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The International Rice Research Newsletter objective is: "To expedite communication among scientists concerned with the development of improved technology for rice and for ricebased cropping systems. This publication will report what scientists are doing to increase the production of rice, inasmuch as this crop feeds the most densely populated and land-scarce nations in the world . . . IRRN is a mechanism to help rice scientists keep each other informed of current research findings." The concise reports contained in IRRN are meant to encourage rice scientists and workers to communicate with one another. In this way, readers can obtain more detailed information on the research reported. Please examine the criteria, guidelines, and research categories that follow. If you have comments or suggestions, please write the editor, IRRN, IRRI, P.O. Box 933, Manila, Philippines. We look forward to your continuing interest in IRRN. Criteria for IRRN research report has international, or pan-national, relevance has rice environment relevance advances rice knowledge uses appropriate research design and data collection methodology reports appropriate, adequate data applies appropriate analysis, using appropriate statistical techniques reaches supportable conclusions Guidelines for contributors The International Rice Research Newsletter is a compilation of brief reports of current research on topics of interest to rice scientists all over the world. Contributions should be reports of recent work and work-inprogress that have broad, pan-national interest and application. Only reports of work conducted during the immediate past three years should be submitted. Research reported in IRRN should be verified. Single season, single trial field experiments are not accepted. All field trials should be repeated across more than one season, in multiple seasons, or in more than one location, as appropriate. All experiments should include replication and a check or control treatment. All work should have pan-national relevance. Reports of routine screening trials of varieties, fertilizer, and cropping methods using standard methodologies to establish local recommendations are not accepted. Normally, no more than one report will be accepted from a single experiment. Two or more items about the same work submitted at the same time will be returned for merging. Submission at different times of multiple reports from the same experiment is highly inappropriate. Detection of such submissions will result in rejection of all. Please observe the following guidelines in preparing submissions: Limit each report to two pages of double-spaced typewritten text and no more than two figures (graphs, tables, or photos). Do not cite references or include a bibliography. Organize the report into a brief statement of research objectives, a brief description of project design, and a brief discussion of results. Relate results to the objectives. Report appropriate statistical analysis. Specify the rice production environment (irrigated, rainfed lowland, upland, deepwater, tidal wetlands). Specify the type of rice culture (transplanted, wet seeded, dry seeded). Specify seasons by characteristic weather (wet season, dry season, monsoon) and by months. Do not use local terms for seasons or, if used, define them. Use standard, internationally recognized terms to describe rice plant parts, growth stages, environments, management practices, etc. Do not use local names. Provide genetic background for new varieties or breeding lines. For soil nutrient studies, be sure to include a standard soil profile description, classification, and relevant soil properties. Provide scientific names for diseases, insects, weeds, and crop plants. Do not use common names or local names alone. Quantify survey data (infection percentage, degree of severity, sampling base, etc.). When evaluating susceptibility, resistance, tolerance, etc., report the actual quantification of damage due to stress that was used to assess level or incidence. Specify the measurements used. Use generic names, not trade names, for all chemicals. Use international measurements. Do not use local units of measure. Express yield data in metric tons per hectare (t/ha) for field studies and in grams per pot (g/pot) or per specified length (in meters) row (g/ row) for small scale studies. Express all economic data in terms of the US$. Do not use local monetary units. Economic information should be presented at the exchange rate US$:local currency at the time data were collected. When using acronyms or abbreviations, write the name in full on first mention, followed by the acronym or abbreviation in parentheses. Thereafter, use the abbreviation. Define any nonstandard abbreviations or symbols used in a table or graph in a footnote or caption/ legend. Categories of research published GERMPLASM IMPROVEMENT genetic resources genetics breeding methods yield potential grain quality pest resistance diseases insects other pests stress tolerance drought excess water adverse temperature adverse soils integrated germplasm improvement irrigated rainfed lowland upland deepwater tidal wetlands seed technology CROP AND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT soils soil microbiology physiology and plant nutrition fertilizer management inorganic sources organic sources crop management integrated pest management diseases insects weeds other pests water management farming systems farm machinery postharvest technology economic analysis ENVIRONMENT SOCIOECONOMIC IMPACT EDUCATION AND COMMUNICATION RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

CONTENTS
GERMPLASM IMPROVEMENT
Breeding methods 5 Genetic studies of aroma in the elite cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) aromatic japonica line Shangbai A 5 Effect of paper bags used to cover hand-crossed panicles on seed set and vigor 6 Performance of IRRI rice hybrids in Mandya, Karnataka, India Grain quality 6 Effect of growth location on rice protein content and composition 7 Milling recovery as influenced by different types of rice mills Pest resistancediseases 7 Inheritance of resistance to rice stripe virus (RSV) in Yunnan Province, China 8 Reaction of rice cultivars from Ifugao Province, Philippines, to indigenous strains of the bacterial blight (BB) pathogen 9 Quantifying rice-leaf blast (BI) genetic relationship via the receptivity factor Pest resistanceinsects 9 Yield loss due to major rice pests in Tamil Nadu, India 10 Resistance to rice thrips in breeding lines derived from Oryza officinalis 10 Reaction of summer and winter rice cultivars to hispa in Assam, India 11 Field screening of rice cultivars for resistance to gall midge (GM) Orseolia oryzae 11 Virulence of brown planthopper (BPH) in Vietnam Pest resistanceother pests 12 Resistance of deepwater rice (DWR) varieties to ufra disease in Assam Stress tolerance 12 Low light tolerance of rice hybrids and their pollen parents Stress toleranceadverse soils 13 Performance of selected rice genotypes on acid sulfate soils in the Kiralakele area of southern Sri Lanka Integrated germplasm improvementirrigated 14 W8013S, a promising thermosensitive genic male sterile (TGMS) line for two-line system hybrid rice breeding 14 Buli-INIA, the first fine-grain rice variety released in Chile 15 V18, a promising new rice variety for the Red River Delta of Vietnam Integrated germplasm improvementupland 15 VL Dhan 221, a new upland rice variety for the northwestern Himalayan region of India Integrated germplasm improvementdeepwater 16 NDGR150 and NDGR 151: two promising lines for semi-deepwater areas of eastern Uttar Pradesh (UP), India 17 Effect of incessant rain on seed health and measures to control damage

CROP AND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT


Soils 18 19 Characteristics of Fe-toxic soils and affected plants and their correction in acid Haplaquents of Meghalaya Effects of P on growth and uptake of Cu and Fe in rice grown in excess Cu

Fertilizer management 19 Integrated nitrogen management for irrigated lowland rice 20 Grain yields of rainfed rice - lentil as affected by N fertilizer and biofertilizer Fertilizer managementinorganic 21 Effect of DCD on urea N uptake by rice and its balance in soil Crop management 21 Adverse effects of beushaning on intermediate deepwater rice (DWR) Integrated pest managementdiseases 22 Effects of fungicides, insecticides, and their interaction on sheath rot (ShR) severity 23 Distribution and nature of soil that suppresses rice sheath blight (ShB) in the Philippines 23 Brevennia rehi Lindinger, vector for the sheath rot (ShR) pathogen 23 Detection of the Philippine isolate of rice yellow dwarf (RYD) agent using DNA probes 24 Variants of rice grassy stunt virus (RGSV) in the Philippines 25 Effect of changing the agricultural environment on ufra occurrence in the Mekong Delta Integrated pest managementinsects 25 Stalk-eyed fly (SEF) damage to lowland irrigated rices in Nigeria 26 Effect of high temperatures on the survival and fecundity of brown planthopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens Stl 26 Rice brown planthopper (BPH) immigrants in Japan change biotype 27 Effect of rice stage and tungro (RTD) intensity on the infectivity of green leaflopper (GLH) in fields 27 Wind tunnel for measuring rice plant attraction to insect predators and parasitoids Integrated pest managementweeds 29 Evaluation of herbicides for transplanted rice (TPR) in Kerala, India 29 Evaluation of Bromadiolone in irrigated ricefields ANNOUNCEMENTS 30 30 30 30 Asian Rice Farming Systems Working Group recommendations New IRRN section begins in June New publications New IRRI publications

ERRATUM

Breeding method

GERMPLASM IMPROVEMENT
Table 1. Percent accuracy for aromatic identification of 2-g leaf blade and grain samples and individual grain in Shangbai A and Shangbai B. Shangbai A Samples (no.) 2-g leaf blade a 2-g grain a Individual grain b
a

Genetic studies of aroma in the elite cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) aromatic japonica line Shangbai A
Dong Yanjun, Zhang Honge, and Shi Shouyun, Crop Institute, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Science, Hangzhou, 310021, China

Shangbai B Samples (no.) 19 57 73 Accuracy (%) 100 97.3 90.4

Accuracy (%) 100 95.5 84.4

30 49 83

Two-gram samples were evaluated for aroma in 10 ml 1.7% KOH. b Individual grains were evaluated in 5 ml 1.7% KOH.

Table 2. Behavior of parents (CMS, maintainers, and restorers), F1 , BC1 , and F 2 with regard to aroma. Plants (no.) Tested Nonaromatic Aromatic Ratio of nonaromatic to aromatic Actual Expected

Medium-maturing Shangbai A possesses the male sterile cytoplasm of cultivar Chinsurah Boro II. To study aroma inheritance, we crossed CMS line Shangbai A and its maintainer, Shangbai B, in 1989 with three nonaromatic restorer lines to obtain four crosses. In 1990, we backcrossed three of the F1 with the CMS line used as maternal parent. P1, P2 , F1, F2 , and BC1 progeny from the four crosses were sown in May 1991. Aroma from single plants was evaluated after 45 d. Leaf blades (2 g/ plant) from each progeny were soaked in 10 ml of 1.7% KOH solution for 10 min at 25-30 C. Panelists classified the samples as aromatic or nonaromatic by smelling the contents of the test tubes. Expressions of aroma in leaf blade and grain were similar in Shangbai A and Shangbai B (Table 1). This implied that classifying aromatic/nonaromatic grains on the basis of leaf samples would be reliable. F 1 plants from all the crosses were nonaromatic, indicating that aroma in Shangbai A (Shangbai B) was recessive (Table 2). Segregating ratios of nonaromatic to aromatic plants in BC 1 and F2 were 1:1 and 3:1, respectively. F 2 segregation behavior of Shangbai A/Zhi 7 and Shangbai B/Zhi 7 was identical. This indicates that the cytoplasm from Chinsurah Boro II did not affect expression of aroma in Shangbai A. Results showed that a recessive nuclear gene controls aroma in Shangbai A.

Designation Parent Shangbai A Shangbai B Zhi 7 90-11 4144 F1 Shangbai A/Zhi 7 ShangbaiA/90-11 Shangbai A/4144 Shangbai B/Zhi 7 BC1 Shangbai A//Shangbai A/Zhi 7 Shangbai A//Shangbai A/90-11 Shangbai A//Shangbai A/4144 Total F2 Shangbai A/Zhi 7 Shangbai A/90-l1 Shangbai A/4144 Shangbai B/Zhi 7 Total

30 19 21 20 22 21 25 23 31 92 84 101 277 123 160 158 141 582

0 0 21 20 22 21 25 23 31 47 43 49 139 94 115 119 106 434

30 19 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 45 41 52 138 29 45 39 35 148

0:1 0:l 1:0 1:0 1:0 1:0 1:0 1:0 1:0 1:1.04 1:1.05 0.94:1 1.01:1 3.24:1 2.55:l 3.05:1 3.02:1 2.93:1

0:1 0:1 1:0 1:0 1:0 1:0 1:0 1:0 1:0 1:1 1:1 1:1 1:1 3:1 3:1 3:1 3:1 3:1 0.044 0.75-0.90 0.047 0.75-0.90 0.089 0.75-0.90 0.003 >0.90 0.13 0.50-0.75 0.77 0.25-0.50 0.01 >0.90 0.02 >0.90 0.057 0.75-0.90

Effect of paper bags used to cover hand-crossed panicles on seed set and vigor
O. Suherman, S. Saenong, and D. Baco, Maros Research Institute for Food Crops (MORIF), Ujung Pandang, Indonesia

White-colored glassine bags are usually used in hand-crossing rice panicles. We compared the effect of six types of paper bags on seed set and vigor of F1 seeds in the MORIF greenhouse from Dec 1990 to Mar 1991 (see table). The experiment was laid out in a completely randomized design with four

replications. IR48 was the female parent and IR42 the male. A vacuum emasculator was used. Hybrid seeds were harvested (100 from each replication) and sown. Panicles covered with brown bread paper after pollination produced heavier seeds than panicles covered with white glassine bags (see table). One hundred seeds weighed 2.24 g for the brown bread paper, significantly more than the 1.5 g for the white glassine bag. Higher seed germination and seedling growth accompanied greater seed size. Bag type did not influence seed set percentage. We determined the transmittance value of different bags with a DV-7

IRRN 17:2 (April 1992)

spectrophotometer. The range covered the ultraviolet (UV), visible, and nearinfrared spectrum. The transmittance of whole wavelength range was lowest in both white and brown bread paper bags. Reduced UV and visible radiation transmittance through the bread paper

bags may minimize photoreceptor activation in the seeds and divert some of the storage carbohydrate to the shikimic process. This would result in heavier seeds for the bread paper-covered panicles than for the glassine-covered panicles

Grain quality
Effect of growth location on rice protein content and composition
A. Hussain and W. Bushuk, Grain Industry Research Group, Food Science Department, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada R3T 2N2

Effect of type of paper bag used to cover hand-crossed panicles on percentage of seed setting, weight of F1 seed, seed germination, and hybrid vigor components. a MORIF, Ujung Pandang, Indonesia, 1991. Seed set percentage (%) White glassine Yellow glassine Green glassine Red glassine White bread paper Brown bread paper CV (%) 24.01 32.33 27.10 29.12 29.83 27.20 12.5 100seed wt (g) 1.5409 1.3988 1.5290 1.5151 1.9846 2.2427 12.6 c c c c b a Seed Seedling germinaplant tion (%) ht (cm) 65.50 57.00 47.50 40.25 64.50 82.00 10.8 b bc cd d b a 29.30 29.23 26.37 23.47 30.03 37.33 14.2 b bc c c b a Root length (cm) 14.50 bc 14.67 bc 13.75 c 13.92 c 15.25 b 20.75 a 16.2 Dry matter of seedlings (g/5 plants) 0.7103 bc 0.6474 cd 0.6961 bcd 0.6307 d 0.7598 b 1.0467 d 11.6 Light transmittance (%) 250 nm 5.7 6.0 0.8 3.0 0.6 0.1 850 nm 23.5 27.2 14.2 38.8 1.2 3.4

Bags used

a In each column, treatment means followed by a common letter are not significantly different by DMRT at P = 0.05.

Performance of IRRI rice hybrids in Mandya, Karnataka, India


B. V. Chandra, M. Mahadevappa, A. H. Krishnamurthy, and V. Bhaskar, University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bangalore 560065, India

Six hybrids using CMS lines IR62829 A and IR58025 A were evaluated against local checks Jaya, IR36, and Rasi at the Regional Research Station, Mandya. Seedlings (26 d old) were transplanted at 20- 15-cm spacing on 4 Aug 1990 in

5.9-m 2 plots laid out in a randomized block design with three replications. The IR58025 A combinations outperformed the IR62829 A hybrids and local checks (see table). Jaya yielded more than the IR62829 A hybrids. IR58025 A/IR9761-19-1 R matured in 117 d and IR58025 A/IR35366-62-1-2-23 R in 124 d. These hybrids had 25% more standard heterosis than IR36, the comparable check, for days to maturity, and 10% more than Jaya. IR58025 A/ IR29723-143-3 R recorded higher yield, but duration was 136 d.

Grain samples of rice cultivar L202 from different locations had vaned cooking quality. We studied the effect of growth location on the stability of rice protein content and composition. L202 seeds from the 1989 harvests in California, USA, and Seville, Spain, were grown in 1990 in Italy. The protein content of brown rice from Italian crops was lower than that of American and Spanish samples (see table). Quantitative and qualitative differences existed among the four

Performance of IRRI hybrids in Mandya, Karnataka, India. Maturity Plant Pani- Spikelets Spikelet Sterile Yield duration ht cles (no./ sterility plants (t/ha) (%) (%) (d) (cm) (no./m 2) panicle) Increase (%) in heterosis over Jaya IR36 Rasi

Hybrid and check

IR58025 IR62829 IR58025 IR62829 IR62829 IR58025

A/IR9761-19-1 R A/IR9761-19-1 R A/IR29723-143-3 R A/IR29723-143-3 R A/IR10198-66-2 R A/IR35366-62-1-2-2-3 R

Jaya IR36 Rasi LSD CV (%)

117 120 136 126 120 124 141 127 124

78.2 70.2 88.7 73.9 78.6 80.4 100.8 68.4 85.6

318 428 422 317 361 407 336 339 348

141 125 143 162 137 172 155 125 127

10.9 18.2 20.4 36.3 5.9 33.9 19.6 20.5 4.3

3.9 5.0 0 6.2 7.6 6.1 0 0 0

7.6 4.7 7.6 6.2 6.5 7.7 6.8 6.0 6.0 1.4 13.1

10.6 26.2 24.4 31.9 22.3 23.5 10.6 26.2 24.4 9.0 3.4 2.3 4.9 8.5 6.9 12.7 28.5 26.7

AL-PAGE patterns of acetic extracts of brown rice from rice cultivar L202 grown in different locations: I = California (Californian seed), II = Italy (Californian seed), III = Spain (Spanish seed), and IV = Italy (Spanish seed).

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Effect of growth location on protein content of rice cultivar L202. Sample California (California seed) Italy (California seed) Spain (Spanish seed) Italy (Spanish seed)
P <0.05.

% N 5.95 9.4 a 7.4 7.9 b 7.6 c d

a Values with different letters are statistically different at

samples when acetic acid extracts were analyzed by aluminum lactate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (ALPAGE) in 10% acrylamide gel. Overall band intensity of the Italian samples (lanes II and IV in figure) was weaker than that of American and Spanish samples (lanes I and III). Patterns of Italian samples lacked one prominent band (a in figure). The patterns

of the American and Spanish samples were nearly the same; those of the Italian samples were identical. Differences in the electrophoregrams may be related to the differences in cooking quality. Samples of a cultivar from different agroclimatic regions should be treated separately to maintain the uniqueness of a particular germplasm and/or quality characteristics.

Milling recovery as influenced by different types of rice mills


A. Ali, M. A. Karim, L. Ali. S. S. Ali, and A. Majid, Rice Research Institute, Kala Shah Kaku, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan

Effect of rice mills on milling recovery. a Mill type Total milled rice (% ) KS282 Steel huller Disc sheller Modem rubber roller Steel huller Disc sheller Modern rubber roller
a

Head rice (%)

Broken rice (%)

Machinery in milling affects the outturn of head rice and total rice. Using outmoded mills results in relatively higher quantitative and qualitative losses. We compared different types of rice huller (Engelberg type), disc mills-steel sheller (under-runner type), and modern assess quantitative rubber roller mill-to losses. Test varieties were KS282 (medium grain) and Basmati 385 (fine grain).

67.6 c 70.0 b 71.7 a Basmati 385 66.3 c 69.0 b 70.0 a

51.8 c 56.2 b 59.6 a 49.7 c 54.0 b 57.0 a

15.8 c 13.8 b 12.1 a 16.6 c 15.0 b 13.5 a

On a rough rice basis. Values with different letters are statistically different at P <0.05 by DMRT.

The modern mill produced more head rice in the test varieties than did either the disc sheller or the steel huller (see table). Total milled rice percentage was also

higher with the modern mill. Different mills produced broken rice ranging from 12.1 to 15.8% for KS282 and 13.5 to 16.6% for Basmati 385.

Pest resistance diseases


Inheritance of resistance to rice stripe virus (RSV) in Yunnan Province, China
Lu Jiaan, Wan Changzhou, Zou Fumei, and Fan Hongliang, Shanghai Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Shanghai 201106; and Shi Wenwu, Plant Protection and Quarantine Station of Chuxiong Autonomous Prefecture of Yi Nationality, Yunnan Province, China

Diseased plants and heart-withered shoots were counted after 25 d. Diseasefree seedlings were planted in a field of a heavily diseased district, Results at seedling and tillering stages were analyzed using a disease index where 0-29% was considered

resistant (R), 30-59% was moderately resistant (MR), and more than 60% was infected (S). Zhongguo 91, Fengfeng, and Tetep were highIy resistant to RSV; Huxuan 19, Shuangfeng 1, and 683 Nuo were moderately resistant. Resistance was

Table 1. Resistance to RSV of parents and F1 . Yunnan Province, China, 1988. Parents and F1 Zhongguo 91 Huxuan 19 Shuangfeng 1 Fengfeng 683 Nuo Tetep Zhongguo 9 l/Huxuan 19 Huxuan 19/Zhongguo 91 Zhongguo 91/Shuangfeng 1 683 Nuo/Fengfeng Huxuan 19/Fengfeng Shuangfeng 1/Tetep Plants (no.) 174 182 60 220 190 96 11 18 10 10 19 19 Disease incidence (%) 6.9 40.1 58.3 18.6 56.8 14.6 9.1 5.6 30.0 20.0 26.3 21.1 Disease index (%) 6.1 31.9 51.3 16.1 48.0 10.8 9.1 5.6 26.7 10.0 26.3 20.2 Resistance R MR MR R MR R R R R R R R

We studied the inheritance of resistance to RSV in resistant foreign varieties Zhongguo 91, Fengfeng, and Tetep and native Chinese varieties Shuangfeng 1, Huxuan 19, and 683 Nuo. Crosses were made in the fall of 1987. Parents, F1 , and F2 were inoculated at the three-leaf stage with viruliferous small brown planthoppers during summer 1988.

IRRN 17:2 (April 1992)

Table 2. Resistance to RSV of F2 . Yunnan Province, China, 1988. Cross Zhongguo 91/Huxuan 19 Huxuan 19/Zhongguo 91 Zhongguo 91/Shuangfeng 1 Shuangfeng 1/Zhongguo 91 Fengfeng/683 Nuo 683 Nuo/Fengfeng Huxuan 19/Fengfeng Shuangfeng 1/Tetep
a ** = significant difference at P <0.01 by c 2 .

F2 plants observed (no.) R 75 53 77 121 99 82 103 16 S 19 20 33 39 41 31 14 39 Total 94 73 110 160 140 113 117 115

c 2 for 3:1a 1.149 0.224 1.467 0.033 1.371 0.357 10.794** 4.873**

dominant to moderate when varieties of each type were crossed (Table 1). We analyzed segregation of F2 according to expected values of a pair of genes and c 2 test (Table 2). Six of the eight F2 populations had segregation ratios of resistance that fit the expected values (P >0.05). The two other populations did not (P <0.01).

Reaction of rice cultivars from lfugao Province, Philippines, to indigenous strains of the bacterial blight (BB) pathogen
C. M. Vera Cruz (present address: Plant Pathology Department, Kansas State University [KSU], Manhattan, KS, USA); R. Nelson, H. Leung (present address: Plant Pathology Department, Washington State University, Pullman, WA, USA); J. Leach (Plant Pathology Department, KSU); and T. W. Mew; Plant Pathology Division, IRRI

and arranged in rows according to accession number. Plants were inoculated with one each of the three Xoo strains at late maximum tillering stage using the clipping method. Lesion lengths and percent diseased leaf area were measured at 14 and 21 d after inoculation. Nearly 9% of the accessions were either susceptible or highly susceptible to the three strains; 80% were moderately susceptible or susceptible; 1.7%) were

moderately resistant to moderately susceptible, or resistant to moderately susceptible; several were moderately resistant to resistant; and a few showed differential reactions (Table 1). To confirm the differential reactions observed, 32 selected accessions were again inoculated. Differential reactions were not confirmed for most of them because it appeared that some were from mixed seed.

Table 1. Accessions of traditional cultivars from lfugao Province, Philippines, showing resistant (R) or moderately resistant (MR) reactions, and one accession showing differential reaction to three strains of Xoo from the Philippines. Accession no. 8035 8077 8111 8162 8164 9134 11226 11282 11306 12060 23354 23362 60611 60613 8106 (differential) Lesion lengtha (cm) PXO 80 1.36 1.48 1.41 1.90 1.04 1.18 7.15 6.29 4.58 2.44 0.72 13.10 1.28 2.89 2.15 PXO 112 7.92 6.08 5.91 10.80 10.32 14.12 6.22 6.53 4.59 3.21 0.62 10.10 3.56 10.18 11.06 PXO 145 10.36 9.72 8.82 8.31 11.60 8.78 14.41 15.39 3.12 10.15 0.87 25.27 7.07 20.00 58.86 Rating R R R R R/MR R MR MR R R R MR R/MR R/MR R/MR

BB, caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), is endemic in the mountainous Ifugao Province, Philippines. All of the Xoo strains tested from Ifugao have been typed as race 5 on differential rice cultivars IR24 (carrying no resistance genes), IR20 ( Xa -4), IR1545-339 (xa -5), DV85 ( xa -5 and Xa 7), and CAS209 (Xa -10). Greater diversity has been recognized among race 5 strains based on DNA typing. We conducted this study to assess the reaction of traditional Ifugao rice cultivars to Ifugao Xoo strains representing different DNA types of race 5. Strain PXO 80 was collected in 1975, PXO 112 in 1978, and PXO 154 in 1981 from Banaue, Ifugao. DNA analysis using the repetitive DNA probes pJEL101 and pTNX1 showed strains PXO 80 and PXO 112 as closely related, while PXO 154 was more distantly related. Viable seed of 361 accessions of traditional cultivars were obtained from the International Rice Germplasm Center, IRRI. Three hills per cultivar were planted at 20- 20-cm spacing in screenhouse plots

aAv of measurements from 25 leaves for each of 3 plants.

Table 2. Reaction of selected lines from Acc. 8106 to selected strains of Xoo representing different RFLP types. Reaction to race 5 strains of XoO Parental plant no. 1 2 3 4 5 Progeny tested (no.) 15 15 15 15 15 PXO 80 R R R R S PXO 112 R R R R S PXO 154 S S S S S PXO 144 S S S S S
a

a R: lesion lengths of 010.0 cm at 14 d after inoculation; S: lesion lengths greater than 20.0 cm at 14 d after inoculation.

IRRN 17:2 (April 1992)

Accession 8106 demonstrated seed heterogeneity based on seed characteristics, disease reaction, and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of selected lines. DNA from 14 derived lines was digested with the restriction enzyme EcoRV and probed with 23 RFLP markers. Markers RG554 and RG476 revealed polymorphisms between lines. The two polymorphic probes detected three and five

heterozygotes, respectively. This suggested that 8106 was segregating. Thirty-three progeny of 8106 were inoculated with several Xoo strains per plant. We observed a range of reaction patterns in different progeny with some plants showing differential reaction consistent with the first experiment. For five of these plants, 15 progeny each were tested with PXO 80, PXO 112, and PXO 145. The differential reaction of some of the families was confirmed (Table 2).

The differentiation of Xoo strains by inoculation on derivatives of 8106 (designated 8106-R) suggests that race 5 may consist of more than one race. It further suggests that 8106-R contains a resistance gene not present in the differential set used for race typing of these strains. Further testing is required to determine whether the lines derived from acc. 8106 contain a novel resistance gene.

Quantifying rice-leaf blast (BI) genetic relationship via the receptivity factor
S. B. Calvero, Jr., E. M. Guico, and P. S. Teng, Plant Pathology Division, IRRI

Host-pathogen relationships, such as that of the rice-Pyricularia grisea pathosystem, have genetic as well as epidemiological components. The specificity of the association between rice and P. grisea may be estimated through the receptivity factor (RF). We conducted three glasshouse experiments at IRRI during the 1990 wet and 1991 dry seasons using susceptible lowland cultivars IR50 and IR72, moderately resistant upland variety UPLRi-5, and resistant variety Kinandang Patong. Seeds were sown in plastic cups. One plant per cup was maintained and fertilized with the equivalent of 120 kg N/ha. Twenty plants/variety were inoculated with PO6-6, a local isolate of P. grisea. Inoculum suspension was sprayed on slides coated with plain agar and placed on a rotating platform of an electrically operated spore-settling tower device. Samples of the slides were fixed on healthy test plant leaves (one slide per leaf) using a spore concentration of 1.5 10 5 /ml, 1 min spraying time, and 10 psi spraying pressure. We counted the spores deposited on other slides to estimate deposition on leaves. This procedure was repeated at 10, 25, 40, and 55 d after sowing. Control plants were treated with sterile distilled water. Lesions on all inoculated leaves were assessed immediately after symptoms appeared.

2. Linearized RF values of IR50 and IR72.

1. RF values of blast-infected IR50, IR72, UPLRi-5, and Kinandang Patong (KP).

RF value per plant at different ages was estimated:


RF = no. of leslons produced on the plant no. of spores deposited on the plant

RF values of the varieties studied were highest in IR50. IR72 and IR50 showed a trend of declining RF in which younger leaves showed high susceptibility to BI (Fig. 1). UPLRi-5 produced a significantly different RF trend as leaves aged:

seedlings at 25 DAS showed more susceptibility to the disease than at any other age. Kinandang Patong was not infected at all. IR50 was more susceptible than IR72 to BI at all ages studied. RF in IR72 decreased faster relative to IR50 as crops aged (Fig. 2). Both varieties are considered susceptible to Bl. Our results suggest, however, that virulent pathogen isolates would cause more damage to IR50 than IR72 under field conditions favoring polycycles. RF values seem essential to accurately classify degrees of varietal resistance to P. grisea.

Pest resistanceinsects
Yield loss due to major rice pests in Tamil Nadu, India
P. J. Suresh and M. S. Venugopal, Agricultiral Entomology Department, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore 641003, India

We assessed the yield loss caused by gall midge (GM) Orseolia oryzue (WoodMason) Mani, yellow stem borer (YSB)

Scirpophugu incertulas Walker, and leaffolder (LF) Cnaphalocrocis medinalis Guenee on five rice varieties at Agricultural College and Research Institute, Madurai, during 1988-89. IR20, ADT36, MDU3, Sona, and IET9689 were raised under irrigated transplanted conditions during Jun-Sep and Oct-Jan. We calculated yield loss for infestation at tillering, panicle initiation, and maturity (see table). IR20 suffered

IRRN 17:2 (April 1992)

Yield loss per unit increase in damage by GM, YSB, and LF in five rice varieties at 3 growth stages during 2 seasons.a Madurai, India, 1988-89. Yield loss (%) Variety Tillering Season I IR20 ADT36 MDU3 Sona IET9689 IR20 ADT36 MDU3 Sona IET9689 IR20 ADT36 MDU3 Sona IET9689 9.0 1.0 0.5 1.0 1.0 3.0 1.0 0.5 1.0 8.0 2.0 5.0 4.0 2.0 5.0 Season II 14.0 3.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 8.0 1.0 1.0 2.0 1.0 2.0 14.0 6.0 4.0 0.5 Panicle initiation Season I Gall midge (GM) 4.0 2.5 0.5 1.0 1.0 Yellow stem borer (YSB) 2.0 1.0 0.5 2.0 12.0 Leaffolder (LF) 3.0 3.0 3.5 4.0 1.5 Season II 3.0 2.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 7.0 1.0 1.0 4.0 1.0 3.0 13.0 3.0 4.0 0.5 Maturity Season I 1.0 2.0 0.5 1.0 4.0 10.0 7.0 4.0 0.5 3.0 Season II 13.0 2.0 1.0 1.0 2.0 10.0 10.0 2.0 1.5 1.0

Reaction of summer and winter rice cultivars to hispa in Assam, India


B. C. Dutta and L. K. Hazarika, Entomology Department, Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat 785013, Assam, India

a Season I = Jun-Sep 1988, season II = Oct 1988-Ian 1989.

maximum loss from GM infestation in both seasons. GM-resistant MDU3 suffered th e least damage from GM and Y SB. YSB caused heavy losses during the second season in all varieties except

IET9689, which suffered more during the first season. LF incidence accounted for heavy loss in ADT36 and MDU3 during early crop growth stages and in IR20 at later stages. rating was done as described. Of the 50 breeding lines evaluated for thrips resistance, 17 lines exhibited high levels of resistance (see table).
Resistance to thrips in breeding lines derived from O. officinalis. Breeding line IR54742-1-20-10-11-2 IR54742-4-7-9-7-1 IR54742-6-1-14-15-1 IR54742-6-1-14-15-3 IR54742-6-20-9-3-1 IR54742-6-20-9-3-2 IR54742-6-34-17-11-1 IR54742-18-17-20-15-2 IR54742-22-14-24-22-2 IR54742-22-14-24-22-3 IR54742-22-19-3-7-1 IR54742-22-19-3-7-2 IR54742-22-19-3-7-3 IR54742-33-18-20-3-5 IR54742-52-10-17-8-1 Ptb 21 TN1 Damage rating a 1.0 a 1.0 a 1.0 a 1.0 a 1.0 a 1.0 a 1.0 a 1.0 a 1.0 a 1.0 a 1.0 a 1.0 a 1.0 a 1.0 a 1.0 a 1.0 a 9.0 b

Resistance to rice thrips in breeding lines derived from Oryza officinalis


R. Velusamy, S. Mohankumar, and S. Manoharan, Agricultural College and Research Institute (ACRI), Killikulam, Vallanad 627252, India

Hispa Dicladispa armigera (Oliv.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is a serious endemic rice pest in Assam. Fifty ahu (summer) rice cultivars from the Regional Agricultural Research Station, Titabor, Assam, were grown for 1 yr in earthen pots (40 cm diam, 36 cm deep) to screen for hispa resistance. Pots containing ten 30-d-old seedlings each were randomly spaced at 20 15 cm in a 10-m 2 area surrounded by a white, mosquito-proof nylon net (15 15 2.5 m). Each cultivar had four replications (pots). About 14,000 fieldcollected adults were starved for 8 h and then released inside the net at 10/plant. Saket 4 and Culture 1 were used as susceptible checks for summer and winter rice. Percent hispa-damaged leaves were recorded on three plants randomly selected from each replication of each variety 48 h after Saket-4 suffered 100% leaf damage. Saket 4, Ratna, recommended modern varieties in Assam, and Culture 1 suffered more than 90% leaf damage. Eleven entries were moderately resistant
Reaction of summer and winter rice cultivars to hispa under nethouse conditions. Jorhat, Assam, India. Variety As 75 As 48 Govind Bijer 3 Bengaubisi As 36 Gareni As 36/20 As 93/1 As 36/14 Mala Boro 1 IET10896 Govind IET10898 IET10895
aAv of 1989 and 1990.

Fifty breeding lines derived from O. officinalis were exposed to natural infestation by thrips Stenchaetothrips biformis (Bagnall) during August 1990 at the ACRI, Killikulam. Each breeding line was sown in 3 rows of 5 m each and susceptible TN1 and resistant Ptb 21 were sown at random. The breeding lines were not replicated in the preliminary screening test. When the susceptible TN1 showed a rating of 9, all breeding lines were rated for thrips damage using 0-9 scale. Breeding lines that showed a damage rating of 1 in the preliminary screening test were retested in a randomized block design replicated five times. Damage

Leaf damage (%) Summer rice 12.8 14.2 14.6 15.0 15.1 16.5 16.8 17.1 18.1 18.5 19.6 12.5 14.2 15.4 15.9 16.9

Winter rice

a Mean of 5 replications. Scored using the Standard evaluation

system for rice (0.9). Means followed by a common letter are not significantly different at the 5% level by DMRT.

10

IRRN 17:2 (April 1992)

with 11-20% leaf damage and could be used as donors (see table). Mala and Govind were high yielding and may be recommended for hispa endemic areas.

Seventeen boro (winter) rice cultivars were similarly screened under nethouse conditions. Five had 12- 17% leaf damage.

Nonpreference for feeding may be the resistance mechanism in the varieties tested.

Field screening of rice cultivars for resistance to gall midge (GM) Orseolia oryzae
R. Saroja, A. Thyagarajan, A. Govindan, and M. Subramanian, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Rice Research Station (RRS), Tirur 602025, Tamil Nadu, India

standards; MDU3 was the resistant check and TKM9 the susceptible check. Environmental conditions favored GM infestation; 30-50% silver shoots were observed on TKM9 (see table). Entries were scored for silver shoot at maximum tillering using the Standard evaluation system for rice (1988) 0-9 scale.

BG1165-2, ASD17, SR26B, BG850-2, BG367-4, W1263, CO 29, and SPR74777-2-1 were moderately resistant, with 2.35.0% silver shoot incidence. Fourteen cultures were moderately susceptible, and the remaining 78 entries were susceptible with 11.1-50.0% silver shoots.

GM is a major rice pest of increasing incidence in southern Tamil Nadu. Severe incidence of silver shoot caused by GM has been observed in Chengalpattu-MGR district during Aug on sornavari (Apr-May to Aug-Sep) rices and during Nov-Dec on late samba (AugSep to Jan-Feb) crops. We drew 100 entries from five variety trials during 199 1 sornavari: 12th International Irrigated Rice Yield Nursery (IIRYN) (17), Multilocation Trial I (MLTI) (7), Preliminary Variety Trial (PVT) (24), Hybrid Rice Trial (HRT) (2), and 16th International Rice Stem Borer Nursery (IRSBN) (50). The entries were evaluated for GM resistance in replicated field trials at RRS, Chengalpattu-MGR district. Popular varieties ADT36, ADT37, and IR50 were
Varietal screening for GM resistance. RRS, Tirur, India, 1991-92. Entries Source Total entries (no.) Silver shoots (%) 2.3 3.0 3.3 3.7 4.3 4.5 5.0 5.0 6.3 to 10.0 11.1 to 50.0 Score 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 5 7-9

Virulence of brown planthopper (BPH) in Vietnam


N. C. Thuat, N. T. Huong, and D. T. Binh, Institute of Plant Protection (PPI), Hanoi; H. V. Chien and N. L. Chau, Southern Regional Centre for Plant Protection (SCPP), Tien Giang Province (Mekong Delta), Vietnam

We evaluated the 1990 International Rice Brown Planthopper Nursery in Hanoi (northern Vietnam) and Tien Giang (southern Vietnam) for BPH resistance. Test insects were field-collected BPH reared in the greenhouse. We sowed seeds of entries in seedboxes and then infested 7-d-old seedlings with second- to third-instar nymphs. All

entries were rated for damage using the Standard evaluation system for rice when susceptible check plants had died. Of 110 entries, 36% exhibited resistance in Hanoi and 4% in Tien Giang. The BPH population in Hanoi was considered biotype 2 because it damaged Mudgo and IR26 (both with Bph 1 resistance gene) but did not damage ASD7, IR36, or CR94-13 (all with bph 2 gene) (see table). Varieties in Tien Giang possessing Bph 1 and bph 2 and Babawee (bph 4) were susceptible. Neither population damaged Rathu Heenati (Bph 3) or Ptb 33. This indicates that the BPH population in Tien Giang was more virulent than the Hanoi population and would endanger the popular cultivars being planted in Mekong Delta.
Damage rating a by BPH populations in Hanoi MS S R R R R R R MR MR R R R S R Tien Giang S S S S S R MS S S S S S S S R

Reactions of selected varieties to BPH populations in Hanoi and Tien Giang, Vietnam. Variety Resistance gene or origin Bph 1 Bph 1 bph 2 bph 2 bph 2 Bph 3 bph 4 India Taiwan Korea IRRI IRRI IRRI -

BG1165-2 IIRYN ASD17 PVT SR26 B IRSBN IIRYN BG850-2 BG367-4 IRSBN W 1263 IRSBN PVT CO 29 SPR7477-7-2-1 IRSBN 3 cultures PVT ) 14 11 cultures IRSBN ) 2 hybrid rices HRT ) 78 7 cultures MLT I ) 19 cultures PVT ) 15 cultures IIRYN ) 35 cultures IRSBN ) ADT36 (standard) ADT37 (standard) IR50 (standard) MDU3 (resistant check) TKM9 (susceptible check)

14.3 9.1 16.7 4.5 32.3

7 5 7 3 9

Mudgo IR26 ASD7 IR36 CR94-13 Rathu Heenati Babawee RP1579-28-54 Chianung Shen yu 26 Milyang 54 IR25587-133-3-2-2-2 IR28222-9-22-2-2 IR31802-48-2-2-2 TN1 (susceptible check) Ptb 33 (resistant check)
susceptible.

a Scored using Standard evaluation system for rice. R = resistant, MR = moderately resistant, S = susceptible, MS = moderately

IRRN 17:2 (April 1992)

11

Pest resistanceother pests


Resistance of deepwater rice (DWR) varieties to ufra disease in Assam
L. C. Bora and B. N. Medhi, Regional Agricultural Research Station, North Lakhimpur, Assam, India

Stress tolerance
Low light tolerance of rice hybrids and their pollen parents
K. S. Murty and S. K. Dey, Central Rice Research Institute, Cuttack 753006, India

We field-tested 100 DWR varieties and breeding lines to determine their resistance to ufra disease, caused by Ditylenchus angustus, during 1989 and

1990 wet seasons (Apr/MayOct/Nov). We sowed seeds in 10-m rows at 20 20-cm spacing in an ufra-infected area. Susceptible checks Rangabao and NC492 were planted in rows alternately with test entries. Local agronomic practices were followed. Susceptibility was expressed as the percentage of infected tillers/hill (see table). Rangabao and NC492 averaged 90% infected tillers/hill, which led to total crop collapse.
Ufra incidence (% infected tillers/hill) 0 1125

Reaction of DWR varieties to ufra disease in Assam, India, 1989-90 wet seasons. Entries Rayada 16-06 Rayada 16-05 Rayada 16-07 Rayada 16-08 Rayada 16-09 Bazail 65 Neghri, Laldhepa, Panikekua, Herepi, Duatkalam, Maguri Padmapani (red), Padmapani (white) Reaction class Resistant Moderately resistant

2650

Susceptible Escaped disease because of early crop maturity (Sep) Highly susceptible

Adalibao, Amona, ARC/152, ARC5778, Badam, Badel, Bagadhepa, Bakul, Bordhan, Buralibao, Bogphul, Beta, Borjahingia, Bogajul, Biroi, Bormaguri, Chengabao, CR670-37, CR671-19, Dalbao, Dolmaguri, Digabao Dhepabao, Dubaribao, Dubraj, FRG7, Gajepsali, Hatisali, Harkana, Hida, HBA 1 Indunayan, Ikarasali, IET10003, IET10005, IET10006, IET10008, IET10021, IET10027, IET11181, IET10048, IR48193-20-3, IR42580- 13-2, IR47393-306, IR47619-20-3, IR11141-6-1-4, Julbao, Katibao, Kajalibao, Kekua, Kehjol, Kalamanik, Laodubi, Khamtisali, Latamaguri, LPR85, LPR372, LPR56-97-115, LPR56-203-18, LPR56-304-38 LPR96-10, LPR254-164, LPR302-94-68, LPR425-42-116, LPR550-387-24, Mahsuri, Monoharsali, Moimonsingia, Neghri, NC492, ND4R21, Panimaguri, Patki, PJNB96-10, PJNB95-2, PJNB94-18-1, PN56-205-43-12, Rangabao, Rengunsali, Rupahi, Sonamukhi, Solpona, Sorsori, Tarabao, Tulasibao

50

The productivity of F 1 rice hybrids under low-light conditions during monsoon season has not been well analyzed. We studied tolerance for low light in eight hybrids derived from CMS sources V20 A, IR54752 A, and Intan Mutant A (IMA), their pollen parents (restored) and checks (Ratna and Swarnaprabha) during 1990 wet season. Plants were spaced at 15 10 cm in 1.2 m 2 field plots and fertilized with 60 kg N/ha. Plants were shaded with wood screens from 40 d after planting to harvest to simulate low light (50% normal) conditions. Controls were maintained under normal sunlight (about 320 cal/cm 2 per d). The experiment was replicated three times and laid out in a split-plot design. Light treatments were in main plots, and hybrids and pollen parents in subplots. Growth duration of hybrids varied from 117 to 145 d (see table). Photosynthetic rate (Pn) was measured with the Li-6000 Portable Photosynthesis system under optimal light of about 900 E/m 2 per s. Crop photosynthesis was the product of Pn and leaf area index (LAI). Both Pn and Pn LAI were generally higher in IR54752 A hybrids, especially in IR54752 A/Vajram. It also had the highest dry matter, yield, and harvest index under both normal light and low light. Such efficiency may be attributed to higher physiological and yield potential of the restorer. Yield per day of hybrids and parent were also highest in both light regimes. IR54752 A/Vajram showed significant standard heterosis in yield under low light compared with the best low light-tolerant check Swarnaprabha. Yield heterosis over its restorer, though negligible under normal light, was considerable under low light (10%).

12

IRRN 17:2 (April 1992)

Photosynthetic efficiency and effect of low light (50% normal) from 40 d after planting to harvest on dry matter and yield of rice hybrids, pollen parents, and standard varieties. Cuttack, India. Total duration (d) At flowering Pn (mg CO 2/ 2 per h) dm 27.2 31.1 34.1 28.4 36.1 32.1 31.5 34.1 29.6 23.4 30.6 25.4 31.4 31.5 26.4 31.6 34.2 31.4 30.6 2.1 Pn x LAI (g CO2 /m2 per h) 8.3 8.4 13.4 10.8 14.3 13.5 10.6 10.8 5.5 7.3 14.0 9.6 12.4 13.9 10.3 10.0 9.0 10.7 10.7 1.2 Total dry matter at harvest (g/m 2 ) Full light 693 634 1201 1115 1276 1041 960 947 520 888 826 1221 1262 968 1246 851 859 1146 980 Low light 362 346 483 497 670 393 583 468 229 344 507 410 606 512 588 472 204 619 460 Yield (g/m 2) Full light 318 209 413 343 537 345 127 169 241 400 391 307 527 463 551 333 325 537 355 Low light 62 102 159 83 285 73 37 110 42 65 181 60 258 124 221 151 64 231 128 Harvest index Full light 45 33 34 31 42 33 13 18 46 45 47 25 42 47 44 39 38 47 37 Low light 17 29 33 17 42 18 6 23 18 19 36 15 42 24 37 32 31 37 24

Hybrids and parents

Hybrid V20 A/Milyang 46 123 V20 A/IR36 117 IR54752A/IR54 137 IR54752A/IR46 137 IR54752A/Vajram 145 IR54752A/Swarna 142 IMA/ARC11353 126 IMA/IR27315 126 Pollen parents (restorers) Milyang 46 123 IR36 120 IR54 140 IR46 140 Vajram 145 Swarna 145 ARC11353 140 IR27315 126 Checks Ratna 123 120 Swarnaprabha Mean 132 LSD (0.05) Variety Treatment V at same T T at same V

IR54752 A/Vajram was developed at Maruteru, Andhra Pradesh, India, in the coastal monsoon belt. It has potential for low-light monsoon areas of eastern India where medium- to long-duration varieties are preferred for post-monsoon harvest. This hybrid, however, cannot be produced commercially because of its unstable female parent IR54752 A. 119 ppm active Fe, and 45-55 ppm available Al. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications during two cropping seasons in 1989. Three-wk-old seedlings were transplanted at three seedlings/hill, 20- 20-cm spacing, in 3-m single rows. Plants were fertilized at planting with NPK (18 kg N/ha, 24 kg P/ha, 45.6 kg K/ ha). Plants were also topdressed with 62 kg N and 26.6 kg K/ha 6 wk after transplanting (WT). Another set of the same genotypes was transplanted in a nearly normal soil with pH 4.8-5.3, 5-6% organic C, 12-15 ppm available P, 80-84 ppm active Fe, and 8.7-9.3 ppm available Al. Bg 350, which is susceptible to Fe toxicity, served as control in both seasons. We recorded visual symptoms of Fe toxicity (bronzing of leaves and stunted growth) 4-8 WT. Plant height and survival percentage at maturity were recorded (see table). Under toxic conditions, plants of the susceptible check and some other selected lines (Bw 351, Bw 78, Bw 2728, Bw 297-2, Bw 288-2, Bg 379-2, Bg 1565, Bg 1564, Bg 300, V-15) died at an early growth stage. C37 and Bw 295-5 were least affected. Bw and At varieties and IET249 also showed few Fe toxicity symptoms. A package of agronomic practices is being tested to obtain the best yields from Bw and At in affected soils. These varieties are widely used in hybridization programs for improving tolerance level and yield.

23 54 32 48

25 41 36 36

Stress toleranceadverse soils


Performance of selected rice genotypes on acid sulfate soils in the Kiralakele area of southern Sri Lanka
P. A. N. Chandrasiri and R. Pathirana, Agronomy Department, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Ruhuna, Kamburupitiya, Sri Lanka

We screened 33 rice genotypes for tolerance for acid sulfate soils in the coastal lowland area of Kiralakele, Matara district. Soils in the Nilwala Ganga Flood Protection Scheme experience Fe toxicity and have pH 3.2-3.8, 8-10% organic C, 2.5-2.9 ppm available P, 115-

Plant height, survival percentage, and Fe toxicity scores for selected tolerant lines in normal and toxic soi1s. a Kiralakele area, southern Sri Lanka, 1989. Normal soil Variety Plant height (cm) 77.3 83.2 121.0 71.6 89.6 88.5 85.6 73.7 Survival (%) 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 Plant height (cm) 73.6 74.4 108.0 62.4 77.3 80.7 73.5 Toxic soil Survival (%) 93.3 93.3 86.6 80.0 80.0 66.6 66.6 0 Toxicity score b at 4 WT 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 7 8 WT 1 1 3 3 3 3 3 9

C37 Bw 295-5 Bw 85 At 69-2 At 69-5 At 76-1 IET249 Bg 350 (control

aMeans of 2 seasons. bBy the Standard evaluation system for rice scale. WT = weeks after transplanting.

IRRN 17:2 (April 1992)

13

Integrated germplasm improvementirrigated


W8013S, a promising thermosensitive genic male sterile (TGMS) line for twoline system hybrid rice breeding
Zhang Xianguang and Lu Xinggui, Food Crops Research Institute, Hubei Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Wuhan 430064 China
Fertility test and analysis of fertility response in TGMS lines. Wuhan, China, 1990. Material W6154S W8013S W6111S NK58S (check) Abortive pollen rate LD 99.69 99.36 99.90 99.98 SD 98.97 98.86 99.88 27.93
a

(%) t

Type TGMS TGMS TGMS PGMS

Thermosensitive stage b 1215 1216 1114

r value c 0.5070.707** 0.5560.746** 0.7750.835**

Index of critical temperature (C) 25.2 1.0 24.4 0.9 25.5 1.1

1.67 0.79 0.20 12.57*

W6154S, which is thermosensitive, was derived from the original Hubei photoperiod-sensitive genic male sterile rice Nong Ken 58S. The fertility of W6154S can be greatly altered by temperature variation during fertility induction. Its use in hybrid seed production is therefore limited. We tried to breed new TGMS lines that have lower critical temperature for fertility restoration than W6154S (25.2 1.0 C). W8013S is such a TGMS line. W8013S, derived from the cross W6154S/Xie Qing Zhao//Xie Qing Zhao, has japonica-type cytoplasm and indica-type nuclear background. It is photoperiod-insensitive (see table). W8013S flowers in Wuhan 58-93 d (CV = 8.6%) after a late Mar to late Jul sowing. It has a mean cumulative effective temperature of 1244.6 C (CV = 11.0%) We observed that the stable male sterile period in W8013S was from 2 Jul to 16 Sep. During this period, a 99.5 100% abortive pollen rate and almost zero seed-setting rate under natural light/temperature conditions occurred. Day length or theoretical light length (1214 h) affects its sterility very little. Correlation analysis was made on the abortive pollen rate at heading and each of the nine temperature components including daily air temperature, water temperature, and soil temperatures at 0, 5, 10, and 20 cm beneath the surface 7 22 d before heading. The most closely correlated component was the soil surface temperature occurring 12-16 d before heading. This means that the thermosensitive stage in W8013S

differentiation to heading; mean air temperature ranged from 26.6 to 30.5C. difference at P < 0.01.

a LD = 16 h light + 8 h dark. SD = 10 h light + I4 h dark. Treatments were from the midstage of the first rachis-branch primordium b The ith day before heading. c ** = significant

remains when the pollen mother cells undergo meiosis. By doing further regression analysis using the abortive pollen rate of 99.5-100% as the eligible index, we obtained a critical temperature (24.4 0.9C) for its fertility alteration (see table). The index is obviously lower than that for W6154S and other TGMS lines. Higher temperature (t 25.3C) induces completely sterile pollens; lower temperature (t = 23.025.2C) induces

fertile ones. Lower critical temperature is necessary for producing hybrid seed during the higher temperature seasons. The extremely low temperatures in midsummer 1989 were a good test for stability. W6154S and some other TGMS lines became partially fertile, but W8013S was still highly sterile. Extensive testcrossing of indica and japonica varieties and screening of F1 crosses are under way to exploit the breeding potential of W8013S. preference is changing. INIA released Diamante in 1979. It has long, translucent grain, but its eating quality did not meet the new standards of Chilean consumers who prefer highquality imported rices, such as Bluebelle. INIA and CIAT began a collaborative research project in 1984 to develop germplasm that combines cold tolerance, earliness, and good grain quality. BuliINIA, a semidwarf with translucent, long, slender grain, is the first variety to come from the joint venture. It was selected from a cross between Lemont/Quila 66304 and Diamante. Both Quila 66304 and Diamante are early and cold tolerant.

Buli-INIA, the first fine-grain rice variety released in Chile


J. R. Alvarado and P. Grau, Quilamapu Experiment Station-National Institute for Agricultural Research (INIA), Chillan, Chile; C. P. Martinez and E. Pulver, International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), Rice Program, Cali, Colombia

Low temperatures at seedling and flowering stages are a major constraint in rice production in Chile. Japonica rice, such as Oro and Quila, with bold, short or medium grains and a high degree of white belly has traditionally been grown in Chile. But consumer

Some agronomic and grain characteristics and yield of Buli-INIA and check varieties from regional trial data during 3 growing seasons (198891) in Chile. Plant ht (cm) Buli-INIA Diamante-INIA Oro Quila-INIA
laboratory.

Days to flowering a Length: width 96124 93118 84115 84115 3.3 2.9 1.7 1.8

Milled rice White belly b 0.20.8 0.41.0 4.24.8 1.44.3

Yield (t/ha)

1,000-grain Amylose c 198889 198990 199091 wt (g) (%) 26.0 33.0 32.0 30.0 20.6 21.6 20.6 20.6 7.0 7.9 8.3 7.0 5.6 6.1 6.2 6.7 7.1 6.8 6.7 6.4

82 97 89114 97103 84115

a Dependent on planting date. b Scored on scale of 0 to 5: 0 = clear, translucent grain, 5 = chalky grain. c Determined in IRRI

14

IRR N 17:2 (April 1992)

Lemont has excellent grain quality. Buli-INIA showed yield potential similar to that of check varieties in 13 regional trials in Chile during 1988-89 (see table).

Its growth duration is similar to Diamantes, but it has better tillering ability, shorter and stronger stems, a grain 1ength:width > 3. and lower 1,000-grain weight.

Buli-INIA is resistant to lodging and tolerates low temperature (15-17 C) better than Diamante and Oro. Head rice recovery is about 50%, eating quality is good.

V18, a promising new rice variety for the Red River Delta of Vietnam
N. T. Tuyen and D. T. Tuan, Plant Physiology Department, Vietnam Agricultural Science institute (INSA), Hunoi, Vietnam

Table 1. Performance of V18 in replicated yield trials in 1985-88 dry seasons. Variety Yield (t/ha) 6.2 5.8 7.5 6.4 Panicles (no./m ) 277 248 311 288
2

Grains (103/m )
2

Ripened grains (%)

1,000grain wt (g) 27 28 27 28

Milling recovery (%) 72 68 -

Head rice (%) 53 33 -

V18 IR8 V18 IR8

With 100 kg N/ha 23 86 21 81 With 200 kg N/ha 28 85 23 75

V18 is a promising, high-yielding, semidwarf rice (95-105 cm) with a high photosynthetic rate and high response to N. It was developed at INSA from IR8/ Lomello//Lao Tim. V18 matures in 180185 d in dry season and 130135 d in wet season. It has very good plant type: moderate tillering, late senescence, and erect, dark green leaves. Grains are medium-size, translucent, and have good cooking quality. The 1,000-grain weight is 27g. High percentages of ripened grains, total milled rice, and head rice recovery characterized V18. V18 has good seedling cold tolerance and is moderately resistant to major pests and diseases. It yielded 17% more than

Table 2. Performance of V18 at Dan phuong-Hanoi and Mo lao-Ha son binh, Vietnam, 1988-90 dry seasons.

Variety

Yielda (t/ha) 1988 5.3 (4.6) 4.1 (180) 1989 6.4 (10) 5.8 (5.4) 6.1 (7.2) 5.0 (20) 1990 Dan phuong 6.1 (40) 5.7 (0.7) Mo lao 6.4 (18) 5.3 (15) Mean 6.1 5.4 6.2 5.1

Increase (%) 13.3

V18 IR8 (check) V18 V14 (check)

21.6

a Figures in parentheses indicate area in ha.

check variety IR8 in research trials and 13.321.6% more in farmers fields (Table 1, 2). V18 was released for use in the highly

fertile soils of the Red River Delta. It is being tested on an estimated 1,000 ha in the delta.

Integrated germplasm improvementupland


VL Dhan 221, a new upland rice variety for the northwestern Himalayan region of India
R. K. Sharma, V . S. Chauhan, K. D. Koranne, J. C. Bhatt, D. K. Garg and H. C. Joshi, Vivekanandu Parvatiya Krishi Anusandhan Shala (ICAR), Almora 263601, Uttar Pradesh (UP), India

VL Dhan 221 was tested in All India Coordinated Trials conducted at different sites in UP and HP. It yielded an average of 2.5 t/ha, 28.8% more than national check Bala and 31.5% more than the best qualifying genotype HPU2202 (Table 1). VL Dhan 221 is semitall with compact and well-exserted panicles, good spikelet fertility, and awnless medium grains. It

matures in 110-115 d, tillers well, tolerates drought and low temperature fairly well, and resists leaf and neck blast and stem borer (Table 2). Rice under rainfed upland conditions in UP hills was traditionally sown during Mar-Apr and remained in the field until Sep. Only three crops (spring rice wheat - finger millet - fallow) could
a

Table 1. Yield performance of VL Dhan 221 in coordinated trials. UP and HP, India, 1985-87.

Rice variety VL Dhan 221 was released in 1991 for upland kharif cultivation in UP and Himachal Pradesh (HP). Derived from IR2053/ Ch 1039, VL Dhan 221 was developed through the pedigree method at ICAR from IRRI material.

Variety VL Dhan 22 1 Bala (check) HPU2202

Grain yield (t/ha) 1985 (4) 2.9 2.2 2.4 1986 (3) 2.8 2.2 2.3 1987 (4) 1.7 1.4 1.1 Av yield 2.5 1.9 1.9

Superiority (%)

28.8 31.5

a Figures in parentheses indicate number of locations.

IRRN 17:2 (April 1992)

15

Table 2. Plant characteristics of VL Dhan 221 and Bala. Character VL Dhan 221 Bala (check) 6570 65102 Erect Compact Droopy Awnless Straw 17.2 71.8 6.47 2.88 4.68 2.40 1.95 Bold 2.87 Character Alkali digestion Gelatinization temscore b VL Dhan 221 23 Intermediate Bala (check) 23 Intermediate Mid-High 9.37 1.59 5 7 7 7 5 7

Plant height (cm) 9095 Days to 50% flowering a 6791 Flag leaf Erect Panicle type Compact Panicle axis Droopy Awn type Awnless Grain color Straw 1,000-grain wt (g) 22.7 Hulling percentage 71.4 Grain length (mm) 8.23 Grain width (mm) 2.81 Brown rice length (mm) 5.85 Brown rice width (mm) 2.49 Length:width 2.35 Brown rice shape Medium 3.40 Volume expansion b

perature b Amylose content b Mid-High 9.42 Protein content b (%) Mineral b (%) 1.27 c Disease and insect pest reaction Leaf blast 4 Neck blast 3 Sheath rot 5 Leaf scald 4 Pink stem borer 5 Sesamia inferens Leaffolder Cnaphalocrocis 5 medinalis

grow in 2 yr with a 150% cropping intensity. Regional farmers may be able to adopt a more economical rice-based cropping system (rice - wheat/barley/ lentil/pea) with a 200% cropping intensity under rainfed conditions by cultivating VL Dhan 221, which is suitable for sowing in June.
Surveys of disease or insect incidence/ severity in one environment are useful only if the information is related to other variables (e.g., climatic factors, crop intensification, cultivars, management practices, etc.). By itself, information on incidence in one environment does not increase scientific knowledge.

a Range at different locations over several years. bBased on brown rice. c Maximum score recorded using Standard evaluation system for rice (09) during 198587.

Integrated germplasm improvementdeepwater


NDGR150 and NDGR151: two promising lines for semideepwater areas of eastern Uttar Pradesh (UP), India
J. L. Dwivedi (present address: Plant Breeding, IRRI), G. N. Jha, N. Prakash, and R. K. Singh, Crop Research Station, Ghagharaghat, Uttar Pradesh (UP), India
Table 1. Yield performance of promising lines and checks in station and in farmers field trials. Ghagharaghat, UP, 198890. Grain yield (t/ha) Station Entry 1988 2.5 2.6 1.7 1.4 1989 3.5 3.7 2.9 2.2 52 1990 2.2 2.9 2.1 1.1 45 Av 2.7 3.0 2.1 1.5 1988 1.7 1.9 1.5 1.6 32 farmers' fields 1989 1.8 2.0 1.4 0.9 1990 2.2 2.3 2.1 1.5 4595 Av 1.9 2.1 1.6 1.3

Deepwater rice is grown on about 390,000 ha in eastern UP. About 2/3 of this area is under semi-deepwater conditions (50-100 cm) during the cropping period. Madhukar, Chakia 59, and local traditional varieties are currently cultivated in these areas. Suitable substitutes for these cultivars must be semitall and have good elongation ability, nonlodging plant type, photoperiod sensitivity, and high yield potential. NDGR 150 and NDGR151 are sister lines from IET4060/Jalmagna. They are 135-175 cm (depending upon water depth) and have moderate tillering, kneeing, and elongation ability. They flower in late October, are photoperiod sensitive, and have well-exserted, compact panicles. Distinguishing traits include panicle lengths from 27 to 29 cm and 1,000-grain weights of 27.030.2 g. NDGR150 has white kernels; NDGR151, red kernels.

NDGR150 NDGR151 Sabita (national check) Madhukar (local check)

Maximum water depth (cm) 65

Table 2. Performance of promising lines and checks in regional and national trials in UP, 198790. a
a

Grain yield (t/ha) NDGRl50 NDGR151 Adaptive trials Madhukaf b Sabitac Tilakkachari c

Site and year

Bahraich 1989 (56) 1989 (51) Ballia 1988 (45) 1989 (75) Kuraumi 1988 (60) 1989 (100) Faizabad, 1988 (37) Pusa, 1988 (140) Ghagharaghat 1988 (70)

2.1 2.8 3.1 1.9 3.2 1.9

2.0 3.7 4.0 2.5 3.4 1.4 National trials 1.1 0.6 1.9

1.1 1.5 2.3 1.8 2.3 0.7

1.7 2.3 3.4 1.7 3.0 1.0

1.6 3.8 1.6

1.6 (died) 1.1

a Maximum water depths (cm) are in parentheses. bLocal check. cNational check.

16

IRRN 17:2 (April 1992)

NDGR150 and NDGR151 excelled in yield compared with national and local checks in preliminary trials at

Ghagharaghat UP (Table 1). Adaptive and national trials confirmed yield performance (Table 2).

NDGR150 is becoming popular in eastern UP because of its slender, white kernels and good cooking quality.

Effect of incessant rain on seed health and measures to control damage


R. C. Sharma, H. L. Sharma, and H. Singh, Seed Research and Production Unit, PAU, Ludhiana 141004, India

Table 1. Germination and field performance of rain-damaged and discolored PR106 seed. Seed a categories Germination (%) L-I L-II L-III L-IV D-I D-II D-III D-IV LSD (0.05) 13.6 25.8 69.0 91.0 74.0 85.8 88.2 96.0 8.2 Seed vigor Root + shoot length (cm) 6.2 9.7 15.4 17.1 16.8 17.5 17.2 17.7 2.4 Yield parameters Field Tillers Plant emer- (no./plant) ht (cm) gence (%) 5.0 15.6 64.5 85.4 69.9 82.5 85.3 94.2 6.3 10.0 11.8 15.4 18.1 18.9 17.5 19.3 18.6 2.6 81.3 82.7 116.7 118.3 118.5 119.2 118.3 119.2 5.3 Panicle length (cm) 21.7 23.3 28.5 28.3 29.4 28.9 29.2 28.1 2.2 Grains (no./panicle) 120.0 132.3 170.2 180.4 176.5 181.3 178.3 179.2 14.3 Yield (t/ha) 3.0 3.4 4.9 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 0.2

Unprecedented rains (613.8 mm) in northern India during the last week of Sep 1988 caused widespread losses in the Punjab rice crop. We collected 163 samples of PR106 from state districts to assess and upgrade seed health. We grouped seed into four categories according to crop lodging and flood intensity (Table 1). Three to five samples (4 m 2 each) per farmers field were harvested. L-I and L-II seeds were coated with white and dirty mycelial growth and had significant loss in seed vigor and yield; seeds in L-III and L-IV had 2039% discoloration, light to chocolate brown spots, and black seeds. Seeds in L-III and L-IV were subdivided into four categories based on discoloration severity (Table 1). Decreased germination was proportional to severity of seed discoloration. We studied field performance by laying out a 5- 4-m plot in a randomized block design with five replications. Field performance of L-I and L-II categories was poor. Yield and yield parameters within discolored seeds did not significantly differ. Seed microflora studies revealed that of 10 fungal speciesFusarium moniliforme, Curvularia lunata, Aspergillus flavus, Rhizopus spp., Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus niger, Drechslera tetramera, Epicoccum purpurascens, Nigrospora oryzae, and Penicillium spp.the first four were most common. F. moniliforme caused severe discoloration (light to chocolate brown) and white coatings on L-I, L-II, and L-III seeds. C. lunata formed a black crust or blotch-like coating on seed. About 57% of the L-I and L-II seed that had a higher

a L-I = crop completely lodged and submerged, L-II = crop partially lodged and submerged, L-III = crop partially to completely

lodged, but no stagnant water, L-IV = no lodging and stagnant water. D-I = fully discolored seed, D-II = more than half discolored seed, D-III = partially discolored seed, D-IV = healthy-looking seed.

Table 2. Effect of fungicides on germination of discolored seed. Fungicide Active ingredient Dosage (%) 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.1 0.1 0.1+0.1 0.2 0.2 0.2+0.2 0.2+0.2 Germination (%) 84.6 83.7 89.5 85.0 79.8 85.6 78.1 83.4 87.4 87.2 93.3 93.2 76.3 Increase in germination over control (%) 10.4 9.7 17.3 11.7 4.6 12.2 2.4 9.3 14.4 14.3 22.3 22.2

Zinc ion (2%) and managnous ethylene bisdithiocarbamate (75%) Dithane Z-78 Zinc ethylene bisdithiocarbamate (75%) Thiram Tetramethyl thiuram disulfide (75%) N-trichloromethyl thi-4-cyclohexane Captan 1,2 dicarboximide (75%) PCNB Pentachloronitrobenzene (75%) MEMC 2-methoxy ethyl mercury chloride (6%) Streptocycline Streptomycin sulfate (90%) and tetracycline hydrochloride (10%) MEMC + Streptocycline Derosal Carbendazim-2-methoxy (carbonyl benzimidazole) (50%) Carbendazim Carbendazim-2-methoxy (carbonyl benzimidazole) (50%) Thiram + Derosal Carbendazim-2-methoxy (carbonyl benzimidazole) (50%) Thiram + carbendazim Carbendazim-2-methoxy (carbonyl benzimidazole) (50%) Control

Dithane M-45

incidence of A. flavus were contaminated with aflatoxin (0.010.1 ppm). Yellow to dirty yellow bacterial slime that inhibited seedling growth and often caused death was associated with 1949% of the categories. None of the fungicides enhanced seed germination beyond 19.5% for L-I and beyond 37.3% for L-II. Tetrazolium test confirmed that seed viability was not more than 28.5 and 43.6%, respectively.

MEMC (mercurial fungicide) proved phytotoxic and lowered seed germination from 13.6 and to 2.8% for L-I and 25.8 to 14.5% for L-II. Discolored seed germination was improved by applying a fungicide to control the seed microflora (Table 2). Thioram combined with Derosal and carbendazim provided the best control. All three were selective.

IRRN 17:2 (April 1992)

17

Soils

CROP AND RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT


1.5 t/ha (66 kg K + 30 kg P/ha). Alleviating P and K deficiency and Fe toxicity in rice shoots may have caused this significant yield increase. Surface drainage was impeded because a continuous supply of soluble Fe in water came from hill slopes, upwelling, and seepage. Grain and straw uptake of K and P increased significantly over the control with all the applied treatments. A separate trial was conducted on Fetoxic acid Haplaquent (pH 4.9, 4.09%

Characteristics of Fe-toxic soils and affected plants and their correction in acid Haplaquents of Meghalaya
B. P. Singh, ICAR Research Complex for N.E.H. Region, Barapani, Umroi Road, Meghalaya 793103; M. Das, CSSRI Regional Station, Canning Town, 24 Parganas, West Bengal 743329; R. N. Prasad, and M. Ram, ICAR Research Complex for N.E.H. Region, Barapani, Umroi Road, Meghalaya 793103, India

Table 1. Nutrient content of Fe-toxic soils and affected plants showing varying magnitudes of toxicity symptoms in the Khasi Hills district of Meghalaya, India, 1987-88. Toxicity symptoms a Particular Range Soil pH Organic C (%) Bray's P 2 -P (ppm) N-NH 4OAC-K (ppm) DTPA-Zn (ppm) DTPA-Cu (ppm) Active Fe (%) Plant Fe (ppm) Mn (ppm) Zn (ppm) Cu (ppm) B (ppm) P (%) K (%) Mild % deficiency Range Severe % deficiency

Fe toxicity and its associated nutritional disorders hamper wetland rice cultivation in the Meghalaya valleys where 80% of Indias rice is grown. Fe toxicity was found in soils with one or more of these characteristics: water table < 40 cm, > 1.25% active Fe, > 2.98% organic matter, > 200 ppm soluble Fe content, < 14.3 ppm Brays P, < 60 ppm available K, < 0.71 ppm DTPA-Cu, and pH usually below 6.0 even after 7 wk continued submergence (Table 1). Runoff from hills also contained appreciable amounts of soluble Fe and suspended organic matter. Fe toxicity caused fewer panicles and filled grains per hill, delays in crop maturity of 20-25 d, and yield reduction of 1.0-2.0 t/ha. Critical limits of 10 ppm of P, 70 ppm of K, 2.15 ppm of Zn, and 0.71 ppm of Cu differentiated deficient soils from nondeficient ones. We conducted field trials at the Barapani research farm to examine the response of rice to P and K on Fe-toxic Haplaquent (pH 5.05, 1.96% organic C, 2.19% active Fe, 5.98 ppm Brays P2 -P, 42.5 ppm exchangeable K, water table <40 cm) during the 1987-88 kharif seasons. Soils had more than 250 ppm Fe 2+ within 3 wk of submergence and maintained this concentration up to 70-75 d. Plants in the control plots showed Fe-toxicity symptoms about 55 d after transplanting. Grain yield response varied from 0.9 t/ha (66 kg K/ha) to

5.1-6.0 (5.5) 0.9-2.9 (1.8) 5.8- 19.7 (9.4) 4 1.0-97.0 (70.8) 1.57-4.23 (2.3) 0.70-3.31 (1.1) 0.66- 1.08 (1.04) 202-487 (387) 118-785 (395) 31-126 (70) 9.8-53 (39) 19-53 (29) 0.2-0.58 (0.02 ) 1.1-1.7 (1.3)

47.1 70.6 29.4 35.3 5.9 11.8 (toxic) nil nil 24.5 35.3 5.9

5.1-5.9 (5.6) 1.25-6. 1 (3.2) 1.2-18.5 (6.2) 41.0-136 (89.9) 1.2-3.3 (1.8) 0.4- 1.4 (0.69) 1.9-2.8 (1.9) 256-630 (430) 130-825 (554) 27-9 1 (57) 8-46 (27) 5-51 (17) 0.09-0.15 (0.08) 0.09-1.5 (1.1)

5.9 88.1 19.0 58.3 58.7 100 (toxic) nil nil 52 30 52 75 26

a Figures in parentheses indicate mean values.

Table 2. Influence of Zn and Cu on yield and mineral uptake in Fe-toxic acid Haplaquent. Treatment (kg/ha) Control 6 Zn 12 Zn 4 Cu 8 Cu 6 Zn + 4 Cu 6 Zn + 8 Cu 12 Zn + 4 Cu 12 Zn + 8 Cu LSD (0.05) Yield (t/ha) Grain 2.8 3.9 3.8 4.0 3.0 3.6 3.5 3.0 3.7 1.0 Straw 4.2 4.9 4.8 5.0 3.8 4.7 4.7 4.9 4.9 1.0 P 7.0 10.6 10.1 11.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 10.0 8.7 2.1 K 9.0 13.0 13.0 12.8 10.0 11.0 12.0 11.6 12.0 2.6 Mineral uptake (kg/ha) by grain Ca 2.2 5.5 6.0 3.2 3.0 4.9 5.0 5.8 5.0 1.2 Mg 7.0 10.0 7.0 10.9 7.0 7.0 8.0 7.0 9.0 2.4 Zn 0.12 0.23 0.25 0.21 0.19 0.19 0.20 0.23 0.19 0.05 Cu 0.12 0.17 0.06 0.12 0.11 0.15 0.13 0.17 0.18 0.03 Fe 0.38 0.47 0.29 0.37 0.31 0.35 0.35 0.46 0.35 0.08 Mn 0.13 0.16 0.20 0.25 0.16 0.31 0.24 0.21 0.23 0.06

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IRRN 17:2 (April 1992)

organic C, 1.90% active Fe, 13 ppm Brays P1 P, 136 ppm exchangeable K, 0.66 ppm DTPA-Zn, 0.70 ppm DTPACu, and water table <25 cm) to study the response of rice cultivar PP2-34-155-7 to Zn and Cu. The greatest yield response,

1.2 t/ha, was recorded with 4 kg Cu/ha; it almost equaled the 1.1 t/ha from 12 kg Zn/ha (Table 2). The significant increase in grain uptake of Zn, Cu, Mn, P, and K over the control and the simultaneous reduction in Fe might have

led to proper nutrient balance and efficient use. Proper use of P, K, Zn, and Cu fertilizer after soil and plant tissue tests can successfully mitigate Fe toxicity at these sites.

Effects of P on growth and uptake of Cu and Fe in rice grown in excess Cu


S. Greipsson, School of Biological Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, NR4 7TJ, UK

We examined the effect of increased P concentration on rice cultivar M-201 84 Biggs grown with and without excess Cu. Plants grew in a 1/4-strength Hoaglands solution with different combinations of Cu, P, and MES (2[N-Morpholine] ethanosulfonic acid). Excess Cu concentration was 0.5 mg/liter and increased P concentration was equal to full-strength Hoagland's solution. MES buffer was pH 6.0. We grew seedlings hydroponically for 40 d: first for 15 d in a 1/2-strength Hoagland's solution and then for 25 d with five plants in each of six treatments (Table 1). Same-sized plants were grown in 5-liter black buckets in a growth chamber

(Conviron CMP 2023) in a 16/8 h light/ dark regime; temperature was 27 C in light and 22 C in darkness. Solutions were changed every other day; pH 6 and 70% humudity were maintained. Plant samples were digested for 12 h at 120 C with 2 ml HNO 3 and 1 ml H 2O2 in a Teflon pressure chamber. Cu, Fe, and P concentrations were measured by flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (Perkin Elmer 2830). Plants in the excess Cu solutions grew poorly (Table 1). Plants in Cu + P and Cu + MES + P solutions showed toxicity symptoms (yellow leaves, necrosis of leaf tips, stunted growth); plants in Cu + MES solution had less extensive symptoms. P appeared to increase the toxicity of excess Cu. Leaf tips had higher Cu concentrations in the excess Cu solutions, but Cu exposure lowered Fe concentrations in leaf tips. Plants in the solutions containing Cu had higher Fe and Cu concentrations in the roots than plants not receiving Cu, suggesting synergistic uptake (Table 2).

The high Fe accumulation in roots, but low Fe concentration in leaf tips in Cu + P solution, may have resulted from coprecipitation of Fe in the cortical root layer and inhibited growth in leaf tips. MES buffer did not affect Fe, Cu, or P concentrations in leaf tips or roots. Plants grown in excess Cu solution without added P have greater biomass because of high internal P concentrations. P concentration in leaf tips in the Cu + P and Cu + MES + P solutions were much higher than that of plants in the Cu + MES solution. High P concentration in leaf tips lowered the amount of metabolically active Fe 2+ that could compete with heavy metals (such as Cu) for metabolically sensitive sites inside leaves.

Fertilizer management
Integrated nitrogen management for irrigated lowland rice
A. R. M. Haroon, R. Krishnasamzy, V. Velu, D. Jawahar, and P. P. Ramazaswami, Agricultural College and Research Institute, Killikulam, Vallanad 627252, Tamil Nadu, India

Table 1. Effect of P on size of plants in solutions cont aining excess Cu.a Treatment Cu+MES Cu+P Cu+MES+P P+MES P MES Biomass (g) 2.3 0.1 c 1.3 0.2 e 1.7 0.1 d 2.4 0.1 bc 2.9 0.2 a 2.8 0.1 ab Leaf length (cm) 53.4 43.9 43.2 59.4 58.1 58.3 1.9 a 0.8 b 0.6 b 1.3 a 3.9 a 3.4 a Root dry weight (g) 0.09 0.01 b 0.06 0.005 c 0.08 0.002 b 0.1 0.006 ab 0.1 0.01 a 0.1 0.004 a Leaf dry weight (g) 0.29 0.01 b 0.12 0.02 c 0.22 0.009 bc 0.42 0.03 a 0.46 0.04 a 0.41 0.02 a

a Within columns, mean values with the same letter are not significantly different at the 5% level

Table 2. Chemical analysis of plants grown in a 1/4 strength Hoagland's solution with or without added P, Cu, or buffer (MES).

Treatment Cu+MES Cu+P Cu+MES+P P+MES P MES

Leaves Fe (g/g) 91 87 97 107 108 111


a

Roots P (mg/g) 2.0 11.5 11.9 7.4 7.3 2.0 Fe/P 455 76 82 145 147 555 Fe (g/g) 4200 7120 6250 1130 1330 1150 Cu (g/g) 1630 1370 1010 91 97 124 Fe/Cu
3 5 6 12 14 9

Cu (g/g) 44 49 50 26 22 31

a Values are means from 5 plants in each treatment.

We conducted three experiments that combined organic and inorganic sources to supply the N required by lowland transplanted rice on a Typic Ustropept. Soil had pH 8.1, soluble salt concentration 0.4 dS/m, 160 ppm alkaline KMnO4 -extractable N, 8.6 ppm 0.5 M NaHCO3 -extractable P, 135 ppm NH4 OAc-extractable K, and 0.32% organic C. Test crops were laid out in a randomized block design with three replications: IR20 during 1988 pishanam (Oct-Feb), ADT36 during 1989 kar (Jun-

IRRN 17:2 (April 1992)

19

Apparent N recovery, N uptake, and yield of rice under integrated N management. Killikulam, India, 1988 89. Treatment a 1988 pishanam Grain Total N yield uptake (t/ha) (kg/ha) 33 87 49 81 58
b

1989 kar

1989 pishanam

Apparent Grain Total N Apparent Grain Total N Apparent N recovery yield uptake N recovery yield uptake N recovery (%) (t/ha) (kg/ha) (%) (t/ha) (kg/ha) (%) 4.0 54 16 48 25
b

T1 - control 1.4 100 kg N/ha as T2 - urea 3.1 T3 - FYM 1.9 T4 - Sesbania 3.3 aculeata T5 - azolla 2.1 b T6 - Crotalaria juncea 50 kg N/ha as urea + 50 kg N/ha T7 - FYM 2.7 T8 - S. aculeata 3.1 T9 - azolla 3.1 b T10 - C. juncea 1/3 N/ha each as T11 - S. aculeata + 3.3 azolla + urea b T12 - C. juncea + azolla + urea b T13 - C. juncea + urea + Azospirillum LSD (0.05) 0.2

96 148 141 132 124 120 124 148 112 142 108 108 128 22 52 45 36 28 24 28 52 16 46 12 12 32 21

3.0 5.5 5.3 5.7 5.7 5.3 5.7 4.8 5.9 5.3 5.5 6.3 5.3 0.4

76 137 140 156 143 146 143 141 154 145 128 151 149 11

61 64 80 67 70 67 65 78 69 52 75 73 11

5.3 4.7 4.8 5.1 4.5 4.8 4.7 4.6 7.3 4.4 4.8 5.1 0.55

as 76 82 83
b

43 49 50
b

94
b b

61
b b

20

22

aTo supply 100 kg N/ha, 25 t S. aculeata or C. juncea was applied 15 d before transplanting (DBT), 20 t FYM and 25 t azolla were

applied 1 DBT. Urea was applied in 3 splits: 50% basal + 25% each at tillering (30 d after transplanting [DT] and panicle initiation stage [60 DTI). Azospirillum was applied as seedling dip and main field soil application. bTreatments not tried during 1988 pishanam.

Sep) and 1989 pishanam. Treatments were a complete N dose (100 kg N/ha) either in full or in combination with organic sources and fertilizer N (see table). The N content of the organic sources used on a dry weight basis were 0.5% for farmyard manure (FYM), 3.2% for Sesbania aculeata, and 4.0% for azolla during 1988 pishanam and 0.5% for FYM, 3.3% for S. aculeata, 3.4% for Crotalaria juncea, and 4.0% for azolla during 1989 kar. Organic N sources were not applied during 1989 pishanam, but the full N dose was applied as prilled urea in three splits. S. aculeata applied alone or in combination with azolla and urea gave yields similar to those from a full dose of urea N in 1988 pishanam. N applied 50% through C. juncea and 50% through urea produced 37% higher yields than a full dose applied as urea during 1989 kar. Applying a full N dose as C. juncea + azolla + urea during 1989 pishanam recorded 15% higher yield than a full dose of urea N. In 1989 pishanam and kar, substituting S. aculeata for the N requirement, either fully or at half level, recorded a N recovery equal to application of a full dose of N as urea. harvested. Lentil was harvested 10 Feb. Rice grain yields with green manure from S. rostrata or S. aculeata were significantly higher than those with either leaf manure from C. olitorius or the control. Rice yields increased significantly as N levels increased. Rice yields with S. rostrata and S. aculeata increased equally with both 50 and 100 kg N/ha. Neither biofertilizer nor N level significantly affected lentil grain yield (see table).

Grain yields of rainfed rice lentil as affected by N fertilizer and biofertilizer


N. R. Das and B. Datta, Agronomy Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Kalyani 741235, West Bengal (WB), India

We evaluated the relative efficiency of biofertilizers Sesbania rostrata, S. aculeata, and Corchorus olitorius L. and N levels (0, 50, and 100 kg/ha) from urea on grain yield of transplanted rainfed rice during the 1990 summer and wet seasons and of residual lentil during 199091 winter in WB. Soil was clayey loam with 0.61% organic C, 0.062% total N, 15 kg available P, 160 kg available K/ha, and pH 6.8. Seeds of green manure crops S. rostrata and S. aculeata were broadcast on 7 May 1990 at 30 kg seed/ha and of leaf manure crop C. olitorius (cultivar Basudev) at 7 kg seed/ha in a split-plot design with four

replications. The control was left fallow. Green and leaf manures were incorporated in a 7- 5-m plot on 17 Jul. On 8 Aug, 30-d-old IR36 rice seedlings were transplanted in subplots with 4 seedlings/hill at 25- 10-cm spacing. We applied 20 kg/ha each of P and K and half of each N treatment. The other half was applied 30 d after transplanting. Rice was harvested 4 Nov. Lentil (Lens culinaris L. cultivar B77) seeds at 15 kg/ha were broadcast over the standing rice one day before it was

Effect of N fertilizer and biofertilizer on grain yield of transplanted rainfed rice and the aftereffects on lentil. West Bengal, India, 199091. Rice and lentil grain yields (t/ha) Treatment Rice Fallow (control) Sesbania aculeata Sesbania rostrata Corchorus olitorius LSD (0.05) 2.1 3.2 3.2 2.5 0.7 No N Lentil 1.1 1.2 0.6 1.1 ns 50 kg N/ha Rice 3.2 3.1 4.0 2.7 0.4 Lentil 1.0 0.6 0.8 0.7 ns 100 kg N/ha Rice 3.5 4.9 4.4 3.4 0.8 Lentil 0.7 0.4 1.0 0.9 ns

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IRRN 17:2 (April 1992)

Fertilizer managementinorganic
Effect of DCD on urea N uptake by rice and its balance in soil
M. S. Sachdev and P. Sachdev, Nuclear Research Laboratory, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi 110012, India We conducted a pot culture experiment on the effect of dicyanadiamide (DCD) on urea N efficiency in lowland rice grown in the 1990 monsoon season (JulOct). We used soil from the Mehrauli series in the non-acid, hypothermic family Typic Ustochrepts. The soil had pH 7.8, 0.44% organic C, and sandy loam texture. In six treatments (see table) with three replications, 120 kg N/ha was applied as urea with or without DCD (10% of urea). We used urea with 4.987 atom percent excess 15N. Urea and DCD were mixed and then hydraulically pressed to form pellets. The crystalline urea and DCD were incorporated in the upper 2.5 cm of the soil; pellets were placed 2.5 cm deep in the center of the pots. Three hills of two Pusa 33 seedlings were transplanted on 17 Jul into 20-cmdiam pots containing 7.66 kg soil. Water was kept about 4 cm above the soil throughout rice growth. Urea was applied
Effect of urea and DCD application on rice. New Delhi, India, 1990.

Effect of DCD on urea balance in soil.

basally a week after transplanting; in the split treatments, the second half was applied 3 wk later. Maximum grain yield was obtained where urea with DCD was applied as 1.1 g pellets at transplanting. Splitapplied pellets gave better results than the crystalline form, but the increase was much less than that from pellets applied basally. Applying the nitrification inhibitor DCD and crystalline urea to rice did not improve fertilizer N-use efficiency but did reduce gaseous N losses. This was

evident from the unaccounted for decline in N (see figure). Fertilizer N recovery by rice increased when urea N was applied in two splits, with or without DCD. Urea applied with DCD as pellets, either in full dose at transplanting or in two splits, resulted in the highest fertilizer N recovery by rice (41 %) and very little urea N loss. Urea pellets without DCD must be studied to determine whether the increased yield and reduced N loss with pellets containing DCD was due to the large urea particles or to the presence of DCD. Beushaning is widely practiced to control weeds in shallow water conditions, promote tillering, and check vertical plant growth to reduce lodging. We evaluated the effects of postestablishment interplant cultivation with a hand hoe and beushaning under excess water conditions. Utkalprabha, a popular semitall, long-duration, photoperiodsensitive cultivar was broadcast and line sown (drilled or dibbled) in dry soil on 28 May 1990 using 400 seeds/m 2. Fertilizers were banded in furrows before sowing at 40-8.7-16.7 kg NPK/ha. Treatments were arranged in a factorial randomized block design with three replications. Rice was cultivated between plants with a hand hoe at 25 and 40 d after emergence (DE) and beushaned at 40 DE in 44 cm water.

Treatment Tillers Yield (g/pot) (no./plant) Grain Straw 7.7 T1: urea basal 7.3 T2: urea in 2 splits 8.0 T3: urea + DCD, basal 8.3 T4: urea + DCD in 2 splits 12.3 T5: urea + DCD, basal, as 1.1 g pellets 9.3 T6: urea + DCD in 2 splits; as 0.55 g pellets LSD (0.05) 18.5 21.2 21.3 21.2 30.6 24.1 25.7 23.8 25.5 35.8

N uptake (mg/pot) Grain Total 185 300 221 209 231 377 340 311 335 540

Crop management
Adverse effects of beushaning on intermediate deepwater rice (DWR)
A. R. Sharma, Central Rice Research Institute, Cuttack 753006, India Rainfed lowland rice in eastern India is established mainly by broadcasting seed under dry soil conditions followed by interplant cultivation after water accumulates. Beushaning is the practice of plowing rice with a simple bullockdrawn plow without turning the soil, leveling with a ladder, and filling blank spaces with the uprooted plants.

25.7

36.1

283

460

2.2

4.0

33

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IRRN 17:2 (April 1992)

21

Performance of rice under intermediate deepwater conditions in response to methods of sowing and interplant cultivation after establishment. Cuttack, India, 1990. Treatment Methods of sowing Broadcasting Line sowing (drilling) Hill sowing (dibbling) SE LSD (P = 0.05) Post-establishment cultivation No cultivation (control) Interplant cultivation with hand hoe Beushaning SE LSD (P = 0.05)
a Nonsignificant.

Seedling emergence (no./m 2 ) 225 240 232

Panicles (no./m 2 )

Grain yield (t/ha) 1.9 1.9 1.9 0.1 ns a 2.0 2.0 1.7 0.1 0.2

Straw yield (t/ha) 8.2 8.0 8.9 0.2 0.8 8.6 9.5 6.9 0.2 0.8

123 137 135 4 12 144 138 113 4 12

Water accumulated in the field gradually after germination. It was 20 cm at 30 DE, 50 cm at 90 DE, and 62 cm at 120 DE (panicle initiation) and 150 DE

(milk grain). It receded gradually to near zero at crop maturity in mid-Dec. The effect of interaction between sowing method and post-establishment

cultivation on rice growth and yield was not significant. The crop germinated and established equally well under different sowing methods because of good monsoon rains within a week of planting (see table). Plants from broadcast seed had fewer panicles/m 2 than line-sowed plants. Weeds were not a serious problem. Interplant cultivation did not affect grain yield, but significantly improved straw yield compared with the control. Beushaning significantly decreased 2 panicles/m and thus grain yield by 15.4% and straw yield by 19.7%. The uprooted plants established poorly. Stagnant water in the field further hampered tillering. Beushaning under intermediate DWR conditions does not appear to improve productivity as it does under shallow water conditions. IR20 seedlings were transplanted into 40 m 2 plots and spaced at 20 15 cm in the field trial. At booting stage, all tillers within 1 m 2 of each plot's center were inoculated with mealybug crawlers. Treatments were the same as in the greenhouse. The trial was laid out in a randomized block design with four replications. Disease severity was randomly assessed 10 d before harvest on 20 seedlings/m2 plot. Grain yield from individual m 2 plots was estimated at harvest. Greenhouse and field experiment results showed that tridemorph + phosphamidon protected rice against ShR better than tridemorph alone. Yield greatly increased compared with that of the untreated control (see table).
Space limitations prevent IRRN from publishing solely yield and yield component data from fertilizer field trials that are not conducted for at least two cropping seasons or at two differing sites. Publication of work in a single season or at one site is limited to manuscripts that provide either a) data and analysis beyond yield and yield components (e.g., floodwater parameters, microbial populations, soil mineral N dynamics, organic acid concentrations, or mineralization rates for organic N sources), or b) novel ways of interpreting yield and yield component data across seasons and sites.

Integrated pest managementdiseases


Effects of fungicides, insecticides, and their interaction on sheath rot (ShR) severity
P. Lakshmanan, Plant Pathology Department, Agricultural College and Research Institute, Madurai 625104, India

ShR, caused by Sarocladium oryzae (Sawada) W. Gams & D. Hawksw., is associated with rice mealybug Brevennia rehi Lindinger in Tamil Nadu. We conducted greenhouse and field experiments to study the effect of various fungicides, insecticides, and their
Effect of various pesticides on ShR severity. a Treatment

interactions on ShR severity. Three IR20 seedlings/pot were maintained in insect-proof cages in a greenhouse trial. Three mealybug crawlers that had been soaked for 15 min in S. oryzae (10 7 conidia/ml) spore suspension were placed inside the sheath that encloses the young panicle to inoculate tillers at booting stage. Various pesticides or pesticide combinations were sprayed after 8 h (see table). Treatments of about 50 seedlings each were replicated four times in a completely randomized block design. We assessed disease severity 15 d after ShR symptoms first appeared on control plants.

Disease intensity b Greenhouse experiment 3.8 c 5.3 f 4.7 e 8.6 g 1.0 a 2.5 b 2.5 b 4.6 de 4.1 cd 9.0 g Field experiment 2.5 4.0 4.9 8.7 0.5 2.4 2.7 4.1 5.3 9.0 b c

Mean yield (t/ha) in field 5.3 c 4.5 e 5.0 d 3.8 f 6.6 a 6.1 b 6.2 b 4.9 d 5.1 d 3.2 g

Yield increase over control (%) 63.3 40.2 53.6 16.8 105.4 87.6 91.7 51.3 56.5

Tridemorph 0.1% Carbendazim 0.1% Phosphamidon 0.03% Neem oil 10% Tridemorph 0.1% + phosphamidon 0.03% Tridemorph 0.1% + neem oil 10% Carbendazim 0.1% + phosphamidon 0.03% Carbendarim 0.1% + neem oil 10% Neem 10% + phosphamidon 0.03% Control (water spray)
system for rice scale of 09.

d e

b b b

a Means in a column followed by different letters show significant difference at 5% level by DMRT. bBy the Standard evaluation

22

IRRN 17:2 (April 1992)

Distribution and nature of soil that suppresses rice sheath blight (ShB) in the Philippines
Lin Birun, Wu Shangzhong, and Xu Xianming, Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, P. O. Box 510640, Guangzhou, China; T. W. Mew and A. M. Rosales, Plant Pathology Division, IRRI

Table 2. Correlation of soil properties and inhibitory effect of suppressive soil. a IRRI, 1990 wet season. Factor pH K+ Ca2+ TEB CEC Data range 4.85 - 7.72 4.30 - 21.70 38.00 -124.00 23.00 - 42.00 16.00 - 48.00 Average 6.45 11.51 89.8 I 31.41 31.48 R2 0.34** 0.12* 0.09* 0.10* 0* F 20.25** 5.48* 3.83* 4.25* 0* Y Y Y Y Y = = = = = Regression equation 44.41 9.60 + 5.66 + 2.61 + 15.60 +
b

4.43X (pH) 0.54X (K + ) 0.11X (Ca2+ ) 0.42X (TEB) 0.007X (CEC)

a * = significant at 0.05 level. ** = significant at 0.01 level. bY = mycelial length (mm/d); n = 42; the 42 soil samples were from

IRRI experimental farm plots A, B, C, L, M, N, and 116-1002.

ShB is caused by an aerial form of Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn and occurs worldwide in rice under varying cultivation. To study soil that suppresses ShB, we collected rhizosphere soil samples at heading stage in 1990 wet season from various types of ricefields at the IRRI experimental farm and at 12 other sites in the Philippines (Table 1). We used a cork borer to make a 5-mm disc of R. solani mycelia from a day-old culture on potato dextrose agar. A stereomicroscope was used to record linear mycelial growth on the soil surface every 48 h for 4 d. About 44% of the 99 soil samples suppressed R. solani. The rest were conducive soils. Thirty-two percent of the 65 soil samples from the IRRI experimental farm were suppressive. Linear growth of R. solani on the suppressive soils was about 50% or less of that on the conducive soils. This means ShB severity was less in suppressive than in conducive soils. Samples from disease-free and relatively ShB-free lowland fields appeared to be more suppressive of R. solani.
Table 1. Distribution of soils suppressive of or conducive to Rhizoctonia solani in the Philippines. IRRI, 1990 wet season. Location IRRI Cavite Albay Camarines Sur Legaspi City Laguna Victoria, Laguna Paagahan Sta. Cruz, Laguna Camarines Bay (Aplaya), Laguna Calauan, Laguna Masiit (Hoechst). Laguna Total Total (no.) 65 8 6 6 2 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 99 Suppressive Conducive (no.) (no.) 21 5 6 5 2 1 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 43 44 3 0 I 0 2 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 56

Sterilization nullified the inhibitory effect. But it could be restored in a mixture with 20% suppressive soil. Abiotic factors such as Ca2+, K+ , CEC. TEB, and pH were significantly

correlated with the inhibitory effect of the suppressive soil (Table 2). It appears that soil microorganisms and some abiotic factors were associated with the suppressive effect of the soils. microscopically examined. Mealybugs from the diseased tissues were also placed directly on potato dextrose agar medium that had been surface sterilized with 10% sodium hypochlorite for 5 min. They were then incubated at 28 2 C. Seventy-two percent of the plants inoculated with field-collected mealybugs exhibited typical ShR symptoms within 15 d. Plants inoculated with laboratoryreared mealybugs did not produce any symptoms. Critical examination of mealybugs collected from the diseased sheaths revealed that S. oryzae conidia were present on the body surface (1150 conidia/ml of water) as well as internally. Plants inoculated with the internal ShR pathogen through pin pricks inside the boot leaf exhibited ShR symptoms within 25 d. This shows that mealybugs have an important role in the spread of the ShR pathogen. MLO DNA were developed in Japan to diagnose RYD. We tested whether these two probes can detect a Philippine isolate of RYD. DNA was extracted by homogenizing 0.1 g infected tissue in 0.9 ml 2X CTAB buffer (2% wt/vol cetyl trimethylammonium bromide, 100 mM tris-HCL, pH 8.0, 1.4 M NaCl, 20 mM Na2 EDTA) that contained 2 1 2-mercaptoethanol. The homogenate (0.5 ml) was incubated at 65 C for 30 min and centrifuged at 15,000 rpm for 15 s.

Brevennia rehi Lindinger, vector for the sheath rot (ShR) pathogen
P. Lakshmanan, Plant Pathology Department, Agricultural College and Research Institute. Madurai 625104, Tamil Nadu, India

We attempted to establish the role of rice mealybug Brevennia rehi Lindinger in spreading ShR caused by Sarocladium oryzae (Sawada) W. Gams & D. Hawksw. We collected rice mealybugs from ShR-infested fields. IR20 was inoculated using a camels hair brush to place three bugs/sheath enclosing the young panicles. Controls were inoculated with mealybugs mass-reared in the laboratory. Mealybugs were collected from ShRinfected sheaths, soaked in 25 ml of sterile, distilled water, and then shaken for 30 min using an electric shaker. One drop of the suspension was

Detection of the Philippine isolate of rice yellow dwarf (RYD) agent using DNA probes
K. Nakashima, Tropical Agriculture Research Center, Tsukuba, Japan; H. Koganezawa and P. Q. Cabauatan, Plant Pathology Division, IRRI

RYD is a serious rice disease caused by a mycoplasma-like organism (MLO). DNA probes pRYD-12 (may be chromosomal in origin) and pRYD-19 (may be extrachromosomal in origin) for RYD

IRRN 17:2 (April 1992)

23

rice tissue with these probes. The Philippine isolate gave slightly weaker signal than the Japanese isolate in both probes. Moreover, pRYD-19 showed stronger hybridization signal with the Philippine isolate than did pRYD-12.

Healthy extracts gave a negative reaction. Results showed that DNA probes developed for Japanese isolates of RYD can be used to detect Philippine RYD isolates.

Variants of rice grassy stunt virus (RGSV) in the Philippines


G. J. Miranda and H. Koganezawa, Plant Pathology Division, IRRI; and N. B. Bajet, Plant Pathology Department, University of the Philippines at Los Baos RGSV sources maintained on Taichung Native 1 (TN1) in an IRRI greenhouse showed varied symptoms. We conducted this study to clarify the nature of these variable RGSV symptoms. Greenhouse isolates and fieldcollected plants with typical RGSV symptoms were tested for their reactions to antisera to known viruses that infect rice in the Philippines. The samples reacted only to the anti-RGSV sera. Four distinct symptomatologic RGSV variants were obtained after several RGSV transfers to TNl by a colony of brown planthoppers (BPH). Isolates were
Characteristics of 4 RGSV isolates.
a

Detection of DNA of rice yellow dwarf MLO in rice leaves using DNA probes, pRYD-19 and pRYD-12. J = Japanese isolate, P = Philippine isolate, H = healthy. Numerals = weight of fresh leaves per dot.

Supernatant was recovered and DNA reextracted from the pellet by adding 0.3 ml 1X CTAB buffer, mixing well, incubating at 65 C for 10 min, and centrifuging at 15,000 rpm for 5 min. Supernatants were pooled together and extracted with an equal volume of chloroform-isoamyl alcohol (24:1). The supernatant was recovered and 0.7 volume of isopropanol (-20 C) was added and mixed well. The mixture was left for 10 min at room temperature, then centrifuged as before. The DNA pellet was dissolved in TE buffer (10 mM tris-HCl, pH 8.0, 1 mM Na 2 EDTA). The same amount of healthy tissue was processed as a control. The DNA extract of the Japanese RYD isolate was also included in the tests for comparison. Twofold serial dilutions of the DNA preparations were spotted onto nylon membranes (Hybond N+, Amersham). The enhanced chemiluminescence method (ECL Gene Detection System, Amersham) was used for probe labeling with peroxidase, hybridization, and detection of signal. Both DNA probes hybridized with Philippine RYD MLO DNA (see figure). We were able to detect Philippine RYD MLO DNA in a minimum of 60 g of

designated as M3, M2, SC, and S2. M3 induced very mild symptoms where the infected plant sometimes looked like a healthy one. M2 caused moderately mild symptoms showing slightly stunted, less profuse, erect tillers, and slightly yellowed leaves. SC induced moderately severe symptoms with stunted growth, profuse spreading tillers, and narrow leaves with rusty necrotic spots. The very severe type, S2, induced severe stunting, greatly reduced number of tillers, and narrow leaves with mottling and necrotic spot (see table). Transmission efficiency also varied. Isolate M2 was transmitted by a higher percentage of the BPH population. The incubation period in TN1 plants was longest in M3 (26 d), followed by M2 (22 d), SC (14 d), and S2 (11 d). Isolates M3 and M2 required longer periods (11 d and 9 d, respectively) before the vector became infective compared with SC and S2 (7 d) (see table).

RGSV isolates M3 Symptomatology b Plant height (cm) Tiller type Leaf size Leaf color Insect transmission b Active transmitter (%) Incubation period in plant (d) Incubation period in insect (d) c Plant infection rate TNl IR42 IR54 Oryza nivara 53.2 b Normal Normal Normal M2 48.3 b Less profuse Erect type Slightly narrowed Slightly yellowed 9.2-15.3 22 a 9a 173/250 (S) abx 106/140 (S) ax 170/257 (S) abx 214/282 (S) abx SC 40.5 c Profuse tiller Spreading type Narrowed Pale green with rusty necrotic spot 5.0-9.0 14 b 7b 105/148 (S) ax 96/188 (M) ay 71/148 (M) ax 77/139 (M) ax S2 36.4 a Less profuse spreading type Narrowed Yellowing with mottling and necrotic spot 1.7-8.0 11 b 7b 75/231 (M)ax 46/165 (R) aby 32/164 (R) aby 7/102 (R) by

0-2.6 26 a 11 a 17/178 (R) ay 8/2 16 (R) az 4/3 12 (R) ay 19/215 (R) ay

aR = resistant, S = susceptible, M = moderately susceptible. bTN1 plants at 3-4 wk after inoculation. In a row, means having a c Numbers before the slant bar indicate infected plants; those after the

common letter are not signiticantly different at the 5% level. slant bar, the total number of plants. Means having a common letter in columns (abc) and in rows (xyz) are not significantly different at the 1 and 5% levels, respectively, by DMRT.

24

IRRN 17:2 (April 1992)

In terms of infection rate, Oryza nivara and O. nivara -derived varieties IR42 and IR54 were resistant to M3 and S2, susceptible to M2, and moderately

susceptible to SC. TN1 was resistant to M3, susceptible to M2 and SC, and moderately susceptible to S2. The four isolates do not fall under either RGSV 1 irrigated land in 1990 and DWR on 15,000 ha. Ufra disease drastically declined with this change: in 1990 only 20 ha were damaged. The same trend was observed in other provinces, such as An Giang. Large areas are still planted to DWR in Hau Giang Province. The 800 ha damaged in 1990 was mainly in Phung Hiep and Ke Sack where D. angustusaffected areas are decreasing as DWR areas decline (Table 2). The trend was similar in Cuu Long and Beu Tre provinces. Modern irrigated rice varieties are susceptible to ufra and a few infested plants are often observed. D. angustus, however, needs at least 75% atmospheric humidity to infest the foliage. Low rainfall limits ufra occurrence and crop damage is insignificant.

or RGSV 2 categories, which were previously reported in the Philippines. Results indicate that many RGSV strains exist in the Philippines.
Table 2. Areas infested with D. angustus and land use in 2 districts of Hau Giang Province, Vietnam, 198290.
Area planted (ha) Year Infested area (ha) Deepwater rice Irrigated rice 1,034 2,900

Effect of changing the agricultural environment on ufra occurrence in the Mekong Delta
N. T. T. Cuc, Plant Pathology Department, University of Can Tho, Hau Giang, Vietnam: and J. C. Prot, Plant Pathology Division. IRRI

Ufra is caused by the stem nematode Ditylenchus angustus. Yield losses of 50100% have been reported in deepwater rice (DWR) fields in the Mekong Delta where ufra occurs during high water levels. Supplemental irrigation facilities have caused low-yielding DWR to be abandoned in favor of one or two highyielding rice crops before and after flooding (Table 1). In Dong Thap Province, for example, more than 100,000 ha of DWR was grown in 1976; ufra affected 60,000 ha. Modern rice cultivars were grown on 60,000 ha of
Table 1. Areas damaged by D. angustus and land use in 5 provinces of the Mekong Delta in Vietnam, 197690. Year Damaged area (ha) Area planted (ha) Deepwater rice Irrigated rice 40,824 75,366 80,870 0 0 60,000 27,378 56,100 7 1,287 104,323 3 1,509 79,066 97,632 141,210 0 3,500 19,160 23,536

1982 1985 1988 1990 1983 1985 1987 1990

2,560 1,199 620 300 1,700 1,300 250 185

Phung Hiep 27,006 23,468 22,550 19,640 Ke Sack 10,600 9,070 7,793 7,913

4,355 7,260
2,580 8,000 10,600 9,587

Dikes and levees protect the wet season crop against early flooding, and thus prevent or delay plant infestation by D. angustus.

Integrated pest managementinsects


Stalk-eyed fly (SEF) damage to lowland irrigated rices in Nigeria
R. C. Joshi, International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan, Nigeria (present address: 192 San Antonio, Los Baos, Laguna, Philippines); and M. N. Ukwungwu, National Cereals Research Institute (NCRI), Badeggi, Nigeria

1985 1988 1990 1976 1981 1990 1982 1985 1988 1990 1976 1980 1985 1990 1976 1980 1985 1990

Cuu Long 2,798 141,970 1,133 105,845 906 95,245 Dong Thap 60,000 110,839 10,000 80,000 20 15,000 Hau Giang 17,900 320,517 3,700 296,242 1,284 252,068 804 210,830 An Giang 2,500 152,692 210 145,875 5 83,964 0 37,347 Beu Tre 10,000 83,975 71 54,834 62 63,133 0 53,420

SEF Diopsis longicornis Macquart is a dipteran stem borer that attacks rice in Africa. SEF larvae feed on tillers internally and cause deadhearts. Infested tillers become sterile. We monitored SEF damage on two commonly cultivated lowland irrigated rices (ITA2 12 and Suakoko 8) under natural field conditions at IITA during 1990 wet season. Seedlings (21 d old) were transplanted at 20- 20-cm spacing in two fields (each 650 m2), one seedling/ hill. We assessed SEF damage on rice by

counting total tillers and infested tillers in 100 randomly selected hills, expressed as percent damage weekly from 14 to 56 d after transplanting (DT). The most SEF damage on both varieties was observed at 14 DT. This suggests that SEF oviposits on rice seedlings in nursery beds. Damage declined after 14 d, but more abruptly on Suakoko 8, possibly because ITA212 is shorter and more high tillering (see figure).

SEF damage to lowland irrigated rice in IITA, Ibadan, Nigeria, 1990 ws.

IRRN 17:2 (April 1992)

25

Parasitoid Trichogramma sp. nr kalkae Schulten & Feijen (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) caused 5065% mortality in SEF eggs deposited on seedlings in nursery beds.

Management implications are that egg parasitization in nursery beds should be assessed before any treatment. No treatment is needed if deadhearts are visiblethe damage is of 31 C during mid-Jul to early Aug usually cause the highest BPH mortality in subtropical rice areas such as Hangzhou and Xiaoshan, China. We observed survival of BPH nymphs and fecundity of adults at 31, 35, 38, and at check 26 C, under a light/dark = 12/12 h, and 7085% relative humidity in LRH250-G illuminating incubators. Guangliuai No. 4 seedlings were transplanted (one plant/pot) 30 d after sowing. Each pot was infested I5 d after transplanting with ten 5th-instar nymphs. BPHs were counted every 2 d after this. To determine number of eggs laid, a pair of newly emerged BPHs was placed in open-ended glass tubes that stood in 2

already done. Applying insecticides may actually be detrimental because parasitoids are highly susceptible to them.

Effect of high temperatures on the survival and fecundity of brown planthopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens Stl
Yu Xiaoping and Wu Guorui, Institute of Plant Protection, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou 310021; and Hu Cui, Plant Protection Department, Zhejiang Agricultural University, Hangzhou 310029, China

High midsummer temperatures affect the survival and fecundity of BPH. Averages

cm of water and contained one plant each. Tube ends were covered with nylon mesh. Plants were replaced every 4 d. Eggs were counted by dissecting the plants. Survival of BPH nymphs at 31, 35, and 38 C was significantly lower than that at 26 C (Fig. I). The longer the time after infestation, the higher were the differences in survival at various temperatures. BPH females laid up to 140 eggs after 12 d at 26 C. Fecundity decreased rapidly as temperature increased (Fig. 2). Results indicate that average ricefield temperatures of more than 31 C would have obvious inhibitory effects on the survival and fecundity of BPH. by monsoonic wind systems. These immigrant BPHs did not infest resistant rice varieties until recently. Hopperburn symptoms were observed for the first time on japonica type, BPHresistant rice breeding line Saikai 184 in experimental fields of Kyushu National Agricultural Experiment Station, Chikugo, Fukuoka, in 1990. Saikai 184 has the Bph 1 gene from IR2061-214-3.

Rice brown planthopper (BPH) immigrants in Japan change biotype


K. Sogawa, Kyushu National Agricultural Experiment Station, Nishigoshi, Kumamoto 861-11, Japan

BPH immigrates to Japan annually from tropical and subtropical breeding habitats
1. Survival of 5th-instar BPH nymphs at various high temperatures, Hangzhou, China, 1990.

2. Number of eggs laid by BPH adults at various high temperatures, Hangzhou, China, 1990.

Relative amounts of honeydew excreted on Reihou (susceptible japonica variety), Saikai 184 (resistant japonica breeding line. Bph 1 gene), IR26 (Bph 1 gene), and IR42 (bph 2 gene) by female immigrants in Japan in 1990. Honeydew was collected on the BCG-impregnated pH indicator paper.

26

IRRN 17:2 (April 1992)

The breeding line did not suffer any visible damage during the 1987 outbreak when typical hopperburn appeared on susceptible japonica variety Reihou. Honeydew measurements with pH indicator paper and parafilm sachet methods revealed that 1990 and 1991 BPH immigrants fed equally as much on Saikai 184 as on susceptible Reihou. They have

improved their ability to feed on indica variety IR26 (with Bph 1 gene), but not on IR42 (bph 2 gene) (see figure). Breeding experiments with potted plants similarly showed that recent BPH immigrants reproduced as prolifically on Saikai 184 as on Reihou and other breeding lines (such as Saikai 190 and Nankai 111) with the Bph 1 gene.

Reproductive performance on IR26 was not yet equivalent to that on Reihou. BPH produced few (if any) progeny on IR42. Findings indicate that BPH immigrants in Japan are significantly changing from biotype 1 to biotype 2. This change may correspond to a possible biotype shift occurring recently in northern Vietnam and southern China BPH populations.

Effect of rice stage and tungro (RTD) intensity on the infectivity of green leafhopper (GLH) in fields
I. N. Suwela, I. G. N. Aryawan, and I. G. N. Astika, Food Crop Protection Center VII, P.O. Box 8, Denpasar, Bali; and Y. Suzuki, Directorate of Crop Protection, P.O. Box 36, Pasarminggu, Jakarta, Indonesia The epidemiological role of RTDinfected ricefields as the virus source depends on whether an infective vector population is produced. GLH is an abundant and efficient RTD transmitter. We studied the infectivity of GLH adults collected in rice and ratoon fields at

different RTD intensity levels by using the transmission test. We collected insects by sweeping mainly in 1987-90 wet seasons at 79 selected sites planted to GLHsusceptible cultivars. RTD intensity at the sweeping site was estimated by a starch-iodine test of 100 sample leaves. Sixty insects per site were individually allowed 1-d inoculation access to Cisadane seedlings in test tubes. The seedlings were transplanted in screen cages and treated with insecticide to prevent contamination from hatchings. Diagnosis was based on visual symptoms and confirmed by starch-iodine test made 3 wk after inoculation. The percentage of positive RTD transmitters increased with the percentage of infected hills in all three rice stage categories (see figure). The relation appeared to be curvilinear 5-7

Effect of rice stage and disease intensity on the percentage of infective Nephotettix virescens adults in fields.a Indonesia, 1987-90. Rice stage 5-7 WT 8-10 WT Ratoon
a

Hills infected in fields <60% 10.20 a 8.45 a 13.23 a >60% 34.21 a 27.28 b 26.81 b

In a column, means (arc sin transformed) followed by the same letter are not significantly different at P = 0.05 by DMRT.

and 8-10 wk after transplanting (WT). The rank correlation coefficient was significant at the 0.1% level ( rs = 0.897 for 5-7 WT, 0.923 for 8-10 WT, and 0.914 for ratoon). Infectivity of GLH in severely infected fields (>60% hills infected) was highest 5-7 WT (see table). Results suggest that ricefields severely infected during early growing stages are virus sources in asynchronous rice planting areas.

Wind tunnel for measuring rice plant attraction to insect predators and parasitoids
R. P. Basilio and D. G. Bottrell, Entomology Division, IRRI Increasing evidence exists that plant odor, color, shape, texture, or infrared radiation may help guide parasitoids and predators to successfully locate their host or prey, colonize, and use crop habitat. A potentially fruitful approach for managing rice pests is to select varieties that resist pests and simultaneously provide a favorable habitat for the pests natural enemies. Relation of the infectivity of N. virescens adults to the We devised the wind tunnel as a way incidence of RTD in rice and ratoon fields. Indonesia. 1987-90 to measure the attraction of natural

enemies to different rice genotypes (Fig. 1, 2). The tunnel has four main parts: air source, mixing chamber, air conduction box, and flight chamber. The air source is a 120-V ventilating fan with variable voltage regulator that controls speed. A galvanized iron tube connected to the mixing chamber houses the fan. Charcoal and cheesecloth filter the air entering the chamber. The mixing chamber, made of galvanized iron sheeting, conveys air from the fan to the conduction box. An aluminum screen and two filters (nylon mesh and charcoal) help to reduce turbulence and clean the air. The flight chamber is a plexiglass box with two open ends. The end opposite the fan has a detachable nylon mesh cover.

IRRN 17:2 (April 1992)

27

1. Side view of wind tunnel with the plexiglass tube inside the flight chamber.

2. Rear view of the wind tunnel.

Potted rice plants are placed in the flight chamber in two floor openings. Plants are separated by a plexiglass divider. Sliding windows on each side of the chamber allow entry to the plants and insect release. Two 40-W cool-white fluorescent lamps are in the middle of the flight chamber. The chamber floor has alternating black and white stripes to help disrupt insect visual orientation. To bioassay smaller parasitoids, we open the downwind end of the flight chamber and place a plexiglass tube with adjustable height inside to restrict the flight arena. This makes tracking of small insects easier. Both ends of the tube are covered with nylon mesh. Light and other stimuli can be excluded by covering the wind tunnel with a dark cloth tent that is still large enough to admit observers.

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IRRN 17:2 (April 1992)

Integrated pest managementweeds


Evaluation of herbicides for transplanted rice (TPR) in Kerala, India
P. P. Joy, E. K. Syriac, N. P. Nair, and C. A. Joseph, Rice Research Station, Moncompu, Thekkekara 688503, Kerala, India
Effect of weed control treatments on TPR. Kerala, India, 1989-90. Dose a (kg ai/ha) 0.005 0.005 0.01 0.01 0.75 0.75 1.25 1.25 0.40 0.60 0.40 0.40 1.00 Time (DT) 3 7 3 7 3 7 3 7 7 7 7 7 7 Weed dry wt (g/m2 ) 106.1 70.9 79.8 81.8 53.4 84.1 75.0 110.7 85.7 82.0 79.2 101.6 121.4 65.6 74.7 175.8 60.3 Mean rice yields (t/ha) Grain 3.0 3.3 3.1 3.3 3.1 3.0 3.3 3.2 3.2 3.1 3.1 2.8 2.9 3.5 3.4 2.1 0.3 Straw 4.3 4.7 4.6 4.7 4.4 4.2 4.7 5.0 4.5 4.6 4.4 4.1 4.4 4.8 4.8 2.9 0.6 Gross return ($/ha) 618 677 645 682 640 621 676 658 652 648 633 583 595 730 693 434 Benefit of weed control ($/ha) 184 243 211 248 206 187 242 224 218 214 199 149 161 296 259 cost of weed Marginal control benefit-cost ($/ha) ratio 11.8 11.8 18.3 18.3 13.6 19.4 15.6 25.9 24.0 92.4 64.6 17.5 15.8 13.2 12.2 16.0 11.0 12.8 5.8 6.7 3.2 4.0

Treatment Pyrazosulfuron-ethyl Pyrdzosulfuron-ethyl Pyrazosulfuron-ethyl Pyrazosulfuron-ethyl Pretilachlor Pretilachlor Pretilachlor Pretilachlor Anilophos Anilophos Oxadiazon Tridiphane Thiobencarb Weed-free check Hand weeding twice Unweeded control LSD (0.05)

We evaluated 16 weed control treatments using six preemergence herbicides and hand weeding during kharif (monsoon, Jun-Oct) 1989 and rabi (wet season, Nov-Mar) 198990 for chemical weed control in TPR. The field experiment was laid out in a randomized block design with three replications. MO-6 rice (115 d) was transplanted at 15- 15-cm spacing in a silty clay lowland. Urea, Mussoorie rock phosphate, and muriate of potash were applied at 90-20-38 kg NPK/ha: N and K were applied in two equal splits at planting and 30 d after transplanting (DT), and P was applied fully as basal. Herbicides were applied on a thin film of water 3 or 7 DT as per treatment. Weeds were hand-removed at fortnightly intervals until 45 DT in weed-free check (WFC) and at 20 and 40 DT in hand weeding twice (HWT). Weeds at 55 DT were 22% grasses, 44% sedges, and 34% broadleaf weeds. Important species were Echinochloa colona, E. crus-galli, Tragus sp., Ischaemum rugosum, Cyperus iria, C. difformis, C. halpan, Fimbristylis miliacea, Schoenoplectus spp., Juncus spp., Monochoria vaginalis, Limnocharis flava, Ludwigia perennis, L. adscendens, Marsilea quadrifolia, Sphenoclea zeylmica, Lobelia alsinoides, and Lindernia rotundifolia. All herbicides except thiobencarb significantly reduced weed growth compared with the unweeded control and were statistically comparable to the WFC and HWT treatments (see table). Treatments significantly affected rice yields, but there was no significant interaction between seasons and treatments. Pyrazosulfuron-ethyl 0.005 and 0.01 kg 7 DT and pretilachlor 1.25 kg

a ai = active ingredient. Cost of pyrarosulfuron-ethyl 10 WP not available: pretilachlor 50 EC. $6.5/liter; anilophos 30 EC, $8.7/ liter; oxadiazon 25 EC. $8.5/liter: tridiphane 48 EC.$28.67/11ter: thiobencarb 10 G, $2.2/kg: hand weeding, $1.42/person per d; rice grain, $200/t: straw. $5/t.

3 DT had grain yields and gross returns equal to that of the WFC. Herbicide treatments pretilachlor (0.75 kg) and

anilophos (6.4 kg ai/ha) were more economic than hand weeding according to marginal benefit-cost ratio.

Evaluation of Bromadiolone in irrigated ricefields


C. Sivaprakasam and G. Durairaj. Zoology Department, University of Madras, Madras 600025, India

We studied a single-dose anticoagulant rodenticide to establish the suitable

period for poison baiting. Bandicota bengalensis, Millardia meltada, and Mus booduga considerably damage rice fields of Tanjore District, Tamil Nadu. Seven plots (0.5 km 2) were treated with bromadiolone 0.005% wax cakes (burrow baiting) at 20, 30 ,40, 50, 60, and 70 d after transplanting (DT). Reference plots were also maintained.

Live burrows and percent successful control of rodents by using bromadiolone 0.005% wax cake during various rice growth stages. Live burrows a (no./ha) Treatment Tiller (d after damage transplanting) (%) 20 30 40 50 60 70 Reference plot (mean) 2.1 4.4 7.0 2.5 3.4 5.2 9.4 B. bengalensis I II Control (no.) (no.) (%) 12.0 13.6 18.4 16.8 20.0 24.0 20.0 0.8 0.8 1.6 4.0 4.0 11.2 93.3 94.1 91.3 81.0 80.0 53.3 M. meltada M. booduga Total I II Control (no.) (no.) (%) 17.6 2.4 25.6 4.0 31.2 5.6 36.8 8.8 44.8 13.6 50.4 19.2 36.0 86.4 84.4 87.2 78.3 69.6 61.9

I II Control I II Control (no.) (no.) (%) (no.) (no.) (%) 2.4 4.8 4.0 8.0 11.2 9.6 8.8 0.8 1.6 0.8 0.8 4.8 4.0 66.7 66.7 80.0 90.0 57.1 58.3 3.2 7.2 10.4 12.0 13.6 16.8 7.2 0.8 1.6 3.2 4.0 4.8 5.0 75.0 77.8 69.2 66.7 64.7 76.2

a I = pretreatment, II = posttreatment.

IRRN 17:2 (April 1992)

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We used the live burrow count method to estimate rodent activity. Burrows were at a minimum during the early rice growth stages; by maturity the number was remarkably higher. About 9.4% of the tillers were damaged in the reference fields. Treatment at the

early rice cultivation stages (20, 30, and 40 DT) reduced live burrows by 84.487.2%. Later treatment (50, 60, and 70 DT) reduced tiller damage by 96.6-97.9% (see table). Immigrants may have caused the large tiller cut damage observed in plots at 40

DT (7.0%) and 70 DT (5.2%). Control may be less successful as rice matures because the rodents consume more of the grain and less of the poison baits. Bromadiolone 0.005% wax cake should be used during the early rice growth stages for greatest effectiveness.

ANNOUNCEMENTS
Asian Rice Farming Systems Working Group recommendations
The Asian Rice Farming Systems Working Group met in Beijing, China, 30 Sep-4 Oct 1991. Representatives of member countries presented progress reports and discussed future directions. The Working Group stressed the need for stronger emphasis on Cost effectiveness in farming systems approach Linkages among governments, research institutions, and the private sector Integration of crop processing, nutrition, and marketing into the current thrust of increased crop production approach Farmer participatory research Sustainability of farming systems.

New IRRN section begins in June


News about research collaboration will be a new section in the IRRN beginning in June. The objective is timely communication to rice scientists of news about collaborative activities from consortia, networks, collaborating groups, etc. The section will include general news and current update items (new projects, work plans, new heads, etc.) about consortia, networks, country and regional projects, conference

recommendations, etc. of interest to IRRN readers. Limit submissions to one page of double-spaced typewritten text. Send items to IRRN editor, IRRI, Box 933, Manila 1099, Philippines. Contributions are due two and a half months in advance of cover date: Jan 15 (April issue), Mar 15, May 15, Jul 15, Sep 15, and Nov 15. Announcements of workshops, meetings, etc. need to be submitted not later than 6 mo before the date of the event. A calendar of conferences, symposia, workshops, training courses, meetings, IRRI activities, etc. will also be added.

New publications
Rainfed rice production in the Philippines: a combined agronomic/ economic study of Antique Province. K. M. Menz, ed. Published by the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research. For more information contact ACIAR, Philippine Liaison Office, P.O. Box 1274 MCC, Makati, Philippines. Fax: 8173603. The 1992 Information Please Environmental Almanac. A. Hammond, ed. An almanac of local, national, and international environmental facts. 606 pages. For more information contact WRI Publications, P.O. Box 4852, Hampden Station, Baltimore MD21211. Telephone: 410-516-6963. Rice Biotechnology. G. S. Khush and G. H. Toenniessen, eds. An authoritative review of the progress and prospects for applying biotechnology to rice improvement. Published by CABI and IRRI. Send requests from highly developed countries to CABI, Wallingford, Oxon OX10 8DE, UK. Fax: (0491) 33508. Send requests from less developed countries to IRRI, Box 933, Manila 1099, Philippines.

New IRRI publications


A logical framework for planning agricultural research programs, by Schubert et al

Biofertilizer germplasm collections at IRRI

ERRATUM
Virulence of a new biotype of brown planthopper (BPH) in Mekong Delta, by Luong Minh Chau. In column 2 of the table on page 14, MTL 85 should read MTL 58.

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IRRN 17:2 (April 1992)