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ALTERNATING CURRENT TYPES OF WAVEFORMS Direct current means that the polarity of the e.m.

f remains constant with time.

Current flows only in one direction, hence charge carriers flow in one direction only.

Types of direct current waveforms:

Alternating current means that the polarity of the e.m.f. changes with time.

Direction of current flow in the electrical circuits varies with time in a periodic manner. Direction of the charge carriers' flow changes back and forth.

Types of alternating current waveforms:

FEATURES OF AN A.C. GRAPH The sinusoidal alternating current can be represented by I = Iosin t

For a I vs T graph,

A cycle refers to one complete alternation of I Period T refers to the time taken to complete one cycle of variation Frequency f is the number of complete cycles of variation in one second Instantaneous current refers to the current value at an instant of time. Peak current value Io refers to the maximum current during the cycle or the amplitude of the a.c. signal. Peak to peak value is the difference between the positive and negative Io value. For sinusoidal a.c., the peak to peak value is 2Io.

ROOT-MEAN-SQUARE VALUES

The root-mean-square (r.m.s.) value of an alternating current is equivalent to the steady direct current that converts electrical energy to other forms of energy at the same average rate as the alternating current in a given resistance.

The r.m.s. current of an alternating current is also known as the effective current of the a.c. An alternating current ammeter reads the root-mean-square current value of an alternating current. The r.m.s. value of an alternating current is the equivalent direct current which could have achieved the same amount of heating over the same period of time for the same resistor used.

For the left diagram, The power dissipated in R is Pdc = Idc2R For right diagram, Average power is < Pac > = < Iac2 >R Supposing both resistors are dissipating heat at the same average rate: Pdc = < Pac > Idc2R = < Iac2 >R Canceling R from both sides of the equation, Idc2 = < Iac2 > Idc = (< Iac2 >)1/2 = Irms The steady Idc is equivalent to the square root of the mean of the square of the Iac

3 simple steps to get r.m.s. values 1. Square the current 2. Take the mean or average 3. Square root the mean For a sinusoidal alternating current, where Io is the peak value

Irms = Io/(2)1/2 Vrms = Vo/(2)1/2

POWER DISSIPATION IN A RESISTIVE LOAD

Consider the circuit on the right. Suppose a sinusoidal voltage V = Vo sin t is applied across the resistor of resistance R. The current in the resistor will be I = Io sin t. Both the voltage and the current vary sinusoidally with the same angular frequency and they are in phase.

The power dissipated by the resistor R at any instant of time is P = VI = (Vo sin t)(Io sin t) = VoIosin2 t = Posin2 t

Maximum power dissipated by the resistor is Po OR Peak Power= VoIo Mean power < P > = < VoIosin2 t > = VoIo < sin2 t > = (VoIo )/2 = (1/2) Po

Mean power is also equal to < P > = I2rmsR < P > = Irms Vrms < P > = V2rms/ R

FEATURES OF AN A.C TRANSFORMER

A transformer is a device by which the voltage of an input alternating supply may be changed. The frequency of the supply, however, remains unchanged.

Photo By BillC Physical Features:


2 coils of wire (not connected to each other) known as the primary and secondary windings, are electrically insulated from each other and wound on a laminated soft iron core. The number of primary Np and secondary Ns turns may be varied for attaining the desired electrical power at the load. The iron core is to confine the magnetic field lines to ensure macimum magnetic flux linkage between the primary and secondary coils. (flux density flux linkage induced emf ) This is due to the fact that iron is easily magnetised, hence the iron core guides and direct the magnetic field lines.

An ideal transformer has the following additional features:


Resistance of primary and secondary coils rp and rs are zero, so that no energy is lost in the core or in the coils. It is 100% efficient = input power equals output power No magnetic flux losses, hence both coils have the same flux through them. Note: Transformers are assumed to be ideal in all calculations. However, we have to keep in mind thart the features of the ideal transformer are only assumed.

PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION OF AN IDEAL TRANSFORMER Summary:


When an alternating voltage Vp is applied to the primary coil, an a.c. current flows in the primary coil. This a.c. current sets up a changing magnetic field in the iron core. The flux through the primary coil is linked to the flux in the secondary coil through the iron core. This alternating magnetic field induces an e.m.f. in both the coils. (See Below) The output voltage in the secondary coil Vs will give rise to an a.c. current in the coil itself. Thus, electrical energy can be delivered to any devise at the output. Since there is no flux leakage, the rate of flux change at the primary coil and the secondary

coil must be the same. Since, , . In addition, an ideal transformer is 100% efficient. Hence, power output from the secondary coil = power supplied to the primary coil. VsIs = VpIp

Note: Transformer works by the principle of magnetic induction. When an a.c. flows through the primary coil, it sets up a changing flux which in turn induces an e.m.f.

Detailed Walkthrough Of The E.M.F. Induced In Both Coils:

At the primary coil: The changing magnetic field induces an e.m.f. Ep in the primary coil (due to self-inductance) This induced e.m.f. opposes the applied voltage, Vp , where rp = the primary coil resistance Ip = the current in the primary coil

Induced e.m.f., Ep(due to self-inductance) = Np = the number of turns in the primary coil, = the magnetic flux in the iron core linking the coils = the rate of change of magnetic flux in the iron core.

, where

For an ideal transformer, rp = 0, hence Vp= |Ep|

At the secondary coil, When connected to a load, the output voltage Vs (Secondary voltage) is given by: ,where rs = the secondary coil resistance, Is = the current in the secondary coil

Induced e.m.f. in the secondary coil, Es (through mutual induction) = Ns = the number of turns in the secondary coil, = the magnetic flux in the iron core linking the coils = the rate of change of magnetic flux in the iron core.

, where

For an ideal transformer, rs = 0, hence Vs = |Es| Important:

For step-up transformer, Ns > Np For step-down transformer, Ns < Np

ENERGY LOSSES IN A TRANSFORMER Although transformers are very efficient devices, small energy losses do occur in them due to four main causes:

Resistance of windings - the low resistance copper wire used for the windings still has resistance and thereby contribute to heat loss Flux leakage - the flux produced by the primary coil may not be all linked to the secondary coil if the design of the core is bad. Eddy currents - the changing magnetic field not only induces currents in the secondary coil but also currents in the iron core itself. These currents flow in little circles in the iron core and are called eddy currents. The eddy currents cause heat loss. The heat loss, however, can be reduced by having the core laminated.(thin sheets of soft iron insulated from one another).

Hysteresis - The magnetization of the core is repeatedly reversed by the alternating magnetic field. The repeating core magnetization process expends energy and this energy appears as heat. The heat generated can be kept to a minimum by using a magnetic material which has a low hysteresis loss. Hence, soft iron is often chosen for the core material because the magnetic domains within it changes rapidly with low energy loss.

POWER DISTRIBUTION The transformer's ability to step a.c. voltage up or down with ease gives a.c. an advantage unmatched by d.c. in the realm of power distribution. When transmitting electrical power over long distances, it is far more efficient to do so with stepped-up voltage and stepped-down currents, then step the voltage back down and the current back up for industry, business, or consumer use. Transformer technology has made long-range electric power distribution practical. Without the ability to efficiently step voltage up and down, it would be cost-prohibitive to construct power systems for anything but close-range (within a few kilometres at most) use. As useful as transformers are, they only work with a.c., not d.c. We need changing magnetic fields, and direct current can only produce steady magnetic fields, so transformers simply will not work with direct current. Direct current may be interrupted (pulsed) through the primary winding of a transformer to create a changing magnetic field, but pulsed d.c. is not that different from a.c. Hence, why go through the hassle when a.c. is available. This is why a.c. finds such widespread application in power-systems.

RECTIFICATION
Alternating current is suitable for both heating and lighting because the heating effect of a current is independent of its direction. However, in many practical systems, the use of alternating current will not be possible. For example, in large motors and electric railway systems, we will need the operating current to flow in one direction consistently and alternating current is not able to fulfil that criterion. But direct currents are harder to generate than alternating currents and alternaing voltages are more convenient to step up and to step down, the process of converting a.c. to d.c. by a rectifier is important.

Rectification is the process in which an alternating current is forced to only flow in one direction.

Done using diodes since diodes could only allow current to flow in one direction only.

A diode is an electrical device that permits current to flow in one direction only. It is forward biased if connected the other way round and little or no current flows.

Half-wave Rectification:

Half of the power is lost in half-wave rectification.

Full-wave Rectification: