm) 5 ab 22 c 48 d 7 ab 24 c 46 d 3a 22 c 44 d 43 d 18 bc g a c c 247 42 a 54 b d

Ischaemum rugosum Salisb., reported to be a major weed of partially irrigated and rainfed lowland rice in Thailand, Sri Lanka, and the Philippines, is very competitive against rice. We designed a greenhouse experiment to study the effect of some herbicides on growth of I. rugosum under dry seeded and wet seeded conditions. There were 12 treatments in the dry seeded trial and 9 treatments in the wet seeded (see table). The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with six replications. Plant height and shoot dry weight were measured 6 wk after seeding. Under dry seeded conditions, both plant height and shoot dry weight were reduced by all the herbicides at all application times (see table). Even though propanil applied at the two- and

Preemergence l-leaf 2-leaf Preemergence 1-leaf 2-leaf Preemergence l-leaf 2-leaf 2-leaf 3-leaf Preemergence 1-leaf 2-leaf Preemergence 1-leaf 2-leaf

0.6 b 2.9 d 5.0 f 1.2 3.3 4.3 c de ef

Thiobencarb (3.0) Pendimethalin (2.0) Propanil (2.0) Untreated Butachlor (1.0)

0.4 a 3.0 d 5.6 b 1.4 c 0.5 ab 21.6 Wetland 0 119.9 119.6

Thiobencarb (1.0)

0 a 112.7 bc 67.2 b

44 a 52 b

Propanil (2.0) Untreated


a

3-leaf

2-leaf

0
124.6

a c 156

In a column under each condition, means followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 5% level by DMRT.

38 IRRN 14:2 (April 1989)

three-leaf stages killed all weeds, some seedlings emerged after its application. Repeated applications may be needed to achieve complete weed kill. Preemergence applications of butachlor, thiobencarb, and pendimethalin were superior to postemergence applications. Under wet seeded conditions, preemergence applications of butachlor and thiobencarb, and propanil

application at the two- and three-leaf stages killed I. rugosum. Flooding a few days after treatment increased the effect of the preemergence treatments and, with propanil, prevented further weed seedling emergence. Butachlor and thiobencarb applied at the one- and two-leaf stages were not as effective as under dry seeded conditions. Herbicide uptake by the plant seems to be more

effective under dry seeded conditions because the herbicide is more easily leached down into the root zone. Butachlor applied at the one- and two-leaf stages did not reduce shoot weight. Thiobencarb applied at the twoleaf stage reduced shoot weight. All plants that survived butachlor and thiobencarb treatments were stunted.

Weed, management in rainfed rice - lentil crop sequence


R. P. Singh, J. P. Singh, Y. Singh, A. K. Singh, and R. A. Singh, Dryland Research Project, Agronomy Department, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University (BHU), Varanasi 221005, India

Rice - lentil is a widely adopted rainfed crop sequence in eastern Uttar Pradesh. Weed control affects yields. We conducted a field trial 1985-86 and 1987-88 cropping years. Seven treatments were laid out in a randomized block design with four replications. Soil was sandy loam with

19.86% field capacity, 5.18% wilting point, 0.32% organic C, 160 kg available N/ha, 15 kg available P/ha, 166 kg available K/ha, and pH 7.7. EC was 0.104 dS/m at 25 C, bulk density 1.47 g/cc, and water-holding capacity 33.1%. Akashi rice and Pant 209 lentil were the test varieties.

Table 1. Effect of weed control method on weed dry weight and yield of rice and lentil at B.H.U., Varanasi, India. Rice Treatment Weed dry weight (g/m 2 ) 1985-86 1987-88 Grain 1985-86 T1 Sowing of both crops with normal tillage and no weed control in either T2 Farmer's method (2 hand weedings in both crops) T3 Interculture twice by dryland weeder in both crops T4 Interculture as in T3 + intrarow hand weeding each time T5 Butachlor at 2.0 kg ai/ha at preemergence in rice and no weeding in lentil T6 Butachlor at 2.0 kg ai/ha at preemergence in rice, normal tillage for lentil sowing, and preemergence application of prometryn at 0.75 kg ai/ha in lentil T7 Butachlor at 2.0 kg ai/ha at preemergence in rice, paraquat application at l.0 ai/ha after rice harvest, no tillage for lentil sowing, and prometryn at 0.75 kg ai/ha at preemergence in lentil LSD (0.05) 403 280 0.4 198788 0.4 Yield (t/ha) Straw 1985-86 2.6 1987-88 3.5 113 163 Weed dry weight (g/m 2 ) 1985-86 1987-88 Grain 1985-86 0.7 1987-88 1.0 Lentil Yield (t/ha) Straw 1985-86 1.1 1.5 1.0 1.3 1.0 1987-88 1.5 1.9 1.6 1.6 1.2

253 325 262 178 189

149 241 169 140 135

2.1 0.9 2.8 3.0 3.0

3.0 1.6 3.6 2.8 2.9

3.4 3.0 4.2 4.0 4.2

5.4 4.3 5.5 4.2 4.2

63 82 36 112 92

89 101 40 159 90

1.0 0.8 1.0 0.7 1.0

1.3 1.1 1.4 1.0 1.6

1.4

1.7

116

146

3.0

2.9

4.2

4.2

93

90

1.0

1.7

1.9

2.8

156

99

0.5

0.2

0.8

0.9

21

35

0.2

0.3

0.6

0.8

IRRN 14:2 (April 1989)

39

The rice crop received 861.9 mm total rainfall in 1985-86 and 1,050.1 mm in 1987-88; lentil received 51.8 mm in 198586 and 74.1 mm in 1987-88. Application of butachlor in wet season and prometryn in dry season, with and without paraquat, reduced weed dry weight in rice the most (Table 1). In lentil, interculture with intrarow hand weeding reduced weed dry weight the most. Highest rice grain and straw yields were with interculture twice plus intrarow hand weeding, followed by hand weeding and chemical control. Highest lentil yield was with preemergence application of butachlor in wet season and prometryn in dry season. Interculture was least effective in both crops.

Table 2. Economics a of weed control treatments in rice - lentil sequence at BHU, Varanasi, India, 1985-88. Mean yield (t/ha) Treatment Rice Grain T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 0.4 2.6 1.3 3.2 2.9 3.0 2.9 Straw 3.0 4.4 3.7 4.8 4.1 4.2 4.2 Total cost of Value of land Lentil produce preparation and ($/ha) weed control Grain Straw ($/ha) 0.8 1.2 0.9 1.2 0.8 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.7 1.3 1.4 1.1 1.6 2.3 406.35 831.07 551.72 927.93 749.00 926.41 940.29 250.00 367.65 279.41 308.82 280.88 295.66 306.29 Return to land preparation and weed control ($/ha) 156.35 463.42 272.31 619.11 468.12 630.75 634.00 Benefit to-cost ratio 0.63 1.26 0.97 2.01 1.67 2.13 2.07

a Price of produce: Rice: grain - $132.35/t, straw - $14.71/t; lentil: grain - 330.88/t, straw - 21.74/t. Cost of treatments: Land Preparation (1) $8.82/ha, hand weeding (1) $29.41/ha, interculture by dryland weeder (1) $7.35/ha, intrarow hand weeding (1) $7.35/ha, spraying of herbicide (1) $4.41/ ha, butachlor at $13.23/kg ai, prometryn at $13.78/kg ai, and paraquat at $23.85/kg ai. General cost of cultivation: $214.72/ha.

On a pooled mean basis, highest net return was with preemergence application of butachlor in rice and

prometryn following paraquat in lentil (Table 2).

Managing other pests


Effect of bund dimensions on rodent infestation in irrigated ricefields
V. K. Sharma and A. M. K. M. Rao, Central Plant Protection Training Institute, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad 500030, India

Correlation between rodent infestation and bund dimensions.a Hyderabad, India. Bund variable Width (W) Height (H) WH
a

Crop stage b (r value) Seedling (13) 0.87** 0.83** 0.80** Tillering (19) 0.79** 0.57 0.63** Booting (17) 0.82** 0.78** 0.78**
b Numbers

Flowering (21) 0.44* 0.78** 0.64**

Maturity (13) 0.77** 0.63** 0.61**

Significance at the 5% (*) and 1% (**) levels.

in parentheses indicate sample size.

We surveyed 83 transplanted irrigated ricefields 1987-88 to examine the relationship between rodent infestation and the width and height of bunds. Rodent infestation was measured as the

number of live burrows/ 10 m. The correlation between rodent infestation and bund width was significant at all stages of the crop growth; that between infestation and

bund height was significant at all stages except tillering (see table) when rodents establish themselves. Bund volume (height width) and infestation were directly related.

Farming systems
Rice-based cropping sequences for rainfed conditions in midhills of Uttar Pradesh
V. Prakash, P. Singh, and V. K. Bhatnagar, Vivekananda Parvatiya Krishi Anusandhan Shala, Almora 263601, U. P., India

Spring rice (Mar-Sep) is the predominant upland crop in the midhills 40 IRRN 14:2 (April 1989)

of Uttar Pradesh. Because currently available spring rice varieties have long duration, cropping cereals and legumes in rotation is not feasible. The most popular 2-yr cropping sequence is upland rice (Mar-Sep) - wheat (OctMay) - finger millet (Jun-Oct) - fallow (Nov-Mar), for a 150% cropping intensity. After shortduration (110 d Jun-Oct) upland rice variety VL Dhan 163 was released, we evaluated 5 intensive cropping sequences for production and return 1985-86 at the Hawalbagh

experiment farm (1,250 m, 29 36'N, 79 40%). The split-plot design had crop sequence as the main plot and organic and inorganic fertilization as subplots, with four replications. Soil was a sandy loam with medium fertility. Rainfed short-duration rice was direct seeded in the wet season, followed by wheat variety VL 421, barley VLB 1, pea VL Matar 1, lentil VL Masur 1, and rapeseed T9 in the dry season. Rice was sown the first week of Jun, the winter crops were planted the third week of Oct. Organic fertilizer treatment was

Grain yield and net return of rice-based cropping systems under rainfed upland conditions. a Almora, India, 1985-86. Yield (t/ha) Crop sequence Rainy season OF Rice - wheat Rice - barley Rice - pea Rice - lentil Rice - rapeseed
a OF

Dry season OF 2.5 2.2 1.9 1.7 0.8 IOF 2.8 2.4 2.0 1.8 1.0

Total cost ($/ha) OF 377.4 373.3 337.8 329.5 341.6 IOF 368.4 357.8 341.8 324.6 340.0

Net return ($/ha) OF 205.2 152.3 615.4 527.5 207.5 IOF 290.2 215.4 682.4 589.1 301.7

Benifit-cost OF 1.5 1.4 2.8 2.6 1.6 IOF 1.8 1.6 3.0 2.8 1.9

Protein (t/ha) OF 0.46 0.42 0.55 0.60 0.33 IOF 0.50 0.46 0.59 0.64 0.39

Carbohydrate (t/ha) OF 3.39 3.22 2.92 2.90 1.94 IOF 3.83 3.51 3.22 3.10 2.16

IOF 2.4 2.4 2.7 2.7 2.5

2.1 2.2 2.4 2.5 2.3

= organic fertilizer, IOF = inorganic fertilizer.

12 t farmyard manure (FYM)/ ha. Inorganic fertilizer treatment was recommended NPK for each rainfed crop. Rice received 60-18-25 kg NPK/ ha. All dry season crops grew successfully

(see table). Highest average net return was from rice - pea, followed by rice lentil; lowest was from rice - barley. Benefit-cost ratios were highest (above 2.0) for rice - legume and lowest for rice - barley. Yields with FYM averaged

0.21 t/ha lower than with inorganic fertilizers. Net return, benefit-cost ratio, and protein and carbohydrate production were higher with inorganic fertilizers.

Vegetables for high return and water use efficiency in irrigated rice- based systems
B. P. Patil and C. S. Pulekar, Irrigation Research Scheme, Central Experiment Station, Wakawdi 415711, Dapoli, Ratnagiri District, Maharashtra, India

Gross returns of rice - vegetable cropping systems in coastal Maharashtra, India. Cropping system Rice - rice Rice - tomato Rice - chili Yield (t/ha) Wet season 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.7 Dry season 4.5 (150.0) a 49.0 (75.0) 10.0 (115.0) 30.0 (30.0)
a

Gross return ($) Wet season 711.5 711.5 711.5 711.5 Dry season 865.3 (5.8) 3769.2 (50.3) 3846.2 (33.4) 2307.7 (76.9)
b

Total 1576.8 4480.7 4557.7 3019.2

Increase (%) 184 189 91

Opportunities for vegetable cultivation on rice fallows are increasing with new facilities for irrigation in coastal Maharashtra (Konkan). Rainfall is high (2,500-3,500 mm) Jun to Sep with a rain-free postrice season. We evaluated rice - rice (Ratna), rice - tomato (Sonali), rice - chili (DPL-C-1), and rice - watermelon (Sugarbaby) for gross return and water use. Soil is lateritic with 1.65% organic C, 2.3 kg available P/ ha, 242 kg available K/ha, and pH 6.0. Wet season rice was entirely rainfed, planted the first week Jul at 20- 15cm spacing and harvested the second week Oct. Watermelon was planted at 2 1 m the first week of Nov, tomato at 60 60 cm and chili at 60 45 cm were transplanted the first week of Dec, dry season rice was transplanted the second week of Jan. Dry season irrigation was scheduled at 25 mm crop potential evapotranspiration (CPE) for rice, 30

Rice - watermelon
a Figures

in parentheses = water use (cm). b Figures in parentheses = gross return ($)/cm water).

for tomato, 36 for chili, and 10 for watermelon. Depth of irrigation per turn was 50 mm for rice, tomato, and chili, and 20 liters/basin for watermelon. Rice received 100-50-50 kg NPK/ha in both seasons; tomato, 150-75-50; chili, 15050-50; and watermelon, 100-50-50. Protection from pests was need-based.

Increase in gross income was 184% for rice - tomato, 189% for rice - chili, and 91% for rice - watermelon (see table). Gross returns/cm water used was 8 times higher for rice - tomato, 6 times higher for rice - chili, and 13 times higher for rice - watermelon than for rice - rice.

The International Rice Research Newsletter invites contributions of concise summaries of significant current rice research for publication. Contributions should be limited to no more than 2 pages typed double-spaced accompanied by no more than 2 figures, tables, or photographs. Contributions are reviewed by appropriate IRRI scientists and those accepted are subject to editing and abridgment to meet space limitations. Authors are identified by name and research organization. See inside front cover for more information about submissions.

IRRN 14:2 (April 1989)

41

Supplementary irrigation using shallow groundwater for soybean after wetland rice
A. Prabowo, B. Prastowo, and I. U. Firmansyah, Agricultural Engineering Division, Maros Research Institute for Food Crops, Maros, Indonesia

Rainfall,a irrigation, and grain yield of soybean under several irrigation methods. Maros, Indonesia, 1985. Treatment Supplemental irrigation (mm) Rainfed Manual drip Sprayed every 5d Sprayed every 14 d Furrow 7.6 cm pump Furrow 5.0 cm pump
a

Effective irrigation mm 0 116 156 156 156 156 % 70 67 67 57 57

Total water supply (mm) 115 231 271 271 271 271

Grain yield (t/ha) Observed 0.6 1.4 1.4 1.3 1.0 0.8 Predicted 0.7 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.2 1.2

ET actual b (mm) 188 265 266 25 1 269 269

Water use efficiency (t/ha-mm) 8.62 6.02 5.52 3.85 2.88

165 233 233 274 274

We evaluated methods of irrigation using shallow groundwater on soybean grown after rice. A soybean crop growth model (CRPSM) was used to improve irrigation management and phenology clock. Irrigation methods tested were manual drip, spraying at 5- and 14-d intervals, furrow, and rainfall only. For furrow irrigation, 7.6-cm and 5.0-cm diameter pumps were used. Soybean cultivar Orba was sown 12 Jul 1985. Rainfall received during the

Rainfall received was 144 mm. Effective rainfall (115 mm) = 80%. b Predicted from model.

cropping period totaled 115 mm. Minimum water consumption was 116 mm. Manual drip irrigation produced the highest yield, furrow irrigation with the

5.0-cm pump the lowest (see table). The results indicate that soybean yields can be doubled with supplementary irrigation (see figure).

ERRATA
Influence of P, K, micronutrients, and dolomite on azolla growth, 13:4 (Aug 1988), 23. Soil data in column 1, paragraph 2, lines 2-3 should read 0.113% total P, 0.0155% Olsen P... Effect of azolla green manure on rice yield, 13:4 (Aug 1988), 29. Soil data in column 2, paragraph 2, lines 2-3 should read 0.113% total P, 0.0155% Olsen P... Grain characteristics of traditional Basmati varieties of northwest India, by V.P. Singh, E.A. Siddiq, F.U. Zaman, and A.R. Sadananda. 13 (5) (Oct 88), 10-11. Page 11: lines 2-3 should read: represent group B. HBC-30, 34, 40, 45, 46, 95, 98, and 136; Mohabawali, Kanwali,. . .

42 IRRN 14:2 (April 1989)

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